Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Needle Sharing: Usage of a single needle among two or more people for injecting drugs. Needle sharing is a high-risk behavior for contracting infectious disease.Needle-Exchange Programs: Organized services for exchange of sterile needles and syringes used for injections as a potential means of reducing the transmission of infectious diseases.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.PrisonersSelf Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Injections, Intralesional: Injections introduced directly into localized lesions.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Injections, Intra-Articular: Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Germinal Center: The activated center of a lymphoid follicle in secondary lymphoid tissue where B-LYMPHOCYTES are stimulated by antigens and helper T cells (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER) are stimulated to generate memory cells.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Injections, Epidural: The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Child Day Care Centers: Facilities which provide care for pre-school and school-age children.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Intravitreal Injections: The administration of substances into the VITREOUS BODY of the eye with a hypodermic syringe.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Injections, Jet: The injection of solutions into the skin by compressed air devices so that only the solution pierces the skin.Injections, Intraocular: The administration of substances into the eye with a hypodermic syringe.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Trauma Centers: Specialized hospital facilities which provide diagnostic and therapeutic services for trauma patients.Tertiary Care Centers: A medical facility which provides a high degree of subspecialty expertise for patients from centers where they received SECONDARY CARE.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Flow Injection Analysis: The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or other data handling device.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic: An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).Mice, Inbred C57BLSyringes: Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Poison Control Centers: Facilities which provide information concerning poisons and treatment of poisoning in emergencies.Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins: Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Information Centers: Facilities for collecting and organizing information. They may be specialized by subject field, type of source material, persons served, location, or type of services.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Vitreous Body: The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Triamcinolone Acetonide: An esterified form of TRIAMCINOLONE. It is an anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. Intralesional, intramuscular, and intra-articular injections are also administered under certain conditions.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Mice, Inbred BALB CTissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Triamcinolone: A glucocorticoid given, as the free alcohol or in esterified form, orally, intramuscularly, by local injection, by inhalation, or applied topically in the management of various disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p739)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Neuromuscular Agents: Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.Botulinum Toxins, Type A: A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.United StatesPain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Microtubule-Organizing Center: An amorphous region of electron dense material in the cytoplasm from which the MICROTUBULES polymerization is nucleated. The pericentriolar region of the CENTROSOME which surrounds the CENTRIOLES is an example.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Birthing Centers: Free-standing facilities that provide prenatal, childbirth, and postnatal care and usually incorporate family-centered maternity care concepts and practices.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Drug Administration Routes: The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Anti-Dyskinesia Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders. Most of these act centrally on dopaminergic or cholinergic systems. Among the most important clinically are those used for the treatment of Parkinson disease (ANTIPARKINSON AGENTS) and those for the tardive dyskinesias.Drug Users: People who take drugs for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. The drugs may be legal or illegal, but their use often results in adverse medical, legal, or social consequences for the users.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Mice, Inbred ICRGlucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Disposable Equipment: Apparatus, devices, or supplies intended for one-time or temporary use.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Freund's Adjuvant: An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (U.S.): A component of the Department of Health and Human Services to oversee and direct the Medicare and Medicaid programs and related Federal medical care quality control staffs. Name was changed effective June 14, 2001.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Viscosupplements: Viscoelastic solutions that are injected into JOINTS in order to alleviate symptoms of joint-related disorders such as OSTEOARTHRITIS.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Rats, Inbred LewImmunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Equipment Reuse: Further or repeated use of equipment, instruments, devices, or materials. It includes additional use regardless of the original intent of the producer as to disposability or durability. It does not include the repeated use of fluids or solutions.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Fluoroscopy: Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Sclerosing Solutions: Chemical agents injected into blood vessels and lymphatic sinuses to shrink or cause localized THROMBOSIS; FIBROSIS, and obliteration of the vessels. This treatment is applied in a number of conditions such as VARICOSE VEINS; HEMORRHOIDS; GASTRIC VARICES; ESOPHAGEAL VARICES; PEPTIC ULCER HEMORRHAGE.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Methylprednisolone: A PREDNISOLONE derivative with similar anti-inflammatory action.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Adrenal Cortex HormonesOrgan Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Dependovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.Rehabilitation Centers: Facilities which provide programs for rehabilitating the mentally or physically disabled individuals.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Rhodobacter sphaeroides: Spherical phototrophic bacteria found in mud and stagnant water exposed to light.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Carrageenan: A water-soluble extractive mixture of sulfated polysaccharides from RED ALGAE. Chief sources are the Irish moss CHONDRUS CRISPUS (Carrageen), and Gigartina stellata. It is used as a stabilizer, for suspending COCOA in chocolate manufacture, and to clarify BEVERAGES.Mice, Inbred C3HInjections, Intralymphatic: Injections into the lymph nodes or the lymphatic system.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Rats, Inbred F344Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Cisterna Magna: One of three principal openings in the SUBARACHNOID SPACE. They are also known as cerebellomedullary cistern, and collectively as cisterns.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Technetium: The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Radioisotopes: Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
"Amazon.com: Ivomec Injection 1% 50ml Btl". The Carter Center. "River Blindness (Onchocerciasis) Program". Archived from the ... "COMFORTIS® and ivermectin interaction Safety Warning Notification". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for ... Bed bugs: Early research shows that the drug kills bed bugs when taken by humans at normal doses. The drug enters the human ... The drug rapidly kills microfilariae, but not the adult worms. A single oral dose of ivermectin, taken annually for the 10-15- ...
