A visual impairment characterized by the accumulation of fluid under the retina through a defect in the retinal pigment epithelium.
Disorders of the choroid including hereditary choroidal diseases, neoplasms, and other abnormalities of the vascular layer of the uvea.
Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.
Retinal diseases refer to a diverse group of vision-threatening disorders that affect the retina's structure and function, including age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, retinitis pigmentosa, and macular edema, among others.
Separation of the inner layers of the retina (neural retina) from the pigment epithelium. Retinal detachment occurs more commonly in men than in women, in eyes with degenerative myopia, in aging and in aphakia. It may occur after an uncomplicated cataract extraction, but it is seen more often if vitreous humor has been lost during surgery. (Dorland, 27th ed; Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p310-12).
An exudate between the RETINA and CHOROID from various sources including the vitreous cavity, SUBARACHNOID SPACE, or abnormal vessels.
Diseases of the uvea.
The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.
A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.
The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Inflammation of the choroid in which the sensory retina becomes edematous and opaque. The inflammatory cells and exudate may burst through the sensory retina to cloud the vitreous body.
An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
Exudates are fluids, CELLS, or other cellular substances that are slowly discharged from BLOOD VESSELS usually from inflamed tissues. Transudates are fluids that pass through a membrane or squeeze through tissue or into the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE of TISSUES. Transudates are thin and watery and contain few cells or PROTEINS.
Benzenesulfonate derivative used as a systemic hemostatic.
A drug used to reduce hemorrhage in diabetic retinopathy.
The use of green light-producing LASERS to stop bleeding. The green light is selectively absorbed by HEMOGLOBIN, thus triggering BLOOD COAGULATION.
A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.
Therapy using oral or topical photosensitizing agents with subsequent exposure to light.
Drugs that are pharmacologically inactive but when exposed to ultraviolet radiation or sunlight are converted to their active metabolite to produce a beneficial reaction affecting the diseased tissue. These compounds can be administered topically or systemically and have been used therapeutically to treat psoriasis and various types of neoplasms.
Filarial infection of the eyes transmitted from person to person by bites of Onchocerca volvulus-infected black flies. The microfilariae of Onchocerca are thus deposited beneath the skin. They migrate through various tissues including the eye. Those persons infected have impaired vision and up to 20% are blind. The incidence of eye lesions has been reported to be as high as 30% in Central America and parts of Africa.
Pathological processes involving the STOMACH.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.

Detection of retinal metabolic stress resulting from central serous retinopathy. (1/47)

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Serum cortisol and testosterone levels in idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy. (2/47)

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Retinal adaptability loss in serous retinal detachment with central serous chorioretinopathy. (3/47)

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Infrared fundus autofluorescence and central serous chorioretinopathy. (4/47)

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Macular pigment optical density in central serous chorioretinopathy. (5/47)

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Characterization of subretinal fluid leakage in central serous chorioretinopathy. (6/47)

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The effect of intravitreal bevacizumab in patients with acute central serous chorioretinopathy. (7/47)

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Visual functions after laser photocoagulation in central serous chorioretinopathy. (8/47)

The authors evalute the visual functions of patients with unilateral central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) and compare them with their non-affected eye and with a control group. Fourteen patients with CSC treated with direct laser-photocoagulation were examined preoperatively and followed-up, up to 2 years postoperatively. Baseline best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and contrast sensitivity (CS) of both eyes of patients was significantly lower in comparison with the controls. BCVA and CS in affected eyes were significantly lower compared to the fellow eye of patients. The final BCVA and CS of patients did not differ significantly from the controls, except CS of affected eyes in the spatial frequency of 3.69 c/deg. Two years after laser treatment, there were only nonsignificant differences of both photopic full-field electroretinography (phERG) and multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) responses between the treated, the nonaffected eye of the patients and the control group with exception of a significantly longer P1 implicit time in the parafoveolar region in affected eyes. Colour discrimination was normal in 85.8% of affected eyes of the patients. Despite a significant improvement of macular function in CSC eyes, functional examination methods do not prove complete resolution of function 2 years after laser-treatment.  (+info)

Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is a medical condition that affects the eye, specifically the retina and the choroid. The choroid is the layer of blood vessels that supplies oxygen and nutrients to the retina. In CSC, there is a buildup of fluid under the retina, leading to distortion or loss of vision.

The term "central" in CSC refers to the fact that the fluid accumulation occurs in the central part of the retina, called the macula, which is responsible for sharp, detailed vision. The term "serous" indicates that the fluid accumulation is made up of serum, the clear portion of blood.

CSC is more common in middle-aged men and can be associated with stress, corticosteroid use, and certain medical conditions such as hypertension and sleep apnea. In many cases, CSC resolves on its own within a few months without treatment. However, some people may experience recurrent episodes or develop chronic CSC, which can lead to permanent vision loss if left untreated. Treatment options for CSC include laser therapy, photodynamic therapy, and medication.

The choroid is a part of the eye located between the retina and the sclera, which contains a large number of blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the outer layers of the retina. Choroid diseases refer to various medical conditions that affect the health and function of the choroid. Here are some examples:

1. Choroidal neovascularization (CNV): This is a condition where new blood vessels grow from the choroid into the retina, leading to fluid accumulation, bleeding, and scarring. CNV can cause vision loss and is often associated with age-related macular degeneration, myopia, and inflammatory eye diseases.
2. Chorioretinitis: This is an infection or inflammation of the choroid and retina, which can be caused by various microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. Symptoms may include blurred vision, floaters, light sensitivity, and eye pain.
3. Choroidal hemorrhage: This is a rare but serious condition where there is bleeding into the choroid, often caused by trauma, high blood pressure, or blood clotting disorders. It can lead to sudden vision loss and requires urgent medical attention.
4. Choroideremia: This is a genetic disorder that affects the choroid, retina, and optic nerve, leading to progressive vision loss. It is caused by mutations in the CHM gene and primarily affects males.
5. Central serous retinopathy (CSR): This is a condition where fluid accumulates under the retina, often in the macula, causing distortion or blurring of vision. While the exact cause is unknown, CSR is thought to be related to stress, steroid use, and other factors that affect the choroid's ability to regulate fluid.
6. Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV): This is a condition where abnormal blood vessels form in the choroid, leading to serous or hemorrhagic detachment of the retina. PCV is often associated with age-related macular degeneration and can cause vision loss if left untreated.

