Central Pattern Generators: Networks of nerve cells that control the firing patterns of MOTOR NEURONS to produce rhythmic movements such as MASTICATION; WALKING; SWIMMING; RESPIRATION; and PERISTALSIS.Instinct: Stereotyped patterns of response, characteristic of a given species, that have been phylogenetically adapted to a specific type of situation.Ganglia, Invertebrate: Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.Periodicity: The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Brachyura: An infraorder of chiefly marine, largely carnivorous CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, including the genera Cancer, Uca, and Callinectes.Leeches: Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.Nephropidae: Family of large marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA. These are called clawed lobsters because they bear pincers on the first three pairs of legs. The American lobster and Cape lobster in the genus Homarus are commonly used for food.Tritonia Sea Slug: A genus of large marine sea slugs in the family Tritoniidae found in the northern Pacific Ocean. They are used in neurological research.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Lymnaea: A genus of dextrally coiled freshwater snails that includes some species of importance as intermediate hosts of parasitic flukes.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Locusta migratoria: A species of migratory Old World locusts, in the family ACRIDIDAE, that are important pests in Africa and Asia.Lampreys: Common name for the only family (Petromyzontidae) of eellike fish in the order Petromyzontiformes. They are jawless but have a sucking mouth with horny teeth.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Mollusca: A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.Palinuridae: A family of marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, comprising the clawless lobsters. They are found in tropical and subtropical waters and characterized by short spines along the length of the tail and body.Radionuclide Generators: Separation systems containing a relatively long-lived parent radionuclide which produces a short-lived daughter in its decay scheme. The daughter can be periodically extracted (milked) by means of an appropriate eluting agent.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Nervous System Physiological Phenomena: Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Biological Clocks: The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.Octopamine: An alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic amine, biosynthesized from tyramine in the CNS and platelets and also in invertebrate nervous systems. It is used to treat hypotension and as a cardiotonic. The natural D(-) form is more potent than the L(+) form in producing cardiovascular adrenergic responses. It is also a neurotransmitter in some invertebrates.Hirudo medicinalis: A species of European freshwater LEECHES used for BLOODLETTING in ancient times and also for LEECHING in modern times.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Respiratory Physiological Processes: Biological actions and events that support the functions of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.Aplysia: An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.Pleurobranchaea: A genus of side-gilled sea slugs in the family Pleurobranchidae, superorder GASTROPODA. They are opportunistic voracious feeders but prefer the sea anemone.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Cheek: The part of the face that is below the eye and to the side of the nose and mouth.Pylorus: The region of the STOMACH at the junction with the DUODENUM. It is marked by the thickening of circular muscle layers forming the pyloric sphincter to control the opening and closure of the lumen.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Laryngeal Nerves: Branches of the VAGUS NERVE. The superior laryngeal nerves originate near the nodose ganglion and separate into external branches, which supply motor fibers to the cricothyroid muscles, and internal branches, which carry sensory fibers. The RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE originates more caudally and carries efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid. The laryngeal nerves and their various branches also carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.Decerebrate State: A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Efferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.Respiratory Center: Part of the brain located in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA and PONS. It receives neural, chemical and hormonal signals, and controls the rate and depth of respiratory movements of the DIAPHRAGM and other respiratory muscles.Escape Reaction: Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Deglutition: The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Laryngeal Muscles: The striated muscle groups which move the LARYNX as a whole or its parts, such as altering tension of the VOCAL CORDS, or size of the slit (RIMA GLOTTIDIS).Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Ganglia: Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Hermissenda: A genus of marine sea slugs in the family Glaucidae, superorder GASTROPODA, found on the Pacific coast of North America. They are used in behavioral and neurological laboratory studies.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Digestive System Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Grasshoppers: Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Electrophysiological Phenomena: The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Strychnine: An alkaloid found in the seeds of STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA. It is a competitive antagonist at glycine receptors and thus a convulsant. It has been used as an analeptic, in the treatment of nonketotic hyperglycinemia and sleep apnea, and as a rat poison.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.N-Methylaspartate: An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Vibrissae: Stiff hairs projecting from the face around the nose of most mammals, acting as touch receptors.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Nonlinear Dynamics: The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.Proprioception: Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Gait: Manner or style of walking.Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Mastication: The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Batrachoidiformes: An order of bottom fishes with short, small, spinous dorsal fins. It is comprised of one family (Batrachoididae) and about 70 species.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.High Vocal Center: Nucleus in the NEOSTRIATUM of bird brains that sends signals for song production and receives auditory input. In some adult SONGBIRDS, research has shown that the size of this nucleus changes seasonally and that it exhibits neurogenesis.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Actinium: Actinium. A trivalent radioactive element and the prototypical member of the actinide family. It has the atomic symbol Ac, atomic number 89, and atomic weight 227.0278. Its principal isotope is 227 and decays primarily by beta-emission.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Mechanoreceptors: Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione: A potent excitatory amino acid antagonist with a preference for non-NMDA iontropic receptors. It is used primarily as a research tool.Iridium: A metallic element with the atomic symbol Ir, atomic number 77, and atomic weight 192.22.Skinfold Thickness: The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)

The effects of vestibular stimulation rate and magnitude of acceleration on central pattern generation for chest wall kinematics in preterm infants. (1/24)

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Neuropeptide modulation of microcircuits. (2/24)

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Sensory regulation of quadrupedal locomotion: a top-down or bottom-up control system? (3/24)

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DCC mediated axon guidance of spinal interneurons is essential for normal locomotor central pattern generator function. (4/24)

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Episodic swimming in the larval zebrafish is generated by a spatially distributed spinal network with modular functional organization. (5/24)

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Neuronal activity in the isolated mouse spinal cord during spontaneous deletions in fictive locomotion: insights into locomotor central pattern generator organization. (6/24)

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Memory trace in feeding neural circuitry underlying conditioned taste aversion in Lymnaea. (7/24)

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Neuromodulator-evoked synaptic metaplasticity within a central pattern generator network. (8/24)

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We investigated the central nervous coordination between singing motor activity and abdominal ventilatory pumping in crickets. Fictive singing, with sensory feedback removed, was elicited by eserine-microinjection into the brain, and the motor activity underlying singing and abdominal ventilation was recorded with extracellular electrodes. During singing, expiratory abdominal muscle activity is tightly phase coupled to the chirping pattern. Occasional temporary desynchronization of the two motor patterns indicate discrete central pattern generator (CPG) networks that can operate independently. Intracellular recordings revealed a sub-threshold depolarization in phase with the ventilatory cycle in a singing-CPG interneuron, and in a ventilation-CPG interneuron an excitatory input in phase with each syllable of the chirps. Inhibitory synaptic inputs coupled to the syllables of the singing motor pattern were present in another ventilatory interneuron, which is not part of the ventilation-CPG. Our ...
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Mentor: Barreto, Jennifer. Reproductive-related behaviors, anxiety, cognition and addiction are known to be modulated by androgens. Besides hormone regulation of behavior, it is well known that neurotransmitters and neuropeptides are molecules underlying behavioral characteristics that are also under the influence of peripheral hormones. The long-term goal of the research program is focused in understanding the neurochemical substrates responsible for behavioral changes after exposure to synthetic androgens. Given that anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) misuse is associated with multiple psychiatric symptoms and endocrine disruption, this study will provides critical data of the biochemical aspects of behavioral changes after androgen exposure, particularly in adolescents, where an increase misuse has been reported. We used pubertal rodents as animal models to determine the effect of chronic exposure to AAS in neurotransmitter and neuropeptide modulation in brain regions involved in anxiety, ...
When humans perform rhythmic upper and lower limb locomotor-like movements, there is an excitatory effect of upper limb exertion on lower limb muscle recruitment. To investigate potential neural mechanisms for this behavioral observation, we developed computer simulations modeling interlimb neural pathways among central pattern generators. We hypothesized that enhancement of muscle recruitment from interlimb spinal mechanisms was not sufficient to explain muscle enhancement levels observed in experimental data. We used Matsuoka oscillators for the central pattern generators (CPG) and determined parameters that enhanced amplitudes of rhythmic steady state bursts. Potential mechanisms for output enhancement were excitatory and inhibitory sensory feedback gains, excitatory and inhibitory interlimb coupling gains, and coupling geometry. We first simulated the simplest case, a single CPG, and then expanded the model to have two CPGs and lastly four CPGs. In the two and four CPG models, the lower limb CPGs
In rats, the basic licking rhythm is generated by the central pattern generator located in the brainstem. Nevertheless, the licking frequency can be regulated between about 7.5 and 4 Hz by changing the drinking conditions. If these conditions are kep
The Central Pattern Generator (CPG) is a neural circuit that can produce a rhythmic motor pattern with no need for sensory feedback or descending control [6]. We have some references for CPGs below. Pub. med. links are provided if applicable, links to full articles are provided if there is no indication of copyright violation.. ...