"Drug Overdose in the United States: Fact Sheet". Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved 12 September 2013. Rudd, Rose A.; Seth ... 2015). "Community Outbreak of HIV Infection Linked to Injection Drug Use of Oxymorphone, Indiana, 2015". MMWR. Morbidity and ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration. June 8, 2017. Retrieved October 26, 2017. Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... was the center of an outbreak of HIV caused by oxymorphone use as an injectable recreational drug. The outbreak required ...
"Medical Implications of Injection Drug Use (09HC09)". Center for Continuing & Outreach Education at Rutgers Biomedical & Health ... Intravenous drug use[change , change source]. Intravenous drug use means injecting illegal drugs into a vein. Illegal drugs ... There are two types of intravenous injections. Single injection[change , change source]. Sometimes, people inject just one drug ... When people use illegal drugs like heroin intravenously, they use a single injection. They shoot the drug into their veins, and ...
In the United States, HIV first appeared in populations of injection-drug users (a majority of whom are male) and gay men. HIV ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has only recorded one case of possible HIV transmission through kissing ( ... In a survey of 229 HIV-seronegative injection-drug users in New York City, mean CD4+ T-cell counts of the group were ... Similar estimates of asymptomatic periods have been made for HIV-infected blood-transfusion recipients, injection-drug users ...
Research, Center for Drug Evaluation and. "Drug Safety and Availability - FDA Drug Safety Communication: Updated ... Injection site hemorrhage, injection site pain, hematuria: ≥ 2% Frequency under investigation Local reactions: local irritation ... Enoxaparin belongs to the class of drugs known as low molecular weight heparins. Other drugs in this class include dalteparin, ... Enoxaparin is a FDA pregnancy category B drug which means enoxaparin is not expected to cause harm to an unborn baby when used ...
The LAL test has resulted in dramatic improvement in the quality of drugs and biological products for intravenous injection. ... The interim director of the Ecosystems Center is Anne Giblin. Former directors of the Center who are still active on the ... Activities at the Bay Paul Center are supported by advanced DNA sequencing and other genomics equipment at the center's Keck ... Visiting scientists are affiliated with the MBL's Whitman Center. Other resources include The Marine Resources Center, an ...
"Center for drug evaluation and research Application number 21-598" (PDF). Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 15 April 2005. ... moxifloxacin hydrochloride in sodium chloride injection)" (PDF). Food and Drug Administration (FDA). p. 19. Retrieved 2 ... Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Retrieved 31 July 2009. Renata Albrecht (31 May ... Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 31 July 2009. Bayer AG (6 November 2007). " ...
The drug has been introduced for use in executions by lethal injection in certain jurisdictions in the United States in ... "State by State Lethal Injection". Death Penalty Information Center. Archived from the original on 2015-04-03. Retrieved 2015-04 ... In the Netherlands, midazolam is a List II drug of the Opium Law. Midazolam is a Schedule IV drug under the Convention on ... It is not clear which drug or drugs caused his death or what quantities of vecuronium bromide and potassium chloride were ...
"Drug consumption facilities in Europe and the establishment of supervised injection centres in Australia" (PDF). Drug and ... "Safe injections centers are not opium dens". latimes.com. Retrieved 2017-10-31. "Strong support for safe injection centers in ... With a drug injection room and an adjacent room for post-injection monitoring, this underground SIS closely follows the models ... The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction's latest systematic review from April 2010 did not find any ...
Injection-Drug Use, or Other Nonoccupational Exposure to HIV in the United States". cdc.gov. Centers for Disease Control. ... Injection Drug Use, or Other Nonoccupational Exposure to HIV- United States, 2016" (PDF). Centers for Disease Control and ... or in the case of a non-habitual incident of sharing a syringe for injection drug use. Evidence suggests that PEP also reduces ... "Postexposure Treatment of People Exposed to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus through Sexual Contact or Injection-Drug Use". New ...
"Drugs to Prevent Migraine in Adults". pharmacist.therapeuticresearch.com. Therapeutic Research Center. Archived from the ... "Announcement of Approval of Additional Indications for Onoact 50 for Injection, Short-Acting Selective ß1 Blocker". www. ... "First-line drugs inhibiting the renin angiotensin system versus other first-line antihypertensive drug classes for hypertension ... "Golf: O'Grady says players use beta-blockers: Drugs 'helped win majors'". The Independent. Archived from the original on ...
