The mechanism, in central lymphoid organs (THYMUS; BONE MARROW), that prevents immature lymphocytes from reacting to SELF-ANTIGENS. This is accomplished by CLONAL ANERGY and CLONAL DELETION.
The normal lack of the ability to produce an immunological response to autologous (self) antigens. A breakdown of self tolerance leads to autoimmune diseases. The ability to recognize the difference between self and non-self is the prime function of the immune system.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Removal, via CELL DEATH, of immature lymphocytes that interact with antigens during maturation. For T-lymphocytes this occurs in the thymus and ensures that mature T-lymphocytes are self tolerant. B-lymphocytes may also undergo clonal deletion.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. It has specificity for LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA1, BETA2 HETEROTRIMER and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR LIGAND SUPERFAMILY MEMBER 14. The receptor plays a role in regulating lymphoid ORGANOGENESIS and the differentiation of certain subsets of NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Autoimmune diseases affecting multiple endocrine organs. Type I is characterized by childhood onset and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, CHRONIC MUCOCUTANEOUS), while type II exhibits any combination of adrenal insufficiency (ADDISON'S DISEASE), lymphocytic thyroiditis (THYROIDITIS, AUTOIMMUNE;), HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; and gonadal failure. In both types organ-specific ANTIBODIES against a variety of ENDOCRINE GLANDS have been detected. The type II syndrome differs from type I in that it is associated with HLA-A1 and B8 haplotypes, onset is usually in adulthood, and candidiasis is not present.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
An induced state of non-reactivity to grafted tissue from a donor organism that would ordinarily trigger a cell-mediated or humoral immune response.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
An organism that, as a result of transplantation of donor tissue or cells, consists of two or more cell lines descended from at least two zygotes. This state may result in the induction of donor-specific TRANSPLANTATION TOLERANCE.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from different individuals. This contrasts with MOSAICISM in which the different cell populations are derived from a single individual.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.
Injections into the lymph nodes or the lymphatic system.
An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)
Glucose in blood.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
The mechanism, in peripheral lymphoid organs (LYMPH NODES; SPLEEN; TONSILS; and mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue), that prevents mature lymphocytes from reacting to SELF-ANTIGENS. This is accomplished through a variety of means including CLONAL ANERGY and CLONAL DELETION.
The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.
An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.
A superfamily of parasitic nematodes consisting of several genera. ENTEROBIUS, which occurs in humans, and Oxyuris, which occurs in horses, are two of the most common. Other genera are: Skrjabinema, Passalurus, Dermatoxys, and Probstmayria.
Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.
Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.
Enzymes that catalyze the degradation of collagen by acting on the peptide bonds.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.

Negative selection by IgM superantigen defines a B cell central tolerance compartment and reveals mutations allowing escape. (1/8)

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Complete diabetes protection despite delayed thymic tolerance in NOD8.3 TCR transgenic mice due to antigen-induced extrathymic deletion of T cells. (2/8)

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Unmodified histone H3K4 and DNA-dependent protein kinase recruit autoimmune regulator to target genes. (3/8)

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Role of impaired central tolerance to alpha-myosin in inflammatory heart disease. (4/8)

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Macroautophagy substrates are loaded onto MHC class II of medullary thymic epithelial cells for central tolerance. (5/8)

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Thymus-homing dendritic cells in central tolerance. (6/8)

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Characterization of human thymic exosomes. (7/8)

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CVID-associated TACI mutations affect autoreactive B cell selection and activation. (8/8)

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Unmodified histone proteins such as H3 and H4 are useful for studying epigenetic mechanisms such as histone methylation, histone acetylation, and histone phosphorylation, which occur as a result of the modification to histone...
The induction of hematopoietic mixed chimerism, defined as the coexistence of donor and recipient hematopoietic cells, could be an approach to induce robust central tolerance. This strategy capitalizes on the use of nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) prior to injection of myogenic stem cells from the donor HST (Parker et al. 2008). In this study two irradiated GRMD dogs with established full or partial chimerism first achieved at 11-26 months, were injected with donor-specific muscle-derived cells. The recipient dogs were transiently immunosuppressed with cyclosporine for 40 days. Local dystro-phin expression, up to 6.5% of normal levels, was sustained for periods up to 24 months post injection. This strategy is promising, as novel developments in the area of nonmyeloablative HSCT are ongoing for other cell-based therapies for benign diseases. Induction of central tolerance by intrathymic injection of viral vectors has been tested in rodents, and offers alternatives ...
Probably involved in transcriptional regulation. In vitro or as fusion protein with KMT2A/MLL1 has transactivation activity. Binds to cruciform DNA. In cells, binding to unmodified histone H3 regulates DOT1L functions including histone H3 Lys-79 dimethylation (H3K79me2) and gene activation (PubMed:26439302).
The invention relates to the methods for producing hematopoietic chimerism and central tolerance by peripheral tolerance induction without myeloablative conditioning.
In this project we propose to determine the role of candidate G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in enforcing deletion of developing auto-reactive T cells in t...
Most human cancers acquire tens to hundreds of somatic mutations (termed the tumor mutome) during their development (1). Each of these mutations has the potential to generate one or more novel T-cell antigens (termed neoepitopes) uniquely specific to each individual patients tumor. Because these neoepitopes are not present in the germline, and are not encountered until after the onset of oncogenesis, repertoires of high-avidity T cells capable of recognizing them may avoid central tolerance and escape deletion in the thymus. For these reasons, numerous investigators have proposed that the tumor mutome provides an attractive source of antigenic targets for developing patient-specific tumor vaccines (2-5).. Because it is already possible to rapidly and comprehensively identify tumor mutations using next-generation DNA- and RNA-sequencing technologies (1), the first technical hurdle for the development of this approach has been overcome. However, it may not be practical to target the full ...
This Podcast features an interview with Vassiliki Boussiotis, senior author of a Research Article published in the 26 June 2012 issue of Science Signaling. Boussiotis discusses her groups investigation of a molecular mechanism by which autoreactive T cells are suppressed in the periphery. Most autoreactive T cells are eliminated by mechanisms of central tolerance in the bone marrow or thymus before they enter the circulation. Autoreactive T cells that escape central tolerance are suppressed or eliminated by mechanisms of peripheral tolerance. Boussiotiss group has described a molecular chain of events downstream of the receptor programmed death-1 (PD-1) that inhibit proliferation of autoreactive T cells.. ...
The term immunogenic cell death (ICD) denotes an immunologically unique type of regulated cell death that enables, rather than suppresses, T cell-driven immune responses that are specific for antigens derived from the dying cells. The ability of ICD to elicit adaptive immunity heavily relies on the immunogenicity of dying cells, implying that such cells must encode and present antigens not covered by central tolerance (antigenicity), and deliver immunostimulatory molecules such as damage-associated molecular patterns and cytokines (adjuvanticity). Moreover, the host immune system must be equipped to detect the antigenicity and adjuvanticity of dying cells. As cancer (but not normal) cells express several antigens not covered by central tolerance, they can be driven into ICD by some therapeutic agents, including (but not limited to) chemotherapeutics of the anthracycline family, oxaliplatin and bortezomib, as well as radiation therapy. In this Trial Watch, we describe current trends in the ...
Immune tolerance, or immunological tolerance, or immunotolerance, is a state of unresponsiveness of the immune system to substances or tissue that have the capacity to elicit an immune response in given organism. It contrasts with conventional immune-mediated elimination of foreign antigens (see Immune response). Tolerance is classified into central tolerance or peripheral tolerance depending on where the state is originally induced-in the thymus and bone marrow (central) or in other tissues and lymph nodes (peripheral). The mechanisms by which these forms of tolerance are established are distinct, but the resulting effect is similar. Immune tolerance is important for normal physiology. Central tolerance is the main way the immune system learns to discriminate self from non-self. Peripheral tolerance is key to preventing over-reactivity of the immune system to various environmental entities (allergens, gut microbes, etc.). Deficits in central or peripheral tolerance also cause autoimmune ...
