Catheterization, Central Venous
Central Venous Catheters
Vena Cava, Superior
Vascular Access Devices
Patient Care Bundles
Intensive Care Units
Anti-Infective Agents, Local
Parenteral Nutrition, Total
Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections
Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical
Central Venous Pressure
Extravasation of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Materials
Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis
Parenteral Nutrition, Home
Blood Coagulation Disorders, Inherited
Intensive Care Units, Pediatric
Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections
Superior Vena Cava Syndrome
Intensive Care Units, Neonatal
Kidney Failure, Chronic
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care)
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Colony Count, Microbial
Drug Resistance, Fungal
Practice Guidelines as Topic
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Drug Therapy, Combination
Thoracic Surgical Procedures
Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field
Vessel health and preservation (Part 1): a new evidence-based approach to vascular access selection and management. (1/51)(+info)
ESRD patients using permanent vascular access report greater physical activity compared with catheter users. (2/51)(+info)
Extraction of abandoned, potentially dangerous lead with uncovered proximal ending: a case report and method description. (3/51)In this study, we present the case of the extraction of a non-functioning, abandoned, chronically implanted nine year-old lead with proximal extended frayed ending, displaced spontaneously into the subclavian vein. The seemingly inaccessible lead was extracted from the body using the femoral approach. The lead was looped with a pig-tail catheter, standard guide-wire, and basket Dotter catheter, and the proximal ingrown ending was liberated. Finally, it was grasped with a basket catheter and its tip was liberated using oblique cut rotated internal sheath of a Femoral Working Station: using it as a Byrd dilator designed for subclavian approach. An additional difficulty was the risk of dislodging the correct endocardial lead in the pacemaker-dependent patient. The procedure indicates the necessity for the production of longer Byrd dilators designed for the femoral approach. (+info)
Neonatal fungal infections: when to treat? (4/51)(+info)
Totally implantable venous power ports of the forearm and the chest: initial clinical experience with port devices approved for high-pressure injections. (5/51)(+info)
Entrapped central venous catheter after mitral valve replacement and its surgical retrieval. (6/51)(+info)
Bilateral total parenteral nutrition pleural effusions in a 5-week-old male infant. (7/51)(+info)
Association of hemodialysis central venous catheter use with ipsilateral arteriovenous vascular access survival. (8/51)(+info)
The most common types of CRIs include:
1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): These occur when bacteria enter the urinary tract through the catheter and cause an infection in the bladder, kidneys, or ureters.
2. Catheter-associated asymptomatic bacteriuria (CAB): This occurs when bacteria are present in the urine but do not cause symptoms.
3. Catheter-associated symptomatic urinary tract infections (CAUTI): These occur when bacteria cause symptoms such as burning during urination, frequent urination, or cloudy urine.
4. Pyelonephritis: This is a type of UTI that affects the kidneys and can be life-threatening if left untreated.
5. Septicemia: This occurs when bacteria enter the bloodstream through the catheter and cause a systemic infection.
6. Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs): These occur when bacteria enter the bloodstream through the catheter and cause an infection.
7. Catheter-associated fungal infections: These occur when fungi grow in the urinary tract or on the catheter, causing an infection.
8. Catheter-associated viral infections: These occur when a virus infects the urinary tract or the catheter.
CRIs can be prevented by using sterile equipment, proper insertion and maintenance techniques, and regularly cleaning and disinfecting the catheter. Early detection and treatment of CRIs are critical to prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Bacteremia can occur when bacteria enter the bloodstream through various means, such as:
* Infected wounds or surgical sites
* Injecting drug use
* Skin infections
* Respiratory tract infections
* Urinary tract infections
* Endocarditis (infection of the heart valves)
The symptoms of bacteremia can vary depending on the type of bacteria and the severity of the infection. Some common symptoms include:
* Muscle aches
* Shortness of breath
Bacteremia is diagnosed by blood cultures, which involve collecting blood samples and inserting them into a specialized container to grow the bacteria. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and supportive care, such as intravenous fluids and oxygen therapy. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the infection.
Prevention measures for bacteremia include:
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly
* Avoiding sharing personal items like toothbrushes or razors
* Properly cleaning and covering wounds
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can lead to bacteremia
* Following proper sterilization techniques during medical procedures
Overall, bacteremia is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention to prevent complications and ensure effective treatment.
Symptoms of fungemia may include fever, chills, night sweats, fatigue, and weight loss. Diagnosis is typically made by drawing blood cultures and performing microbiological tests to identify the presence of fungal organisms in the blood. Treatment typically involves administration of antifungal medications, which can be given intravenously or orally. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the condition.
In some cases, fungemia can lead to complications such as sepsis, organ failure, and death. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent these outcomes.
Foreign-body migration refers to the movement or migration of a foreign object or material within the body over time. This can occur after a surgical procedure, injury, or other medical intervention where a foreign object is introduced into the body. The term "foreign body" includes any object or material that is not naturally present within the body, such as implants, sutures, staples, and other medical devices.
The migration of a foreign body can occur due to various factors, including:
1. Mechanical forces: Movement of the body, such as during exercise or daily activities, can cause the foreign object to shift position or migrate to another part of the body.
2. Biological forces: The body's natural healing processes and inflammatory responses can cause the foreign object to move or change shape over time.
3. Chemical forces: Corrosion or degradation of the foreign material can lead to its migration within the body.
4. Cellular forces: Cells in the body can surround and interact with the foreign object, leading to its movement or displacement.
The migration of a foreign body can have significant clinical implications, including:
1. Pain and discomfort: The movement of a foreign object within the body can cause pain, discomfort, and inflammation.
2. Infection: The migration of a foreign object can increase the risk of infection, particularly if the object is made of a material that is susceptible to bacterial growth.
3. Organ damage: If the migrated foreign object damages surrounding tissues or organs, it can lead to serious complications and long-term health problems.
4. Revision surgery: In some cases, the migration of a foreign body may require revision surgery to remove or reposition the object.
To prevent foreign-body migration, medical professionals use various techniques, such as:
1. Implant fixation: Implants can be fixed in place using bone screws, sutures, or other fixation devices to minimize their movement.
2. Biocompatible materials: Using biocompatible materials for implants and other medical devices can reduce the risk of foreign-body reaction and migration.
3. Proper surgical technique: Surgeons must use proper surgical techniques when inserting foreign objects into the body, such as using a sterile environment and appropriate insertion angles.
4. Postoperative care: Proper postoperative care, including antibiotics and pain management, can help prevent complications and promote healing.
Overall, preventing the migration of foreign bodies is essential to ensure successful medical outcomes and minimize the risk of complications.
In medicine, cross-infection refers to the transmission of an infectious agent from one individual or source to another, often through direct contact or indirect exposure. This type of transmission can occur in various settings, such as hospitals, clinics, and long-term care facilities, where patients with compromised immune systems are more susceptible to infection.
Cross-infection can occur through a variety of means, including:
1. Person-to-person contact: Direct contact with an infected individual, such as touching, hugging, or shaking hands.
2. Contaminated surfaces and objects: Touching contaminated surfaces or objects that have been touched by an infected individual, such as doorknobs, furniture, or medical equipment.
3. Airborne transmission: Inhaling droplets or aerosolized particles that contain the infectious agent, such as during coughing or sneezing.
4. Contaminated food and water: Consuming food or drinks that have been handled by an infected individual or contaminated with the infectious agent.
5. Insect vectors: Mosquitoes, ticks, or other insects can transmit infections through their bites.
Cross-infection is a significant concern in healthcare settings, as it can lead to outbreaks of nosocomial infections (infections acquired in hospitals) and can spread rapidly among patients, healthcare workers, and visitors. To prevent cross-infection, healthcare providers use strict infection control measures, such as wearing personal protective equipment (PPE), thoroughly cleaning and disinfecting surfaces, and implementing isolation precautions for infected individuals.
In summary, cross-infection refers to the transmission of an infectious agent from one individual or source to another, often through direct contact or indirect exposure in healthcare settings. Preventing cross-infection is essential to maintaining a safe and healthy environment for patients, healthcare workers, and visitors.
Candidemia can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and confusion. In severe cases, it can lead to organ failure and death. Treatment typically involves the use of antifungal medications, and in some cases, hospitalization is necessary to manage the infection and monitor the patient's condition.