On July 29, 2016, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), of the United States of America approved abobotulinumtoxinA for injection ... American blepharospasm patients traveled to Canadian eye centers for their injections. Based on data from thousands of patients ... The FDA approves which medical conditions the drug manufacturer may sell the drug for. However, those approved by the FDA to ... Muscles weakened by toxin injection recover from paralysis after several months, so it might seem that injection would then ...
"Briefing Document for Gadobutrol Injection, NDA 201,277" (PDF). FDA.Gov. Food and Drug Administration. January 21, 2011. ... The multi-center, randomized, double-blind phase 3 clinical trials (one completed without the active comparator arm) enrolled ... There are no known drug interactions with gadobutrol. However, it should not be mixed with other drugs. Gadobutrol is a ... "Gadavist (gadobutrol) FDA Approval History - Drugs.com". www.drugs.com. Retrieved 2016-11-19. Stinson, Barbara (March 6, 2009 ...
The 10th US-Japan Symposium on Drug Delivery Systems. *FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research Data Standards Manual: Route ... As the drug is delivered to the site of action extremely rapidly with IV injection, there is a risk of overdose if the dose has ... Skin popping is a slang term that includes subcutaneous injection, and is usually used in association with recreational drugs. ... intracavernous injection, an injection into the base of the penis. *intradermal, (into the skin itself) is used for skin ...
American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (2009-02-01). "Insulin Injection". PubMed Health. National Center for ... Drug Information Portal NLM - Insulin human USAN http://druginfo.nlm.nih.gov/drugportal/ ... Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) versus multiple insulin injections for type 1 diabetes mellitus. ...
"Methylprednisolone Use During Pregnancy , Drugs.com". www.drugs.com. Archived from the original on 22 December 2016. Retrieved ... "Continuum Reproductive Center. Archived from the original on 6 September 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2013.. ... Methylprednisolone acetate (Depo-Medrol) is a suspension administered by IM or intra-articular injection only. It has the ... "International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 8 December 2016.. *^ Hamilton, Richart (2015). Tarascon Pocket ...
... had planned to execute eight prisoners in the two weeks before the expiration date on one of the state's lethal injection drugs ... "Baker, Kristine Gerhard - Federal Judicial Center". www.fjc.gov. Blinder, Alan (16 April 2017). "Federal Judge Blocks Arkansas ...
Injection Drug Use, 20 U.S. Cities". HIV Surveillance Special Report 11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2012. ... More outreach programs for addiction treatment and infection prevention programs for injection drug users would be very ... Preventing the transmission of blood-borne disease requires sterile syringes and injection equipment for each unique injection ... International Journal of Drug Policy. "Access to sterile syringes". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. May 4, 2015. . ...
On July 29, 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved abobotulinumtoxinA for injection for the treatment of ... "Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 4 October 2016.. *^ a b c d "Botulism - Diagnosis and Treatment". Centers ... "FDA Approved Drug Products - Dysport". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Archived from the original on 8 November 2016. ... "Drug Approval Package: Jeuveau". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 5 March 2019. Archived from the original on 23 ...
Injection pen and pen needles are an alternative drug delivery method to the traditional vial/syringe method. Insulin and other ... The CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) has a BMI calculator for adults, children and teenagers. Children and thin ... For needles longer than 5mm, pinching up the skin can avoid intramuscular injection, which will alter the way the drug is ... A change in the angle could cause the needle to break or get stuck in the skin Change injection sites between injections. If ...
On July 29, 2016, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), of the United States of America approved abobotulinumtoxinA for injection ... "Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 4 October 2016.. *^ a b c d "Botulism - Diagnosis and Treatment". Centers ... Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved July 26, 2010.. *^ Wellman-Labadie O, Zhou Y (May 2010). "The US Orphan Drug Act: rare ... "FDA Approved Drug Products - Dysport". www.accessdata.fda.gov. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 2016-11-07.. ...
A fast-reacting drug means insulin injections do not have to precede mealtimes by hours, which in turn gives people with ... American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (2009-02-01). "Insulin Injection". PubMed Health. National Center for ... it is more rapidly absorbed after subcutaneous injection than regular insulin, with an effect 15 minutes after injection. Other ... The drug firm Eli Lilly and Company had offered assistance not long after the first publications in 1921, and they took Lilly ...
Injection Drug Use, or Other Nonoccupational Exposure to HIV-United States, 2016" (PDF). Center for Disease Control and ... Thus, significant drug interactions with drugs metabolized through these pathways or drugs that are protein-bound are unlikely ... It is also the first drug to be granted parallel track status in 1992 by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which ... "Stavudine Monograph for Professionals - Drugs.com". www.drugs.com. Archived from the original on 2016-11-10. Retrieved 2016-11- ...
"Turmeric". US National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, National Institutes of Health. 31 May 2016. Retrieved ... Curcumin, which shows positive results in most drug discovery assays, is regarded as a false lead that medicinal chemists ... Hermes, Britt Marie (27 March 2017). "Naturopathic Doctors Look Bad After California Woman Dies From Turmeric Injection". ... The US government has supported $150 million in research into curcumin through the National Center for Complementary and ...