These are just a few examples of choroidal disorders that can affect vision. If you experience any sudden changes in your vision, it's important to seek medical attention promptly.

Fluorescein angiography is a medical diagnostic procedure used in ophthalmology to examine the blood flow in the retina and choroid, which are the inner layers of the eye. This test involves injecting a fluorescent dye, Fluorescein, into a patient's arm vein. As the dye reaches the blood vessels in the eye, a specialized camera takes rapid sequences of photographs to capture the dye's circulation through the retina and choroid.

The images produced by fluorescein angiography can help doctors identify any damage to the blood vessels, leakage, or abnormal growth of new blood vessels. This information is crucial in diagnosing and managing various eye conditions such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusions, and inflammatory eye diseases.

It's important to note that while fluorescein angiography is a valuable diagnostic tool, it does carry some risks, including temporary side effects like nausea, vomiting, or allergic reactions to the dye. In rare cases, severe adverse reactions can occur, so patients should discuss these potential risks with their healthcare provider before undergoing the procedure.

Retinal diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the retina, which is the light-sensitive tissue located at the back of the eye. The retina is responsible for converting light into electrical signals that are sent to the brain and interpreted as visual images. Retinal diseases can cause vision loss or even blindness, depending on their severity and location in the retina.

Some common retinal diseases include:

1. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD): A progressive disease that affects the central part of the retina called the macula, causing blurred or distorted vision.
2. Diabetic retinopathy: A complication of diabetes that can damage the blood vessels in the retina, leading to vision loss.
3. Retinal detachment: A serious condition where the retina becomes separated from its underlying tissue, requiring immediate medical attention.
4. Macular edema: Swelling or thickening of the macula due to fluid accumulation, which can cause blurred vision.
5. Retinitis pigmentosa: A group of inherited eye disorders that affect the retina's ability to respond to light, causing progressive vision loss.
6. Macular hole: A small break in the macula that can cause distorted or blurry vision.
7. Retinal vein occlusion: Blockage of the retinal veins that can lead to bleeding, swelling, and potential vision loss.

Treatment for retinal diseases varies depending on the specific condition and its severity. Some treatments include medication, laser therapy, surgery, or a combination of these options. Regular eye exams are essential for early detection and treatment of retinal diseases.

Retinal detachment is a serious eye condition that occurs when the retina, a thin layer of tissue at the back of the eye responsible for processing light and sending visual signals to the brain, pulls away from its normal position. This can lead to significant vision loss or even blindness if not promptly treated. Retinal detachment can be caused by various factors such as aging, trauma, eye disease, or an inflammatory condition. Symptoms of retinal detachment may include sudden flashes of light, floaters, a shadow in the peripheral vision, or a curtain-like covering over part of the visual field. Immediate medical attention is necessary to prevent further damage and preserve vision.

Subretinal fluid (SRF) refers to the abnormal accumulation of fluid between the neurosensory retina and the pigment epithelium of the eye. This can occur due to various conditions such as age-related macular degeneration, central serous chorioretinopathy, or retinal detachment. The presence of subretinal fluid can distort vision and may require medical intervention depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition.

Uveal diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the uvea, which is the middle layer of the eye located between the sclera (the white of the eye) and the retina (the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye). The uvea consists of the iris (the colored part of the eye), the ciliary body (which controls the lens), and the choroid (a layer of blood vessels that provides nutrients to the retina).

Uveal diseases can cause inflammation, damage, or tumors in the uvea, leading to symptoms such as eye pain, redness, light sensitivity, blurred vision, and floaters. Some common uveal diseases include uveitis (inflammation of the uvea), choroidal melanoma (a type of eye cancer that affects the choroid), and iris nevus (a benign growth on the iris). Treatment for uveal diseases depends on the specific condition and may include medications, surgery, or radiation therapy.

The choroid is a layer of the eye that contains blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the outer layers of the retina. It lies between the sclera (the white, protective coat of the eye) and the retina (the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye). The choroid is essential for maintaining the health and function of the retina, particularly the photoreceptor cells that detect light and transmit visual signals to the brain. Damage to the choroid can lead to vision loss or impairment.

Indocyanine green (ICG) is a sterile, water-soluble, tricarbocyanine dye that is used as a diagnostic agent in medical imaging. It is primarily used in ophthalmology for fluorescein angiography to examine blood flow in the retina and choroid, and in cardiac surgery to assess cardiac output and perfusion. When injected into the body, ICG binds to plasma proteins and fluoresces when exposed to near-infrared light, allowing for visualization of various tissues and structures. It is excreted primarily by the liver and has a half-life of approximately 3-4 minutes in the bloodstream.

"Fundus Oculi" is a medical term that refers to the back part of the interior of the eye, including the optic disc, macula, fovea, retinal vasculature, and peripheral retina. It is the area where light is focused and then transmitted to the brain via the optic nerve, forming visual images. Examinations of the fundus oculi are crucial for detecting various eye conditions such as diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration, glaucoma, and other retinal diseases. The examination is typically performed using an ophthalmoscope or a specialized camera called a retinal camera.

Chorioretinitis is a medical term that refers to the inflammation of the choroid and the retina, which are both important structures in the eye. The choroid is a layer of blood vessels that supplies oxygen and nutrients to the retina, while the retina is a light-sensitive tissue that converts light into electrical signals that are sent to the brain and interpreted as visual images.

Chorioretinitis can be caused by various infectious and non-infectious conditions, such as bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infections, autoimmune diseases, or cancer. The symptoms of chorioretinitis may include decreased vision, floaters, blurry vision, sensitivity to light, and eye pain. Treatment for chorioretinitis depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, antiviral medications, corticosteroids, or other immunosuppressive therapies. It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you experience any symptoms of chorioretinitis, as timely diagnosis and treatment can help prevent permanent vision loss.

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging technique that uses low-coherence light to capture high-resolution cross-sectional images of biological tissues, particularly the retina and other ocular structures. OCT works by measuring the echo time delay of light scattered back from different depths within the tissue, creating a detailed map of the tissue's structure. This technique is widely used in ophthalmology to diagnose and monitor various eye conditions such as macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma.

Visual acuity is a measure of the sharpness or clarity of vision. It is usually tested by reading an eye chart from a specific distance, such as 20 feet (6 meters). The standard eye chart used for this purpose is called the Snellen chart, which contains rows of letters that decrease in size as you read down the chart.