Preventative measures to reduce the risk of developing candidemia include proper handwashing and hygiene, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and ensuring that medical equipment and surfaces are properly cleaned and disinfected. Early detection and treatment can significantly improve outcomes for patients with candidemia.
There are several types of thrombosis, including:
1. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A clot forms in the deep veins of the legs, which can cause swelling, pain, and skin discoloration.
2. Pulmonary embolism (PE): A clot breaks loose from another location in the body and travels to the lungs, where it can cause shortness of breath, chest pain, and coughing up blood.
3. Cerebral thrombosis: A clot forms in the brain, which can cause stroke or mini-stroke symptoms such as weakness, numbness, or difficulty speaking.
4. Coronary thrombosis: A clot forms in the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle, leading to a heart attack.
5. Renal thrombosis: A clot forms in the kidneys, which can cause kidney damage or failure.
The symptoms of thrombosis can vary depending on the location and size of the clot. Some common symptoms include:
1. Swelling or redness in the affected limb
2. Pain or tenderness in the affected area
3. Warmth or discoloration of the skin
4. Shortness of breath or chest pain if the clot has traveled to the lungs
5. Weakness, numbness, or difficulty speaking if the clot has formed in the brain
6. Rapid heart rate or irregular heartbeat
7. Feeling of anxiety or panic
Treatment for thrombosis usually involves medications to dissolve the clot and prevent new ones from forming. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot or repair the damaged blood vessel. Prevention measures include maintaining a healthy weight, exercising regularly, avoiding long periods of immobility, and managing chronic conditions such as high blood pressure and diabetes.
There are several possible causes of cardiac tamponade, including:
1. Trauma: Blunt chest trauma, such as a car accident or fall, can cause bleeding within the pericardial sac and lead to cardiac tamponade.
2. Infection: Bacterial, viral, or fungal infections can spread to the pericardial sac and cause inflammation and fluid accumulation.
3. Ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the heart muscle, such as during a heart attack, can lead to inflammation and fluid accumulation within the pericardial sac.
4. Cancer: Cancer that has spread to the pericardial sac can cause fluid accumulation and cardiac tamponade.
5. Hemodynamic instability: Severe hypotension or tachycardia can cause fluid to seep into the pericardial sac, leading to cardiac tamponade.
The symptoms of cardiac tamponade may include:
1. Chest pain: Pain in the chest that worsens with deep breathing or coughing.
2. Shortness of breath: Difficulty breathing due to compression of the heart.
3. Fatigue: Weakness and tiredness due to decreased cardiac output.
4. Palpitations: Abnormal heart rhythms.
5. Low blood pressure: Hypotension.
Cardiac tamponade is a medical emergency that requires prompt treatment to prevent cardiac failure and death. Treatment options may include:
1. Pericardiocentesis: Insertion of a needle into the pericardial sac to drain excess fluid.
2. Surgical drainage: Surgical removal of fluid and any underlying cause of tamponade.
3. Diuretics: Medications to increase urine production and reduce fluid buildup in the body.
4. Inotropes: Medications to increase heart contractility.
5. Mechanical support: Use of a device such as an intra-aortic balloon pump or an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator to support the heart.
In some cases, cardiac tamponade may be a sign of a more serious underlying condition that requires long-term management. It is important to work with a healthcare provider to develop a treatment plan that addresses the underlying cause of the tamponade and helps to prevent recurrences.
Types of candidiasis:
1. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC): a common infection that affects the vagina and vulva; symptoms include itching, burning, and abnormal discharge.
2. Oral thrush (OT): an infection that affects the mouth, often seen in infants and people with weakened immune systems; symptoms include white patches on the tongue and inside the cheeks.
3. Invasive candidiasis (IC): a severe infection that can spread throughout the body, often seen in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or undergoing chemotherapy; symptoms include fever, chills, and difficulty breathing.
4. Candidal balanitis: an infection of the foreskin and glans of the penis; symptoms include redness, swelling, and pain.
5. Diaper rash: a common skin infection that affects infants who wear diapers; symptoms include redness, swelling, and irritability.
Causes and risk factors:
1. Overgrowth of Candida fungus due to an imbalance of the normal flora.
2. Use of antibiotics or steroids that can disrupt the balance of the body's natural flora.
3. Weakened immune system, such as in people with HIV/AIDS or undergoing chemotherapy.
4. Poor hygiene and sanitation.
5. Diabetes mellitus.
1. Physical examination and medical history.
2. Microscopic examination of a scraping or biopsy specimen.
3. Cultures of skin, blood, or other body fluids.
4. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or other molecular diagnostic techniques to detect the presence of the fungus.
1. Topical antifungal medications, such as clotrimazole, miconazole, or terbinafine, applied directly to the affected area.
2. Oral antifungal medications, such as fluconazole or itraconazole, for more severe infections or those that do not respond to topical treatment.
3. Antibiotics if there is a secondary bacterial infection.
4. Supportive care, such as pain management and wound care.
5. Proper hygiene and sanitation practices.
6. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary for intravenous antifungal medications and close monitoring.
1. Practice good hygiene and sanitation.
2. Avoid sharing personal items, such as towels or clothing.
3. Wash hands before touching the affected area.
4. Keep the affected area clean and dry.
5. Use of antifungal powders or sprays on the affected area.
6. Avoid using harsh soaps or cleansers that can irritate the skin.
7. Wear shoes in public areas to prevent exposure to fungal spores.
8. Avoid sharing bathing or showering facilities with others.
9. Dry thoroughly after bathing or swimming.
10. Use of antifungal medications as a prophylactic measure in high-risk individuals, such as those with weakened immune systems.
It's important to note that the best treatment and prevention strategies will depend on the specific type of fungus causing the infection, as well as the severity and location of the infection. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Symptoms of venous thrombosis may include pain, swelling, warmth, and redness in the affected limb. In some cases, the clot can break loose and travel to the lungs, causing a potentially life-threatening condition called Pulmonary Embolism (PE).
Treatment for venous thrombosis typically involves anticoagulant medications to prevent the clot from growing and to prevent new clots from forming. In some cases, a filter may be placed in the vena cava, the large vein that carries blood from the lower body to the heart, to prevent clots from traveling to the lungs.
Prevention of venous thrombosis includes encouraging movement and exercise, avoiding long periods of immobility, and wearing compression stockings or sleeves to compress the veins and improve blood flow.
Here are some key points to define sepsis:
1. Inflammatory response: Sepsis is characterized by an excessive and uncontrolled inflammatory response to an infection. This can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction.
2. Systemic symptoms: Patients with sepsis often have systemic symptoms such as fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and confusion. They may also experience nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
3. Organ dysfunction: Sepsis can cause dysfunction in multiple organs, including the lungs, kidneys, liver, and heart. This can lead to organ failure and death if not treated promptly.
4. Infection source: Sepsis is usually caused by a bacterial infection, but it can also be caused by fungal or viral infections. The infection can be localized or widespread, and it can affect different parts of the body.
5. Severe sepsis: Severe sepsis is a more severe form of sepsis that is characterized by severe organ dysfunction and a higher risk of death. Patients with severe sepsis may require intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mechanical ventilation.
6. Septic shock: Septic shock is a life-threatening condition that occurs when there is severe circulatory dysfunction due to sepsis. It is characterized by hypotension, vasopressor use, and organ failure.
Early recognition and treatment of sepsis are critical to preventing serious complications and improving outcomes. The Sepsis-3 definition is widely used in clinical practice to diagnose sepsis and severe sepsis.
Gram-negative bacterial infections can be difficult to treat because these bacteria are resistant to many antibiotics. In addition, some gram-negative bacteria produce enzymes called beta-lactamases, which break down the penicillin ring of many antibiotics, making them ineffective against the infection.
Some common types of gram-negative bacterial infections include:
* Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
* Bloodstream infections (sepsis)
* Skin and soft tissue infections
* Respiratory infections, such as bronchitis and sinusitis
Examples of gram-negative bacteria that can cause infection include:
* Escherichia coli (E. coli)
* Klebsiella pneumoniae
* Pseudomonas aeruginosa
* Acinetobacter baumannii
* Proteus mirabilis
Gram-negative bacterial infections can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including blood cultures, urine cultures, and tissue samples. Treatment typically involves the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, such as carbapenems or cephalosporins, which are effective against many types of gram-negative bacteria. In some cases, the infection may require hospitalization and intensive care to manage complications such as sepsis or organ failure.