Reid, SR (August 28, 2009). "Injection drug use, unsafe medical injections, and HIV in Africa: a systematic review". Harm ... "HIV Classification: CDC and WHO Staging Systems , AIDS Education and Training Centers National Coordinating Resource Center ( ... or medical injections with unsterilized equipment. The risk from sharing a needle during drug injection is between 0.63 and 2.4 ... injection-drug use, or other nonoccupational exposure to HIV in the United States: recommendations from the U.S. Department of ...
Injections of insulin may either be added to oral medication or used alone.[25] Most people do not initially need insulin.[13] ... Izzedine H, Launay-Vacher V, Deybach C, Bourry E, Barrou B, Deray G (November 2005). "Drug-induced diabetes mellitus". Expert ... Centers for Disease Control (Endocrine pathology). *ADA's Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2019 ... Krentz AJ, Bailey CJ (February 2005). "Oral antidiabetic agents: current role in type 2 diabetes mellitus". Drugs. 65 (3): 385- ...
... reported antimony dermatitis in some four per cent of 160 patients treated with antimony-containing drugs. Gastrointestinal ... Injection If serious adverse effects develop discontinuation of antimony therapy is a priority. Treatment is symptomatic and ... Adverse Drug React Acute Poisoning Rev 1987; 2: 67-90. Substance name Sodium stibogluconate Origin of substance NIF Synonyms ... Adverse Drug React Acute Poisoning Rev 1987; 2: 67-90. WHO. Guidelines for drinking-water quality. 2nd ed. Vol 1. ...
Some very mild forms of the drug are available over the triamcinolone acetonide is a synthetic corticosteroid used topically to ... certain skin our nystatin and triamcinolone acetonide side effects drug center provides a comprehensive view of available drug ... Can you do testosterone injections at home Nystatin is an antifungal agent and triamcinolone is a corticosteroid used for its ... certain skin our nystatin and triamcinolone acetonide side effects drug center provides a comprehensive view of available drug ...
For medical centers choosing to stock antidotes, the suggested stocking level is based on the dose needed to treat a single 100 ... Lipophilic cardiotoxic drugs. Immediately after administration several laboratory tests of patient serum/blood may be ... 200 mg/2 mL (100 mg/mL) in a single-dose vial for bolus injection (comes in a box of 10 vials) ... In the event of a poison emergency, call the nearest poison center immediately by dialing 1-800-222-1222 or contact 9-1-1 ...
In the event of a poison emergency, call the nearest poison center immediately by dialing 1-800-222-1222 or contact 9-1-1 ... Iatrogenic botulism has become a more recent concern with the introduction of cosmetic injection of botulinum toxin A. It is ... It is most commonly associated with intravenous drug users, though it has been reported in traumatic wounds. The incubation ... Of the almost 200 confirmed cases in 2015, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) notes that infant botulism accounted for 71%. ...
France inaugurated its first supervised injection facility for drug users on Tuesday, setting aside years of acrimonious debate ... View inside the SCMR (Drug supervised injection site), the first supervised injection room for drug users, during it ... according to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addition, an EU-funded body. ... PARIS (Reuters) - France inaugurated its first supervised injection facility for drug users on Tuesday, setting aside years of ...
Our Pitocin (oxytocin injection, USP) Side Effects Drug Center provides a comprehensive view of available drug information on ... home drugs a-z list Pitocin(Oxytocin Injection) side effects drug center ... Pitocin may interact with drugs used in anesthesia, prochlorperazine injection, or warfarin. Tell your doctor all medications ... Related Drugs. HyperRHO Mini-Dose * Health Resources. Preeclampsia and Eclampsia Early Pregnancy Symptoms FAQs Pregnancy Myths ...
home drugs a-z list Duraclon(Clonidine Injection) side effects drug center ... Our Duraclon (clonidine hydrochloride) Side Effects Drug Center provides a comprehensive view of available drug information on ... Related Drugs. Ibuprofen Percocet Reprexain Tylenol Ultracet Ultram Ultram ER Vicodin Vicodin ES Vicodin HP Vicoprofen ... RxList Home Drugs & Medications Slideshows Pill Identification Tool Vitamins, Herbs, & Dietary Supplements Images Diseases ...
State by State Lethal Injection. Until 2009, most states used a three-drug combination for lethal injections: an anesthetic ( ... of a lethal injection of a drug or combination of drugs in the administration of a death sentence by lethal injection as ... Due to drug shortages, states have adopted new lethal-injection methods, including:. ONE DRUG: Eight states have used a single- ... 2016; announced 4-drug protocol on Nov. 9, 2017 No lethal injection executions.. None. Neb. Rev. St. § 83-967 states, in part ...
Modernising Drug Law Enforcement, Health. Upstate New York mayor proposes nations first drug injection centers. 25 February ... International Drug Policy Consortium. A global network promoting objective and open debate on drug policy ... treating heroin addiction by allowing users to inject drugs at supervised facilities. Similar centers have been found to reduce ... A new EU drug strategy is being prepared by the German Presidency. 12 October 2020. ...
