Central Venous Pressure
Lower Body Negative Pressure
Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives
Pulmonary Wedge Pressure
Sympathetic Nervous System
Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure
Catheterization, Central Venous
Organ Dysfunction Scores
Vena Cava, Inferior
Blood Volume Determination
Atrial Natriuretic Factor
Blood Flow Velocity
Ventricular Function, Right
Body Temperature Regulation
Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory
Esophageal and Gastric Varices
Differential regulation of IGF-I, its receptor and GH receptor mRNAs in the right ventricle and caval vein in volume-loaded genetically hypertensive and normotensive rats. (1/288)It has been suggested, mainly by in vitro findings, that cardiovascular tissue in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) should be more prone to proliferate/hypertrophy than that of the Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY). The present study tests the hypothesis that the tissue of the low-pressure compartment in SHR, being structurally similar to that of the WKY, shows an increased growth response due to activation of the GH-IGF-I system. An aortocaval fistula (ACF) was induced in 64 SHR and WKY male rats and 44 rats served as controls. They were all followed for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days after surgery. In separate groups of SHR (n=4) and WKY (n=3), central venous pressure was measured by telemetry recordings prior to opening of the fistula and for up to 16 h post-surgery. Systolic blood pressure was measured during the week post-surgery. The right ventricular (RV) and the caval vein IGF-I mRNA and RV IGF-I receptor and GH receptor mRNAs were quantitated by means of solution hybridisation assay. In rats with ACF the systolic blood pressure decreased, approximately 29% in SHR and 16% in WKY between 1 and 7 days post-surgery (P<0.05, n=5-6 in each group). SHR with ACF showed a transient elevation in central venous pressure vs WKY. Within the week following fistula induction both strains showed a similar, pronounced increase in RV hypertrophy. SHR with ACF showed a smaller, or even blunted, overall response with respect to activation of the GH-IGF-I system compared with WKY, the latter showing clear-cut elevation of gene expressions. Two days after shunt opening in SHR, RV and caval vein IGF-I mRNA increased by 57% and 108% (P<0.05 for both, n=5-6 in each group) respectively, and these expressions were then turned off, whereas RV GH receptor and IGF-I receptor mRNA expression remained unaffected compared with WKY rats. WKY rats showed on average a later and a greater response of GH-IGF-I system mRNA expression vs SHR. The present in vivo study suggests that the SHR requires less activation of the GH-IGF-I system for creating a given adaptive structural growth response. (+info)
Baroreflex gain predicts blood pressure recovery during simulated ventricular tachycardia in humans. (2/288)BACKGROUND: Despite similar degrees of left ventricular dysfunction and similar tachycardia or pacing rate, blood pressure (BP) response and symptoms vary greatly among patients. Sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) increases during sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT), and the magnitude of this sympathoexcitatory response appears to contribute to the net hemodynamic outcome. We hypothesize that the magnitude of sympathoexcitation and thus arterial baroreflex gain is an important determinant of the hemodynamic outcome of VT. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated the relation between arterial baroreflex sympathetic gain and BP recovery during rapid ventricular pacing (VP) in patients referred for electrophysiological study. Efferent postganglionic muscle SNA, BP, and central venous pressure (CVP) were measured in 14 patients during nitroprusside infusion and during VP at 150 (n=12) or 120 (n=2) bpm. Arterial baroreflex gain was defined as the slope of the relationship of change in SNA to change in diastolic BP during nitroprusside infusion. Recovery of mean arterial pressure (MAP) during VP was measured as the increase in MAP from the nadir at the onset of pacing to the steady-state value during sustained VP. Arterial baroreflex gain correlated positively with recovery of MAP (r=0.57, P=0.034). No significant correlation between ejection fraction and baroreflex gain (r=0.48, P=0.08) or BP recovery (r=0.41, P=0.15) was found. When patients were separated into high versus low baroreflex gain, the recovery of MAP during simulated VT was significantly greater in patients with high gain. CONCLUSIONS: These data strongly suggest that arterial baroreflex gain contributes significantly to hemodynamic stability during simulated VT. Knowledge of baroreflex gain in individual patients may help the clinician tailor therapy directed toward sustained VT. (+info)
Venous hydrostatic indifference point as a marker of postnatal adaptation to orthostasis in swine. (3/288)The postulate that venous adaptation assists postural baroreflex regulation by shifting the hydrostatic indifference point (HIP) toward the heart was investigated in eight midazolam-sedated newborn piglets. Whole body head-up (+15, +30, and +45 degrees ) and head-down (-15 and -30 degrees ) tilt provided a physiological range of orthostatic strain. HIP for all positive tilts shifted toward the heart (P < 0.05), +45 degrees HIP shifted most [6.7 +/- 0.3, 5.9 +/- 0.5, and 3.6 +/- 0.3 (SE) cm caudal to right atrium on days 1, 3, and 6, respectively]. HIP for negative tilts (3.0 +/- 0.2 cm caudal to right atrium) did not shift with postnatal age. Euthanasia on day 6 caused 2.1 +/- 0.3-cm caudal displacement of HIP for positive and negative tilts (P < 0.05). HIP proximity to right atrium was not altered by alpha-, beta-adrenoceptor and cholinoceptor blockade on day 5. It is concluded that early HIP migration reflects enhancement of venous pressure control to head-up orthostatic strain. The effect is independent of baroreflex-mediated adrenoceptor and cholinoceptor mechanisms. (+info)