(14) X-Linked SCID IL-2Rγ mutation 6 mo M has thrush, RSV, Pseudomonas aeruginosa No T-cells, low Ig levels Normal B-cell count, did not react to IL-2Rγ Unresponsive to PHA, ConA, PWM, immunizations Complete non-random X- chromosome inactivation Tx: IVIg, ribavirin, TMP-STX, maternal marrow graft SCID: Thrush, persistent cough, intractable diarrhea X-linked is different because B-cell count is normal Mutation in IL-2Rγ (Xq11) is also part of IL-7 involved in T-cell development Successful bone marrow graft yields normal life with Ig-therapy
The postnatal thymus is an efficient microenvironment for T cell specification and differentiation. B cells are also present in the thymus, and have been recently implicated in the central tolerance. In Foxn1lacZmutant mice, which undergo premature thymic involution beginning 1 week after birth, T committed progenitors were progressively reduced, however, thymic B cells started to increase at 1 week and transiently formed a peak at 3-4 weeks. These increased B cells were developed from neonatal derived BM progenitors possessing a high B potential, were originally generated in the thymus. Most of them showed CD19loB220loCD24hiCD43+/−IgM−progenitor phenotype with increased expression of Ly51 but decrease of CD25 accumulating at pre-B-II stage. These B progenitors showed a delayed down-regulation of Lin28b, an impaired up-regulation of Let-7 with an increased expression of Arid3a. However the treatment of these progenitor B cells with Vitamin D3 might up-regulate Let-7 and down-regulate Arid3 ...
Autoimmunity arises from a failure of the immune system to establish or maintain self-tolerance. In the thymus, developing T cells are exposed to self-peptides derived from genetically encoded proteins, and self-reactive T cells are either deleted or develop a regulatory phenotype before venturing into the periphery. Post-translational modification (PTM) of self-peptides in the periphery may lead to the generation of neo-epitopes that are not displayed in the thymus. T cells specific for these modified peptides can bypass central tolerance mechanisms and escape into the periphery where they may ...
Ilan Y, Attavar P, Takahashi M, Davidson A, Horwitz M, Guida J, Chowdhury N Roy, Chowdhury J. Roy Induction of central tolerance by intrathymic inoculation of adenoviral antigens into the host thymus permits long-term gene therapy in Gunn rats. J Clin Invest 1996; 98: 2640-2647 ...
Lee JJ, Rauter I, Garibyan L, Ozcan E, Sannikova T, Dillon SR, Cruz AC, Siegel RM, Bram R, Jabara H, Geha RS. The murine equivalent of the A181E TACI mutation associated with common variable immunodeficiency severely impairs B-cell function. Blood. 2009 Sep 10; 114(11):2254-62. View abstract ...
Mice. C57BL/6 AireGW/+ mice (17) and C57BL/6 AireGW/+ TRP-1 TCR Tg RAG−/− mice (11) were housed and bred in sterile, specific pathogen-free mouse facilities at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and UCSF. C57BL/6 Aire WT littermate controls were used in all experiments. RAG1−/− mice were purchased from the Jackson Laboratory.. Antibodies and flow cytometry. Anti-CD4 (clone RM4-5), anti-CD3 (clone 145-2c11), anti-Ki67 (clone SolA15), anti-KLRG1 (clone 2F1), anti- granzyme B (clone NGZB), anti-FOXP3 (clone FJK-16s), and anti-CD25 (clone PC61.5) antibodies were purchased from eBioscience. Anti-CD8a (clone 5H10) antibody was purchased from Invitrogen. Intracellular staining for cytokines and FOXP3 were performed as in ref. 11. All samples were run on a Dako CyAn flow cytometer (Beckman-Coulter) and analyzed using FlowJo (TreeStar Inc.).. Isolation of TILs. TILs were isolated as previously described (11). Tumors were dissected and minced before incubation with collagenase type ...
Promising data from trials investigating T/NK-cells modified to express CARs against tumour antigens have generated extensive interest from clinicians, researchers and pharmaceutical companies, leading to broaden the applications of CARs beyond cancer through other pathologies, as autoimmune diseases or allograft rejection [13,14]. Autoimmunity can be broadly separated in two processes: via self-reactive antibodies or autoantibodies (produced by plasma cells from the B lymphocyte lineage), and/or via self-reactive T-lymphocytes. This may occur during the processes of selection of those cells during their development (central tolerance), in which negative selection to self-antigens fails, or due to changes in target tissues (break of peripheral tolerance). Between these peripheral autoimmune mechanisms, there are the autorreactivitiy against the so-called sequestered antigens (self-antigens present in isolated areas of the organism that are not exposed in normal conditions), that become ...
T cell receptor recognition of peptide Ags presented by class I or class II MHC proteins is a cornerstone of cellular immunity. Recognition of foreign Ags forms the basis for defense against viruses and other pathogens, yet recognition of self Ags can lead to autoimmunity. Although the central tolerance mechanism of negative selection plays a protective role against autoimmunity, the high level of cross-reactivity present within the T cell repertoire can promote autoimmunity if T cells are activated by foreign Ags that share key structural or chemical features with self Ags. This concept of molecular mimicry has been implicated in a number of autoimmune pathologies, including type 1 diabetes, lupus, and multiple sclerosis (1-3).. Previously determined structures of TCRs in complex with self Ags associated with autoimmunity have shown deviations from the binding mode traditionally seen in TCR recognition of foreign Ags. The traditional binding mode, typified by the structure of the αβ A6 TCR ...
Dendritic cells (DCs) are known to regulate immune responses by inducing both central and peripheral tolerance. DCs play a vital role in negative selection of developing thymocytes by deleting T cells with high-affinity for self-peptide-major histocompatibility complexes. In the periphery, DCs mediate peripheral tolerance by promoting regulatory T-cell development, induction of T-cell unresponsiveness, and deletion of activated T cells. We studied whether allogeneic DCs, obtained from bone marrow cultured with either Flt3L (FLDCs) or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMDCs), could induce allospecific central and peripheral tolerance after IV injection; B cells were used as a control. The results showed that only FLDCs reached the thymus after injection and that these cells induced both central and peripheral tolerance to donor major histocompatibility complexes. For central tolerance, injection of FLDCs induced antigen-specific clonal deletion of both CD8 and CD4 single-positive
Advanced testicular germ cells, expressing novel cell surface area and intracellular proteins, show up following the establishment of central tolerance and so are auto-immunogenic so. myoid cells, additional expands its program to review testis morphogenesis. We will also discuss the potential use of this model to study the effects of drugs/environmental toxins on testis morphogenesis, tight junction formation and SCCmyoid cell interactions. [32], co-grafted allogeneic pancreatic islets with syngeneic or allogeneic SC-enriched fractions underneath the kidney capsule of INCB8761 supplier diabetic rats. In this study, 65% of the co-grafted animals remained normoglycemic for over 100 days, while none of the animals receiving islets alone became normoglycemic. However, a short course of immune suppression (cyclosporine for 3 days) was INCB8761 supplier required for the SCs to prolong survival of allogeneic islets. Korbutt [33], extended these results by modifying the SC isolation method and adding a ...
Hayreh, SS; Kolder, HE; Weingeist, TA (1980). "Central retinal artery occlusion and retinal tolerance time". Ophthalmology. 87 ... Hayreh, SS (1983). "Classification of central retinal vein occlusion". Ophthalmology. 90 (5): 458-74. doi:10.1016/s0161-6420(83 ... Neetens of the existence of the central artery of the optic nerve; Hayreh found instead that the artery did not exist. In 1961 ...
... making it a type of negative selection or central tolerance. Central tolerance prevents B and T lymphocytes from reacting to ... Thus, the host develops a tolerance for this antigen, or a self tolerance. B and T lymphocytes are tested for their affinity ... It is one method of immune tolerance. Frank Macfarlane Burnet proposed autoreactive cells would be terminated before maturation ...
Nature 351, 150 (1991). Central tolerance by deletion of immature T cells in TCR transgenic mice. Teho H. S., Kisielow, P., ... Kisielow, P., Blüthmann, H., Staerz, U. D., Steinmetz, M. and von Boehmer, H.: Tolerance in T cell receptor transgenic mice: ... Science 251, 1225 (1991). Peripheral tolerance by deletion of and reversible anergy in matureT cells. Borgulya, P., Kishi, H., ... Tolerance to histocompatibility determinants in tetraparental bone marrow chimeras. J. Exp. Med. 141, 322 (1975). Graft-versus- ...
mTECs possess the ability to deal with these autoreactive clones via mediation of the processes of central tolerance, namely ... "Macroautophagy substrates are loaded onto MHC class II of medullary thymic epithelial cells for central tolerance". The Journal ... "Autonomous role of medullary thymic epithelial cells in central CD4(+) T cell tolerance". Nature Immunology. 11 (6): 512-9. doi ... "Medullary thymic epithelial stem cells maintain a functional thymus to ensure lifelong central T cell tolerance". Immunity. 41 ...
A central square in Jerusalem is to be renamed "Tolerance Square" in memory of Banki. Bucknill, John A. Strachey; Utidjian, ... It was scheduled to take place in Jerusalem on 10 November 2006, and caused a wave of protests by Haredi Jews around central ... 21 June 2007, the Jerusalem Open House organization succeeded in staging a parade in central Jerusalem after police allocated ...