... which also includes proposals to decriminalise the use of drugs. ... cultural shift by the Irish Government to tackle Irelands drug ... Irelands first supervised drug injection centre could launch in Dublin in 2016 24 November 2015 ... Irelands first medically supervised injection centre for drug addicts could be opened in Dublin by the end of next year, ... The war on drugs new clothes: 2019 Paris Peace Forum showcases failures of repressive drug policies. ...
... to form a drug spin-out company called Four Points Innovation. ... Duke Launches Drug Spin-out with $130M Injection from ... Hamner Conference Center Meeting Spaces Make a Reservation Make a Credit Card Payment ... The university has teamed up with Deerfield Management, a New York-based health care investment firm, to form a drug spin-out ... In late 2018, the firm teamed up with the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, investing $65 million in another drug ...
See also Lethal Injection. For drugs used in each execution, see Executions for a given year. Many states have switched from ... Z. Tillman, "Judge Blocks Shipment of Unapproved Drug Used in Lethal Injections," Blog of Legal Times, March 27, 2012.) Read ... Federal Court Overturns FDAs Approval of Foreign Shipments of Lethal Injection Drugs. ... "is a misbranded drug and an unapproved new drug" and "the FDA neither approved nor reviewed thiopental for safety and ...
... and other chronic joint conditions without y help from steroid injections. ... The progress of drug-induced pancreatitis is usually chronic. You get some symptoms with your first injection, you get a few ... Cortizone injection. over a year ago. will cortizone injections in the neck help brain lesions and brain tumor also upper back ... The bad news about drug-induced pancreatitis is that if you get it once, youll probably get it over and over again. Drug- ...
... patient and physician characteristics associated with antiretroviral therapy utilization in HIV-infected injection drug users. ... infected persons eligible for antiretroviral therapy may receive it free but the extent to which HIV-infected injection drug ... many HIV-infected injection drug users are not receiving it. Public health efforts should target younger and female drug users ... Barriers to use of free antiretroviral therapy in injection drug users. 1998 , JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical ...
... among injection drug users (IDUs) is a significant concern. As such, there is an urgent need to identify psychosocial ... Copyright BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, St. Pauls Hospital. 608-1081 Burrard Street, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6Z 1Y6. ... Psychosocial determinants of adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy among injection drug users in Vancouver. 2004 , ... BACKGROUND: Sub-optimal adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among injection drug users (IDUs) is a ...
Relationship between Addiction Relapse and Self-Efficacy Rates in Injection Drug Users Referred to Maintenance Therapy Center ... Relationship between Addiction Relapse and Self-Efficacy Rates in Injection Drug Users Referred to Maintenance Therapy Center ... Materials and Methods: We conducted this study in 200 addicts in the center of counseling behavioral disease in health center ... Copyright © Canadian Center of Science and Education. To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the ...
Cytarabine (By injection). Cytarabine (sye-TAYR-a-been). Treats leukemia.. Brand Name(s): There may be other brand names for ... Drugs and Foods to Avoid: Ask your doctor or pharmacist before using any other medicine, including over-the-counter medicines, ...
Measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella virus vaccine, live (By injection). Measles Virus Vaccine, Live (MEE-zuls VYE-rus VAX- ... Drugs and Foods to Avoid: Ask your doctor or pharmacist before using any other medicine, including over-the-counter medicines, ...
Drugs and Foods to Avoid. Ask your doctor or pharmacist before using any other medicine, including over-the-counter medicines, ... Centers and Services * Centers and Services *UM Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center ... Centers and Services UM Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Comprehensive Cancer Center Childrens Hospital Heart and Vascular ... UM Medical Center Locations Online Bill Pay Patient Resource Center Concierge Services MyPortfolio Emergency Services Flowers ...
Resource Center on HIV Stigma & Discrimination. https://www.thebody.com/article/injection-drug-use-related-hiv-infections- ... Injection Drug Use-Related HIV Infections Skyrocket in Northern Kentucky, Underscoring Immediate Need for Syringe Access ... And, while these marked increases in injection drug use-related HIV infections do not yet reach the proportions of the HIV ... This remedy for containing any further increase in Northern Kentuckys HIV infection rate from injection drug use is ...
... after it confirmed that Merchants Quay Ireland is the preferred bidder to operate the centre on a pilot basis. ... The Health Service Executive has moved a step closer to opening a supervised drug injecting facility in Dublin, ... Supervised drug injection centre set for Dublin city centre. The Health Service Executive has moved a step closer to opening a ... Tender for drug injection centre expected in February. No decision has been announced on the exact location of the facility, as ...
Find user ratings and reviews for G-Mycin injection on WebMD including side effects and drug interactions, medication ... Drugs and Medications Center * Find a Drug * My Medicine * Pill Identifier * Interaction Checker ... Mobile Drug Information App. Drug, supplement, and vitamin information on the go. Download ... Drugs & Supplements. Get information and reviews on prescription drugs, over-the-counter medications, vitamins, and supplements ...