Arterial pressure in humans during weightlessness induced by parabolic flights. (4/288)Results from our laboratory have indicated that, compared with those of the 1-G supine (Sup) position, left atrial diameter (LAD) and transmural central venous pressure increase in humans during weightlessness (0 G) induced by parabolic flights (R. Videbaek and P. Norsk. J. Appl. Physiol. 83: 1862-1866, 1997). Therefore, because cardiopulmonary low-pressure receptors are stimulated during 0 G, the hypothesis was tested that mean arterial pressure (MAP) in humans decreases during 0 G to values below those of the 1-G Sup condition. When the subjects were Sup, 0 G induced a decrease in MAP from 93 +/- 4 to 88 +/- 4 mmHg (P < 0.001), and LAD increased from 30 +/- 1 to 33 +/- 1 mm (P < 0.001). In the seated position, MAP also decreased from 93 +/- 6 to 87 +/- 5 mmHg (P < 0.01) and LAD increased from 28 +/- 1 to 32 +/- 1 mm (P < 0.001). During 1-G conditions with subjects in the horizontal left lateral position, LAD increased compared with that of Sup (P < 0.001) with no further effects of 0 G. In conclusion, MAP decreases during short-term weightlessness to below that of 1-G Sup simultaneously with an increase in LAD. Therefore, distension of the heart and associated central vessels during 0 G might induce the hypotensive effects through peripheral vasodilatation. Furthermore, the left lateral position in humans could constitute a simulation model of weightlessness. (+info)
Cardiac evaluation in hypotension-prone and hypotension-resistant hemodialysis patients. (5/288)BACKGROUND: Hypotension during hemodialysis occurs frequently, but the precise mechanism remains unclear. In this study, the presence of myocardial ischemia and myocardial contractile reserve during infusions of the beta-adrenergic receptor agonist dobutamine was assessed by means of dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography (DSE) in hypotension-prone (HP) and hypotension-resistant (HR) hemodialysis patients. METHODS: Eighteen HP patients (age 53 +/- 6 years) were compared with 18 HR patients (age 53 +/- 3 years), matched with respect to the duration of hemodialysis and cardiovascular history. New wall abnormalities during dobutamine stress reflect the presence of myocardial ischemia, whereas the increase in stroke index and cardiac index reflects myocardial contractile reserve. RESULTS: Wall motion score at rest (1.42 +/- 0.53 vs. 1.44 +/- 0.57) and dobutamine-induced new wall motion abnormalities (4 vs. 3 patients) between HP and HR patients were similar, but responses of cardiac index, stroke index, and systolic blood pressure to do butamine between the two groups were different. Not withstanding a similar cardiac index at rest (2.4 +/- 1.1 liter/min/m2 in HP and 2.8 +/- 1.2 liter/min/m2 in HR patients), dobutamine-induced increments in the cardiac index were considerably smaller in the former (0.8 +/- 1.3 liter/min/m2) than in the latter patients (2.3 +/- 1.6 liter/min/m2, P = 0.002), predominantly because of a progressive decrease in the stroke index in the HP patients. CONCLUSION: Impaired myocardial contractile reserve rather than ischemia is predominant in HP patients. This impaired myocardial contractile reserve may play a role in the development of hemodialysis-induced hypotension. (+info)
A prolonged spinal cord ischaemia model in pigs. Passive shunting offers stable central haemodynamics during aortic occlusion. (6/288)OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the effect of a modified aortic shunt on central haemodynamic variables during experimental thoracic aortic occlusion in a prolonged spinal cord ischaemia model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: central haemodynamic variables were evaluated during aortic cross-clamping. In the shunt group (n=11), after the placement of proximal and distal aortic clamps, distal aortic perfusion was restored through an aortoiliac shunt via the left subclavian artery. In the no-shunt group (n=11), spinal cord ischaemia was achieved with only proximal aortic cross-clamping. The clamping time was 60 minutes in the shunt group and 30 minutes in the no-shunt group. RESULTS: in the no-shunt group, all animals needed inotropic support, vasodilators and buffers during the experiment. None of these drugs were needed in the shunt group. In the no-shunt group, cross-clamping caused a significant increase in mean arterial pressure and heart rate compared to baseline values. These variables were stable in the shunt group during aortic occlusion. In the reperfusion period cardiac output, heart rate and arterial pCO(2)were significantly higher in the no-shunt than in the shunt group. CONCLUSION: the present experimental spinal cord ischaemia model, using double aortic cross-clamping with shunt, offers improved central haemodynamics. This enables the study of prolonged selective spinal cord ischaemia without interaction from vasoactive drugs or systemic reperfusion. (+info)
Differential regulation of cardiac ANP and BNP mRNA in different stages of experimental heart failure. (7/288)Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) are cardiac hormones that are involved in water and electrolyte homeostasis in heart failure. Although both hormones exert almost identical biological actions, the differential regulation of cardiac ANP and BNP mRNA in compensated and overt heart failure is not known. To study the hypothesis that cardiac BNP is more specifically induced in overt heart failure, a large aortocaval shunt of 30 days duration was produced in rats and compared with compensated heart failure. Compensated heart failure was induced either by a small shunt of 30 days duration or by a large shunt of 3 days duration. Both heart failure models were characterized by increased cardiac weight, which was significantly higher in the large-shunt model, and central venous pressure. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was elevated only in the overt heart failure group (control: 5.7 +/- 0. 7; small shunt: 8.6 +/- 0.9; large shunt 3 days: 8.5 +/- 1.7; large shunt 30 days: 15.9 +/- 2.6 mmHg; P < 0.01). ANP and BNP plasma concentrations were elevated in both heart failure models. In compensated heart failure, ANP mRNA expression was induced in both ventricles. In contrast, ventricular BNP mRNA expression was not upregulated in any of the compensated heart failure models, whereas it increased in overt heart failure (left ventricle: 359 +/- 104% of control, P < 0.001; right ventricle: 237 +/- 33%, P < 0.01). A similar pattern of mRNA regulation was observed in the atria. These data indicate that, in contrast to ANP, cardiac BNP mRNA expression might be induced specifically in overt heart failure, pointing toward the possible role of BNP as a marker of the transition from compensated to overt heart failure. (+info)
Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during a valsalva maneuver in the standing position. (8/288)Occasionally, lifting of a heavy weight leads to dizziness and even to fainting, suggesting that, especially in the standing position, expiratory straining compromises cerebral perfusion. In 10 subjects, the middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity (V(mean)) was evaluated during a Valsalva maneuver (mouth pressure 40 mmHg for 15 s) both in the supine and in the standing position. During standing, cardiac output decreased by 16 +/- 4 (SE) % (P < 0.05), and at the level of the brain mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreased from 89 +/- 2 to 78 +/- 3 mmHg (P < 0.05), as did V(mean) from 73 +/- 4 to 62 +/- 5 cm/s (P < 0.05). In both postures, the Valsalva maneuver increased central venous pressure by approximately 40 mmHg with a nadir in MAP and cardiac output that was most pronounced during standing (MAP: 65 +/- 6 vs. 87 +/- 3 mmHg; cardiac output: 37 +/- 3 vs. 57 +/- 4% of the resting value; P < 0.05). Also, V(mean) was lowest during the standing Valsalva maneuver (39 +/- 5 vs. 47 +/- 4 cm/s; P < 0.05). In healthy individuals, orthostasis induces an approximately 15% reduction in middle cerebral artery V(mean) that is exaggerated by a Valsalva maneuver performed with 40-mmHg mouth pressure to approximately 50% of supine rest. (+info)
Symptoms of hypovolemia may include:
* Decreased blood pressure
* Tachycardia (rapid heart rate)
* Tachypnea (rapid breathing)
* Confusion or disorientation
* Pale, cool, or clammy skin
* Weakness or fatigue
Treatment of hypovolemia typically involves fluid resuscitation, which may involve the administration of intravenous fluids, blood transfusions, or other appropriate interventions to restore blood volume and pressure. In severe cases, hypovolemia can lead to sepsis, organ failure, and death if left untreated.
It is important for medical professionals to quickly identify and treat hypovolemia in order to prevent complications and improve patient outcomes.
Note: Portal hypertension is a common complication of liver disease, especially cirrhosis. It is characterized by elevated pressure within the portal vein system, which can lead to splanchnic vasodilation, increased blood flow, and edema in the splanchnic organ.
Symptoms: Symptoms of portal hypertension may include ascites (fluid accumulation in the abdomen), encephalopathy (mental confusion or disorientation), gastrointestinal bleeding, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes).
Diagnosis: The diagnosis of portal hypertension is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include liver function tests, blood counts, and coagulation studies. Imaging studies may include ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Treatment: Treatment of portal hypertension depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to control symptoms, such as beta blockers to reduce portal pressure, antibiotics to treat infection, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to relieve pain. In severe cases, surgery or shunt procedures may be necessary.
Prognosis: The prognosis for patients with portal hypertension is generally poor, as it is often associated with advanced liver disease. The 5-year survival rate for patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension is approximately 50%.
In general, surgical blood loss is considered excessive if it exceeds 10-20% of the patient's total blood volume. This can be determined by measuring the patient's hemoglobin levels before and after the procedure. A significant decrease in hemoglobin levels post-procedure may indicate excessive blood loss.
There are several factors that can contribute to surgical blood loss, including:
1. Injury to blood vessels or organs during the surgical procedure
2. Poor surgical technique
3. Use of scalpels or other sharp instruments that can cause bleeding
4. Failure to control bleeding with proper hemostatic techniques
5. Pre-existing medical conditions that increase the risk of bleeding, such as hemophilia or von Willebrand disease.
Excessive surgical blood loss can lead to a number of complications, including:
1. Anemia and low blood counts
2. Hypovolemic shock (a life-threatening condition caused by excessive fluid and blood loss)
3. Infection or sepsis
4. Poor wound healing
5. Reoperation or surgical intervention to control bleeding.
To prevent or minimize surgical blood loss, surgeons may use a variety of techniques, such as:
1. Applying topical hemostatic agents to the surgical site before starting the procedure
2. Using energy-based devices (such as lasers or ultrasonic devices) to seal blood vessels and control bleeding
3. Employing advanced surgical techniques that minimize tissue trauma and reduce the risk of bleeding
4. Monitoring the patient's hemoglobin levels throughout the procedure and taking appropriate action if bleeding becomes excessive.
There are several causes of hypotension, including:
1. Dehydration: Loss of fluids and electrolytes can cause a drop in blood pressure.
2. Blood loss: Losing too much blood can lead to hypotension.
3. Medications: Certain medications, such as diuretics and beta-blockers, can lower blood pressure.
4. Heart conditions: Heart failure, cardiac tamponade, and arrhythmias can all cause hypotension.
5. Endocrine disorders: Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) and adrenal insufficiency can cause low blood pressure.
6. Vasodilation: A condition where the blood vessels are dilated, leading to low blood pressure.
7. Sepsis: Severe infection can cause hypotension.
Symptoms of hypotension can include:
1. Dizziness and lightheadedness
2. Fainting or passing out
3. Weakness and fatigue
4. Confusion and disorientation
5. Pale, cool, or clammy skin
6. Fast or weak pulse
7. Shortness of breath
8. Nausea and vomiting
If you suspect that you or someone else is experiencing hypotension, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Treatment will depend on the underlying cause of the condition, but may include fluids, electrolytes, and medication to raise blood pressure. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.