Through a playful and competitive culture, central values are laid down: fairness, tolerance, participation and non-violence. ... The leagues are the central pillar of buntkicktgut's pedagogical programme. Work with children and young people throughout the ... tolerance, participation and non-violence. Street Football Workers are mostly young people who know the league inside out, play ... "Active for Democracy and Tolerance". In 2015 Dirk Nowitzki awarded buntkicktgut the accreditation of the analysis company ...
In central tolerance, dendritic cells are present within the thymus, or the location of T cell development and maturation. ... Although the function of dendritic cells in central tolerance is still relatively unknown, it appears that thymic dendritic ... Cross-presenting dendritic cells have a significant impact on the promotion of central and peripheral immune tolerance. ... Lutz, Manfred B.; Kurts, Christian (2009-09-01). "Induction of peripheral CD4+ T-cell tolerance and CD8+ T-cell cross-tolerance ...
The soil in the southwest and south-central regions has exceeded the upper limit of heavy metals tolerance. The contents of the ... The central government had invested 1.8 trillion yuan to enable efficient water use by upgrading both agriculture irrigation ... That is, the central government issues fairly strict regulations, but the actual monitoring and enforcement are largely ... Heavy industry, dominated by state-owned enterprises, has been promoted since the beginning of central planning and still has ...
Nemazee D (2006). "Receptor editing in lymphocyte development and central tolerance". Nat Rev Immunol. 6 (10): 728-740. doi: ...
Therefore, one of the most important roles of the thymus is the induction of central tolerance. The thymus is largest and most ... One of the primary functions of the thymus is to prevent autoimmunity through the process of central tolerance, immunologic ... The random nature of the genetic rearrangement results in a requirement of central tolerance mechanisms to remove or inactivate ... Peterson, P. R.; Org, T. N.; Rebane, A. (2008). "Transcriptional regulation by AIRE: Molecular mechanisms of central tolerance ...
Central tolerance: what have we learned from mice?. „Semin Immunopathol". 30 (4), s. 399-409, grudzień 2008. DOI: 10.1007/ ... B7/CD28 in central tolerance: costimulation promotes maturation of regulatory T cell precursors and prevents their clonal ... Oral tolerance in the absence of naturally occurring Tregs. „J Clin Invest". 115 (7), s. 1923-1933, lipiec 2005. DOI: 10.1172/ ... Immunologic self-tolerance maintained by activated T cells expressing IL-2 receptor alpha-chains (CD25). Breakdown of a single ...
V. berlandieri, which had adapted to limestone hills in central Texas, provided the lime tolerance needed to solve this problem ... It is primarily known for good tolerance against soils with a high content of lime, which can cause chlorosis in many vines of ...
"Autonomous role of medullary thymic epithelial cells in central CD4(+) T cell tolerance". Nature Immunology. 11 (6): 512-9. doi ... Central memory T cells (TCM cells) express CD45RO, C-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7), and L-selectin (CD62L). Central memory ... This process is an important component of central tolerance and serves to prevent the formation of self-reactive T cells that ... A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated ...
Nemazee D. Receptor editing in lymphocyte development and central tolerance. Nat Rev Immunol. 2006, 6 (10): 728-740. PMID ...
Nemazee D (2006). "Receptor editing in lymphocyte development and central tolerance". Nat Rev Immunol 6 (10): 728-40. doi: ...
During the 1990s, the long-practised official tolerance of drug users there from throughout Central Europe has been the subject ... The Polybahn funicular connects Central and the ETH Zurich main building. The Central square at the northern border between ... The Limmatquai was built along the right side of the Limmat, running from Central to Bellevue. It was built in the 19th century ... It properly includes just the north-eastern corner, between Mühlegasse and Central, but the term was extended to the whole part ...
Therefore, one of the most important roles of the thymus is the induction of central tolerance. ... The central nervous system also has lymphatic vessels, as discovered by the University of Virginia Researchers. The search for ... As a major lymphoid organ and a central player in the reticuloendothelial system, the spleen retains the ability to produce ... The primary or central lymphoid organs generate lymphocytes from immature progenitor cells. ...
... signaling pathway that plays a central role in ion homeostasis and salt tolerance in plants. Zhu's lab discovered several ... Plant salt tolerance. Trends Plant Sci. 6:66-71. Xiong L, Schumaker KS, Zhu JK. 2002. Cell signaling during cold, drought, and ... 2000, The Arabidopsis thaliana SOS2 gene encodes a protein kinase that is required for salt tolerance. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. ... He has several patents for improving plant stress tolerance issued by many countries. Zhu is a fellow of the American ...
Kanta H, Mohan C (March 2009). "Three checkpoints in lupus development: central tolerance in adaptive immunity, peripheral ... West SG (September 1996). "Lupus and the central nervous system". Curr Opin Rheumatol. 8 (5): 408-14. doi:10.1097/00002281- ... B and T cell tolerance for apoptotic cells is abrogated, and the lymphocytes get activated by these autoantigens; inflammation ... Neuropsychiatric syndromes can result when SLE affects the central or peripheral nervous system. The American College of ...
"Receptor editing in lymphocyte development and central tolerance". Nature Reviews. Immunology 6 (10): 728-740. 10.1038/nri1939 ...
... denominations and came together because of perceived equivocation on central Protestant doctrines and because of tolerance of ...
The pub's central location and tolerance for their mixed-race group, made it popular for the liberationists to meet there and ...
... after central tolerance has been established, therefore the body recognizes them as foreign and mounts an immune reaction ... The central nervous system (CNS), which includes the brain and spinal cord, is a sensitive system with limited capacity for ... A number of theories exist as to the exact mechanism by which fetal tolerance is maintained. It has been proposed in recent ... The induction of systemic tolerance to an antigen introduced into the CNS has been previously shown. This was seen in the ...
Even with the principle of tolerance being a central aspect in each corps' self-image, every corps student is urged to develop ... They consider tolerance and individuality to be key tenets and are rooted in German idealism. By and large, they are generally ... Corps are built upon the principle of tolerance: No corps may endorse a certain political, scientific, or religious viewpoint. ...
... the nodes collectively form the system without any central coordination. Fault tolerance: the system should be reliable (in ... This central component left the system vulnerable to attacks and lawsuits. Gnutella and similar networks moved to a query ... A DHT system that is carefully designed to have Byzantine fault tolerance can defend against a security weakness, known as the ... Napster, the first large-scale P2P content delivery system, required a central index server: each node, upon joining, would ...
This process is an important component of central tolerance and serves to prevent the formation of self-reactive T cells that ... Central memory T cells (TCM cells) express CD45RO, C-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7), and L-selectin (CD62L). Central memory ... A T cell is a type of lymphocyte which develops in the thymus gland and plays a central role in the immune response. T cells ... "Autonomous role of medullary thymic epithelial cells in central CD4(+) T cell tolerance" (PDF). Nature Immunology. 11 (6): 512 ...
Dominant and recessive tolerance are forms of a peripheral tolerance (the other tolerance beside peripheral is a central ... Similarly to recessive tolerance, unopposed NFAT signalling is also important for T-reg induction. In this case, the NFAT ... Many viruses (HIV being the most extreme example) seem to exploit the immune system's use of tolerance induction to evade the ... Anergy is one of three processes that induce tolerance, modifying the immune system to prevent self-destruction (the others ...
Most deaths are a result of the user misgauging their tolerance. Heroin is especially lethal because it depresses the central ...
In France, the central doctrines of the Enlightenment philosophers were individual liberty and religious tolerance, in ... The central concept was the theory of forms: the transcendent, perfect archetypes, of which objects in the everyday world are ... The order is one of the most widespread of the Sufi orders in the Islamic world, and can be found in Central Asia, Turkey, ... Following the gradual downturn of the Islamic Golden Age, the Timurid Empire, based in Central Asia ruled by the Timurid ...
Tolerance is classified into central tolerance or peripheral tolerance depending on where the state is originally induced-in ... Central tolerance is the main way the immune system learns to discriminate self from non-self. Peripheral tolerance is key to ... Central tolerance refers to the tolerance established by deleting autoreactive lymphocyte clones before they develop into fully ... Immune Tolerance Network International Conference on Immune Tolerance Immune+tolerance at the US National Library of Medicine ...
inaction: Tolerance *Central. *Peripheral. *Clonal anergy. *Clonal deletion. *Tolerance in pregnancy. *Immunodeficiency ...