Visual acuity is typically expressed as a fraction, with the numerator representing the testing distance and the denominator indicating the smallest line of type that can be read clearly. For example, if a person can read the line on the eye chart that corresponds to a visual acuity of 20/20, it means they have normal vision at 20 feet. If their visual acuity is 20/40, it means they must be as close as 20 feet to see what someone with normal vision can see at 40 feet.

It's important to note that visual acuity is just one aspect of overall vision and does not necessarily reflect other important factors such as peripheral vision, depth perception, color vision, or contrast sensitivity.

Exudates and transudates are two types of bodily fluids that can accumulate in various body cavities or tissues as a result of injury, inflammation, or other medical conditions. Here are the medical definitions:

1. Exudates: These are fluids that accumulate due to an active inflammatory process. Exudates contain high levels of protein, white blood cells (such as neutrophils and macrophages), and sometimes other cells like red blood cells or cellular debris. They can be yellow, green, or brown in color and may have a foul odor due to the presence of dead cells and bacteria. Exudates are often seen in conditions such as abscesses, pneumonia, pleurisy, or wound infections.

Examples of exudative fluids include pus, purulent discharge, or inflammatory effusions.

2. Transudates: These are fluids that accumulate due to increased hydrostatic pressure or decreased oncotic pressure within the blood vessels. Transudates contain low levels of protein and cells compared to exudates. They are typically clear and pale yellow in color, with no odor. Transudates can be found in conditions such as congestive heart failure, liver cirrhosis, or nephrotic syndrome.

Examples of transudative fluids include ascites, pleural effusions, or pericardial effusions.

It is essential to differentiate between exudates and transudates because their underlying causes and treatment approaches may differ significantly. Medical professionals often use various tests, such as fluid analysis, to determine whether a fluid sample is an exudate or transudate.

Ethamsylate is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs known as anti-fibrinolytics. It works by helping to prevent the breakdown of blood clots and promoting the healing of damaged blood vessels. Ethamsylate is often used in the treatment of conditions associated with bleeding, such as menorrhagia (heavy menstrual periods) and various types of hemorrhage (severe bleeding).

The chemical name for Ethamsylate is diethylammonium 3,4-dimethoxybenzenesulfonate. It is available in oral tablet form and is typically prescribed to be taken two to three times a day, depending on the severity of the condition being treated. As with any medication, it's important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when taking Ethamsylate.

While Ethamsylate can be effective in treating certain types of bleeding, it is not without potential side effects. Common side effects may include gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. In rare cases, more serious side effects such as allergic reactions, kidney damage, or changes in blood pressure may occur. If you experience any unusual symptoms while taking Ethamsylate, it's important to contact your healthcare provider right away.

Calcium dobesilate is a medication that is used to treat chronic venous insufficiency, which is a condition in which the veins in the legs have difficulty returning blood back to the heart. It works by improving the tone of the veins and reducing fluid leakage from the capillaries.

Chemically, calcium dobesilate is a compound of calcium ions and dobesilate ions. The dobesilate ion is thought to be the active component of the drug, and it is believed to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

Calcium dobesilate is available in oral capsule or tablet form, and it is typically taken two to three times a day. Common side effects of the medication include stomach upset, diarrhea, and skin rash. It should be used with caution in people with kidney disease, as it can increase the risk of kidney damage.

It's important to note that Calcium dobesilate is not FDA approved in the USA but it is available in some other countries. As always, any medication should be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider and following their instructions.

Laser coagulation, also known as laser photocoagulation, is a medical procedure that uses a laser to seal or destroy abnormal blood vessels or tissue. The laser produces a concentrated beam of light that can be precisely focused on the target area. When the laser energy is absorbed by the tissue, it causes the temperature to rise, which leads to coagulation (the formation of a clot) or destruction of the tissue.

In ophthalmology, laser coagulation is commonly used to treat conditions such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and retinal tears or holes. The procedure can help to seal leaking blood vessels, reduce fluid leakage, and prevent further vision loss. It is usually performed as an outpatient procedure and may be repeated if necessary.

In other medical specialties, laser coagulation may be used to control bleeding, destroy tumors, or remove unwanted tissue. The specific technique and parameters of the laser treatment will depend on the individual patient's needs and the condition being treated.

Porphyrins are complex organic compounds that contain four pyrrole rings joined together by methine bridges (=CH-). They play a crucial role in the biochemistry of many organisms, as they form the core structure of various heme proteins and other metalloproteins. Some examples of these proteins include hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and catalases, which are involved in essential processes such as oxygen transport, electron transfer, and oxidative metabolism.

In the human body, porphyrins are synthesized through a series of enzymatic reactions known as the heme biosynthesis pathway. Disruptions in this pathway can lead to an accumulation of porphyrins or their precursors, resulting in various medical conditions called porphyrias. These disorders can manifest as neurological symptoms, skin lesions, and gastrointestinal issues, depending on the specific type of porphyria and the site of enzyme deficiency.

It is important to note that while porphyrins are essential for life, their accumulation in excessive amounts or at inappropriate locations can result in pathological conditions. Therefore, understanding the regulation and function of porphyrin metabolism is crucial for diagnosing and managing porphyrias and other related disorders.

Photochemotherapy is a medical treatment that combines the use of drugs and light to treat various skin conditions. The most common type of photochemotherapy is PUVA (Psoralen + UVA), where the patient takes a photosensitizing medication called psoralen, followed by exposure to ultraviolet A (UVA) light.

The psoralen makes the skin more sensitive to the UVA light, which helps to reduce inflammation and suppress the overactive immune response that contributes to many skin conditions. This therapy is often used to treat severe cases of psoriasis, eczema, and mycosis fungoides (a type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma). It's important to note that photochemotherapy can increase the risk of skin cancer and cataracts, so it should only be administered under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

Photosensitizing agents are substances that, when exposed to light, particularly ultraviolet or visible light, can cause chemical reactions leading to the production of reactive oxygen species. These reactive oxygen species can interact with biological tissues, leading to damage and a variety of phototoxic or photoallergic adverse effects.

Photosensitizing agents are used in various medical fields, including dermatology and oncology. In dermatology, they are often used in the treatment of conditions such as psoriasis and eczema, where a photosensitizer is applied to the skin and then activated with light to reduce inflammation and slow the growth of skin cells.