The definition of IAH varies depending on the source, but it generally refers to an intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) of 10 mmHg or higher. The normal IAP is typically around 0-5 mmHg.
There are different types of IAH, including:
* Acute IAH: This occurs suddenly and is usually associated with a specific event such as trauma or surgery.
* Chronic IAH: This develops gradually over time and can be caused by conditions such as cirrhosis, ascites, and chronic inflammation.
* Hyperkinetic IAH: This is characterized by an excessive increase in IAP, usually due to increased intestinal motility or pseudo-obstruction.
* Hypokinetic IAH: This is characterized by a decreased IAP, usually due to paralytic ileus or other conditions that affect intestinal motility.
The diagnosis of IAH is based on clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as ultrasound and computed tomography (CT). Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include fluid management, vasopressors, antibiotics, and surgical intervention.
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There are several types of shock, including:
1. Hypovolemic shock: This type of shock occurs when there is a significant loss of blood or fluid from the body, leading to a decrease in blood volume and pressure. It can be caused by injuries, surgery, or internal bleeding.
2. Septic shock: This type of shock occurs when an infection causes inflammation throughout the body, leading to a drop in blood pressure and organ dysfunction.
3. Anaphylactic shock: This type of shock is caused by an allergic reaction and can be life-threatening. Symptoms include difficulty breathing, rapid heartbeat, and a drop in blood pressure.
4. Neurogenic shock: This type of shock occurs when there is damage to the nervous system, leading to a drop in blood pressure and loss of autonomic functions.
5. Adrenal insufficiency: This type of shock occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough cortisol and aldosterone hormones, leading to a decrease in blood pressure and metabolism.
Symptoms of shock include:
* Pale, cool, or clammy skin
* Fast or weak pulse
* Shallow breathing
* Confusion or loss of consciousness
* Low blood pressure
Treatment of shock depends on the underlying cause and may include fluids, medications, oxygen therapy, and other supportive measures to maintain blood pressure and organ function. In severe cases, hospitalization in an intensive care unit may be necessary.
There are two types of hypertension:
1. Primary Hypertension: This type of hypertension has no identifiable cause and is also known as essential hypertension. It accounts for about 90% of all cases of hypertension.
2. Secondary Hypertension: This type of hypertension is caused by an underlying medical condition or medication. It accounts for about 10% of all cases of hypertension.
Some common causes of secondary hypertension include:
* Kidney disease
* Adrenal gland disorders
* Hormonal imbalances
* Certain medications
* Sleep apnea
* Cocaine use
There are also several risk factors for hypertension, including:
* Age (the risk increases with age)
* Family history of hypertension
* Lack of exercise
* High sodium intake
* Low potassium intake
Hypertension is often asymptomatic, and it can cause damage to the blood vessels and organs over time. Some potential complications of hypertension include:
* Heart disease (e.g., heart attacks, heart failure)
* Kidney disease (e.g., chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease)
* Vision loss (e.g., retinopathy)
* Peripheral artery disease
Hypertension is typically diagnosed through blood pressure readings taken over a period of time. Treatment for hypertension may include lifestyle changes (e.g., diet, exercise, stress management), medications, or a combination of both. The goal of treatment is to reduce the risk of complications and improve quality of life.
Symptoms of pulmonary edema may include:
* Shortness of breath (dyspnea)
* Coughing up frothy sputum
* Chest pain or tightness
* Confusion or disorientation
Pulmonary edema can be diagnosed through physical examination, chest x-rays, electrocardiogram (ECG), and blood tests. Treatment options include oxygen therapy, diuretics, and medications to manage underlying conditions such as heart failure or sepsis. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide mechanical ventilation.
Prevention measures for pulmonary edema include managing underlying medical conditions, avoiding exposure to pollutants and allergens, and seeking prompt medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
In summary, pulmonary edema is a serious condition that can impair lung function and lead to shortness of breath, chest pain, and other respiratory symptoms. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent complications and improve outcomes for patients with this condition.
Shock refers to a severe and sudden drop in blood pressure, which can lead to inadequate perfusion of vital organs such as the brain, heart, and lungs. There are several types of shock, including hypovolemic shock (caused by bleeding or dehydration), septic shock (caused by an overwhelming bacterial infection), and cardiogenic shock (caused by a heart attack or other cardiac condition).
Septic refers to the presence of bacteria or other microorganisms in the bloodstream, which can cause a range of symptoms including fever, chills, and confusion. Sepsis is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that can lead to organ failure and death if left untreated.
Septic shock is a specific type of shock that occurs as a result of sepsis, which is the body's systemic inflammatory response to an infection. Septic shock is characterized by severe vasopressor (a medication used to increase blood pressure) and hypotension (low blood pressure), and it can lead to multiple organ failure and death if not treated promptly and effectively.
In summary, shock refers to a drop in blood pressure, while septic refers to the presence of bacteria or other microorganisms in the bloodstream. Septic shock is a specific type of shock that occurs as a result of sepsis, and it can be a life-threatening condition if not treated promptly and effectively.
There are several risk factors for developing venous insufficiency, including:
* Age: As we age, our veins become less effective at pumping blood back to the heart, making us more susceptible to venous insufficiency.
* Gender: Women are more likely to develop venous insufficiency than men due to hormonal changes and other factors.
* Family history: If you have a family history of venous insufficiency, you may be more likely to develop the condition.
* Injury or trauma: Injuries or traumas to the veins can damage valves or cause blood clots, leading to venous insufficiency.
* Obesity: Excess weight can put extra pressure on the veins, increasing the risk of venous insufficiency.