Prevention of gram-negative bacterial infections includes good hand hygiene, proper use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and appropriate use of antibiotics. In healthcare settings, infection control measures such as sterilization and disinfection of equipment, and isolation precautions for patients with known gram-negative bacterial infections can help prevent the spread of these infections.
Overall, gram-negative bacterial infections are a significant public health concern, and proper diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent complications and reduce the risk of transmission.
Staphylococcal infections can be classified into two categories:
1. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) - This type of infection is resistant to many antibiotics and can cause severe skin infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections and surgical site infections.
2. Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus Aureus (MSSA) - This type of infection is not resistant to antibiotics and can cause milder skin infections, respiratory tract infections, sinusitis and food poisoning.
Staphylococcal infections are caused by the Staphylococcus bacteria which can enter the body through various means such as:
1. Skin cuts or open wounds
2. Respiratory tract infections
3. Contaminated food and water
4. Healthcare-associated infections
5. Surgical site infections
Symptoms of Staphylococcal infections may vary depending on the type of infection and severity, but they can include:
1. Skin redness and swelling
2. Increased pain or tenderness
3. Warmth or redness in the affected area
4. Pus or discharge
5. Fever and chills
6. Swollen lymph nodes
7. Shortness of breath
Diagnosis of Staphylococcal infections is based on physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests such as blood cultures, and imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans.
Treatment of Staphylococcal infections depends on the type of infection and severity, but may include:
1. Antibiotics to fight the infection
2. Drainage of abscesses or pus collection
3. Wound care and debridement
4. Supportive care such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, and pain management
5. Surgical intervention in severe cases.
Preventive measures for Staphylococcal infections include:
1. Good hand hygiene practices
2. Proper cleaning and disinfection of surfaces and equipment
3. Avoiding close contact with people who have Staphylococcal infections
4. Covering wounds and open sores
5. Proper sterilization and disinfection of medical equipment.
It is important to note that MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) is a type of Staphylococcal infection that is resistant to many antibiotics, and can be difficult to treat. Therefore, early diagnosis and aggressive treatment are crucial to prevent complications and improve outcomes.
The term extravasation is commonly used in medical contexts to describe the leakage of fluids or medications from a blood vessel or other body structure. In the context of diagnostic and therapeutic materials, extravasation can refer to the leakage of materials such as contrast agents, medications, or other substances used for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
Extravagation of diagnostic and therapeutic materials can have significant consequences, including tissue damage, infection, and systemic toxicity. For example, if a contrast agent used for imaging purposes leaks into the surrounding tissues, it can cause inflammation or other adverse reactions. Similarly, if a medication intended for injection into a specific location leaks into the surrounding tissues or organs, it can cause unintended side effects or toxicity.
To prevent extravasation of diagnostic and therapeutic materials, healthcare providers must follow proper techniques and protocols for administration and use of these materials. This may include using sterile equipment, following proper injection techniques, and monitoring the patient closely for any signs of complications. In cases where extravasation does occur, prompt treatment and management are essential to minimize potential harm and prevent long-term consequences.
Types of Infection:
1. Bacterial Infections: These are caused by the presence of harmful bacteria in the body. Examples include pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and skin infections.
2. Viral Infections: These are caused by the presence of harmful viruses in the body. Examples include the common cold, flu, and HIV/AIDS.
3. Fungal Infections: These are caused by the presence of fungi in the body. Examples include athlete's foot, ringworm, and candidiasis.
4. Parasitic Infections: These are caused by the presence of parasites in the body. Examples include malaria, giardiasis, and toxoplasmosis.
Symptoms of Infection:
4. Muscle aches
5. Skin rashes or lesions
6. Swollen lymph nodes
7. Sore throat
Treatment of Infection:
1. Antibiotics: These are used to treat bacterial infections and work by killing or stopping the growth of bacteria.
2. Antiviral medications: These are used to treat viral infections and work by interfering with the replication of viruses.
3. Fungicides: These are used to treat fungal infections and work by killing or stopping the growth of fungi.
4. Anti-parasitic medications: These are used to treat parasitic infections and work by killing or stopping the growth of parasites.
5. Supportive care: This includes fluids, nutritional supplements, and pain management to help the body recover from the infection.
Prevention of Infection:
1. Hand washing: Regular hand washing is one of the most effective ways to prevent the spread of infection.
2. Vaccination: Getting vaccinated against specific infections can help prevent them.
3. Safe sex practices: Using condoms and other safe sex practices can help prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections.
4. Food safety: Properly storing and preparing food can help prevent the spread of foodborne illnesses.
5. Infection control measures: Healthcare providers use infection control measures such as wearing gloves, masks, and gowns to prevent the spread of infections in healthcare settings.
Symptoms of UEDVT may include pain, swelling, redness, and warmth in the affected arm or shoulder. Diagnosis is typically made through imaging tests such as ultrasound or venography. Treatment may involve anticoagulation therapy to prevent the clot from growing and potentially breaking loose and traveling to the lungs. In some cases, a filter may be placed in the vena cava to prevent the clot from reaching the lungs.
* Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary
* American College of Cardiology
* National Blood Clot Alliance
There are several types of inherited blood coagulation disorders, including:
1. Hemophilia A and B: These are the most common types of inherited bleeding disorders, caused by deficiencies in clotting factor VIII or IX, respectively.
2. Von Willebrand disease: This is a mild bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency in von Willebrand factor, a protein that helps platelets stick together to form blood clots.
3. Platelet function disorders: These are rare disorders caused by mutations in genes that code for proteins involved in platelet function, leading to impaired platelet aggregation and bleeding.
4. Factor V Leiden and prothrombin gene mutations: These are inherited disorders caused by mutations in the genes that code for clotting factors V and II, respectively.
5. Antiphospholipid syndrome: This is an autoimmune disorder that causes blood clots and bleeding, often in association with other symptoms such as joint pain and swelling.
Inherited blood coagulation disorders can cause a range of symptoms, including easy bruising, petechiae (small red spots on the skin), purpura (larger red or purple spots on the skin), and prolonged bleeding after injury or surgery. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disorder and severity of symptoms, and may include clotting factor replacement therapy, medications to improve platelet function, and lifestyle modifications such as avoiding certain medications and taking precautions during surgical procedures.
1. The patient was rushed to the hospital with a suspected hemothorax after sustaining blunt force trauma to the chest in a car crash.
2. The diagnosis of hemothorax was confirmed by a chest x-ray, which showed a large amount of blood in the pleural cavity.
3. The patient underwent emergency surgery for a hemothorax caused by a ruptured bronchial artery, and was successfully treated with thoracoscopic surgery.
Some common examples of bacterial infections include:
1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
2. Respiratory infections such as pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Skin infections such as cellulitis and abscesses
4. Bone and joint infections such as osteomyelitis
5. Infected wounds or burns
6. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia and gonorrhea
7. Food poisoning caused by bacteria such as salmonella and E. coli.
In severe cases, bacterial infections can lead to life-threatening complications such as sepsis or blood poisoning. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time. Proper diagnosis and treatment can help prevent these complications and ensure a full recovery.
Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.
Types of Neoplasms
There are many different types of neoplasms, including:
1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.
Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms
The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:
1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.
Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms
The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:
1. Unusual lumps or swelling
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms
The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.
The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:
1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
Prevention of Neoplasms
While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:
1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.
It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.
1. Tuberculosis: Actinomycetales bacteria can cause tuberculosis, which is a chronic bacterial infection that primarily affects the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body.
2. Leprosy: Actinomycetales bacteria can cause leprosy, which is a chronic infectious disease that affects the skin, nerves, and mucous membranes.
3. Lung abscess: Actinomycetales bacteria can cause lung abscess, which is a collection of pus in the lungs that can be caused by bacterial infections.
4. Skin infections: Actinomycetales bacteria can cause skin infections, such as furuncles and carbuncles, which are boils that can be caused by bacterial infections.