In oncology, photosensitizing agents are used in photodynamic therapy (PDT), a type of cancer treatment that involves administering a photosensitizer, allowing it to accumulate in cancer cells, and then exposing the area to light. The light activates the photosensitizer, which produces reactive oxygen species that damage the cancer cells, leading to their death.

Examples of photosensitizing agents include porphyrins, chlorophyll derivatives, and certain antibiotics such as tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of the potential for photosensitivity when prescribing these medications and to inform patients of the risks associated with exposure to light.

Onchocerciasis, Ocular is a medical condition that specifically refers to the eye manifestations caused by the parasitic infection, Onchocerca volvulus. Also known as "river blindness," this disease is spread through the bite of infected blackflies.

Ocular onchocerciasis affects various parts of the eye, including the conjunctiva, cornea, iris, and retina. The infection can cause symptoms such as itching, burning, and redness of the eyes. Over time, it may lead to more serious complications like punctate keratitis (small, scattered opacities on the cornea), cataracts, glaucoma, and ultimately, blindness.

The infection is diagnosed through a skin snip or blood test, which can detect the presence of microfilariae (the larval stage of the parasite) or antibodies against the parasite. Treatment typically involves administering oral medications such as ivermectin, which kills the microfilariae and reduces the risk of eye damage. However, it does not kill the adult worms, so multiple doses are often required to control the infection. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove advanced ocular lesions.

Stomach diseases refer to a range of conditions that affect the stomach, a muscular sac located in the upper part of the abdomen and is responsible for storing and digesting food. These diseases can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, indigestion, loss of appetite, and bloating. Some common stomach diseases include:

1. Gastritis: Inflammation of the stomach lining that can cause pain, irritation, and ulcers.
2. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): A condition where stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing heartburn and damage to the esophageal lining.
3. Peptic ulcers: Open sores that develop on the lining of the stomach or duodenum, often caused by bacterial infections or long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
4. Stomach cancer: Abnormal growth of cancerous cells in the stomach, which can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated.
5. Gastroparesis: A condition where the stomach muscles are weakened or paralyzed, leading to difficulty digesting food and emptying the stomach.
6. Functional dyspepsia: A chronic disorder characterized by symptoms such as pain, bloating, and fullness in the upper abdomen, without any identifiable cause.
7. Eosinophilic esophagitis: A condition where eosinophils, a type of white blood cell, accumulate in the esophagus, causing inflammation and difficulty swallowing.
8. Stomal stenosis: Narrowing of the opening between the stomach and small intestine, often caused by scar tissue or surgical complications.
9. Hiatal hernia: A condition where a portion of the stomach protrudes through the diaphragm into the chest cavity, causing symptoms such as heartburn and difficulty swallowing.

These are just a few examples of stomach diseases, and there are many other conditions that can affect the stomach. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing these conditions and preventing complications.

The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive layer of tissue in the eye of many vertebrates and some cephalopods. It receives light that has been focused by the cornea and lens, converts it into neural signals, and sends these to the brain via the optic nerve. The retina contains several types of photoreceptor cells including rods (which handle vision in low light) and cones (which are active in bright light and are capable of color vision).

In medical terms, any pathological changes or diseases affecting the retinal structure and function can lead to visual impairment or blindness. Examples include age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, and retinitis pigmentosa among others.

Capillary permeability refers to the ability of substances to pass through the walls of capillaries, which are the smallest blood vessels in the body. These tiny vessels connect the arterioles and venules, allowing for the exchange of nutrients, waste products, and gases between the blood and the surrounding tissues.

The capillary wall is composed of a single layer of endothelial cells that are held together by tight junctions. The permeability of these walls varies depending on the size and charge of the molecules attempting to pass through. Small, uncharged molecules such as water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide can easily diffuse through the capillary wall, while larger or charged molecules such as proteins and large ions have more difficulty passing through.

Increased capillary permeability can occur in response to inflammation, infection, or injury, allowing larger molecules and immune cells to enter the surrounding tissues. This can lead to swelling (edema) and tissue damage if not controlled. Decreased capillary permeability, on the other hand, can lead to impaired nutrient exchange and tissue hypoxia.

Overall, the permeability of capillaries is a critical factor in maintaining the health and function of tissues throughout the body.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