Autonomous role of medullary thymic epithelial cells in central CD4(+) T cell tolerance. Nature Immunology. 2010-06, 11 (6): ... The role of peripheral T-cell deletion in transplantation tolerance. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London ...
Impaired glucose tolerance. ≥ 7.8. ≥ 140. , 7.0. , 126. 42-46. 6.0-6.4 Diabetes mellitus. ≥ 11.1. ≥ 200. ≥ 7.0. ≥ 126. ≥ 48. ≥ ... and inappropriate regulation of metabolism by the central nervous system.[10] However, not all people with insulin resistance ... In those with impaired glucose tolerance, diet and exercise either alone or in combination with metformin or acarbose may ... with a glucose tolerance test, two hours after the oral dose a plasma glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl) ...
In "central sensitization," nociceptive neurons in the dorsal horns of the spinal cord become sensitized by peripheral tissue ... drug sensitization or reverse tolerance - the escalating effect of a drug resulting from repeated administration at a given ... The changes of central sensitization occur after repeated trials to pain. Research from animals has consistently shown that ... tolerance - the diminishing effect of a drug resulting from repeated administration at a given dose ...
Central tendency[edit]. The mode, i.e. the most common item, is allowed as the measure of central tendency for the nominal type ... Central tendency. The median, i.e. middle-ranked, item is allowed as the measure of central tendency; however, the mean (or ... Central tendency and statistical dispersion[edit]. The mode, median, and arithmetic mean are allowed to measure central ... Central tendency and statistical dispersion. The geometric mean and the harmonic mean are allowed to measure the central ...
... waltii collectively constituted a distinct clade of separate ancestry from the central clade in the genus Kluyveromyces.[2] ... Due to the heat tolerance of K. marxianus, high heat fermentations are feasible, reducing the costs normally expended for ...
DuPen A, Shen D, Ersek M (September 2007). "Mechanisms of opioid-induced tolerance and hyperalgesia". Pain Manag Nurs. 8 (3): ... March 2004). "The cyclooxygenase isozyme inhibitors parecoxib and paracetamol reduce central hyperalgesia in humans". Pain. 108 ... December 2004). "Chronic oral Gabapentin reduces elements of central sensitization in human experimental Hyperalgesia". ... As it can be difficult to distinguish from tolerance, opioid-induced hyperalgesia is often compensated for by escalating the ...
Penn gained a reputation for benevolence and tolerance, but his efforts resulted in more effective colonization of the ... Killbuck, Ohio History Central. July 1, 2005. References[edit]. *Aberg, Alf. The People of New Sweden: Our Colony on the ...
A measure of the central tendencies of the two groups (means or medians; since the Mann-Whitney U test is an ordinal test, ... we can also interpret the Mann-Whitney U test as assessing whether the Hodges-Lehmann estimate of the difference in central ...
His solution to anti-Semitism was a combination of a Jewish homeland, greater tolerance, and assimilation in other countries. ... Offers a systematic and analytic account of the central categories of Niebuhr's political theology and philosophy of history. ...
This means products can be more precision-engineered to for production to result in shorter lead times, tighter tolerances and ... effect on the central circulation or nervous system, diagnostic impact, or incorporation of a medicinal product. Certified ...
History and physical examination are central to the diagnostic workup in nephrology. The history typically includes the present ... replaces kidney function by inserting into the body a healthier kidney from an organ donor and inducing immunologic tolerance ...
In Central Italy, there are sauces such as tomato sauce, amatriciana, arrabbiata and the egg-based carbonara. Tomato sauces are ... C tolerance), must have undergone a heat treatment at least equivalent to pasteurisation, and must be sold within 5 days of the ... it was one of the first pasta factories of Central Europe.[25] By 1867, Buitoni Company in Sansepolcro, Tuscany became an ... such as Central Argentina, and the eight southernmost Brazilian states (where macaroni are called macarrão, and more general ...
Withdrawal and tolerance[edit]. Withdrawal symptoms appear to be very rare with moclobemide compared to other antidepressants[ ... Coquoz D, Porchet HC, Dayer P (September 1993). "Central analgesic effects of desipramine, fluvoxamine, and moclobemide after ... Tolerance does not seem to occur; research has found that moclobemide retains its beneficial therapeutic properties in ... Moclobemide increases levels of extracellular monoamines and decreases levels of their metabolites in rat brains; tolerance to ...
... and develop tolerance and empathy.[18] Group sessions that emphasize cooperation and cohesion can be effective in working with ... are central factors in Orff music therapy. The strong emphasis on social integration and the involvement of parents in the ... due to damage of the central nervous system), aphasia (defect in expression causing distorted speech), or language ...
Although learning in the Indigenous American communities is not always the central focus when participating in an activity,[28] ... Communities that participate in observational learning promote tolerance and mutual understand of those coming from different ... It goes far beyond learning mundane tasks through rote imitation; it is central to children's gradual transformation into ...
Central-West[edit]. The Central-West region of Brazil was inhabited by diverse Indians when the Portuguese arrived in the early ... Immigrants found a strong social and cultural tolerance toward inter-racial marriage, including large numbers of Mulattoes ( ... During the 19th and 20th century, immigrants from the Netherlands populated the central and southern states of Brazil.[45][46] ... Currently they number approximately 980,000, most of whom live in a compact settlement in south central Paraná[64] ...
中樞性耐受(英語:Central tolerance). *外周性耐受(英語:Peripheral tolerance) ...
These teams of volunteers organise themselves into different working groups and form the central organs of the movement, ...
中樞性耐受(英語:Central tolerance). *外周性耐受(英語:Peripheral tolerance) ... Neutrophils, central cells in acute inflammation. Inflammation and Fever from Pathophysiology: Principles of Disease. Computing ...
It is hollow in cross-section, with a relatively thin layer of flesh surrounding a central seed cavity filled with large, flat ... "Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) reduces adiposity, lowers serum insulin and normalizes glucose tolerance in rats fed a high ...
Most fled to Poland, as it had a reputation for religious tolerance unparalleled during this era. This religious tolerance may ... By the 17th century a trickle back process began, with reverse migration back to central and western Europe, following pogroms ...
Menocal, María Rosa (2002). Ornament of the World: How Muslims, Jews and Christians Created a Culture of Tolerance in Medieval ... West Central Africa (Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Angola): 39.4% ... Afro-Spaniards are Spanish nationals of West/Central African ancestry. They today mainly come from Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea ... From the years 1500 to 1850, an estimated 3.5 million captives were forcibly shipped from West/Central Africa to Brazil. The ...
... the equivalence of purines or that of pyrimidines at twofold degenerate sites adds a further fault-tolerance.[1]:531-532 ... Central dogma *DNA → RNA → Protein. *Special transfers *RNA→RNA. *RNA→DNA. *Protein→Protein ...
... has applications in statistical inference. For example, one might use it to fit an isotonic curve to the means of some set of experimental results when an increase in those means according to some particular ordering is expected. A benefit of isotonic regression is that it is not constrained by any functional form, such as the linearity imposed by linear regression, as long as the function is monotonic increasing. Another application is nonmetric multidimensional scaling,[1] where a low-dimensional embedding for data points is sought such that order of distances between points in the embedding matches order of dissimilarity between points. Isotonic regression is used iteratively to fit ideal distances to preserve relative dissimilarity order. Software for computing isotone (monotonic) regression has been developed for the R statistical package [2], the Stata statistical package and the Python programming language [3]. ...
In 1999, he received the Leo Baeck Medal for his humanitarian work promoting tolerance and social justice, as well as the Grand ... Director of Central Intelligence. *Stansfield M. Turner (1977-81). Advisor to the. President on National Security Affairs. * ...
In 1888, J.K.P. Miller and his associates founded a narrow-gauge railroad, the Deadwood Central Railroad, to serve their mining ... and a relatively high level of tolerance of different peoples existed in the frontier town. Wong Fee Lee arrived in Deadwood in ... K.P. Miller and his associates founded a narrow-gauge railroad, the Deadwood Central Railroad, in 1888, to serve their mining ...
It rises in response to allergies, parasitic infections, collagen diseases, and disease of the spleen and central nervous ...
Central American dry corridor. *Climate change and agriculture. *Climate change and ecosystems ...
The invention relates to the methods for producing hematopoietic chimerism and central tolerance by peripheral tolerance ... "Central tolerance" is tolerance that is established in lymphocytes developing in central lymphoid organs; "peripheral tolerance ... The central tolerance produced by the methods described herein is durable, e.g., long-lasting, and leads to long term tolerance ... Finally, unlike methods that rely on peripheral tolerance, the new methods of inducing central tolerance described herein do ...