5. Bone and joint infections: Actinomycetales bacteria can cause bone and joint infections, such as osteomyelitis and septic arthritis, which are infections of the bones and joints.
6. Endocarditis: Actinomycetales bacteria can cause endocarditis, which is an infection of the heart valves.
7. Meningitis: Actinomycetales bacteria can cause meningitis, which is an inflammation of the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord.
8. Osteomyelitis: Actinomycetales bacteria can cause osteomyelitis, which is an infection of the bones.
9. Septic arthritis: Actinomycetales bacteria can cause septic arthritis, which is an infection of the joints.
10. Soft tissue infections: Actinomycetales bacteria can cause soft tissue infections, such as abscesses and cellulitis, which are infections of the skin and underlying tissues.
The symptoms of Actinomycetales infections vary depending on the location and severity of the infection, but may include fever, chills, joint pain, swelling, redness, and warmth over the affected area. In severe cases, Actinomycetales infections can lead to life-threatening complications such as sepsis and organ failure.
Actinomycetales bacteria are typically resistant to antibiotics, making treatment challenging. Surgical intervention is often necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damaged structures. In some cases, combination therapy with antibiotics and surgery may be required to effectively treat Actinomycetales infections.
Preventive measures for Actinomycetales infections include proper hand hygiene, sterilization of medical equipment, and avoiding close contact with individuals who are at risk of developing an Actinomycetales infection. Early detection and treatment of Actinomycetales infections are crucial to prevent serious complications and improve outcomes for patients.
Some common examples of gram-positive bacterial infections include:
1. Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections: These are infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, which is a type of gram-positive bacteria that is resistant to many antibiotics.
2. Streptococcal infections: These are infections caused by streptococcus bacteria, such as strep throat and cellulitis.
3. Pneumococcal infections: These are infections caused by pneumococcus bacteria, such as pneumonia.
4. Enterococcal infections: These are infections caused by enterococcus bacteria, such as urinary tract infections and endocarditis.
5. Candidiasis: This is a type of fungal infection caused by candida, which is a type of gram-positive fungus.
Gram-positive bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics, such as penicillin and ampicillin, but the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance has made the treatment of these infections more challenging. In some cases, gram-positive bacterial infections may require more aggressive treatment, such as combination therapy with multiple antibiotics or the use of antifungal medications.
Overall, gram-positive bacterial infections can be serious and potentially life-threatening, so it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Types of Foreign Bodies:
There are several types of foreign bodies that can be found in the body, including:
1. Splinters: These are small, sharp objects that can become embedded in the skin, often as a result of a cut or puncture wound.
2. Glass shards: Broken glass can cause severe injuries and may require surgical removal.
3. Insect stings: Bee, wasp, hornet, and yellow jacket stings can cause swelling, redness, and pain. In some cases, they can also trigger an allergic reaction.
4. Small toys or objects: Children may accidentally ingest small objects like coins, batteries, or small toys, which can cause blockages or other complications.
5. Food items: Foreign bodies can also be found in the digestive system if someone eats something that is not easily digestible, such as a piece of bone or a coin.
Removal of Foreign Bodies:
The removal of foreign bodies depends on the type and location of the object, as well as the severity of any injuries or complications. In some cases, foreign bodies can be removed with minimal intervention, such as by carefully removing them with tweezers or a suction device. Other objects may require surgical removal, especially if they are deeply embedded or have caused significant damage to nearby tissues.
In conclusion, foreign bodies in the medical field refer to any object or material that is not naturally present within the body and can cause harm or discomfort. These objects can be removed with minimal intervention or may require surgical removal, depending on their type, location, and severity of complications. It's important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect that you or someone else has ingested a foreign body.
There are several types of prosthesis-related infections, including:
1. Bacterial infections: These are the most common type of prosthesis-related infection and can occur around any type of implanted device. They are caused by bacteria that enter the body through a surgical incision or other opening.
2. Fungal infections: These types of infections are less common and typically occur in individuals who have a weakened immune system or who have been taking antibiotics for another infection.
3. Viral infections: These infections can occur around implanted devices, such as pacemakers, and are caused by viruses that enter the body through a surgical incision or other opening.
4. Parasitic infections: These types of infections are rare and occur when parasites, such as tapeworms, infect the implanted device or the surrounding tissue.
Prosthesis-related infections can cause a range of symptoms, including pain, swelling, redness, warmth, and fever. In severe cases, these infections can lead to sepsis, a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when bacteria or other microorganisms enter the bloodstream.
Prosthesis-related infections are typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as X-rays or CT scans, and laboratory tests to identify the type of microorganism causing the infection. Treatment typically involves antibiotics or other antimicrobial agents to eliminate the infection, and may also involve surgical removal of the infected implant.
Prevention is key in avoiding prosthesis-related infections. This includes proper wound care after surgery, keeping the surgical site clean and dry, and taking antibiotics as directed by your healthcare provider to prevent infection. Additionally, it is important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions for caring for your prosthesis, such as regularly cleaning and disinfecting the device and avoiding certain activities that may put excessive stress on the implant.
Overall, while prosthesis-related infections can be serious, prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment can help to effectively manage these complications and prevent long-term damage or loss of function. It is important to work closely with your healthcare provider to monitor for signs of infection and take steps to prevent and manage any potential complications associated with your prosthesis.
The most common types of mycoses include:
1. Ringworm: This is a common fungal infection that causes a ring-shaped rash on the skin. It can affect any part of the body, including the arms, legs, torso, and face.
2. Athlete's foot: This is a common fungal infection that affects the feet, causing itching, redness, and cracking of the skin.
3. Jock itch: This is a fungal infection that affects the groin area and inner thighs, causing itching, redness, and cracking of the skin.
4. Candidiasis: This is a fungal infection caused by Candida, a type of yeast. It can affect various parts of the body, including the mouth, throat, and vagina.
5. Aspergillosis: This is a serious fungal infection that can affect various parts of the body, including the lungs, sinuses, and brain.
Symptoms of mycoses can vary depending on the type of infection and the severity of the infection. Common symptoms include itching, redness, swelling, and cracking of the skin. Treatment for mycoses usually involves antifungal medications, which can be applied topically or taken orally. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the infection.
Preventive measures for mycoses include practicing good hygiene, avoiding sharing personal items such as towels and clothing, and using antifungal medications as prescribed by a healthcare professional. Early diagnosis and treatment of mycoses can help prevent complications and reduce the risk of transmission to others.
The syndrome can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
* Compression from a tumor or other mass in the chest or neck
* Injury to the vein from trauma or surgery
* Blood clots or thrombophlebitis (inflammation of the vein wall)
* Infection or inflammation of the vein
* Cardiac tamponade (fluid accumulation in the pericardial sac surrounding the heart)
Symptoms of SVC syndrome can vary depending on the location and severity of the compression. They may include:
* Swelling of the face, neck, and arms
* Shortness of breath
* Difficulty speaking or swallowing
* Pain in the head, neck, or chest
* Fatigue or weakness
* Decreased consciousness or confusion
If you suspect that you or someone else may be experiencing SVC syndrome, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. A healthcare provider will perform a physical examination and order diagnostic tests, such as imaging studies or blood tests, to determine the cause of the symptoms and develop an appropriate treatment plan.
Treatment for SVC syndrome may include:
* Anticoagulation medications to prevent blood clots from forming
* Pain management medications to relieve swelling and discomfort
* Surgery to remove a tumor or other mass compressing the vein
* Endovascular procedures, such as angioplasty or stenting, to open up the vein and restore blood flow
* Supportive care, such as oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation, in severe cases.
Early diagnosis and treatment are critical to prevent complications and improve outcomes for patients with SVC syndrome. If you suspect that you or someone else may be experiencing symptoms of this condition, do not hesitate to seek medical attention right away.
A condition in which the kidneys gradually lose their function over time, leading to the accumulation of waste products in the body. Also known as chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Chronic kidney failure affects approximately 20 million people worldwide and is a major public health concern. In the United States, it is estimated that 1 in 5 adults has CKD, with African Americans being disproportionately affected.