... (CSC or CSCR), also known as central serous retinopathy (CSR), is an eye disease that causes ... Recently, central serous chorioretinopathy has been understood to be part of the pachychoroid spectrum. In pachychoroid ... "Retinal Physician - Central Serous Chorioretinopathy and Topical NSAIDs". Retinal Physician. Archived from the original on 30 ... Kanyange ML, De Laey JJ (2002). "Long-term follow-up of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR)". Bulletin de la Société Belge ...
Abouammoh, Marwan A. (2015). "Advances in the treatment of central serous chorioretinopathy". Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology. ... also known as central serous chorioretinopathy, CSC). This should be borne in mind when treating patients with optic neuritis. ... "Corticosteroids and central serous chorioretinopathy". Ophthalmology. 109 (10): 1834-7. doi:10.1016/S0161-6420(02)01117-X. PMID ... Clinical and experimental evidence indicates that corticosteroids can cause permanent eye damage by inducing central serous ...
Haimovici R, Gragoudas ES, Duker JS, Sjaarda RN, Eliott D (October 1997). "Central serous chorioretinopathy associated with ... Nasal corticosteroids may be associated with central serous retinopathy. Beclometasone is mainly a glucocorticoid. ...
Central serous chorioretinopathy: CSCR Causes round or oval scotoma. Macular pucker: Macular pucker also known as an epiretinal ... Chart 5 has central white dot and horizontal white lines on black background 5mm apart, which allow detecting metamorphopsia. ... Chart 6 is similar to chart 5, but lines and central dot is in black on white background. The lines near to fixation points are ... The Amsler grid, used since 1945, is a grid of horizontal and vertical lines used to monitor a person's central visual field. ...
... is often prescribed for people with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). However, the most recent and largest ... "Eplerenone does not improve vision in people with central serous chorioretinopathy". NIHR Evidence (Plain English summary). ... January 2020). "Eplerenone for chronic central serous chorioretinopathy in patients with active, previously untreated disease ...
Karim SP, Adelman RA (2013). "Profile of verteporfin and its potential for the treatment of central serous chorioretinopathy". ... Verteporfin is also used off-label for the treatment of central serous retinopathy. Verteporfin is usually injected ...
"Verteporfin (Visudyne®) photo-dynamic therapy in the management of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy" (PDF). Northern ...
Chorioretinopathy: In Central serous chorioretinopathy, using ICGA multifocal areas of choroidal hyperpermiability can be ... ICGA allows better visualization of lesions in serpiginous chorioretinopathy, punctate inner chorioretinopathy, acute zonal ... It is also useful in diagnosing and classifying CNV associated to serous pigment epithelial detachments in Nonexudative macular ... In birdshoot chorioretinopathy, lesions appear as symmetrical round or oval hypoflourescent spots. ...
In about 25% of all patients with a chronic central serous chorioretinopathy, a proliferation of blood vessels from the choroid ... The best known representative of the pachychoroid disease spectrum, central serous chorioretinopathy, is the fourth most common ... central serous chorioretinopathy (CCS) develops. In this stage, patients often have blurred vision and report a reduction in ... "Long-term Visual Outcomes and Causes of Vision Loss in Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy" (PDF). Ophthalmology. 126 (4 ...
Fluids may also accumulate in a choroid spaces under the retina, causing central serous retinopathy or chorioretinopathy and ... Central nervous system dysfunction and extensive skeletal anomalies suggest a role for Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate, ...
... may refer to: Complexe sportif Claude-Robillard Central serous chorioretinopathy Carbon selective catalytic reduction This ...
Choroidal vascular disorders which cause visual symptoms, including central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR), choroidal ...
... hyperpermeable vessels leading to central serous chorioretinopathy among other conditions. Simultaneous stereo fundus photos ... The main structures that can be visualized on a fundus photo are the central and peripheral retina, optic disc and macula. ... which then passes through a central aperture to form an annulus, before passing through the camera objective lens and through ...
Central core disease Central diabetes insipidus Central nervous system protozoal infections Central serous chorioretinopathy ... Central type neurofibromatosis Centromeric instability immunodeficiency syndrome Centronuclear myopathy Centrotemporal epilepsy ... g Congenital cardiovascular disorder Congenital cardiovascular malformations Congenital cardiovascular shunt Congenital central ... minor Choreoacanthocytosis amyotrophic Choreoathetosis familial paroxysmal Choriocarcinoma Chorioretinitis Chorioretinopathy ...
... a printed security code on payment cards such as credits and debit cards Central serous chorioretinopathy, an eye disease ...
Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC or CSCR), also known as central serous retinopathy (CSR), is an eye disease that causes ... Recently, central serous chorioretinopathy has been understood to be part of the pachychoroid spectrum. In pachychoroid ... "Retinal Physician - Central Serous Chorioretinopathy and Topical NSAIDs". Retinal Physician. Archived from the original on 30 ... Kanyange ML, De Laey JJ (2002). "Long-term follow-up of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR)". Bulletin de la Société Belge ...
... is a disease in which a serous detachment of the neurosensory retina occurs over an area of leakage from the choriocapillaris ... encoded search term (Central Serous Chorioretinopathy) and Central Serous Chorioretinopathy What to Read Next on Medscape ... Central Serous Chorioretinopathy International Group. Validation of central serous chorioretinopathy multimodal imaging-based ... Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is a disease in which a serous detachment of the neurosensory retina occurs over an ...
Central Serous Chorioretinopathy. The exact cause of central serous chorioretinopathy is unknown but it has been suggested that ... Loss of the tight junctions permits fluid from the choroid to pass through the pigment epithelial layer and produce a serous ...
eyes, 50.0%; P = 0.020). Among the baseline characteristics, serous pigment epithelial detachment (B = - 2.580, P = 0.032) and ... Thinner choroid and serous pigment epithelial detachment appear protective for recurrences. ... for central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Methods This retrospective, interventional study investigated the medical records ... Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is characterized by serous neurosensory retinal detachment at the posterior pole due to ...
... (CSC), also known as central serous retinopathy (CSR) is an ... This is caused by a leakage in the central macula which allows fluid to invade the subretinal tissues; however the reason for ...
Here is a quick mnemonic "MACULA EYE" to remember about Central Serous Chorioretinopathy ... M - Males between the ages of 20 and 50 years primarily affected by Central Serous Chorioretinopathy. ... L - Leakage of serous fluid from the choroid leads to detachments.. *A - Acute detachments are difficult to visualize with a ... U - Unknown cause of central serous chorioretinopathy.. * ... Home - Medical Mnemonics - Central Serous Chorioretinopathy - ...
... is a disease in which a serous detachment of the neurosensory retina occurs over an area of leakage from the choriocapillaris ... encoded search term (Central Serous Chorioretinopathy) and Central Serous Chorioretinopathy What to Read Next on Medscape ... Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is a disease in which a serous detachment of the neurosensory retina occurs over an ... Central Serous Chorioretinopathy. Updated: Feb 21, 2013 * Author: Kean Theng Oh, MD; Chief Editor: Hampton Roy, Sr, MD more... ...