Induction of Central Tolerance. Wed, 30 May 2012 , Muscular Dystrophy The induction of hematopoietic mixed chimerism, defined ... Induction of central tolerance by intrathymic injection of viral vectors has been tested in rodents, and offers alternatives to ... could be an approach to induce robust central tolerance. This strategy capitalizes on the use of nonmyeloablative hematopoietic ... antigen-specific tolerance (Ilan et al. 1996; Marodon et al. 2006). ...
This process of thymic self-tolerance induction is referred to as central tolerance. Central tolerance i imposed largely within ... The contribution of GPCRs to thymocyte medullary entry and central tolerance Ehrlich, Lauren Ilyse Richie University of Texas ... For developing T lymphocytes, self-tolerance is induced in the central region of the thymus, the thymic medulla. Herein, we ... 2015) CCR4 promotes medullary entry and thymocyte-dendritic cell interactions required for central tolerance. J Exp Med 212: ...
Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. ... T-cell tolerance: central and peripheral.. Xing Y1, Hogquist KA.. Author information. 1. Center for Immunology, Department of ... Cell types in central tolerance. (Top) T cells are positively selected in the thymic cortex. Negative selection via clonal ... Recent advances in mechanistic studies of central and peripheral T-cell tolerance are promoting the development of therapeutic ...
... is the mechanism by which newly developing T cells and B cells are rendered non-reactive to ... tolerance. Immunity • Autoimmunity • Allergy • Tolerance (Central) • Immunodeficiency. Immunogenetics. Somatic hypermutation • ... Central tolerance is the mechanism by which newly developing T cells and B cells are rendered non-reactive to self.[1] The ... Sprent J, Kishimoto H (2001). "The thymus and central tolerance". Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 356 (1409): 609-16. PMID ...
... Theodore S. Johnson,1,2,3 David H. Munn,1,2,3 and ... the immune system by definition has never acquired central tolerance. Despite this, however, the immune system behaves as if it ... because they may be excluded from central tolerance by virtue of their cellular, anatomical, or developmental expression ... G. Kaur, S. J. Han, I. Yang, and C. Crane, "Microglia and central nervous system immunity," Neurosurgery Clinics of North ...
Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. ... Receptor editing in lymphocyte development and central tolerance.. Nemazee D1.. Author information. 1. Department of Immunology ...
... spirit of religious tolerance and for carrying different traditions together while addressing a press conference after a ... Indias religious tolerance a model for world, says His Holiness. *India illustrious example of religious harmony: Dalai Lama ... India is the best example of religious tolerance: Dalai Lama. *India is living example of religious harmony: His Holiness the ... "Religious tolerance is very important… although there are problems sometimes due to politicians who try to manipulate that," he ...
... ,. Mediators of Inflammation,. vol ... Central Role of Gimap5 in Maintaining Peripheral Tolerance and T Cell Homeostasis in the Gut. ... Regardless, the detailed mechanistic insight into the loss of T cell survival and immunological tolerance in Gimap5sph/sph mice ... as well as Tr1 and Th3 cells [89]. The effector pathways by which Tregs induce tolerance are multiple and include secretion of ...
Tolerance is generally accepted to be an active process and, in essence, a learning experience for T cells. ... Immunologic tolerance is a state of immune unresponsiveness specific to a particular antigen or set of antigens induced by ... Central (Intrathymic) Mechanisms of Tolerance. The chief mechanism of T-cell tolerance is the deletion of autoreactive T cells ... donor-specific tolerance has been termed prope tolerance [33] (from Latin prope "near") or minimal immunosuppression tolerance. ...
Here, we review the significance of protein and non-protein thiol compounds in relation to plant tolerance of abiotic stress. ... However, the molecular mechanisms of plant stress tolerance are not fully understood, and the data available is incomplete and ... which plays a central part in plant stress response and oxidative signalling and of glutathione-related enzymes, including ... concludes with a brief overview of and future perspectives for the involvement of plant thiols in abiotic stress tolerance. ...
This contradicts a long time understanding that the genetic mutation for lactose tolerance was… ... Lactose Tolerance Came From Central Asia Approximately 4,000 Years Ago. That recent study published in the journal Nature, that ... 3 thoughts on "Lactose Tolerance Came From Central Asia Approximately 4,000 Years Ago" ... The alleles earliest appearance in the dataset is in a central European Bell Beaker sample (individual I0112) dated to between ...
The approach involved liver-extrinsic genetic engineering that interfered with the induction of T-cell tolerance in the thymus ... In addition, approaches to mimic AIH-associated liver inflammation have instead led to liver tolerance, consistent with the ... central tolerance; peripheral tolerance; autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy (APECED); autoimmune ... central tolerance; peripheral tolerance; autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy (APECED); autoimmune ...
Moreover, pharmacologic blockade of central T cell tolerance and peripheral checkpoint blockade in combination enhanced ... Together, these findings suggest that Aire-mediated central tolerance constrains the efficacy of peripheral checkpoint ...
Lymphocyte-driven regional immunopathology in pneumonitis caused by impaired central immune tolerance ... Lymphocyte-driven regional immunopathology in pneumonitis caused by impaired central immune tolerance ... Lymphocyte-driven regional immunopathology in pneumonitis caused by impaired central immune tolerance ... Lymphocyte-driven regional immunopathology in pneumonitis caused by impaired central immune tolerance ...
Abstract 15421: Central Hemodynamic Response to Oral Glucose Loading Are Blunted in Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance or ... Abstract 15421: Central Hemodynamic Response to Oral Glucose Loading Are Blunted in Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance or ... Abstract 15421: Central Hemodynamic Response to Oral Glucose Loading Are Blunted in Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance or ... Abstract 15421: Central Hemodynamic Response to Oral Glucose Loading Are Blunted in Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance or ...
Re: National no tolerance policy. by Door3 » Tue Nov 27, 2012 10:50 am ... Re: National no tolerance policy. by Kango » Tue Dec 04, 2012 8:01 am ... Re: National no tolerance policy. by Cubano » Mon Dec 10, 2012 3:53 pm ... Re: National no tolerance policy. by ringy » Wed Dec 12, 2012 10:12 am ...
Thalhamer, Theresa (2009) B cell signalling in mechanisms of central and peripheral tolerance. PhD thesis, University of ... Negative selection of self-reactive immature B cells constitutes a major mechanism of sustaining central tolerance. The WEHI- ... Tolerance against self is a necessary feature of the immune system to prevent autoimmunity. Hence during B cell development, a ... number of central and peripheral developmental checkpoints ensure the deletion of self-reactive B cells and selection of ...
The role of CCR4 and CCR7 in the establishment of central tolerance. ... To establish tolerance towards self-antigens, developing T cells in the thymus (thymocytes) undergo stringent selection ... In keeping with the importance of these two activities for the induction of self-tolerance, in the absence of CCR4, ... The cellular and molecular mechanisms governing thymocyte tolerance induction are incompletely understood. In this dissertation ...
Experimental occlusion of the central artery of the retina. IV: Retinal tolerance time to acute ischaemia. ... Experimental occlusion of the central artery of the retina. IV: Retinal tolerance time to acute ischaemia. ...
... of Compensatory Reserve and Tissue Oxygenation as Early Predictors of Tolerance to Progressive Reductions in Central Blood ... Consistent with our hypothesis, CRI detected central hypovolemia with significantly greater specificity than measures of tissue ... provided earlier indication of reduced central blood volume than standard vital signs (e.g., blood pressure, heart rate, ... we hypothesized that the CRI would provide greater sensitivity and specificity to detect progressive decrease in central ...
These recent advances are bringing about a paradigm shift in our views about tolerance to self-molecules with tissue-restricted ... Recent studies in both humans and experimental rodent models provide new insight into key mechanisms regulating tolerance to ... Central and Peripheral Autoantigen Presentation in Immune Tolerance Alberto Pugliese. Immunology. Feb 2004 ... Thymic T-cell Tolerance of Neuroendocrine Functions: Physiology and Pathophysiology V Geenen et al. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le- ...
These results constitute first evidence for the involvement of central tolerance in the loss of tolerance to TSHR in GD and ... A SNP in intron 1 of TSHR controls its thymic expression and susceptibility to Graves disease suggesting central tolerance ... del Pilar Armengol et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2011. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. ... and thereby induce central T cell tolerance. In order to understand the association between TSHR gene polymorphisms and GD we ...
Molecular mechanisms of immune tolerance Central tolerance induction in the B cell and T cell compartment Immune tolerance in ... Molecular mechanisms of immune tolerance Central tolerance induction in the B cell and T cell compartment Immune tolerance in ... Molecular mechanisms of immune tolerance Central tolerance induction in the B cell and T cell compartment Immune toleran ... Molecular mechanisms of immune tolerance Central tolerance induction in the B cell and T cell compartment Immune toleran - ...