The causes of chronic kidney failure are numerous and include:
1. Diabetes: High blood sugar levels can damage the kidneys over time.
2. Hypertension: Uncontrolled high blood pressure can cause damage to the blood vessels in the kidneys.
3. Glomerulonephritis: An inflammation of the glomeruli, the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys that filter waste and excess fluids from the blood.
4. Interstitial nephritis: Inflammation of the tissue between the kidney tubules.
5. Pyelonephritis: Infection of the kidneys, usually caused by bacteria or viruses.
6. Polycystic kidney disease: A genetic disorder that causes cysts to grow on the kidneys.
7. Obesity: Excess weight can increase blood pressure and strain on the kidneys.
8. Family history: A family history of kidney disease increases the risk of developing chronic kidney failure.
Early stages of chronic kidney failure may not cause any symptoms, but as the disease progresses, symptoms can include:
1. Fatigue: Feeling tired or weak.
2. Swelling: In the legs, ankles, and feet.
3. Nausea and vomiting: Due to the buildup of waste products in the body.
4. Poor appetite: Loss of interest in food.
5. Difficulty concentrating: Cognitive impairment due to the buildup of waste products in the brain.
6. Shortness of breath: Due to fluid buildup in the lungs.
7. Pain: In the back, flank, or abdomen.
8. Urination changes: Decreased urine production, dark-colored urine, or blood in the urine.
9. Heart problems: Chronic kidney failure can increase the risk of heart disease and heart attack.
Chronic kidney failure is typically diagnosed based on a combination of physical examination findings, medical history, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include:
1. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine: Waste products in the blood that increase with decreased kidney function.
2. Electrolyte levels: Imbalances in electrolytes such as sodium, potassium, and phosphorus can indicate kidney dysfunction.
3. Kidney function tests: Measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to determine the level of kidney function.
4. Urinalysis: Examination of urine for protein, blood, or white blood cells.
Imaging studies may include:
1. Ultrasound: To assess the size and shape of the kidneys, detect any blockages, and identify any other abnormalities.
2. Computed tomography (CT) scan: To provide detailed images of the kidneys and detect any obstructions or abscesses.
3. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): To evaluate the kidneys and detect any damage or scarring.
Treatment for chronic kidney failure depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the disease. The goals of treatment are to slow progression of the disease, manage symptoms, and improve quality of life. Treatment may include:
1. Medications: To control high blood pressure, lower cholesterol levels, reduce proteinuria, and manage anemia.
2. Diet: A healthy diet that limits protein intake, controls salt and water intake, and emphasizes low-fat dairy products, fruits, and vegetables.
3. Fluid management: Monitoring and control of fluid intake to prevent fluid buildup in the body.
4. Dialysis: A machine that filters waste products from the blood when the kidneys are no longer able to do so.
5. Transplantation: A kidney transplant may be considered for some patients with advanced chronic kidney failure.
Chronic kidney failure can lead to several complications, including:
1. Heart disease: High blood pressure and anemia can increase the risk of heart disease.
2. Anemia: A decrease in red blood cells can cause fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
3. Bone disease: A disorder that can lead to bone pain, weakness, and an increased risk of fractures.
4. Electrolyte imbalance: Imbalances of electrolytes such as potassium, phosphorus, and sodium can cause muscle weakness, heart arrhythmias, and other complications.
5. Infections: A decrease in immune function can increase the risk of infections.
6. Nutritional deficiencies: Poor appetite, nausea, and vomiting can lead to malnutrition and nutrient deficiencies.
7. Cardiovascular disease: High blood pressure, anemia, and other complications can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.
8. Pain: Chronic kidney failure can cause pain, particularly in the back, flank, and abdomen.
9. Sleep disorders: Insomnia, sleep apnea, and restless leg syndrome are common complications.
10. Depression and anxiety: The emotional burden of chronic kidney failure can lead to depression and anxiety.
The symptoms of pulmonary embolism can vary, but may include shortness of breath, chest pain, coughing up blood, rapid heart rate, and fever. In some cases, the clot may be large enough to cause a pulmonary infarction (a " lung injury" caused by lack of oxygen), which can lead to respiratory failure and death.
Pulmonary embolism can be diagnosed with imaging tests such as chest X-rays, CT scans, and ultrasound. Treatment typically involves medications to dissolve the clot or prevent new ones from forming, and in some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot.
Preventive measures include:
* Avoiding prolonged periods of immobility, such as during long-distance travel
* Exercising regularly to improve circulation
* Managing chronic conditions such as high blood pressure and cancer
* Taking blood-thinning medications to prevent clot formation
Early recognition and treatment of pulmonary embolism are critical to reduce the risk of complications and death.
Thromboembolism can be caused by a variety of factors, such as injury, surgery, cancer, and certain medical conditions like atrial fibrillation. It can also be inherited or acquired through genetic mutations.
The symptoms of thromboembolism depend on the location of the clot and the severity of the blockage. They may include:
* Swelling or redness in the affected limb
* Pain or tenderness in the affected area
* Weakness or numbness in the affected limb
* Shortness of breath or chest pain if the clot has traveled to the lungs (pulmonary embolism)
* Dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting
Thromboembolism can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and blood tests. Treatment typically involves anticoagulant medications to prevent the clot from growing and to prevent new clots from forming. In some cases, thrombolysis or clot-busting drugs may be used to dissolve the clot. Filters can also be placed in the vena cava to prevent clots from traveling to the lungs.
Prevention of thromboembolism includes:
* Moving around regularly to improve blood flow
* Avoiding long periods of immobility, such as during long-distance travel
* Elevating the affected limb to reduce swelling
* Compression stockings to improve blood flow
* Avoiding smoking and managing weight
* Taking anticoagulant medications if recommended by a healthcare provider.
Example sentence: The patient had a hemorrhage after the car accident and needed immediate medical attention.
* Premature birth: A birth that occurs before 37 completed weeks of gestation.
* Preterm birth: A birth that occurs before 37 completed weeks of gestation, but not necessarily before 22 weeks.
* Very preterm birth: A birth that occurs before 28 completed weeks of gestation.
* Extremely preterm birth: A birth that occurs before 24 completed weeks of gestation.
Diseases associated with premature infants:
1. Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS): A condition in which the baby's lungs do not produce enough surfactant, a substance that helps the air sacs in the lungs expand and contract properly.
2. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD): A chronic lung disease that can develop in premature infants who have RDS.
3. Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH): Bleeding in the brain that can occur in premature infants, particularly those with RDS or BPD.
4. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP): A condition that can cause blindness in premature infants due to abnormal blood vessel growth in the retina.
5. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC): A condition that can cause damage to the intestines and other parts of the digestive system in premature infants.
6. Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH): Bleeding in the brain that can occur in premature infants, particularly those with RDS or BPD.
7. Gastrointestinal problems: Premature infants are at risk for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and other gastrointestinal problems.
8. Feeding difficulties: Premature infants may have difficulty feeding, which can lead to weight gain issues or the need for a feeding tube.
9. Respiratory infections: Premature infants are at increased risk for respiratory infections, such as pneumonia and bronchiolitis.
10. Developmental delays: Premature infants may be at risk for developmental delays or learning disabilities, particularly if they experienced significant health problems or required oxygen therapy.
It is important to note that not all premature infants will develop these complications, and the severity of the conditions can vary depending on the individual baby's health and the level of care they receive. However, it is essential for parents and caregivers to be aware of the potential risks and seek prompt medical attention if they notice any signs of distress or illness in their premature infant.
Symptoms of neutropenia may include recurring infections, fever, fatigue, weight loss, and swollen lymph nodes. The diagnosis is typically made through a blood test that measures the number of neutrophils in the blood.
Treatment options for neutropenia depend on the underlying cause but may include antibiotics, supportive care to manage symptoms, and in severe cases, bone marrow transplantation or granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) therapy to increase neutrophil production.
Some common examples of critical illnesses include:
1. Sepsis: a systemic inflammatory response to an infection that can lead to organ failure and death.
2. Cardiogenic shock: a condition where the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs, leading to serious complications such as heart failure and death.
3. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): a condition where the lungs are severely inflamed and unable to provide sufficient oxygen to the body.
4. Multi-system organ failure: a condition where multiple organs in the body fail simultaneously, leading to serious complications and death.