... drug interactions, effectiveness, ease of use and satisfaction. ... Rate your experience with clindamycin injection on - WebMD ... Vitamins & Supplements Center * Find a Vitamin or Supplement * Vitamin Lifestyle Guide * Assess Your Vitamin Needs ... Mobile Drug Information App. Drug, supplement, and vitamin information on the go. Download ... Drugs & Supplements. Get information and reviews on prescription drugs, over-the-counter medications, vitamins, and supplements ...
We provide safer drug use supplies to people who inject in order to prevent the transmission of HIV, hepatitis C and other ... the Harm Reduction Center provides health services and supplies that help people who inject drugs manage their health, prevent ... Syringe Access & Safer Drug Use. We provide safer drug use supplies to people who inject or use other substances in order to ... Harm Reduction Center. The Harm Reduction Center is a place of welcome and a pathway to improved health and healing. Located in ...
Are you filled with fear about injections with biologics for psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis? See how just one session with a ... Drugs Approved for Self-Injection Shots for Psoriasis. Six biologics have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug ... The key is to learn to give the injections correctly, and this is why people usually give their first injection under the ... Getting Used to Psoriasis Injections. Self-injections for psoriasis may fill you with trepidation. But administering biologics ...
  • Medical centers that might expect to receive large numbers of patients in a single incident should stock larger amounts of antidotes or have an effective and efficient drug sharing/transfer procedure in place to rapidly obtain additional antidotal supplies. (calpoison.org)
  • For medical centers choosing to stock antidotes, the suggested stocking level is based on the dose needed to treat a single 100 kg patient for 8 hours and for 24 hours [Adapted from Dart RC, et al. (calpoison.org)
  • In late 2018, the firm teamed up with the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill , investing $65 million in another drug spin-out company, Pinnacle Hill, LLC. (ncbiotech.org)
  • The SMi Group is pleased to announce the second annual Injectable Drug Delivery conference which will be held in London on the 15th and 16th May 2019. (smi-online.co.uk)
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patient use of antiretroviral drugs through the provincial drug treatment program and physician experience treating HIV infection. (ubc.ca)
  • This remedy for containing any further increase in Northern Kentucky's HIV infection rate from injection drug use is straightforward, but it is anything but simple. (thebody.com)
  • Of all the ways to use or consume drugs, injecting is oftentimes the most "risky" in terms of infection, disease transmission and overdose. (sfaf.org)
  • When combining this drug with the standard cocktail of anti-retrovirals used to suppress infection in humanized mouse models of HIV-1 infection, our study found a drastic reduction in virus RNA present-it is really the proof-of-concept for a 'functional cure. (couplesrehab.com)
  • Of the 390 persons who completed the questionnaire and did not report a history of injection drug use, 287 (74%) reported other risk factors for HBV infection (e.g., sex with an IDU, multiple sex partners, being a man who has sex with men, or engaging in commercial sex work). (cdc.gov)
  • Of the 1733 persons who underwent prevaccination testing, 708 (40%) had serologic evidence of previous HBV infection, including 518 (51%) of 1014 IDUs tested and 111 (20%) of 549 persons tested who reported not injecting drugs ( Table 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Of the 135 persons with diagnosed HIV infection, 108 (80.0%) have reported injection drug use (IDU), four (3.0%) have reported no IDU, and 23 (17.0%) have not been interviewed to determine IDU status. (cdc.gov)
  • The purpose of this study is to make valganciclovir available, before it is approved for marketing, to HIV-infected patients who have cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis (eye infection) and cannot take drugs by injection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Intravenous drug use of Cocaine, Heroin, Meth-Amphetamine and other drugs with needle sharing is known to be a popular mode of HIV infection for women. (prweb.com)
  • Intravenous Drug Use (IDU) is known to be a major risk for HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection. (prweb.com)
  • Injections rarely cause excessive bleeding and even more rarely cause infection. (epnet.com)
  • This drug is used with other HIV medications to help control HIV infection. (medicinenet.com)
  • anxiety , numbness/tingling/shooting nerve pain near injection site, signs of injection site infection (such as oozing, warmth, persistent pain and redness), abdominal pain , loss of appetite .An allergic reaction to this drug is unlikely, but get medical help right away if it occurs. (medicinenet.com)
  • Many doctors have praised naloxone, which the World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated could prevent 20,000 overdose deaths in the U.S. CVS has also made naloxone, as well as Narcan, a similar heroin overdose drug, available to customers without a prescription in states where it is legal to do so. (foxnews.com)
  • Walgreens said it would coordinate with drug regulators in states that do not permit the sale of naloxone without a prescription to expand the antidote's availability. (foxnews.com)
  • Naloxone injection and naloxone prefilled auto-injection device (Evzio) are used along with emergency medical treatment to reverse the life-threatening effects of a known or suspected opiate (narcotic) overdose. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Naloxone injection is also used after surgery to reverse the effects of opiates given during surgery. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Naloxone injection is given to newborns to decrease the effects of opiates received by the pregnant mother prior to delivery. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Naloxone injection is in a class of medications called opiate antagonists. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Naloxone injection comes as a solution (liquid) to be injected intravenously (into a vein), intramuscularly (into a muscle), or subcutaneously (just under the skin). (medlineplus.gov)