Summary: Motor neurons relay signals from the brain and spinal cord to muscles that perform behaviors. However, studies across phyla indicate that motor neurons also contribute to the function of pattern-generating circuits. ...
Compare FAPs, which include the brain, with spinal reflexes in which the brain is not involved. FAPS group simple reflexes and lower FAPs into functional modules capable of more complex goal-oriented behavior. FAPs are thought to originate in the basal ganglia, while Central Pattern Generators (CPGs) generate neuronal patterns of activity that drive FAPs such as the walking FAP.. Identify the brain systems supporting a task when it is novel and effortful compared with systems engaged when the task is routine and reflexive. (Raichle; NCC Cognitive Skill Learning, 655). The supervisory attention system provides a mechanism whereby elements or schemas within the lower-level contention-scheduling system for routine, reflexive behaviors and thoughts can be temporarily modified by activating or inhibiting particular elements within it. (Raichle; NCC Cognitive Skill Learning, 664). FAPs (fixed action patterns) are sets of ready-made motor patterns which produce well-defined and coordinated movements, ...
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This article describes how to do data validation with Self-Tracking Entity Generator for WPF/Silverlight.; Author: Weidong Shen; Updated: 21 Jan 2012; Section: Windows Presentation Foundation; Chapter: Platforms, Frameworks & Libraries; Updated: 21 Jan 2012
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Afferent input has been shown to play a major role in our capacity to reactivate spinal circuits that generate coordinated rhythmic flexion and extension of the limb muscles in spinal cord injury patients. Our studies revealed that stimulation of sacrocaudal afferents (SCA) is a potent means for activating the locomotor central pattern generators (CPGs) in rodents spinal cords that lack the descending control from the brain. These studies showed that capacity of SCA to induce the locomotor rhythm depends on activation of sacrocaudal neurons the crossed and uncrossed projections of which, ascend through the ventral and lateral white matter funiculi (VF,VLF, LF, and DLF) to the limb innervating segments of the cord. The project examines the axonal projections, spatial distribution, organization and physiological properties of these sacrocaudal neurons and evaluates their role in the generation of afferent induced rhythmicity in the spinal cord. The studies are performed in collaboration with Dr. ...
When sinusoidal movements were artificially imposed on the tail region of the curarized spinal dogfish during "fictive locomotion the coordinated burst pattern recorded in the ventral roots was effectively entrained to follow movement frequencies above as well as below the resting rate. The entrainment was characterized by: (1) a broad range of effective movement frequencies and amplitudes (down to a few degrees); (2) frequency-dependent timing of entrained bursts to the movement; (3) constant burst durations at low and moderate frequencies; (4) incomplete entrainment in response to high or low movement frequencies combined with a low amplitude; (5) entrainment was still present when mean position of movement was displaced laterally; (6) effects persisted when the tail region was devoid of skin and muscle tissue. Entrainment effects may be explained by the activation of stretch receptors on either side of the vertebral column-spinal cord, exciting the presumed central pattern generators (CPGs) ...
This article introduces the notion of cognitive pattern generators and suggests, by analogy with the central pattern generators of the motor system, that these pattern generators operate to organize neural activity underlying aspects of action-oriented cognition. It is further proposed that the basal ganglia are involved in the control of cognitive as well as motor pattern generators. Disorders of the basal ganglia may thereby contribute to neural circuit dysfunctions that are expressed as positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.. ...
A data pattern generator in which the address generation of a program counter (11) is controlled in accordance with an operation code and an operand read out of an instruction memory (12). An address/data pattern is generated in response to an address/data computing instruction read out of the instruction memory (12). Random logic patterns for testing a logic circuit are prestored in a data buffer memory (18) and are read out therefrom using an address created by an address pointer (19). The address generation of the address pointer (19) is controlled by control instructions and data written in a control instruction memory (22) and a load data memory (21) which are accessed by an address provided from the program counter (11).