For central tolerance, injection of FLDCs induced antigen-specific clonal deletion of both CD8 and CD4 single-positive ... For central tolerance, injection of FLDCs induced antigen-specific clonal deletion of both CD8 and CD4 single-positive ... could induce allospecific central and peripheral tolerance after IV injection; B cells were used as a control. The results ... could induce allospecific central and peripheral tolerance after IV injection; B cells were used as a control. The results ...
2. Kishimoto H, Sprent J: A defect in central tolerance in NOD mice. Nat Immunol 2001, 2:1025-1031. ... such that it is unclear if defects in peripheral tolerance contribute to autoimmunity. One experimental approach would be to " ...
Combination central tolerance and peripheral checkpoint blockade unleashes antimelanoma immunity. Pearl Bakhru,1 Meng-Lei Zhu,1 ... Central T cell tolerance mechanisms protect against the development of autoimmunity, but also limit antitumor immunity (9-11). ... Enhancement of an anti-tumor immune response by transient blockade of central T cell tolerance. J Exp Med. 2014;211(5):761-768. ... Thus, a combination of central tolerance blockade and checkpoint inhibition may improve a therapeutic index, compared with ...
Neuropilin-1 facilitates SARS-CoV-2 cell entry and provides a possible pathway into the central nervous system ... Animals, Autoimmunity, CD4 Antigens, Epithelial Cells, Humans, Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, Self Tolerance, Signal Transduction ...
Central tolerance[edit]. Central tolerance refers to the tolerance established by deleting autoreactive lymphocyte clones ... Tolerance is classified into central tolerance or peripheral tolerance depending on where the state is originally induced-in ... Central tolerance is the main way the immune system learns to discriminate self from non-self. Peripheral tolerance is key to ... See also: Goblet cell § Role in oral tolerance. Oral tolerance refers to a specific type of peripheral tolerance induced by ...
Treatment of experimental colitis by oral tolerance induction: A central role for suppressor lymphocytes. American Journal of ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Treatment of experimental colitis by oral tolerance induction: A central role for ... Treatment of experimental colitis by oral tolerance induction : A central role for suppressor lymphocytes. In: American Journal ... Treatment of experimental colitis by oral tolerance induction : A central role for suppressor lymphocytes. / Ilan, Yaron; ...
Our findings provide strong evidence for the fundamental role of AIRE and pGE, namely, central tolerance, in the predisposition ... Autoimmune predisposition in Down syndrome may result from a partial central tolerance failure due to insufficient intrathymic ... The thymuses of these DS individuals contained significantly lower levels of AIRE and thyroglobulin, to which tolerance is ... Tolerância Central Criança Pré-Escolar Síndrome de Down/complicações Síndrome de Down/genética Feminino Expressão Gênica Seres ...
  • Induction of central tolerance by intrathymic injection of viral vectors has been tested in rodents, and offers alternatives to antigen-specific tolerance (Ilan et al. (fitness-vip.com)
  • The induction of hematopoietic mixed chimerism, defined as the coexistence of donor and recipient hematopoietic cells, could be an approach to induce robust central tolerance. (fitness-vip.com)
  • Thus, peripheral tolerance processes exist wherein self-reactive T cells become functionally unresponsive (anergy) or are deleted after encountering self-antigens outside of the thymus. (nih.gov)
  • Immunologic tolerance is a state of immune unresponsiveness specific to a particular antigen or set of antigens induced by previous exposure to that antigen or set. (medscape.com)
  • The approach involved liver-extrinsic genetic engineering that interfered with the induction of T-cell tolerance in the thymus, the very process thought to inhibit AIH induction by liver-specific expression of exogenous antigens. (mdpi.com)
  • To establish tolerance towards self-antigens, developing T cells in the thymus (thymocytes) undergo stringent selection processes. (utexas.edu)
  • TSHR belongs to the category of tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs), which are expressed by medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) and thereby induce central T cell tolerance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Autoimmune predisposition in Down syndrome may result from a partial central tolerance failure due to insufficient intrathymic expression of AIRE and peripheral antigens. (bvsalud.org)
  • Central tolerance i imposed largely within the interior, medullary region of the thymus, where thymocytes encounter a wide array of self-antigens expressed on stromal cells, namely dendritic cells and/or medullary thymic epithelial cells. (grantome.com)
  • Peripheral tolerance occurs at mature lymphocytes encounter self-antigens in peripheral tissues. (intechopen.com)
  • Background Breakdown of humoral tolerance to RBC antigens may lead to autoimmune hemolytic anemia, a severe and sometimes fatal disease. (haematologica.org)
  • The underlying mechanisms behind the breakdown of humoral tolerance to RBC antigens are poorly understood. (haematologica.org)
  • Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) consists of loss of tolerance to self-antigens on red blood cells (RBCs) in the humoral compartment. (haematologica.org)
  • 8 , 9 Therefore, baseline humoral tolerance to RBC antigens appears to fail in up to 1-3/1,000 humans, indicating that tolerance mechanisms to RBC antigens are lost with considerable frequency. (haematologica.org)
  • The relative inefficiency of humoral tolerance to RBC antigens can not be predicted, given the known characteristics of central B-cell tolerance. (haematologica.org)
  • In the intestine, pAPCs including dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages are strategically positioned to protect the gut while maintaining mucosal tolerance to food, self-antigens and microbiota. (nature.com)
  • A large fraction of newly rearranged BCRs bind to self-antigens, including nucleic acids, but these specificities are efficiently removed from the repertoire by receptor editing and deletion and tolerance mechanisms such as anergy control residual self-reactivity in the periphery ( 2 - 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In the case of T cell central tolerance, additional sources of antigen are made available in the thymus by the action of the transcription factor AIRE . (bionity.com)
  • In this dissertation, I describe previously unreported roles for the chemokine receptors CCR4 and CCR7 in the establishment of tolerance in thymus. (utexas.edu)
  • Regulatory T cells suppress immune responses initiated by auto-reactive T cells that escaped from thymus, and are therefore essential for maintaining self-tolerance. (utexas.edu)
  • The fact that APCs expressing insulin have been demonstrated in both thymus and peripheral lymphoid tissues suggests that they may play a role in insulin presentation in both the central and peripheral immune system. (nih.gov)
  • This review addresses recent literature and emerging concepts about the expression of self-molecules in the thymus and peripheral lymphoid tissues and its relation to self-tolerance. (nih.gov)
  • The results showed that only FLDCs reached the thymus after injection and that these cells induced both central and peripheral tolerance to donor major histocompatibility complexes. (garvan.org.au)
  • Tolerance is classified into central tolerance or peripheral tolerance depending on where the state is originally induced-in the thymus and bone marrow (central) or in other tissues and lymph nodes (peripheral). (wikipedia.org)
  • For developing T lymphocytes, self-tolerance is induced in the central region of the thymus, the thymic medulla. (grantome.com)
  • Central tolerance prevents the maturation and egress of autoreactive immune cells, for example via clonal deletion of T cells in the thymus 1 . (stemcell.com)
  • Multiple mechanisms of central tolerance take place in the thymus, where self-reactive T cells undergo clonal deletion or differentiation into regulatory T cells (Tregs) 1 . (stemcell.com)
  • Although most autoreactive T cells are deleted or converted into Tregs during their development in the thymus, some self-reactive cells will escape these mechanisms of central tolerance. (stemcell.com)
  • The expression of Aire in the thymus is critical for both central tolerance by clonal deletion, and for peripheral tolerance via the generation of Tregs 7 . (stemcell.com)
  • The tolerance status of susceptible strains, whose target antigen is not expressed in the thymus at detectable levels, is unclear. (elsevier.com)
  • T cell tolerance by clonal elimination in the thymus. (springer.com)
  • Central tolerance occurs at immature T and B lymphocytes in the thymus and bone marrow. (intechopen.com)
  • Dysfunction of central tolerance in the thymus, or in peripheral tolerance, such as regulatory T cells, could allow development of GD. (frontiersin.org)
  • Central tolerance involves the deletion of self-reactive T cells in the thymus. (infobarrel.com)
  • The thymus is a key organ involved in establishing central immune tolerance. (stanford.edu)
  • The maintenance of immune tolerance and gut homeostasis is achieved by an integrated regulation of innate and adaptive immunity but also involves the microbiome itself. (hindawi.com)
  • Moreover, pharmacologic blockade of central T cell tolerance and peripheral checkpoint blockade in combination enhanced antimelanoma immunity in a synergistic manner. (jci.org)
  • Together, these findings suggest that Aire-mediated central tolerance constrains the efficacy of peripheral checkpoint inhibition and point to simultaneous blockade of Aire and checkpoint inhibitors as a novel strategy to enhance antimelanoma immunity. (jci.org)
  • The fate of these cells is dictated by a series of checkpoints that regulate the quality and magnitude of T cell-mediated immunity, known as tolerance checkpoints. (nature.com)