  • You should make sure that your family members, caregivers, or the people who spend time with you know how to tell if you are experiencing an overdose, how to use naloxone injection, and what to do until emergency medical help arrives. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Naloxone injection may not reverse the effects of certain opiates such as buprenorphine (Belbuca, Buprenex, Butrans) and pentazocine (Talwin) and may require additional naloxone doses. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Your symptoms may return within a few minutes after you receive a naloxone injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If your symptoms return, the person should use a new automatic injection device to give you another dose of naloxone. (medlineplus.gov)
  • She stressed the importance of responding to someone with naloxone, the overdose-reversal drug, as soon as possible, and recounted having to tell parents of young people that their children hadn't made it to the emergency room in time. (pennlive.com)
  • All three types appear to contravene the Food and Drugs Act in Canada but loopholes have been exploited since 1996 for help-seeking advertisements and since 2000 for reminder advertisements. (opposingviews.com)
  • Use an alcohol pad to wipe your injection spot before injecting. (sfaf.org)
  • Mixing things like opioids, alcohol, benzodiazepines or other downers with other drugs can be dangerous. (sfaf.org)
  • We provide non-judgmental, harm reduction-based drug and alcohol counseling and drop-in services for people interested in addressing their substance use. (sfaf.org)
  • Treatment is a partnership, individually tailored to address each participant's goals and needs wherever they are in their experience with alcohol and drugs. (sfaf.org)
  • The age at which U.S. teens are starting to try alcohol, tobacco and some drugs is rising, according to new research. (drugfree.org)
  • This year's National Drug and Alcohol Facts Week will take place Monday, March 30 to Sunday, April 5. (drugfree.org)
  • This week links students with scientists and other experts to counteract the myths about drugs and alcohol that teens get from the Internet, social media, TV, movies, music, or from friends. (drugfree.org)
  • University of Washington Alcohol and Drug Abuse Institute, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Clinical Scholars Program. (springer.com)
  • Drug or alcohol abuse. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Lifetime comorbidity of DSM-IV mood and anxiety disorders and specific drug use disorders: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. (drugabuse.gov)
  • Prevalence, correlates, disability, and comorbidity of DSM-IV drug abuse and dependence in the United States: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. (drugabuse.gov)
  • Alcohol can make the side effects from diphenhydramine injection worse. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Examples of drugs with different levels of regulated distribution in most countries include: caffeine (coffee, tea), nicotine (tobacco), and ethyl alcohol (beer, wine, spirits). (wikipedia.org)
  • Citing the staggering increase in heroin use and overdose deaths, an upstate New York mayor is proposing the nation's first supervised injection facilities modeled after sites in Canada and Europe, places where addicts can safely shoot up heroin under clinical supervision while receiving health care and counseling. (idpc.net)
  • A nonprofit group in Philadelphia says it plans to open the nation's first supervised injection site next week, The Associated Press reports. (drugfree.org)
  • As drug traffickers continue to bring in new loads of laced opioids, Nolting and the Bartholomew County Coroner's Office are prepared to deal with another increase in overdose deaths. (fox59.com)
  • 17 - 19 One such study surveyed sexually active adolescents and young adults aged 14 to 20 years in an emergency department setting and observed an association between each class of prescription drugs (stimulants, opioids, and sedatives) and SRBs. (aappublications.org)
  • This drug is highly addictive as with other opioids and can lead to chemical dependence and withdrawal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other cities - including Seattle, Baltimore and Philadelphia - are talking about opening their own safe injection facilities, but San Francisco could get there first. (theblacksphere.net)
  • Official statistics show drug use in France is heavily tilted towards cannabis, and while figures for hard drug use are harder to compile, a report by an interministerial committee on anti-narcotics policy estimates that the number taking heroin was in the region of 500,000, with another 1.5 million cocaine consumers. (reuters.com)
  • The move is part of a radical cultural shift by the Irish Government to tackle Ireland's drug-related crime problems, which also includes proposals to decriminalise the use of drugs, including heroin, cocaine and cannabis. (idpc.net)
  • They found that it may not be as addictive as drugs like cocaine, but it triggers notable changes in brains which fuel dependence. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • 5 - 8 Unfortunately, despite recent calls to prioritize interventions to prevent the initiation of injection drug use, 9 there are few evidence-based strategies to prevent injection initiation among street-involved youth. (cmaj.ca)
  • Striving to treat the source of medical issues, rather than simply the symptoms, the medical experts at Orange County Pain Relief & Wellness Center include medical doctors trained in rehabilitation, physical therapists, ad chiropractors, all working together to offer a variety of non-invasive, holistic healing services. (prweb.com)
  • Biostatistics Research Center, Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America. (nih.gov)