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How does this work? Theres been a fair bit of progress since the early days of decorticate cats. We now understand that the motor system is arranged in a hierarchy, as illustrated in the figure below. First, we make the decision to start walking (this requires the brain). The brain then gives the command ("start walking") to a different part of the nervous system: a circuit of neurons located in the spinal cord called the "central pattern generator," or CPG. Once activated, the CPG activates the relevant muscles and essentially takes care of all of the details. So that is the general strategy for locomotion: when we decide to walk, our brains "recruit" the appropriate CPG, and this CPG is responsible for activating the appropriate muscles at the appropriate time. And thus, although we consciously decide to start and stop walking, we dont need to think about it in between. Once initiated, the motion persists without cortical input ...
Prof. Erik Zornik [biology 2012-] has been awarded a $444,000 grant from the National Institutes of Health to support his research on mechanisms in the brain that generate rhythmic behavior-with the goal of finding new treatments for neurological disorders.. Prof. Zornik is interested in how behavioral variation is encoded in neural circuits. His research investigates a hindbrain central pattern generator (CPG) that generates the courtship vocal behaviors of African clawed frogs, Xenopus laevis.. "Adults of this species exhibit a rich vocal repertoire of at least seven call types that range from rhythmically simple to temporally complex," Zornik explains. "Xenopus vocalizations are sexually differentiated; males and females produce calls with distinct temporal characteristics that are regulated by steroid hormones during development and in adulthood. This makes their vocal behaviors an ideal subject for understanding the neural basis of behavior and behavioral plasticity." ...
Locomotor gaits depend on the interplay between distributed spinal neural networks termed central pattern generators generating rhythmic and coordinated movements, primary afferents and descending supraspinal inputs. Recent studies demonstrated that the mouse display a rich repertoire of locomotor gaits. Changes in locomotor gaits occur in mutant mice lacking particular neurons or molecular signaling pathways implicated in the normal establishment of these neural networks Given the role of the Down Syndrome Cell Adherence Molecule (DSCAM) to the formation and maintenance of spinal interneuronal circuits and sensorimotor integration, we have investigated its functional contribution to locomotor gaits over a wide range of locomotor speeds using freely walking mice ...
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Homepage. The goal of my research is to understand the physiological mechanisms underlying the control of behavior. My main focus is the spinal cord and brainstem control of limb movements in the turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans). The nervous system must generate precise temporal sequences of muscle contraction when an organism produces a coordinated movement. These programmed sequences of muscle activity are referred to as "motor patterns", and are produced by rhythmically active networks of nerve cells called "central pattern generators" (CPGs) in the central nervous system. Most of my research has examined cellular and network-level mechanisms that are utilized by spinal cord CPGs in the turtle to generate coordinated scratching and swimming movements of the hindlimbs. More recently, I have begun investigating (1) pre-motor command systems in the turtle brainstem that activate locomotor CPGs in the spinal cord, and (2) the limb kinematics and EMG motor patterns that underlie lateral (yaw) ...
Authors: Duysens, J. , Pearson, K.G. Article Type: Research Article Abstract: On the assumption that locomotion is partly produced by a central pattern generator (CPG) in the spinal cord of both cat and man, it is essential to learn more about how such a CPG is controlled by sensory input produced during gait. For the cat there is evidence that load receptor input both from extensor muscles and from cutaneous receptors from the foot, is able to reinforce the ongoing extensor activity in the stance phase and delay the ensuing swing phase. Original data on electrical stimulation of nerves in walking premammillary cats with one hindlimb fixed, support the notion that …this type of load afferent input acts directly on the CPG. A second potential source of sensory input on the CPG is derived from sensory signals related to hip position. One would therefore expect that hip position is a more tightly controlled variable than the position of other joints. This was investigated by measuring these ...
Rats use rhythmic movements of their vibrissae (whiskers) to tactually explore their environment. This "whisking" behavior has generally been reported to be strictly synchronous and symmetric about the snout, and it is thought to be controlled by a brainstem central pattern generator. Because the vibrissae can move independently of the head, however, maintaining a stable perception of the world would seem to require that rats adjust the bilateral symmetry of whisker movements in response to head movements. The present study used high-speed videography to reveal dramatic bilateral asymmetries and asynchronies in free-air whisking during head rotations. Kinematic analysis suggested that these asymmetric movements did not serve to maintain any fixed temporal relationship between right and left arrays, but rather to redirect the whiskers to a different region of space. More specifically, spatial asymmetry was found to be strongly correlated with rotational head velocity, ensuring a "look-ahead" ...