5. Trauma: severe physical injuries sustained in an accident or other traumatic event.
6. Stroke: a sudden interruption of blood flow to the brain that can lead to permanent brain damage and death.
7. Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a blockage of coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart, leading to damage or death of heart muscle cells.
8. Pulmonary embolism: a blockage of the pulmonary artery, which can lead to respiratory failure and death.
9. Pancreatitis: inflammation of the pancreas that can lead to severe abdominal pain, bleeding, and organ failure.
10. Hypovolemic shock: a condition where there is a severe loss of blood or fluid from the body, leading to hypotension, organ failure, and death.
The diagnosis and treatment of critical illnesses require specialized knowledge and skills, and are typically handled by intensive care unit (ICU) teams consisting of critical care physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. The goal of critical care is to provide life-sustaining interventions and support to patients who are critically ill until they recover or until their condition stabilizes.
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Shock refers to a severe and sudden drop in blood pressure, which can lead to inadequate perfusion of vital organs such as the brain, heart, and lungs. There are several types of shock, including hypovolemic shock (caused by bleeding or dehydration), septic shock (caused by an overwhelming bacterial infection), and cardiogenic shock (caused by a heart attack or other cardiac condition).
Septic refers to the presence of bacteria or other microorganisms in the bloodstream, which can cause a range of symptoms including fever, chills, and confusion. Sepsis is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that can lead to organ failure and death if left untreated.
Septic shock is a specific type of shock that occurs as a result of sepsis, which is the body's systemic inflammatory response to an infection. Septic shock is characterized by severe vasopressor (a medication used to increase blood pressure) and hypotension (low blood pressure), and it can lead to multiple organ failure and death if not treated promptly and effectively.
In summary, shock refers to a drop in blood pressure, while septic refers to the presence of bacteria or other microorganisms in the bloodstream. Septic shock is a specific type of shock that occurs as a result of sepsis, and it can be a life-threatening condition if not treated promptly and effectively.
Hematologic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that affect the blood, bone marrow, or lymphatic system. These types of cancer can originate from various cell types, including red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and lymphoid cells.
There are several subtypes of hematologic neoplasms, including:
1. Leukemias: Cancers of the blood-forming cells in the bone marrow, which can lead to an overproduction of immature or abnormal white blood cells, red blood cells, or platelets. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
2. Lymphomas: Cancers of the immune system, which can affect the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, or other organs. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
3. Multiple myeloma: A cancer of the plasma cells in the bone marrow that can lead to an overproduction of abnormal plasma cells.
4. Myeloproliferative neoplasms: Cancers that affect the blood-forming cells in the bone marrow, leading to an overproduction of red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets. Examples include polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia.
5. Myelodysplastic syndromes: Cancers that affect the blood-forming cells in the bone marrow, leading to an underproduction of normal blood cells.
The diagnosis of hematologic neoplasms typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests (such as complete blood counts and bone marrow biopsies), and imaging studies (such as CT scans or PET scans). Treatment options for hematologic neoplasms depend on the specific type of cancer, the severity of the disease, and the overall health of the patient. These may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation, or targeted therapy with drugs that specifically target cancer cells.
Some common types of Acinetobacter infections include:
1. Pneumonia: This is an infection of the lungs that can cause fever, cough, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
2. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): These are infections of the bladder, kidneys, or ureters that can cause symptoms such as burning during urination, frequent urination, and abdominal pain.
3. Bloodstream infections (sepsis): This is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when bacteria enter the bloodstream and cause widespread inflammation. Symptoms can include fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and shortness of breath.
4. Skin and soft tissue infections: These are infections of the skin and underlying tissues that can cause redness, swelling, warmth, and pain.
5. Bacteremia: This is a condition in which bacteria enter the bloodstream and cause an infection.
6. Endocarditis: This is an infection of the heart valves, which can cause symptoms such as fever, fatigue, and shortness of breath.
Acinetobacter infections are often caused by the bacteria entering the body through a wound or surgical incision. They can also be spread through contact with contaminated surfaces or equipment in healthcare settings.
Treatment of Acinetobacter infections typically involves the use of antibiotics, which may be administered intravenously or orally. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damaged organs.
Prevention of Acinetobacter infections is important for reducing the risk of these infections occurring in healthcare settings. This can include proper hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and effective cleaning and disinfection of surfaces and equipment.
Overall, Acinetobacter infections are a significant concern in healthcare settings, and prompt recognition and treatment are critical for preventing serious complications and improving patient outcomes.
Hydrothorax is a condition where there is an accumulation of fluid in the pleural space, which is the area between the lungs and the chest wall. This condition can occur due to various causes such as heart failure, pulmonary embolism, or cancer. The excess fluid in the pleural space can put pressure on the lungs and make it difficult for them to expand and function properly.
Symptoms of hydrothorax may include:
1. Shortness of breath
2. Chest pain
3. Coughing up pink, frothy liquid
5. Swelling in the legs, ankles, or feet
Hydrothorax can be diagnosed through various tests such as chest X-rays, CT scans, and ultrasound. Treatment options for hydrothorax depend on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, draining the excess fluid from the pleural space may be necessary to relieve symptoms and improve lung function. Medications such as diuretics or oxygen therapy may also be prescribed to help manage symptoms.
Recurrence can also refer to the re-emergence of symptoms in a previously treated condition, such as a chronic pain condition that returns after a period of remission.
In medical research, recurrence is often studied to understand the underlying causes of disease progression and to develop new treatments and interventions to prevent or delay its return.
Central venous catheter
Peripherally inserted central catheter
Catheter lock solution
Peripheral venous catheter
Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency controversy
Liver support system
Spinal cord injury
Jugular venous pressure
Crew resource management
Passive leg raise
Emergency medical services
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Index of anatomy articles
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Superior vena cava syndrome
Deep vein thrombosis
Central venous catheters - ports: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Ultrasound-Guided Central Venous Catheter Placement
Central Venous Access via Tunneled Catheter: Background, Indications, Contraindications
Central Venous Catheter: Changing the Dressing | HealthLink BC
Real-time ultrasonography for placement of central venous catheters in children: A multi-institutional study
New choices for central venous catheters: potential financial implications - PubMed
Table 1 - Central Venous Catheter-associated Nocardia Bacteremia in Cancer Patients - Volume 17, Number 9-September 2011 -...
Frontiers | Association Between ABO Blood Group and Venous Thromboembolism Risk in Patients With Peripherally Inserted Central...
How Can the Complications of Central Vein Catheters Be Reduced?: Central Venous Stenosis in Hemodialysis Patients - PubMed
Continuous heparin infusion to prevent thrombosis and catheter occlusion in neonates with peripherally placed percutaneous...
Technique for insertion of percutaneous central venous catheters in the newborn period | ADC Fetal & Neonatal Edition
2013 ICD-9-CM Diagnosis Code 999.33 : Local infection due to central venous catheter
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Central venous catheter-associated superior vena cava syndrome - Full Text
Ultrasound-guided central venous catheter placement: a structured review and recommendations for clinical practice | Critical...
Central Venous Catheter Manufacturer, Central Venous Catheter Supplier - Find Central Venous Catheter on resto-medical.com
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Central Venous Catheter
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Central Venous Catheter Kit - uy - PDF Catalogs | Technical Documentation
Publication: Pulmonary-artery versus central venous catheter to guide treatment of acute …
Anticoagulation for people with cancer and central venous catheters | Cochrane Abstracts
Anti-infective external coating of central venous catheters: a randomized, noninferiority trial comparing 5-fluorouracil with...