Symptoms of venous insufficiency may include:
* Pain, aching, or cramping in the legs
* Swelling, edema, or water retention in the legs
* Skin discoloration or thickening of the skin on the legs
* Itching or burning sensations on the skin
* Ulcers or sores on the skin
If left untreated, venous insufficiency can lead to more serious complications such as:
* Chronic wounds or ulcers
* Blood clots or deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
* Increased risk of infection
* Decreased mobility and quality of life
To diagnose venous insufficiency, a healthcare provider may perform one or more of the following tests:
* Physical examination: A healthcare provider will typically examine the legs and ankles to check for swelling, discoloration, and other symptoms.
* Duplex ultrasound: This non-invasive test uses sound waves to evaluate blood flow in the veins and can detect blockages or other problems.
* Venography: This test involves injecting a dye into the vein to visualize the veins and check for any blockages or abnormalities.
* Imaging tests: Such as MRI, CT scan, or X-rays may be used to rule out other conditions that may cause similar symptoms.
Treatment options for venous insufficiency depend on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, but may include one or more of the following:
* Compression stockings: These specialized stockings provide gentle pressure to the legs and ankles to help improve blood flow and reduce swelling.
* Lifestyle changes: Maintaining a healthy weight, exercising regularly, and avoiding prolonged standing or sitting can help improve symptoms.
* Medications: Such as diuretics, anticoagulants, or pain relievers may be prescribed to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
* Endovenous laser therapy: This minimally invasive procedure uses a laser to heat and seal off the damaged vein, redirecting blood flow to healthier veins.
* Sclerotherapy: This involves injecting a solution into the affected vein to cause it to collapse and be absorbed by the body.
* Vein stripping: In this surgical procedure, the affected vein is removed through small incisions.
It's important to note that these treatments are usually recommended for more severe cases of venous insufficiency, and for those who have not responded well to other forms of treatment. Your healthcare provider will help determine the best course of treatment for your specific case.
There are two main types of heart failure:
1. Left-sided heart failure: This occurs when the left ventricle, which is the main pumping chamber of the heart, becomes weakened and is unable to pump blood effectively. This can lead to congestion in the lungs and other organs.
2. Right-sided heart failure: This occurs when the right ventricle, which pumps blood to the lungs, becomes weakened and is unable to pump blood effectively. This can lead to congestion in the body's tissues and organs.
Symptoms of heart failure may include:
* Shortness of breath
* Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet
* Swelling in the abdomen
* Weight gain
* Coughing up pink, frothy fluid
* Rapid or irregular heartbeat
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
Treatment for heart failure typically involves a combination of medications and lifestyle changes. Medications may include diuretics to remove excess fluid from the body, ACE inhibitors or beta blockers to reduce blood pressure and improve blood flow, and aldosterone antagonists to reduce the amount of fluid in the body. Lifestyle changes may include a healthy diet, regular exercise, and stress reduction techniques. In severe cases, heart failure may require hospitalization or implantation of a device such as an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) or a left ventricular assist device (LVAD).
It is important to note that heart failure is a chronic condition, and it requires ongoing management and monitoring to prevent complications and improve quality of life. With proper treatment and lifestyle changes, many people with heart failure are able to manage their symptoms and lead active lives.
The condition can be caused by a variety of factors, including excessive alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and certain medications. It can also be a complication of other diseases such as hemochromatosis and Wilson's disease.
The symptoms of liver cirrhosis can vary depending on the severity of the disease, but may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal swelling, and pain in the upper right side of the abdomen. As the disease progresses, it can lead to complications such as esophageal varices, ascites, and liver failure, which can be life-threatening.
There is no cure for liver cirrhosis, but treatment options are available to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These may include medications to control swelling and pain, dietary changes, and in severe cases, liver transplantation. In some cases, a liver transplant may be necessary if the disease has caused significant damage and there is no other option to save the patient's life.
In conclusion, liver cirrhosis is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that can cause significant damage to the liver and lead to complications such as liver failure. It is important for individuals to be aware of the risk factors and symptoms of the disease in order to seek medical attention if they suspect they may have liver cirrhosis. With proper treatment and management, it is possible to slow the progression of the disease and improve the patient's quality of life.
Portal hypertension can be caused by several conditions, such as cirrhosis (scarring of the liver), liver cancer, and congenital heart disease. When the portal vein is blocked or narrowed, blood flow through the veins in the esophagus and stomach increases, leading to enlargement of these vessels and an increased risk of bleeding.
Esophageal varices are the most common type of variceal bleeding and account for about 75% of all cases. Gastric varices are less common and usually occur in conjunction with esophageal varices.
Symptoms of esophageal and gastric varices may include:
* Vomiting blood or passing black stools
* Weakness, dizziness, or fainting due to blood loss
* Chest pain or discomfort
* Difficulty swallowing
Treatment for esophageal and gastric varices usually involves endoscopy, which is a procedure in which a flexible tube with a camera and light on the end is inserted through the mouth to visualize the inside of the esophagus and stomach. During endoscopy, the physician may use medications to shrink the varices or apply heat to seal off the bleeding vessels. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or remove the varices.
Prevention of esophageal and gastric varices involves managing the underlying cause of portal hypertension, such as cirrhosis or liver cancer. This can include medications to reduce portal pressure, lifestyle changes to improve liver function, and in some cases, surgery to remove the affected liver tissue.
In summary, esophageal and gastric varices are enlarged veins in the lower esophagus and stomach that can develop in people with portal hypertension due to cirrhosis or liver cancer. These varices can cause bleeding, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly. Treatment usually involves endoscopy and may involve medications, heat therapy, or surgery to seal off the bleeding vessels. Prevention involves managing the underlying cause of portal hypertension.
Types of congenital heart defects include:
1. Ventricular septal defect (VSD): A hole in the wall between the two lower chambers of the heart, allowing abnormal blood flow.