The standardization of the diagnosis and classification of central serous chorioretinopathy represents a major step forward in ... Central serous chorioretinopathy management. Though there is no standardized approach to central serous chorioretinopathy ... Central serous chorioretinopathy is an old condition getting a lot of attention recently. As our understanding of central ... The self-limiting unilateral macular serous retinal detachment is the most common form of central serous chorioretinopathy, but ...
Treatment for Central Serous Chorioretinopathy (CSR) is available at our Exton and Chester County, PA-area practice. CCEC can ... Central Serous Chorioretinopathy (CSR). Central serous chorioretinopathy is a retinal condition in which fluid develops ... Blind spot in central vision. Central serous chorioretinopathy affects men greater than women between the ages of 25-45. Stress ... Central serous chorioretinopathy often resolves by itself without treatment over 3-6 months. If the abnormal fluid doesnt go ...
What is Central Serous Chorioretinopathy?. Central Serous Chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is a condition caused by fluid leakage at ... Symptoms often include acute blurring of central vision and distortion (straight lines appear wavy). There may also be a change ...
Causes of Central Serous Chorioretinopathy: It is not known what causes CSCR but the condition has been associated with stress ... Home , Patient Care , Conditions and Treatment , Central Serous Chorioretinopathy , Causes and Risk Factors ... Central Serous Chorioretinopathy - Causes and Risk Factors What causes CSCR?. It is not known exactly what causes CSCR, but the ...
... on macular function in cases of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Design Interventional case series. Methods A total of ... Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC), which is characterized by focal serous retinal detachment in the macular area, is often ... Microperimetric Changes After Photodynamic Therapy for Central Serous Chorioretinopathy. Purpose To evaluate the effect of half ... Clinical Characteristics of Cases of Central Serous Chorioretinopathy Before and After Half-Dose Photodynamic Therapy ...
... in patients with acute and chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Methods: : In this prospective study eyes with acute ...
... EANDI, ... functional parameters such as visual acuity and retinal sensitivity in patients with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy ( ... functional parameters such as visual acuity and retinal sensitivity in patients with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy ( ... The following microperimetric parameters were applied: central 10-degree visual field, 4-2-1 strategy, 61 stimulation spots, ...
The significance of pigment epithelial detachment in central serous chorioretinopathy. In: European Journal of Ophthalmology. ... The significance of pigment epithelial detachment in central serous chorioretinopathy. Argyrios Chronopoulos*, Vinodh ... Corticosteroid use was not correlated with the onset of central serous chorioretinopathy (Students t-test, p = 0.0001, chi- ... Corticosteroid use was not correlated with the onset of central serous chorioretinopathy (Students t-test, p = 0.0001, chi- ...
Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment induces extra extreme macular capillary adjustments than central serous chorioretinopathy. ...
Age-related Macular Degeneration and Central Serous Chorioretinopathy Have Overlapping Genetics Using a meta-analysis and ... 3 novel loci for central serous chorioretinopathy were recently identified, and 2 previously reported CSC loci were confirmed. ...
Risk Factors and Outcomes of Choroidal Neovascularization Secondary to Central Serous Chorioretinopathy. / Lee, Ga In; Kim, A. ... Risk Factors and Outcomes of Choroidal Neovascularization Secondary to Central Serous Chorioretinopathy. In: Scientific Reports ... Risk Factors and Outcomes of Choroidal Neovascularization Secondary to Central Serous Chorioretinopathy. Scientific Reports. ... title = "Risk Factors and Outcomes of Choroidal Neovascularization Secondary to Central Serous Chorioretinopathy", ...
Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Patients with Central Serous Chorioretinopathy: A Review ...
Central serous choroidopathy is a disease that causes fluid to build up under the retina. This is the back part of the inner ... Central serous chorioretinopathy. In: Sadda SVR, Sarraf D, Freund KB et al, eds. Ryans Retina. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... Treatment of central serous chorioretinopathy with topical NSAIDs. Clin Ophthalmol. 2019;13:1543-1548. PMID: 31616132 pubmed. ... Kalevar A, Agarwal A. Central serous chorioretinopathy. In: Yanoff M, Duker JS, eds. Ophthalmology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...
Change of regional choroid thickness after reduced-fluence photodynamic therapy for chronic central serous chorioretinopathy. ... Change of regional choroid thickness after reduced-fluence photodynamic therapy for chronic central serous chorioretinopathy. ...
Central Serous Chorioretinopathy. *Chalazion. *Chorioretinal Scars. *Choroidal Neovascular Membranes (CNVM). *Chronic ...
... central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC), G.V. BRATKO, I.Yu. EFREMOVA, M.A. MALINOVSKAYA, macular edema in central serous ... Tag › macular edema in central serous chorioretinopathy (ME in CSC) The first experience of subthreshold microimpulse laser ... and in combination with injections of enriched autologous platelet plasma in treatment of central serous chorioretinopathy. ... and in combination with injections of enriched autologous platelet plasma in treatment of central serous chorioretinopathy ...
Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is a retinal disorder that often affects the vision of middle-aged people yet the ... Genome-Wide Association Study to Identify a New Susceptibility Locus for Central Serous Chorioretinopathy in the Japanese ... Genome-Wide Association Study to Identify a New Susceptibility Locus for Central Serous Chorioretinopathy in the Japanese ...
Andrew Lotery is an ophthalmologist with major research interests in age-related macular degeneration, central serous chorio- ... Andrew Lotery is an ophthalmologist with major research interests in age-related macular degeneration, central serous chorio- ... I am currently leading a UK multi-centre clinical trial evaluating photodynamic laser treatment for central serous ... Clinical efficacy and mechanistic evaluation of Eplerenone for central serious chorio-retinopathy (VICI randomised trial) ...
The Genetics of Central Serous Chorioretinopathy. 372. Thielen, J. (2019) Functional and neurochemical contribution of the ... NeuroExercise: The effects of exercise on cognition, central and cerebral hemodynamics in mild cognitive impairment ... Crossing barriers: Delivery strategies for viral-based therapy targeting the central nervous system ...
Incident and Recurrent Cases of Central Serous Chorioretinopathy, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2001-2018. ... Incident and Recurrent Cases of Central Serous Chorioretinopathy, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2001-2018 ...
Incident and Recurrent Cases of Central Serous Chorioretinopathy, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2001-2018. ... Incident and Recurrent Cases of Central Serous Chorioretinopathy, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2001-2018 ...
Incident and Recurrent Cases of Central Serous Chorioretinopathy, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2001-2018. ... Incident and Recurrent Cases of Central Serous Chorioretinopathy, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2001-2018 ...
  • When the disorder is active it is characterized by leakage of fluid under the retina that has a propensity to accumulate under the central macula. (wikipedia.org)
  • A blurred or gray spot in the central visual field is common when the retina is detached. (wikipedia.org)
  • Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is a disease in which a serous detachment of the neurosensory retina occurs over an area of leakage from the choriocapillaris through the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). (medscape.com)
  • Loss of the tight junctions permits fluid from the choroid to pass through the pigment epithelial layer and produce a serous detachment of the neuro retina. (optos.com)
  • Central serous chorioretinopathy is a retinal condition in which fluid develops underneath the retina and detaches a small portion of the macula. (chestercountyeyecare.com)
  • Central serous choroidopathy is a disease that causes fluid to build up under the retina . (medlineplus.gov)
  • A 52 year-old man was referred to Illinois Retina for suspected central serous chorioretinopathy. (illinoisretina.com)
  • Focal Choroidal Excavation (FCE) was first described as an unusual finding on OCT by Jampol and associates in 2006,1 characterized as a localized excavation in the choroid with normal appearing overlying retina.2 It has been noted to exist concurrently with central serous or in patients with a history of CSC at a high prevalence.1 One of the most commonly reported complications associated with FCE is choroidal neovascularization. (illinoisretina.com)
  • In this disease, there is pooling of fluid under the central retina (the macula). (medthority.com)
  • The exact cause of central serous chorioretinopathy is unknown but it has been suggested that it is due to intense vasospasm in the choriocapillaris beneath the macular area. (optos.com)
  • Serous neurosensory macular detachment in patients with CSC leads to visual symptoms involving metamorphopsia, blurred vision, and micropsia in a relatively young and middle-aged population [ 1 - 5 ]. (plos.org)
  • The self-limiting unilateral macular serous retinal detachment is the most common form of central serous chorioretinopathy, but a wide variability of presentations exist. (eyesoneyecare.com)
  • To evaluate the effect of half-dose verteporfin photodynamic therapy (PDT) on macular function in cases of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). (entokey.com)
  • Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC), which is characterized by focal serous retinal detachment in the macular area, is often accompanied by pinpoint leakage from the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) that is seen on fluorescein angiography. (entokey.com)
  • The value of testing macular function by central microperimetry in chronic CSC has been shown extensively. (entokey.com)
  • Abstract PURPOSE: To find possible correlations between the morphologic macular changes revealed by fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and the functional parameters such as visual acuity and retinal sensitivity in patients with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). (unito.it)
  • Andrew Lotery is an ophthalmologist with major research interests in age-related macular degeneration, central serous chorio-retinopathy and inherited retinal diseases. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • I am currently leading a UK multi-centre clinical trial evaluating photodynamic laser treatment for central serous chorioretinopathy funded by the NIHR and an international research project funded by the Wellcome Trust evaluating machine learning as a tool to better understand age related macular degeneration (AMD). (southampton.ac.uk)
  • A Kyoto University-led team of researchers found an allele that increases a person's risk of age-related macular degeneration is also protective against choroidal thickening, which occurs as part of central serous chorioretinopathy. (genomeweb.com)
  • Her specialist interests include inherited retinal dystrophies, age-related macular degeneration, macular diseases including central serous chorioretinopathy, retinal telangiectasia, and toxic retinopathies as well as the impact of ocular diseases on sleep wake/mood. (ouh.nhs.uk)
  • 2 , 3 ] The 25-item NEI-VFQ-25 is preferred for evaluating the outcome of treatment of several eye diseases including cataract, keratoconus, glaucoma, age related macular degeneration, macular hole, epiretinal membrane (ERM), central serous chorioretinopathy, diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion and retinal detachment. (researchsquare.com)
  • 1. History of or presence of retinal disease other than GA: diabetic retinopathy, central serous chorioretinopathy, inherited retinal degeneration, toxic maculopathies (ie, hydroxychloroquine maculopathy), arterial and venous occlusive disease, macular hole that is present or has been previously repaired, or choroidal melanoma. (who.int)
  • Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC or CSCR), also known as central serous retinopathy (CSR), is an eye disease that causes visual impairment, often temporary, usually in one eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) may be divided into 2 distinct clinical presentations. (medscape.com)
  • Patients with classic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) (characterized by focal leaks) have a 40-50% risk of recurrence in the same eye. (medscape.com)
  • Central Serous Chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is a condition caused by fluid leakage at the macula. (theretinaandmaculacentre.com.au)
  • We identified clinical characteristics and risk factors of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in eyes with prior episode of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). (ewha.ac.kr)
  • A 59 year old female presented in our offices with blurred vision during "a couple of months" and was diagnosed with an acute episode of Central serous chorioretinopathy. (od-os.com)
  • Predictors of treatment response to intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy for choroidal neovascularisation secondary to chronic central serous chorioretinopathy. (nih.gov)
  • Phototherapy Effective for Pigment Epithelial Detachments For treating pigment epithelial detachments in chronic central serous chorioretinopathy, photodynamic therapy works better than micropulse laser. (medscape.com)
  • Award for the second best oral communication: "Study of the characteristics, evolution and response to the treatment of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy. (icrcat.com)
  • Chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is a relatively frequent eye disease that often occurs in patients in the professionally active age range. (medthority.com)
  • Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC), also known as central serous retinopathy (CSR) is an eye disorder characterized by a sudden onset of blurred or distorted vision, usually in only one eye, that is accompanied by a blind spot in the center of the visual field. (retinamaculamd.com)
  • Originally described in the 19th century as a recurrent central retinitis, then capillarospastic central retinitis, central angiospastic retinopathy and central serous retinopathy. (eyesoneyecare.com)
  • Acute-onset central serous retinopathy after immunization with COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Accumulation of fluid results in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSR). (wikipedia.org)
  • L - Leakage of serous fluid from the choroid leads to detachments. (medicalsupernotes.com)
  • The various subtypes of central serous chorioretinopathy based on the chronicity/extent of subretinal fluid and presence of retinal/RPE changes. (eyesoneyecare.com)
  • Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is a self-limiting disease that typically presents with unilateral blurred vision and metamorphopsia (image distortion). (ndnr.com)
  • Purpose: To investigate the significance of the presence and form of pigment epithelial detachment in the course of central serous chorioretinopathy as well as corticosteroid use as a risk in our patient cohort. (uni-luebeck.de)
  • Material and methods: Retrospective, single center study of central serous chorioretinopathy patients between January 2013 and January 2019 recording corticosteroid use prior to onset and presence and type of pigment epithelial detachment (flat-irregular, dome-shaped, none) in relationship to disease course. (uni-luebeck.de)