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My original area of expertise is the theory of applied dynamical systems and global bifurcations. I study dynamics and their origin in diversely phenomenological systems and in exact models from life sciences. Of my special interest is a new emergent cross‐disciplinary field known as mathematical neuroscience. Its scopes include nonlinear models of individual neurons and networks. In‐depth analysis of such systems requires development of advanced mathematical tools paired with sophisticated computations. I derive models and create bifurcation toolkits for studying a stunning array of complex activities such as multistability of individual neurons and polyrhythmic bursting patterns discovered in multifunctional central pattern generators governing vital locomotor behaviors of animals and humans ...
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In a method for controlling a group of at least two electrical generators which supply a motor vehicle electrical system, each individual generator of the group provides a generator workload value, which indicates a workload of the individual generator, to each other one of the group of generators. The workload values represent an absolute value which indicates an actual power which is generated by the individual generator. Alternatively, the workload values represent a relative value, which indicates a ratio of the actual power to a nominal power of the individual generator.
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Example: To simulate the rolling of a ten-sided die 4 times and find the number of times that 3 occurs and to repeat this experiment 20 times, enter 20 for the sample size, enter 0.1 for the probability of success, and enter 4 for the number of trials ...
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which will be true if the point in space is crossing the boundary between two cells. You can look at dist1 as the amount of generated noise (see other pattern generators such as Boxes or Stripes), which can be connected to a mixing bias (see Mix), a displacement amount (see Displace Along Normal), or other float inputs.. The seed associated with the first closest point is also returned. The seed is pretty much guaranteed to be unique for every point, meaning that it is unlikely that two points close by will have the same seed associated with them.. The relative costs for computing noise of different types is roughly:. ...
A game device, preferably hand-held, has an electronic display pattern generator, a display, and a play button to initiate generation of a game which displays sets of symbols which rotate after the manner of a fruit machine and which can be held from rotating by a hold button. The device includes the capability of limiting the number of games playable, and a lock button allows a winning display to be locked irrevocably to establish proof of a win.
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Described herein are methods and subsystems for use with a timing generator having an output driver at which a timing signal having timing pulses is output. A method includes controlling the timing g
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The presence, release, and physiological effects of a cholecystokinin(CCK)-like peptide within the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) of the lobster, Panulirus interruptus, are described. Indirect immunofluorescence with 2 antisera raised against CCK8 was used to determine the distribution of CCK-like immunoreactivity (CCKLI) in the stomatogastric nervous system. CCKLI was demonstrated in the input nerve and the neuropil of the STG and in neuropil and somata in the commissural ganglia (CGs), brain, and eyestalks. None of the somata within the STG displayed CCKLI. The cross-reactivities of the CCK antisera with several peptides were determined using either a radioimmunoassay or an immunoblot assay; the antisera recognized peptides homologous to CCK but did not cross-react significantly with several unrelated peptides. The STG contains 2 central pattern generators (CPGs), the pyloric and the gastric mill CPGs. Bath application of CCK8 to the STG had modulatory effects on both CPGs, which were dose ...
Advances in our understanding of the control of locomotion enable us to optimize the rehabilitation of patients with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Based on various animal models, it is generally accepted that central pattern generators (CPG) exists for the rhythmic generation of stepping movements, and that this is also the case in humans. However, in humans supraspinal control is also essential for the performance of locomotion. For regaining locomotor function, incomplete SCI subjects strongly depend on visual input to compensate for proprioceptive deficits and impaired balance. In addition, they require additional attentional capacity to stand, walk and handle their walking aids. These factors might contribute to their higher risk of falling. During the last decade, task-specific functional training performed by physiotherapists, combined with manual or robotic assisted bodyweight supported treadmill training have improved the regaining of ambulatory function in patients with incomplete SCI. At ...
Hello. Im a graduate student at the University of Toronto, working towards a neuroethology degree in Zoology. My research focuses on the characterisation of the neurological subtrate underying tymbal sound production in a variety of hexapods. Im currently looking for a better, quicker way to nail down pathways, as Im hoping to examine the information-processing capability of a central pattern generator, and most of the interneurons are unknown. My first choice was to use an Iridovirus to trans-synaptically trace the pathway. Unfortunately, the lab I work in is not geared for class 2 biohazard protocols. Im now looking for other possible routes for trans-synaptic (and hopefully flourescent) labeling. The only prep Ive found after many exhaustive literature searches is Horseradish peroxidase conjugated with wheat germ lectin. If this prep works (as far as I can tell, no one has intracellulary ionotophoresed this into insect neurons), this will only travel anterograde. My CPG is probably a ...