2. Atrial septal defect (ASD): A hole in the wall between the two upper chambers of the heart, also allowing abnormal blood flow.
3. Tetralogy of Fallot: A combination of four heart defects, including VSD, pulmonary stenosis (narrowing of the pulmonary valve), and abnormal development of the infundibulum (a part of the heart that connects the ventricles to the pulmonary artery).
4. Transposition of the great vessels: A condition in which the aorta and/or pulmonary artery are placed in the wrong position, disrupting blood flow.
5. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS): A severe defect in which the left side of the heart is underdeveloped, resulting in insufficient blood flow to the body.
6. Pulmonary atresia: A condition in which the pulmonary valve does not form properly, blocking blood flow to the lungs.
7. Truncus arteriosus: A rare defect in which a single artery instead of two (aorta and pulmonary artery) arises from the heart.
8. Double-outlet right ventricle: A condition in which both the aorta and the pulmonary artery arise from the right ventricle instead of the left ventricle.
Causes of congenital heart defects are not fully understood, but genetics, environmental factors, and viral infections during pregnancy may play a role. Diagnosis is typically made through fetal echocardiography or cardiac ultrasound during pregnancy or after birth. Treatment depends on the type and severity of the defect and may include medication, surgery, or heart transplantation. With advances in medical technology and treatment, many children with congenital heart disease can lead active, healthy lives into adulthood.
Central venous pressure
Jugular venous pressure
Cerebrospinal venous system
José L. Duomarco
High-altitude cerebral edema
List of reflexes
Surviving Sepsis Campaign
Beck's triad (cardiology)
Central venous catheter
Brain natriuretic peptide 32
Tissue Doppler echocardiography
Bondage positions and methods
Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency controversy
Liver support system
Shortness of breath
Spinal cord injury
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis
List of skin conditions
Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia (January-June 2021)
Passive leg raise
Emergency medical services
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
List of OMIM disorder codes
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- A catheter is placed into an artery and then connected to a pressure transducer and monitor/recorder. (vin.com)
- Changes in the position of the patient affect both the venous and the reference catheter equally, so the measured pressure is always related to the reference catheter and the transducer need not be moved. (ispub.com)
- ECG calibration, pressure zero, pressure calibration, and pressure/catheter frequency response tests are also recorded. (physionet.org)
- Federal regulators warn the risk of a cross-lumen leak caused by inadequate connections qualifies the Arrow MAC Venous Catheter Kit recall for a Class I recall designation. (aboutlawsuits.com)
- The Arrow MAC Venous Catheter Kit recall was announced by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on December 16, warning healthcare professionals to stop using certain Arrow MAC Two-Lumen Central Venous Access Kit due to the risk of serious bleeding events or delays in treatment. (aboutlawsuits.com)
- The recalled catheters are intended to provide short term venous access and catheter introduction to the central circulation for the protection against catheter-related bloodstream infections. (aboutlawsuits.com)
- Arrow Pressure Injectable Arrowg+ard Blue Plus Three-Lumen Central Venous Catheter (CVC) Kits manufactured by Teleflex and their subsidiary Arrow International, LLC. (aboutlawsuits.com)
- The checklist contains five important steps that need to be followed when placing a central line catheter. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- This type of catheter is used regularly for patients in the ICU to administer medication or fluids, obtain blood tests, and directly gauge cardiovascular measurements such as central venous blood pressure. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
Arterial blood pr2
- At a mean arterial blood pressure below 60 mm Hg, organ and tissue perfusion is inadequate. (vin.com)
- It is based on the principle for which the arterial blood pressure waveform results from the interaction between the systolic ejection volume and the physical characteristics of the systemic vascular system (vascular compliance, aortic impedance and peripheral arterial resistance). (biomedcentral.com)
- These groups are measurement technique, central venous blood volume, central venous vascular compliance, tricuspid valve competence, cardiac rhythm, and the compartment pressures in the thorax and abdomen. (derangedphysiology.com)
- Central venous pressure: A useful but not so simple measurement. (derangedphysiology.com)
- As such measurement of central venous and Fontan pressures is very important to assess the correct ongoing functioning of the circulation . (childheartspecialist.com)
- The measurement of central haemodynamics requires puncture of large veins (in the groin or in the neck) and introduction of long rigid catheters inside the body with a low but not absent risks (bleeding, infection, and clot formation) and often also requires a general anaesthetic in childhood. (childheartspecialist.com)
- Peripheral vein pressure measurement instead is much less intrusive (see figure). (childheartspecialist.com)
- Discussions have taken place on whether it would be possible to reliably derive a measure of the central venous pressure from a measurement made from the peripheral veins in the arms. (childheartspecialist.com)
- This is a novel and important finding as the measurement of peripheral venous pressure is much less invasive than measurement of central venous pressure and can also be repeated more easily at the bedside or even in the outpatient setting. (childheartspecialist.com)
- Identify the correct measurement of a central venous pressure waveform. (nurse.com)
- Measurement of jugular venous pressure (JVP) by novice clinicians can be unreliable, particularly when evaluating obese patients. (nih.gov)
- Proper placement of blood pressure transducers to patient's heart level is essential for invasive pressure measurement. (ispub.com)
- This is particularly important during the measurement of low-pressure parameters such as central venous pressure, pulmonary artery pressure or intracranial pressure. (ispub.com)