  • The intestinal immunity and tolerance are orchestrated by both the innate and the adaptive immune system. (nature.com)
  • However, the role of gp96 in regulating CD11c + APCs in the gut immunity and tolerance is unknown. (nature.com)
  • CD4+ T-cells are central players orchestrating antigen-specific immunity and tolerance. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Induction of immunologic tolerance has been achieved and studied in numerous laboratory animal models, but it remains an elusive goal in clinical organ transplantation and in the management of autoimmune disease in humans. (medscape.com)
  • Failure of immunologic tolerance may cause the development of autoimmune response and then autoimmune disease [ 4 , 5 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Central nervous system tumors take advantage of the unique immunology of the CNS and develop exquisitely complex stromal networks that promote growth despite the presence of antigen-presenting cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. (hindawi.com)
  • However, these discoveries, and the host of allograft experiments and observations of twin chimerism they inspired, were seminal for the theories of immune tolerance formulated by Sir Frank McFarlane Burnet and Frank Fenner , who were the first to propose the deletion of self-reactive lymphocytes to establish tolerance, now termed clonal deletion . (wikipedia.org)
  • Suppressor lymphocytes mediate the tolerance by induction of a shift from a proinflammatory to an antiinflammatory immune response. (elsevier.com)
  • Wikipedia , PubMedHealth ) is an autoimmune disease wherein lymphocytes attack the central nervous system (CNS), including the brain and spinal cord, leading to relapsing, progressive loss of neurons. (blogspot.com)
  • Central to the development of type 1 diabetes are T lymphocytes with specific T-cell receptors that recognize islet molecules. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This process of thymic self-tolerance induction is referred to as central tolerance. (grantome.com)
  • How thymic self-peptide expression patterns can dictate these mechanisms of tolerance had previously been unclear. (stemcell.com)
  • Even with defective thymic or peripheral tolerance, the development of CNS inflammation is rare. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Specifically, the association between thymoma and paraneoplastic encephalitis and changes in T cell receptor excision circles in multiple sclerosis implicate thymic tolerance in these diseases. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A loss of function at the AIRE locus is widely known to induce autoimmune activation against host tissues due to lack of central tolerance during thymic T cell development. (jyi.org)
  • The deletion of autoreactive T cell clones through thymic-expressed TSAs is known as central tolerance. (jyi.org)
  • Here, we discuss how defects in Gimap5 function impair immunological tolerance and lymphocyte survival and ultimately drive the development of CD4 + T cell-mediated early-onset colitis. (hindawi.com)
  • Immune tolerance , or immunological tolerance , or immunotolerance , is a state of unresponsiveness of the immune system to substances or tissue that have the capacity to elicit an immune response in given organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • In their Nobel Lecture, Medawar and Burnet define immune tolerance as "a state of indifference or non-reactivity towards a substance that would normally be expected to excite an immunological response. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2015. The deacetylase Sirt1 is an essential regulator of Aire-mediated induction of central immunological tolerance. (uib.no)
  • For central tolerance, injection of FLDCs induced antigen-specific clonal deletion of both CD8 and CD4 single-positive thymocytes. (garvan.org.au)
  • The mechanisms by which B cells undergo tolerance, such as receptor editing, clonal deletion, and anergy, have been established in mice. (rupress.org)
  • By following the fate of self-reactive human κ + B cells relative to nonautoreactive λ + cells, we show that tolerance of human B cells occurs at the first site of self-Ag encounter, the bone marrow, via a combination of receptor editing and clonal deletion. (rupress.org)
  • In the periphery, DCs mediate peripheral tolerance by promoting regulatory T-cell development, induction of T-cell unresponsiveness, and deletion of activated T cells. (garvan.org.au)
  • Any autoreactive cells that escape central tolerance and migrate to the periphery would then encounter mechanisms of peripheral tolerance, for example the induction of anergy or suppression by mechanisms of action of regulatory T cells 2 (Figure 1) . (stemcell.com)
  • Hence, multiple mechanisms of peripheral tolerance, including the ones listed below, are in place to prevent these self-reactive cells from causing damage in the periphery. (stemcell.com)
  • Moreover, the amount of available self-Ag and the genetics of the cord blood donor dictate the levels of central tolerance and autoreactive B cells in the periphery. (rupress.org)
  • To assess the sensitivity of B cell tolerance with respect to receptor/autoantigen affinity, we identified low affinity ligands to the 3-83 (anti-major histocompatibility complex class I) antibody and tested the ability of these ligands to induce central and peripheral tolerance in 3-83 transgenic mice. (scripps.edu)
  • The thymuses of these DS individuals contained significantly lower levels of AIRE and thyroglobulin , to which tolerance is typically lost in autoimmune thyroiditis leading to hypothyroidism . (bvsalud.org)
  • Although little is known about the precise mechanisms that control TSA expression in TECs, the transcription factor autoimmune regulator (Aire) is central to TSA expression ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • AIRE expands: new roles in immune tolerance and beyond. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Therefore, even APECED patients with similar mutations at the AIRE locus may have dissimilar symptoms due to variation in specific self-antigen tolerance (De Martino et al. (jyi.org)
  • As the autoreactive T cells are present but non-responsive, these data indicate that factors that reverse T-cell non-responsiveness may be central to the pathogenesis of autoimmune hemolytic anemia. (haematologica.org)
  • 7 The basic pathogenesis of primary AIHA is poorly understood, but clearly results from a failure of tolerance mechanisms. (haematologica.org)
  • In addition, approaches to mimic AIH-associated liver inflammation have instead led to liver tolerance, consistent with the high tolerogenic capacity of the liver. (mdpi.com)
  • Receptor editing in lymphocyte development and central tolerance. (nih.gov)
  • We generated T cell receptor transgenic models of these CDS+ T cells and found that an unusual form of tolerance allows CDS+ T cells expressing a high affinity T cell receptor for MBP to escape tolerance and populate the peripheral repertoire. (grantome.com)
  • The influence of CeA administration of GABA B receptor agonist and antagonist on the expression and acquisition of morphine-induced incentive tolerance using conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm was investigated in the present study. (ac.ir)
  • GABA B receptor agonist, baclofen (1.5, 6 and 12 µg/rat) or GABA B receptor antagonist, CGP35348 (1.5, 6 and 12 µg/rat) were injected into the CeA 5 min before the experiments in the test day (expression of tolerance) or 5 min before each injection of morphine (12.5 mg/kg) (acquisition of tolerance). (ac.ir)
  • 7. Trujillo KA, Akil H. Inhibition of morphine tolerance and dependence by the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801. (ac.ir)
  • Negative selection, regulatory T cells, anergy, activation-induced cell death, immune suppression, receptor editing are examples of important steps of immune tolerance. (intechopen.com)
  • 10 Establishment of tolerance can lead to deletion, anergy, or receptor editing such that the immunoglobulin is no longer autoreactive. (haematologica.org)
  • Hence during B cell development, a number of central and peripheral developmental checkpoints ensure the deletion of self-reactive B cells and selection of tolerant B cells. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Peripheral tolerance uses mechanisms of INDIFFERENCE, DELETION AND REGULATORY T CELLS to control this problem. (infobarrel.com)
  • The current study investigates the novel role of central α-klotho in the regulation of NPY/AgRP neurons and whole-body metabolism via an FGFR/PI3K mechanism. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Identification of the Arabidopsis dry2/sqe1-5 mutant reveals a central role for sterols in drought tolerance and regulation of reactive oxygen species. (ox.ac.uk)
  • As RHD2 NADPH oxidase is de-localized in dry2/sqe1-5 root hairs, we propose that sterols play an essential role in the localization of NADPH oxidases required for regulation of reactive oxygen species, stomatal responses and drought tolerance. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Here, we compare and contrast the T cell tolerance checkpoints and discuss their specific roles, with the aim of providing an integrated view of T cell peripheral tolerance and fate regulation. (nature.com)
  • Central nervous system (CNS) tumors account for high rates of morbidity and mortality [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that is believed to have an autoimmune etiology. (grantome.com)
  • Autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) are associated with high levels of morbidity and economic cost. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Moreover, depending on the location of the self-Ag, tolerance is defined as central (i.e., in the bone marrow) or peripheral (i.e., in other tissues). (rupress.org)
  • Recent advances in mechanistic studies of central and peripheral T-cell tolerance are promoting the development of therapeutic strategies to treat autoimmune disease and cancer and improve transplantation outcome. (nih.gov)