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Rhythmic motor patterns, which underlie behaviors such as mastication, respiration and locomotion, are generated by specialized neural circuits called central pattern generators (CPGs). Although CPGs can generate their rhythmic motor output in the absence of rhythmic input, these motor patterns are modified by rhythmic sensory feedback in vivo. Furthermore, although the importance of sensory feedback in shaping CPG output is well known, most systems lack the experimental access needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying sensorimotor integration at the cellular and synaptic level. I am therefore examining this issue using the gastric mill CPG, a circuit which generates the rhythmic retraction and protraction motor activity that drives chewing by the teeth in the gastric mill compartment of the crustacean stomach. The gastric mill CPG is well defined and very accessible at the cellular level. Specifically, I am examining the mechanism by which the gastropyloric receptor (GPR), a phasically active
Here, we investigate the role of sensory feedback in gait generation and transition by using a three-dimensional, neuro-musculo-mechanical model of a salamander with realistic physical parameters. Activation of limb and axial muscles were driven by neural output patterns obtained from a central pattern generator (CPG) which is composed of simulated spiking neurons with adaptation. The CPG consists of a body-CPG and four limb-CPGs that are interconnected via synapses both ipsilaterally and contralaterally. We use the model both with and without sensory modulation and four different combinations of ipsilateral and contralateral coupling between the limb-CPGs. We found that the proprioceptive sensory inputs are essential in obtaining a coordinated lateral sequence walking gait (walking). The sensory feedback includes the signals coming from the stretch receptor like intraspinal neurons located in the girdle regions and the limb stretch receptors residing in the hip and scapula regions of the ...
Central pattern generatorEdit. Main article: Central pattern generator. Synchronized firing of neurons also forms the basis of ... called a central pattern generator. Central pattern generators are neuronal circuits that-when activated-can produce rhythmic ... Examples are walking, breathing, and swimming,[57] Most evidence for central pattern generators comes from lower animals, such ... Marder E, Bucher D (2001). "Central pattern generators and the control of rhythmic movements". Curr Biol. 11 (23): R986-R996. ...
Hooper SL (March 2000). "Central pattern generators". Curr. Biol. 10 (5): R176. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.133.3378 . doi:10.1016/S0960- ... Neuroscience portal Anode break excitation Biological neuron model Bursting Central pattern generator Chronaxie Frog battery ... one that has been exploited biologically to form central pattern generators and mimicked in artificial neural networks. The ... such as escape reflexes and others controlled by central pattern generators. ...
A central pattern generator (CPG) is defined as a neural network that does not require sensory input to generate a rhythm. This ... Hooper, Scott L. (1999-2010). "Central Pattern Generators". Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. John Wiley & Sons. doi:10.1038/npg. ... Evidence for a central rhythm generator for locomotion in man". Brain. 117 (Pt 5): 1143-59. doi:10.1093/brain/117.5.1143. PMID ... This allows for self-sustaining patterns of oscillation. Furthermore, new motor patterns, such as athletic skills or the ...
... such as the central pattern generators responsible for some automatic reflex actions. Such networks can generate a complex ... ISBN 0-262-11133-0. Hooper, Scott L. "Central Pattern Generators." Embryonic ELS (1999) http://www.els.net/elsonline/figpage/ ... Mauro A (1960). "Properties of thin generators pertaining to electrophysiological potentials in volume conductors". J. ... temporal pattern of action potentials that is used to coordinate muscular contractions, such as those involved in breathing or ...
"Cortical control of a whisking central pattern generator". J. Neurophysiol. 96 (1): 209-217. doi:10.1152/jn.00071.2006. PMC ... Neurons in this region project to a specific subcortical nucleus in which a pattern generator coordinates the cyclic rhythm of ... Woolsey, C.N., Settlage, P.H., Meyer, D.R., Sencer, W., Hamuy, T.P. and Travis, A.M. (1952). "Pattern of localization in ... The human primary motor cortex is located on the anterior wall of the central sulcus. It also extends anteriorly out of the ...