- Setting pressure transducers to patient's zero reference level is an important step in invasive pressure measurement. (ispub.com)
- Electrical interference with the blood pressure transducer signal or monitoring system, zeroing problems respectively misunderstandings or unrecognized displaced reference line may lead to errors in blood pressure measurement. (ispub.com)
- The aim of this study was to compare the Pressure Recording Analytical Method (PRAM) with the pulmonary artery thermodilution (TD) for the measurement of cardiac output in 6 anaesthetized critically ill dogs. (biomedcentral.com)
- Since most organs rely on flow rather than pressure for optimal function, measurement of CO is a pivotal component of the haemodynamic evaluation of high risk human patients, providing an indirect indication of global tissue perfusion [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Can we assess central Fontan haemodynamics using peripheral venous pressure? (childheartspecialist.com)
- Novel research shows that central haemodynamics (the central venous pressure) can be reliably and noninvasively estimated in children and young adults with Fontan operation from peripheral venous pressure measurements ( http://www.jtcvsonline.org/article/S0022-5223(16)31800-1/pdf ). (childheartspecialist.com)
- 0.0001) and they also found that the formula that predicted central venous pressure best was: central venous pressure = 1.6 + 0.68*peripheral venous pressure. (childheartspecialist.com)
- However, numerous fluids and medications (eg, hyperosmolar solutions and resuscitative drugs) cannot be given through peripheral catheters because of local and venous irritation. (medscape.com)
- The systolic blood pressure is determined by a combination of peripheral vascular resistance, stroke volume, and intravascular volume whereas diastolic blood pressure primarily arises from peripheral vascular resistance. (vin.com)
- It is distinguished from peripheral venous pressure which occurs in an extremity. (nih.gov)
- Clinically, the pulse pressure (systolic-diastolic) allows the anesthetist to estimate the stroke volume. (vin.com)
- Normal systolic blood pressure range for anesthetized dogs and cats is between 90 mm Hg and 120 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ranges between 55 mm Hg and 90 mm Hg. (vin.com)
- Clinical pharmacology studies have demonstrated the beta-blocking activity of metoprolol, as shown by (1) reduction in heart rate and cardiac output at rest and upon exercise, (2) reduction of systolic blood pressure upon exercise, (3) inhibition of isoproterenol-induced tachycardia, and (4) reduction of reflex orthostatic tachycardia. (prescriptiondrugs.com)
- Stroke volume is estimated from the area under the systolic portion of an arterial pressure curve and a variable called Z. This variable indicates the dynamic impedance of the cardiovascular system, representing all the factors which oppose to the propagation of the pressure wave on the arterial tree. (biomedcentral.com)
- Other circulatory information including blood pressure, stroke volume and cardiac output is not provided by the ECG. (vin.com)
- This prospective randomized controlled study was designed to evaluate the effect of fluid restriction alone versus fluid restriction + low central venous pressure (CVP) on hepatic surgical field bleeding, intraoperative blood loss, and the serum lactate concentration in patients undergoing partial hepatectomy. (biomedcentral.com)
- 9. Effect of infrahepatic inferior vena cava partial clamping on central venous pressure and intraoperative blood loss during laparoscopic hepatectomy. (nih.gov)
- Physical exam would be notable for volume overload (jugular venous distention, dependent edema), S3 gallop, and often pulmonary rales. (renalandurologynews.com)
Diastolic blood pr1
- Beta 2 -receptor blockade was demonstrated by inhibition of the isoproterenol-induced fall in diastolic blood pressure. (nih.gov)
- Low pressure in the inferior vena cava also decreases pressure in the hepatic veins and hepatic sinus, which helps reduce blood loss during partial hepatectomy. (biomedcentral.com)
- 5. Infrahepatic inferior vena cava clamping for reduction of central venous pressure and blood loss during hepatic resection: a randomized controlled trial. (nih.gov)
- 13. Queries regarding the optimal indication of infrahepatic inferior vena cava clamping and proposal for examining the hepatic venous pressures or accompanied Trendelenburg position to improve this procedure. (nih.gov)
- If the right ventricular pressure is increased, a parasternal heave may be present, signifying the compensatory increase in contraction strength. (wikidoc.org)
- Some recordings include intra-cranial, left atrial, ventricular and/or intra-aortic-balloon pressure waveforms. (physionet.org)
- For patients with single ventricle anatomy, pulmonary blood flow is dependent on central venous pressure with little or no ventricular support. (reachmd.com)
- year medical student-sent a long manuscript entitled "The Capillary Pressure in Frog Mesentery Determined by Microinjection Methods" to the editors of the American Journal of Physiology . (nationalacademies.org)
- Septic shock is defined by persisting hypotension requiring vasopressors to maintain a mean arterial pressure of 65 mm Hg or higher and a serum lactate level greater than 2 mmol/L (18 mg/dL) despite adequate volume resuscitation. (medscape.com)
- It is complicated by factors such as the patient's age and size, the availability of venous access sites, and even the anticipated length of use. (medscape.com)
- A transducer holding device has integrated a reference pressure sensor connected to a water filled reference tube, which is attached to the patient's heart level. (ispub.com)
- The hydrostatic pressure difference between the patient's heart level and the blood pressure transducer zero level is computed from the hydrostatic pressure of the water column in the reference tube and indicated by a numerical display. (ispub.com)
- Another group of hydrostatic pressure compensating devices incorporates a reference pressure sensor measuring the hydrostatic pressure difference between heart level and blood pressure transducer using a water-filled reference tube attached to the patient's heart reference point (2,6,7). (ispub.com)
- Dynamic parameters used in these trials included stroke volume variation (SVV), pulse pressure variation (PPV), and stroke volume change with passive leg raise or fluid challenge. (nih.gov)
- Pulse oximetry, capnography and non-invasive blood pressure monitoring represent three current non-invasive monitoring techniques available to use in the anesthetized patient. (vin.com)