  • Pancreatitis can be triggered by tetracycline antibiotics and several other less commonly used kinds of antibiotics, old-style "pee pills" such as Lasix (furosemide), medications for epilepsy, medications for Parkinson's disease, estrogen replacement therapy, drugs for gout, drugs for gastroesophageal reflux disease, and pain relievers. (steadyhealth.com)
  • Get information and reviews on prescription drugs, over-the-counter medications, vitamins, and supplements. (webmd.com)
  • Capital punishment in the United States has been thrown into a tailspin recently, as a nationwide shortage of the medications required for lethal injections has forced some states to explore alternative methods of execution. (rehabs.com)
  • Walgreens pharmacists play an important role in counseling patients on the safe use of their medications, and now we are leading the way in retail pharmacy's fight against prescription drug abuse,' Richard Ashworth, Walgreens president of pharmacy and retail operations, said in the release. (foxnews.com)
  • Diphenhydramine injection is also used alone or along with other medications to control abnormal movements in people who have Parkinsonian syndrome (a disorder of the nervous system that causes difficulties with movement, muscle control, and balance). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Diphenhydramine injection is in a class of medications called antihistamines. (medlineplus.gov)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to diphenhydramine, other antihistamine medications including dimenhydrinate (Dramamine), any other medications, or any of the ingredients in diphenhydramine injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • For years, public health officials and HIV advocates in Northern Kentucky have sounded the alarm, warning anyone who would listen of the very real threat of an injection drug use-fueled HIV outbreak in the region . (thebody.com)
  • And, while these marked increases in injection drug use-related HIV infections do not yet reach the proportions of the HIV outbreak we saw in Scott County, Indiana, in 2014 during Vice President Mike Pence's reign as that state's governor, the situation will almost surely develop into one if the region's approach does not quickly change. (thebody.com)
  • A nationwide outbreak of fungal infections was tied to the shipment of nearly 18,000 contaminated vials of preservative-free methylprednisolone , a steroid, made by the New England Compounding Center in Framingham, Mass. (npr.org)
  • The outbreak of fungal infections tied to injections with contaminated medicines killed at least 64 people and sickened about 700 more. (npr.org)
  • Judge Richard Leon (pictured) of the District Court of the District of Columbia ordered any correctional departments in possession of the drug to return it to the FDA. (deathpenaltyinfo.org)
  • The Health Service Executive has moved a step closer to opening a supervised drug injecting facility in Dublin, after it confirmed that Merchants Quay Ireland is the preferred bidder to operate the centre on a pilot basis. (rte.ie)
  • Our data also reflect changing nationwide patterns of injection drug use that vary by age, ethnicity, and race, leading to a marked reduction of acute HCV infections among African Americans compared with non-Hispanic whites. (nih.gov)
  • Between October 2005 and November 2010, a total of 395 drug injection-naive, street-involved youth provided 1434 observations, with 64 (16.2%) participants initiating injection drug use during the follow-up period, for a cumulative incidence of 21.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-41.7) per 100 person-years. (cmaj.ca)
  • Do not start, stop, or change the dose of any drug your child takes without checking with the doctor. (mskcc.org)
  • Using nationally representative data, this study found an independent association between nonmedical prescription drug use and sexual risk behaviors among high school students, as well as a dose-response relationship in the association between frequency of use and sexual risk behaviors. (aappublications.org)
  • A paramedic watches a drug user as he prepares himself for an injection with a narcotic drug inside a supervised injection hall. (businessinsider.com)
  • The 1988 United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances made it mandatory for the signatory countries to "adopt such measures as may be necessary to establish as criminal offences under its domestic law" (art. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3, § 1) all the activities related to the production, sale, transport, distribution, etc. of the substances included in the most restricted lists of the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs and 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Harm Reduction Center is a place of welcome and a pathway to improved health and healing. (sfaf.org)
  • Your doctor will probably tell you not to use diphenhydramine injection if you are breastfeeding because of the risk of harm to infants. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is also not known whether Ammonia N 13 Injection can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The regulated legalization system would probably have a range of restrictions for different drugs, depending on their perceived risk, so while some drugs would be sold over the counter in pharmacies or other licensed establishments, drugs with greater risks of harm might only be available for sale on licensed premises where use could be monitored and emergency medical care made available. (wikipedia.org)
  • This sets us apart from many other cancer centers and helps us target each tumor for optimal outcomes. (mdanderson.org)
  • Children in the family child care homes performed as well as children in center classrooms on assessments of cognitive performance, social-emotional and physical outcomes. (hhs.gov)
  • Nonmedical prescription drug use among youth is associated with negative outcomes such as decreased academic performance, delinquency, and other substance use, but no nationally representative studies have examined the association between nonmedical prescription drug use and sexual risk behaviors. (aappublications.org)