  • Control of central self-tolerance induction by autoreactive CD4+ thymocytes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Central tolerance is the main way the immune system learns to discriminate self from non-self. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peripheral tolerance is key to preventing over-reactivity of the immune system to various environmental entities ( allergens , gut microbes , etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • [8] In addition, inducing peripheral tolerance in the local microenvironment is a common survival strategy for a number of tumors that prevents their elimination by the host immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immune tolerance ensures that the immune system responds to foreign molecules and not to self-molecules. (cshlpress.com)
  • In this application, we will investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying both the CDS+ T cell tolerance and the loss of tolerance due to infection in this model. (grantome.com)
  • In this Perspective, we discuss the mediators and networks that control the six main peripheral tolerance checkpoints throughout the life of a T cell: quiescence, ignorance, anergy, exhaustion, senescence and death. (nature.com)
  • Transplant tolerance is defined as a state of donor-specific unresponsiveness without a need for ongoing pharmacologic immunosuppression. (medscape.com)
  • For peripheral tolerance, injection of FLDCs induced donor-specific T-cell unresponsiveness and prolonged survival of donor-derived skin grafts. (garvan.org.au)
  • FOXP3 remains the most reliable marker of Tregs to date, and the importance of Tregs in maintaining immune tolerance continues to be highlighted. (stemcell.com)
  • IV: Retinal tolerance time to acute ischaemia. (bmj.com)
  • How is hyperbaric oxygen therapy used to treat central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO)? (medscape.com)
  • Treatment options for central retinal artery occlusion. (medscape.com)
  • Central retinal artery occlusion and retinal tolerance time. (medscape.com)
  • Optic disk and retinal nerve fiber layer damage after transient central retinal artery occlusion: an experimental study in rhesus monkeys. (medscape.com)
  • Tobalem S, Schutz JS, Chronopoulos A. Central retinal artery occlusion - rethinking retinal survival time. (medscape.com)
  • The incidence of central retinal artery occlusion in Olmsted County, Minnesota. (medscape.com)
  • Diagnosis and Management of Central Retinal Artery Occlusion. (medscape.com)
  • Clinical characteristics and outcome of current standard management of central retinal artery occlusion. (medscape.com)
  • Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Central Retinal Artery Occlusion: Results of a Prospective and Standardized Medical Examination. (medscape.com)
  • Central Retinal Artery Occlusion and Cerebral Infarction Following Stem Cell Injection for Baldness. (medscape.com)
  • Risk and Risk Periods for Stroke and Acute Myocardial Infarction in Patients with Central Retinal Artery Occlusion. (medscape.com)
  • Ocular neovascularization in eyes with a central retinal artery occlusion or a branch retinal artery occlusion. (medscape.com)
  • The central retinal artery, a branch of the ophthalmic artery, enters the eye through the optic disc and divides into multiple branches to perfuse the inner layers of the retina. (medscape.com)
  • Negative selection of self-reactive immature B cells constitutes a major mechanism of sustaining central tolerance. (gla.ac.uk)
  • As a result, regulatory T cell generation is increased in CCR7-deficient mice, especially at the early neonatal stage, when regulatory T cell induction is particularly critical for the establishment of self-tolerance. (utexas.edu)
  • When individuals having susceptible genetic background are exposed to environmental factors (e.g., iodine, smoking, infections, and stress, and others so far undisclosed), thyroid autoantigens break "self-tolerance" and AITDs develop ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Central tolerance in the Bcell compartment occurs as a result of exposure to autoantigens at several checkpoints during B-cell development. (haematologica.org)
  • This process generates central tolerance to autoantigens. (news-medical.net)
  • however, in the presence of inflammation, tolerance-prone RTEs retain the ability to convert into fully competent effector T cells. (stemcell.com)
  • Here we evaluated how phyB modulates this drought-tolerance response by comparing wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana adult plants to the null phyB in response to water shortage. (uba.ar)
  • many weakly self-reactive T-cells and B-cells manage to escape central tolerance. (scienceblogs.com)
  • However, the molecular mechanisms of plant stress tolerance are not fully understood, and the data available is incomplete and sometimes contradictory. (mdpi.com)
  • The cellular and molecular mechanisms governing thymocyte tolerance induction are incompletely understood. (utexas.edu)
  • The novel functions of CCR4 and CCR7 discovered by our studies provide new insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms that govern T cell tolerance induction and will provide rationale for development of new therapies for autoimmune disorders. (utexas.edu)
  • These studies will illuminate molecular mechanisms that promote thymocyte migration into the medulla and interactions with medullary stromal cells to promote central tolerance, thus broadening our understanding of the etiology of autoimmune diseases. (grantome.com)
  • The aim of this study was to test whether induction of oral tolerance to proteins extracted from inflammatory colon alleviates experimental colitis, and whether oral tolerization mediated by suppressor cells can induce immune tolerance. (elsevier.com)
  • Immune tolerance is critical to prevent the development of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. (stemcell.com)
  • The inflammatory response and mechanisms of generating tolerance, presented in sequence to emphasize the decision making involved in controlling attacks. (coursera.org)
  • This study illustrates tolerance induction by contact-based immune cell interaction in target tissues and highlights potentials of tissue regeneration under antigenic incognito in inflammatory settings. (rupress.org)
  • At the naive T cell stage, two intrinsic checkpoints that actively maintain tolerance are quiescence and ignorance. (nature.com)
  • Fig. 1: Integrated road map for T cell tolerance checkpoints. (nature.com)
  • Recent studies in both humans and experimental rodent models provide new insight into key mechanisms regulating tolerance to self-molecules. (nih.gov)
  • These recent advances are bringing about a paradigm shift in our views about tolerance to self-molecules with tissue-restricted expression. (nih.gov)
  • There is, indeed, mounting evidence that selected antigen-presenting cells (APCs) have the ability to synthesize and express self-molecules, and that such expression is critical for self-tolerance. (nih.gov)
  • A strategy to develop tolerance would also be of value in autoimmune diseases, such as juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus , rheumatoid arthritis , and multiple sclerosis . (medscape.com)
  • When tolerance breaks down, severe, self-destructive diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and multiple sclerosis may develop. (cshlpress.com)
  • In this paper, we place an emphasis on the role of tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells in maintaining stromal and vascular quiescence, and we underscore the importance of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity as a myeloid-driven tumor tolerance mechanism. (hindawi.com)
  • In this proposal, the role of candidate GPCRs in promoting medullary entry and self-tolerance will be evaluated. (grantome.com)
  • However, the central role of α-klotho in metabolism remains largely unexplored. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The current study investigated the potential role of central α-klotho to modulate neuropeptide Y/agouti-related peptide (NPY/AgRP)-expressing neurons, energy balance, and glucose homeostasis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Thus, uveitis-susceptible individuals display a detectable and functionally significant tolerance to their target antigen, in which central mechanisms play a prominent role. (elsevier.com)
  • Central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) is the most important region for morphine-induced reward, and GABAergic system plays an important role on morphine reinforcement. (ac.ir)
  • Our purpose was to evaluate the role of CeA GABA B receptors in morphine tolerance. (ac.ir)
  • 2. Parvardeh S, Moghimi M, Eslami P, Masoudi A. α-Terpineol attenuates morphine-induced physical dependence and tolerance in mice: role of nitric oxide. (ac.ir)
  • 2013, Graduate Research, Investigating the Role of HMX1 in ROS Tolerance During Mitosis and Meiosis in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. (cmich.edu)
  • Investigating the Role of HMX1 in ROS Tolerance Du. (cmich.edu)
  • Lymphokines and the immune response: the central role of interleukin-2. (springer.com)
  • They aimed to prove that tolerance could be artificially induced. (medscape.com)
  • Immune tolerance also does not usually refer to artificially induced immunosuppression by corticosteroids, lymphotoxic chemotherapy agents, sublethal irradiation, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) as well as diabetes is associated with the development of cardiovascular disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • Understanding the mechanisms by which tolerance is induced and circumvented is important for the development of new therapies for autoimmune disorders. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • Al Nahyan recognizes that the future development of tolerance rests largely on the perceptions and messages spread by the global media. (ipsnews.net)
  • These results confirmed the importance of GABA B receptors with in the CeA in morphine tolerance in female rats. (ac.ir)