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Peripherally inserted central catheters2
- A meta-analysis of 17 studies (12 single-arm and five comparative) by Hon et al examined the incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) with tunneled central venous catheters (TCVCs) and with peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) in adults receiving home parenteral nutrition (HPN). (medscape.com)
- Previous studies have evaluated the association between ABO blood group and venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk in patients with peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs). (frontiersin.org)
- A peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) is a central catheter that is inserted through a peripheral vein, such as the arm vein or saphenous vein, and tipped to the superior vena cava or right atrium ( 1 - 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
- PICC-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE) is considered one of the most common and serious complications ( 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
- As an intravascular foreign body, PICC catheters directly damage the vascular intima, which is one of the major causes of VTE ( 8 , 9 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Many studies have assessed factors that contribute to the formation of PICC-associated VTE, such as the catheter insertion method, catheter diameter, catheter tip location, catheter retention time, use of chemotherapy agents for malignancies, and obesity ( 12 - 16 ). (frontiersin.org)
- A PICC line is a smaller-diameter, longer-length catheter than a conventional central line catheter. (ciamedical.com)
- Due to the small diameter of the PICC line, it delivers fluids more slowly than a central line, but is also less likely to become infected. (ciamedical.com)
- There are a limited number of methods to guide and confirm the placement of a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) at the cavoatrial junction. (bvsalud.org)
- This was accomplished by inserting the optical fiber into a PICC and ratiometrically comparing simultaneous visible and near-infrared reflection intensities of venous and atrial tissues found near the cavoatrial junction. (bvsalud.org)
- Pediatric surgeons access preferentially the subclavian vein for central venous access, yet are less likely to use real-time ultrasonography at this site. (nih.gov)
- Such access is obtained by inserting tunneled central lines via the internal jugular vein (IJV) or the subclavian vein, either surgically or percutaneously. (medscape.com)
- For more information on central venous access, see Central Venous Access via Infraclavicular (Subclavian/Subclavicular) Approach to Subclavian Vein , Central Venous Access via Supraclavicular Approach to Subclavian Vein , Central Venous Access via External Jugular Vein , Central Venous Access via Posterior Approach to Internal Jugular Vein , Central Venous Access via Tunneled Anterior Approach to Internal Jugular Vein , Femoral Central Venous Access , and Central Venous Access . (medscape.com)
- In the first of a series of papers describing the various approaches to venous access, we describe percutaneous cannulation of the subclavian vein. (nih.gov)
- The inserted cannula provides central venous access either in the neck region (subclavian vein or jugular vein) or groin region (femoral vein). (biomedcentral.com)
- Video 23-5: Subclavian vein thrombosis associated with central venous catheter. (mhmedical.com)
- Describe patient and hospital characteristics associated with Arterial Catheter (AC) or Central Venous Catheter (CVC) use among pediatric intensive care units (ICUs). (nih.gov)
- Peripheral and central arterial/venous or port catheters are used widely in clinical practice. (lsmuni.lt)
- Central arterial or venous catheters are associated with a risk of infections that can increase morbidity and mortality and the cost of care. (lsmuni.lt)
- Complications associated with peripherally placed percutaneous central venous catheters (PCVC) in neonates include catheter thrombosis, occlusion or dislodgement and infection. (cochrane.org)
- Secondary objectives included assessment of the effectiveness of heparin on catheter occlusion, duration of catheter patency, catheter related sepsis and complications associated with the use of heparin. (cochrane.org)
- The use of ultrasound (US) has been proposed to reduce the number of complications and to increase the safety and quality of central venous catheter (CVC) placement. (biomedcentral.com)
- All central venous catheters require special care to minimize risk of infection and other complications that can be especially problematic tor a child receiving chemotherapy. (wechope.org)
- The purpose of this article is to review the indications, contraindications, technique, complications, and management of centrally placed venous catheters. (hcahealthcare.com)
- This is the first prospective, randomised controlled trial powered to test the hypothesis of whether omitting forgoing platelet transfusion prior to central venous cannulation leads to an equal occurrence of clinical relevant bleeding complications in critically ill and haematologic patients with thrombocytopenia. (biomedcentral.com)
- The aim of the study was to assess the nurses' knowledge about the application and care of peripheral and central venous and port catheters focusing on prevention of complications that may occur. (lsmuni.lt)
- The knowledge of nurses about the application, care, and complications of central and peripheral catheters and port catheters differs in relation to their education, duration of practical experience, and working site. (lsmuni.lt)
- A prospective study of central venous catheters placed in a tertiary care emergency department: Indications for use, infectious complications, and natural history. (wustl.edu)
- The PAC group had approximately twice as many catheter-related complications (predominantly arrhythmias). (nih.gov)
- Everyone should be aware of the complications and monitor consistently appropriate position of catheter tips. (who.int)
- Recommendations for the use of real-time ultrasonography for placement of central venous catheters in children are based on studies involving adults treated by nonsurgeons. (nih.gov)
- Our purpose was to determine the frequency of use of real-time ultrasonography use by pediatric surgeons during central venous catheter placement, patient and procedure factors associated with real-time ultrasonography use, and adverse event rates. (nih.gov)
- 18 years old who underwent central venous catheter placement. (nih.gov)
- In addition, a thorough knowledge of the techniues for cannulation and placement of venous lines from the various percutaneously accessible sites is an important aspect of cardiac catheterization in this patient population. (nih.gov)
- FRIDAY, May 26, 2023 (HealthDay News) - For patients with severe thrombocytopenia, withholding of prophylactic platelet transfusion before ultrasound-guided placement of a central venous catheter (CVC) results in more CVC-related bleeding events than prophylactic platelet transfusion, according to guidelines published in the May 25 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine . (newsazi.com)
- The net savings were $410 per catheter placement for withholding prophylactic platelet transfusion before CVC placement. (newsazi.com)
- We sought to determine the baseline CLABSI rate for Emergency Department-inserted central venous catheters and to describe indications for placement, duration of use, and the natural history of these devices. (wustl.edu)
- The Ballistra Guidewire Advancer was designed to allow physicians to place a central line with one hand instead of two, which means they can simultaneously use an ultrasound device to guide the placement of the needle in the vein. (nih.gov)
- CVCs were in place for a mean period of 6.9±4.7 days and 5 episodes of central catheter-related bloodstream infection were detected (6.6 per 1000 cather days). (minervamedica.it)
- Some controversy persists about the merits of specific site selection (e.g., which vein) and the relative associated complication rates of CVCs placed in different central veins. (hcahealthcare.com)
- Central venous access is increasingly becoming the domain of the radiologist, both in terms of the insertion of central venous catheters (CVCs) and in the subsequent management of these lines. (who.int)
- Central venous catheters (CVCs) are used for many functions like delivering drugs or fluids and drawing blood. (nih.gov)
- A) Confocal scanning laser microscopy image of central venous catheter tip in a patient with Nocardia nova complex central line-associated bloodstream infection. (cdc.gov)
- 7. Long-term silicone central venous catheters impregnated with minocycline and rifampin decrease rates of catheter-related bloodstream infection in cancer patients: a prospective randomized clinical trial. (nih.gov)
- 9. Effectiveness of Minocycline and Rifampin vs Chlorhexidine and Silver Sulfadiazine-Impregnated Central Venous Catheters in Preventing Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection in a High-Volume Academic Intensive Care Unit: A Before and after Trial. (nih.gov)
- What's more, the flexible tubing of a central line catheter has a larger diameter than a peripheral IV, so it can convey a greater volume of fluid. (ciamedical.com)
- A central line with an external port is more stable than a peripheral IV. (ciamedical.com)
- The knowledge of the nurses about peripheral and central venous catheters significantly differed considering the length of their professional experience and the working place. (lsmuni.lt)
- 13. The effectiveness of chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine impregnated central venous catheters in patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy followed by peripheral stem cell transplantation. (nih.gov)
- Strategies to prevent catheter thrombosis and occlusion include the use of heparin. (cochrane.org)
- To assess the effectiveness of heparin for prevention of catheter related thrombosis. (cochrane.org)
- There was no statistically significant differences in the risk of thrombosis (typical RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.51), catheter related sepsis (typical RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.57), or extension of intraventricular haemorrhage (typical RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.19 to 1.28) between the two groups. (cochrane.org)