  • Symptoms often include acute blurring of central vision and distortion (straight lines appear wavy). (theretinaandmaculacentre.com.au)
  • Conclusion: A small, flat-irregular pigment epithelial detachment could be a marker for chronic or recurrent central serous chorioretinopathy, whereas the absence of pigment epithelial detachment could favor acute central serous chorioretinopathy. (uni-luebeck.de)
  • Among the baseline characteristics, serous pigment epithelial detachment (B = - 2.580, P = 0.032) and thick-choroid (B = 1.980, P = 0.019) were significantly associated with recurrence. (plos.org)
  • Thinner choroid and serous pigment epithelial detachment appear protective for recurrences. (plos.org)
  • Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is characterized by serous neurosensory retinal detachment at the posterior pole due to leakage from the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) [ 1 - 5 ]. (plos.org)
  • Persistent serous retinal detachment in a patient with chronic CSC can lead to permanent visual impairment due to RPE decompensation and disruption of the photoreceptor ellipsoid zone [ 1 , 2 , 12 , 13 ]. (plos.org)
  • In 2020, the Central Serous Chorioretinopathy International Group created specific diagnostic criteria (see below) to accurately diagnose central serous chorioretinopathy. (eyesoneyecare.com)
  • Two major criteria, along with one of three minor criteria must be fulfilled to diagnose central serous chorioretinopathy. (eyesoneyecare.com)
  • A dilated comprehensive eye exam is necessary to diagnose central serous chorioretinopathy. (chestercountyeyecare.com)
  • Your health care provider can most often diagnose central serous choroidopathy by dilating the eye and performing an eye exam. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Kang HM, Choi JH, Koh HJ, Lee SC (2020) Long-term treatment response after intravitreal bevacizumab injections for patients with central serous chorioretinopathy. (plos.org)
  • Serous retinal detachments typically resolve spontaneously in most patients, with most patients (80-90%) returning to 20/25 or better vision. (medscape.com)
  • In these studies BCVA is the standard way to measure visual performance, but it does not describe the full extent of the functional impact on visual performance in patients with compromised central visual fields attributable to chronic CSC. (entokey.com)
  • Results: We analyzed 53 eyes of 53 consecutive central serous chorioretinopathy patients treated in our department. (uni-luebeck.de)
  • Dès le début de la pandémie, l'établissement hospitalier et universitaire d'Oran (EHUO), centre de soins de première ligne, d'une capacité 780 lits desservant environ 2 millions d'habitants s'est complètement réorganisé, en aménageant principalement des circuits pour le tri des patients « suspects Covid 19 ¼. (bvsalud.org)
  • After treatment, BCVA and central 10-degree, 20-degree, paracentral 10-degree to 20-degree, and PDT laser spot area retinal sensitivity were improved significantly. (entokey.com)
  • Evaluation of retinal sensitivity and central retinal field function using microperimetry, which is 1 of the functional evaluation techniques, is more informative than BCVA testing alone. (entokey.com)
  • The mean (SD) best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 56.7 (18.2) letters and the mean (SD) central retinal thickness (CRT) was 395.6 (140.5)µm at baseline. (bmj.com)
  • A 54-year-old woman presented to our institute with neovascular glaucoma complicating an ischemic central vein occlusion. (od-os.com)
  • En décembre 2019, la population de Wuhan, une grande ville chinoise de 11 millions d'habitants, est atteinte par une pneumonie virale extrêmement contagieuse due au coronavirus SARSCoV-2. (bvsalud.org)
  • To investigate long-term treatment response after intravitreal bevacizumab injections (IVBIs) for central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). (plos.org)
  • Central serous chorioretinopathy often resolves by itself without treatment over 3-6 months. (chestercountyeyecare.com)
  • A small number of people will have complications from laser treatment that impair their central vision. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Treatment of central serous chorioretinopathy with topical NSAIDs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The microsecond pulsing laser treatment was planned using en face OCT image. (od-os.com)
  • Scholarship from the Catalan Society of Ophthalmology for the best research work: "Prospective, randomized and controlled study to assess the effectiveness of current treatment regimens in central serous chorioretinopathy. (icrcat.com)
  • Half-dose verteporfin PDT induced a significant increase in central 10-degree, 20-degree, paracentral 10-degree to 20-degree, and also PDT laser spot area retinal sensitivity over 6 months in cases of CSC. (entokey.com)
  • Rarely, people develop permanent scars that damage their central vision. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Recently, central serous chorioretinopathy has been understood to be part of the pachychoroid spectrum. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3 The clinical criteria for heat exhaustion include a core body temperature greater than 100.5 ºF/38 ºC and less than 104 ºF/40 ºC at the time of or immediately after exertion and/or heat exposure, physical collapse at the time of or shortly after physical exertion, and no significant dysfunction of the central nervous system. (health.mil)
  • Clinical Characteristics and Multimodal Imaging Findings of Central Serous Chorioretinopathy in Women versus Men. (nih.gov)
  • Central serous chorioretinopathy affects men greater than women between the ages of 25-45. (chestercountyeyecare.com)
  • Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is a retinal disorder that often affects the vision of middle-aged people yet the molecular mechanisms of CSC remain unknown. (tokushima-u.ac.jp)
  • The standardization of the diagnosis and classification of central serous chorioretinopathy represents a major step forward in improving our management of the condition. (eyesoneyecare.com)
  • Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (ucsf.edu)
  • Venous overload choroidopathy: a hypothetical framework for central serous chorioretinopathy and allied disorders. (medlineplus.gov)
  • He has had increasing central visual distortion in his left eye for one month. (illinoisretina.com)
  • The etiology of central serous chorioretinopathy is not well defined but choroidal dysfunction is thought to play a key role in its pathogenesis. (eyesoneyecare.com)
  • If any central nervous system dysfunction develops (e.g., dizziness or headache), it is mild and rapidly resolves with rest and cooling measures (e.g., removal of unnecessary clothing, relocation to a cooled environment, and oral hydration with cooled, slightly hypotonic solutions). (health.mil)
  • Heat stroke is a debilitating illness characterized clinically by severe hyperthermia (i.e., a core body temperature of 104 ºF/40 ºC or greater), profound central nervous system dysfunction (e.g., delirium, seizures, or coma), and additional organ and tissue damage. (health.mil)
  • Central serous chorioretinopathy is an old condition getting a lot of attention recently. (eyesoneyecare.com)
  • Stress is thought to play a contributing role and studies show that people with "Type A" personalities, those who tend to be more stressed and anxious, are more likely to develop central serous chorioretinopathy. (chestercountyeyecare.com)
  • Early studies found that people with aggressive, "type A" personalities who are under a lot of stress may be more likely to develop central serous choroidopathy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Along with the above diagnostic criteria, the Central Serous Chorioretinopathy International Group created a classification system for the various forms of this disease. (eyesoneyecare.com)
  • In a case-control study, they confirmed the association between the polymorphisms and central serous chorioretinopathy. (genomeweb.com)