- 3. Half clamping of the infrahepatic inferior vena cava reduces bleeding during a hepatectomy by decreasing the central venous pressure. (nih.gov)
- 12. Efficacy and safety of infrahepatic inferior vena cava clamping under controlled central venous pressure for reducing blood loss during hepatectomy: A randomized controlled trial. (nih.gov)
- Labetalol HCl produces dose-related falls in blood pressure without reflex tachycardia and without significant reduction in heart rate, presumably through a mixture of its alpha- and beta-blocking effects. (nih.gov)
- Arterial and central venous pressure monitoring. (derangedphysiology.com)
- The courses included in this certification review bundle cover topics such as Arterial & Central Venous Pressure Monitoring and Cardia Assist Devices and Caropulmonary Bypass. (nurse.com)
- Discuss the components of a pressure monitoring set up. (nurse.com)
- Cardiac monitoring, noninvasive blood pressure monitoring, and pulse oximetry are indicated in patients with septic shock. (medscape.com)
- Although these devices may facilitate hemodynamic pressure monitoring, direct modulation of the blood pressure transducer signal by an electronic compensation circuit or by a differential pressure transducer carries some risks. (ispub.com)
- By blocking catecholamine-induced increases in heart rate, in velocity and extent of myocardial contraction, and in blood pressure, Metoprolol Tartrate reduces the oxygen requirements of the heart at any given level of effort, thus making it useful in the long-term management of angina pectoris. (prescriptiondrugs.com)
- Labetalol HCl consistently, in dose-related fashion, blunted increases in exercise-induced blood pressure and heart rate, and in their double product. (nih.gov)
- 1. Reverse Trendelenburg position is a safer technique for lowering central venous pressure without decreasing blood pressure than clamping of the inferior vena cava below the liver. (nih.gov)
- 6. Randomized clinical trial comparing infrahepatic inferior vena cava clamping with low central venous pressure in complex liver resections involving the Pringle manoeuvre. (nih.gov)
- 11. Effects of clamping procedures on central venous pressure during liver resection. (nih.gov)
- Intrabdominal pressure may increase OR decrease the CVP, by influencing the extent of venous return from the lower body, and by influencing thoracic compliance. (derangedphysiology.com)
- The blood pressure in the central large VEINS of the body. (nih.gov)
- The Delta Press Indicator is a new device for set-up and continuous control of blood pressure transducer position. (ispub.com)
- Difficulties with placement and displacement of external blood pressure transducer systems in the operation room, intensive care unit or in the cardiac laboratory can cause measuring errors from overlaying hydrostatic pressure components ( 2 ). (ispub.com)
- A "Self-levelling venous pressure transducer" has been reported by Blackburn 1968 using a differential pressure transducer which has two measuring limbs (3). (ispub.com)
- Therefore, I designed a transducer holding device with integrated hydrostatic pressure difference display system, only indicating, but not compensating the hydrostatic pressure difference. (ispub.com)
- A transducer holding device incorporates a reference pressure sensor connected to a water-filled polyvinyl tube (100 cm long and 1 mm internal diameter). (ispub.com)
- Stage A includes a variety of disorders that place someone at risk for CS, while in stage B, patients have a high heart rate - above 100 - or low blood pressure, but are still maintaining end organ perfusion," he said. (medscape.com)
- Both the alpha-and beta-blocking actions of orally administered labetalol HCl contribute to a decrease in blood pressure in hypertensive patients. (nih.gov)
- Nitrolingual Pumpspray may precipitate or aggravate increased intracranial pressure and thus should not be used in patients with possible increased intracranial pressure (e. g. cerebral hemorrhage or traumatic brain injury). (drugs.com)
- Usually, blood pressure transducers are aligned with a chosen reference point in supine patients, the midaxillary line for the right atrium ( 1 ). (ispub.com)
- This court case will explore the central question should these patients be placed on Group 1 vasodilator therapy. (reachmd.com)
- OBJECTIVES: The clinical profile and outcomes of patients with Covid-19 who require veno-arterial or veno-venous-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO - VAV-ECMO) are poorly understood. (bvsalud.org)
- Prevention of central volume depletion after paracentesis due to cirrhotic ascites. (nih.gov)
- Due to the alpha 1 -receptor blocking activity of labetalol HCl, blood pressure is lowered more in the standing than in the supine position, and symptoms of postural hypotension (2%), including rare instances of syncope, can occur. (nih.gov)
- Unfortunately the durability of the Fontan operation is limited, primarily as a consequence of the increased pressure in the general venous circulation. (childheartspecialist.com)
- For patient education resources, see the Circulatory Problems Center , as well as Venous Access Devices . (medscape.com)
- Describe nursing considerations for central line placement, use, and discontinuation. (nurse.com)
- Different techniques and devices have been reported for compensating any overlaying hydrostatic pressure components (2, 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 ). (ispub.com)
- A Doppler ultrasound probe coupled with a pressure cuff and sphygmomanometer, or an automated oscillometric device (e.g. (vin.com)
- Owing to the variation in defining a low blood pressure (BP), significant differences in pharmacological manipulation of BP are evident. (who.int)
- The national program, National Implementation of the Comprehensive Unit-Based Safety Program (CUSP) to reduce Central-Line Associated Blood Stream Infections (CLABSI) in the ICU ("On the Cusp, Stop BSIs," for short), will continue through September 29, 2011. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome in which the heart is unable to provide sufficient blood flow to meet the metabolic needs of the body, or is only able to do so with significantly increased intracardiac filling pressure. (renalandurologynews.com)
- Heart failure develops when the heart, via an abnormality of cardiac function (detectable or not), fails to pump blood at a rate commensurate with the requirements of the metabolizing tissues or is able to do so only with an elevated diastolic filling pressure. (medscape.com)