- Venous Thrombosis/*prevention & control. (nih.gov)
- The described anatomic variations and the presence of venous thrombosis can hardly be identified using a landmark technique. (biomedcentral.com)
- Result: In total, 76 patients with CVC entered the study, of which the prevalence of catheter-related infections was 21 patients. (ac.ir)
- Despite successful efforts to improve overall central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) rates, little is known about CLABSI rates or even central venous catheter insertion practices in the Emergency Department. (wustl.edu)
- The most common adverse reactions (≥4%) in clinical trials are inhibitor formation (neutralizing antibodies) in previously untreated and minimally treated patients (PUPs and MTPs), skin-associated hypersensitivity reactions (e.g., rash, pruritus, urticaria), infusion site reactions (e.g., inflammation, pain), and central venous access device (CVAD) associated infections ( 6 ). (nih.gov)
- 5. Efficacy of antiseptic-impregnated catheters on catheter colonization and catheter-related bloodstream infections in patients in an intensive care unit. (nih.gov)
- 8. Comparison of Oligon catheters and chlorhexidine-impregnated sponges with standard multilumen central venous catheters for prevention of associated colonization and infections in intensive care unit patients: a multicenter, randomized, controlled study. (nih.gov)
- 10. Reduction of catheter-related infections in neutropenic patients: a prospective controlled randomized trial using a chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine-impregnated central venous catheter. (nih.gov)
- It also helps prevent biofilm formation on the catheter and reduce the mortality rate and costs associated with catheter-related bloodstream infections. (nih.gov)
- Il est donc évident qu'outre le respect des règles élémentaires d'hygiène, l'utilisation judicieuse des antibiotiques, la mise en place d'une politique de surveillance et le dialogue entre clinicien, biologiste et pharmacien hospitalier, restent indispensables pour lutter contre ces infections nosocomiales. (who.int)
- Infections liées aux catjeters veineux centraux en réanimation. (who.int)
- A central venous catheter is a flexible tube inserted into the right atrium of the heart to deliver chemotherapy. (wechope.org)
- A central venous catheter is a tube that goes into a vein in your arm or chest and ends at the right side of your heart (right atrium). (medlineplus.gov)
- A central catheter is a small tube that can be inserted into the vein, allowing medications and other liquids to be given to the baby for a prolonged period. (cochrane.org)
- For clinical practice, we recommend a six-step systematic approach for US-guided central venous access that includes assessing the target vein (anatomy and vessel localization, vessel patency), using real-time US guidance for puncture of the vein, and confirming the correct needle, wire, and catheter position in the vein. (biomedcentral.com)
- One end of the catheter is threaded through a large vein in the neck into the right atrium of the heart. (wechope.org)
- A central venous catheter (CVC) is an indwelling device that is peripherally inserted into a large, central vein (most commonly the internal jugular, subclavian, or femoral), and advanced until the terminal lumen resides within the inferior vena cava, superior vena cava, or right atrium. (hcahealthcare.com)
- You receive nutritional support through a needle or catheter placed in your vein or with a feeding tube, which goes into your stomach. (nih.gov)
- Silva Araújo C, Domingues RM, Couto P, Matos AR, Ângela CC. Central Venous Catheter-Associated Superior Vena Cava Syndrome. (ivteam.com)
- Dual-wavelength reflectance spectroscopy of the superior vena cava: A method for placing central venous catheters at the cavoatrial junction. (bvsalud.org)
- Malposition (means catheter lies outside of Superior Vena Cava) may be associated with catheter insertion and may require immediate intervention. (who.int)
- Severe thrombocytopenia should be corrected by prophylactic platelet transfusion prior to central venous catheter (CVC) insertion, according to national and international guidelines. (biomedcentral.com)
- Placing a central line in a patient is not an easy procedure and mistakes are made up to 10% of the time, risking injury to nearby tissues and arteries. (nih.gov)
- Systemic sepsis is an absolute contraindication for central venous access via tunneled catheter because it can lead to line infection. (medscape.com)
- Catheter tip colonization was also assessed through qualitative culture and CVC related sepsis was defined by the isolation of the same organism from the catheter tip and the blood, with clinical sepsis of no other apparent source. (minervamedica.it)
- Arrowg+ard Blue Plus® 1 Four-Lumen Catheter: 8.5 Fr. (myteleflex.com)
- 6. Comparison of silver-impregnated with standard multi-lumen central venous catheters in critically ill patients. (nih.gov)
- 14. Double-lumen central venous catheters impregnated with chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine to prevent catheter colonisation in the intensive care unit setting: a prospective randomised study. (nih.gov)
- Central venous access is an essential part of perioperative management for infants and children undergoing cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease. (nih.gov)
- Over the following decades, central venous access rapidly developed into an important experimental instrument for studying cardiac physiology, as well as an indispensable clinical tool in the treatment of many disease processes. (hcahealthcare.com)
- Having a port attached to your catheter will cause less wear and tear on your veins than just having the catheter. (medlineplus.gov)
- A central line catheter enters through one of the major veins and forms a pathway toward the heart, which pumps the fluids quickly into the patient's bloodstream. (ciamedical.com)
- Intensive care teams often use these central venous catheters to administer urgent treatment. (ciamedical.com)
- 12. Effect of chlorhexidine/silver sulfadiazine-impregnated central venous catheters in an intensive care unit with a low blood stream infection rate after implementation of an educational program: a before-after trial. (nih.gov)
- If the catheter is in your chest, sometimes it is attached to a device called a port that will be under your skin. (medlineplus.gov)
- A Central Venous Catheter may also be called a Central Line or Venous Access Device (VAD). (wechope.org)
- This device was designed to help physicians place a central venous catheter, or central line, in patients. (nih.gov)
- In addition, we recommend a structured approach for US-guided central venous access for clinical practice. (biomedcentral.com)
- Long-term venous access is of critical importance to a wide group of patients. (medscape.com)
- However, there is broad consensus that today, in the modern era, the competency to establish and manage a central venous catheter is an indisputably essential skillset for physicians involved in the care of critically ill patients. (hcahealthcare.com)
- A central line catheter can remain in place for up to several months for patients with long-term or recurring medical issues. (ciamedical.com)
- METHODS: We evaluated the relationship of benefits and risks of PACs in 1000 patients with established acute lung injury in a randomized trial comparing hemodynamic management guided by a PAC with hemodynamic management guided by a central venous catheter (CVC) using an explicit management protocol. (nih.gov)
- However, patients with medical devices, such as central venous catheters or lumbar drains, benefitted from the CHG/mupirocin intervention. (nih.gov)
- [ 2 ] This article gives a step-by-step guide to performing radiologic insertion of a tunneled venous line via IJV access. (medscape.com)
- These devices and the techniques employed to place them are synonymous with the terms "central line" or "central venous access. (hcahealthcare.com)
- How Does a Central Line Catheter Work? (ciamedical.com)
- In addition, central line catheters can remain in the body longer to treat ongoing medical issues. (ciamedical.com)
- Rather than shopping different suppliers for the types of central line catheters your facility needs, save time by ordering everything from CIA Medical. (ciamedical.com)
- Tissues bond with a Dacron cuff surrounding the catheter, just under the skin. (wechope.org)
- BACKGROUND: The balance between the benefits and the risks of pulmonary-artery catheters (PACs) has not been established. (nih.gov)
- Central venous catheters with ports are used when you need treatment over a long period of time. (medlineplus.gov)
- The port and catheter are put in place in a minor surgery. (medlineplus.gov)
- What is the Purpose of a Central Venous Catheter and Port? (medlineplus.gov)
- This report describes a case of a 70-year-old male with an implantable central venous port, due to previous neoplastic disease, as the cause of the SVCS" Silva Araújo et al (2023). (ivteam.com)
- Two tiny scars and a bump under the skin (the port) are the only visible signs of the catheter. (wechope.org)
- The lack of knowledge about port catheters was the greatest. (lsmuni.lt)
- The use of medical devices, such as central venous catheters, poses an important risk factor, as they cause changes in the blood flow and in the vessel wall. (ivteam.com)
- Some hospitals do not use implanted catheters, either because they are not available or because doctors feel the risk of infection is too high. (wechope.org)
- 2. A prospective, randomized trial of rifampicin-minocycline-coated and silver-platinum-carbon-impregnated central venous catheters. (nih.gov)
- Nursing care and management of catheters is complex, and many controversial practice issues challenge nursing practitioners. (lsmuni.lt)
- This helps to anchor the catheter and prevent infection-causing bacteria from entering the bloodstream. (wechope.org)
- External catheters are stitched to the skin where tubes exit the chest. (wechope.org)
- Central lines deliver drugs directly into the bloodstream, and blood samples can be taken. (wechope.org)