Hooper SL (March 2000). "Central pattern generators". Curr. Biol. 10 (5): R176. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.133.3378. doi:10.1016/S0960- ... such as escape reflexes and others controlled by central pattern generators.[71][bx] ... one that has been exploited biologically to form central pattern generators and mimicked in artificial neural networks. ... In neurons, action potentials play a central role in cell-to-cell communication by providing for-or with regard to saltatory ...
These activities work if neurons of the central pattern generator (CPG) circuits, which generate rhythmic movements of the body ... "Evidence for a spinal central pattern generator in humans". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 860: 360-76. Bibcode: ... The benefits include: (1) assist in reproducing leg movements and optimizing gait pattern (speed, step length, amplitude); (2) ... although a trainer should analyze the gait pattern and outcome measures of the training and supervise training). It is ...
... called a central pattern generator. Central pattern generators are neuronal circuits that-when activated-can produce rhythmic ... Frequency changes are also commonly observed in central pattern generators and directly relate to the speed of motor activities ... Like pacemaker neurons in central pattern generators, subtypes of cortical cells fire bursts of spikes (brief clusters of ... Examples are walking, breathing, and swimming, Most evidence for central pattern generators comes from lower animals, such as ...
Central pattern generator Central nervous system Locomotive Proprioception Spinal cord Spinal cord injury Special senses , ... The central pattern generator (CPG) provides the basic locomotor rhythm and synergies by integrating commands from various ... Evidence for a spinal central pattern generator in humans. Ann. NY Acad. Sci.860:360-76 Hornby, George T., Zemon, David H., & ... spinal cord pattern generators for locomotion. Clin Neurophysiol. 114:1379-89 Forssberg H, Grillner S, Rossignol S. 1975 Phase ...
"Symmetry in locomotor central pattern generators and animal gaits". Nature. 401 (6754): 693. doi:10.1038/44416. PMID 10537106. ...
Konishi, M. (2010). "From central pattern generator to sensory template in the evolution of birdsong". Brain & Language. 115 (1 ... Howell, Steve N. G. & Sophie Webb (1995). A Guide to the Birds of Mexico and Northern Central America. Oxford University Press ... Thorpe, W. H. (1958). "The learning of song patterns by birds, with especial reference to the song of the chaffinch Fringilla ... Bird Language: Exploring the Language of Nature with Jon Young A blog with stories and tips for learning the patterns in bird ...
The network of neurons acts as a central pattern generator. It is a model system for motor pattern generation because of the ... The circuits underlying such rhythmic behaviors, central pattern generators (CPGs), all operate on the same general principles ... More importantly, CPG circuits are usually not dedicated to producing a single neuronal activity pattern. This flexibility ...
Action potential Central pattern generator Dynamical systems Information theory Wagenaar, Daniel; Jerome Pine; Steve M. Potter ... Bursting is thought to be important in the operation of robust central pattern generators, the transmission of neural codes, ... Bursting, or burst firing, is an extremely diverse general phenomenon of the activation patterns of neurons in the central ... The slow subsystem also is connected to endogenous bursting patterns in neurons, where the pattern can be maintained completely ...
"Multiple Rhythmic States in a Model of the Respiratory Central Pattern Generator". Journal of Neurophysiology. 101 (4): 2146-65 ... Neuronal discharge patterns are altered during the depressed synaptic inhibition, contributing to the reformation of the ... This single neuronal network can create multiple respiratory rhythmic patterns and is by itself both necessary and sufficient ... It is hypothesized that the pre-Bötzinger complex is the main location of the rhythmic pattern generation circuitry involved in ...
Mutually inhibitory processes are a unifying motif of all central pattern generators. This has been demonstrated in the ... which is implicated in the inhibitory synaptic mechanisms of central pattern generators. This approach, influenced by control ... A" 2(2) 322-341 Michael P. Nusbaum and Mark P. Beenhakker, A small-systems approach to motor pattern generation, Nature 417, ... On differences between peripheral and foveal pattern masking. Diss. University of California, Berkeley, 1999. Molnar, Alyosha; ...
Konishi, M. (2010). "From central pattern generator to sensory template in the evolution of birdsong". Brain & Language. 115: ... Bird Language: Exploring the Language of Nature with Jon Young A blog with stories and tips for learning the patterns in bird ... These neurons also fire in similar patterns when the bird is singing that same song. Swamp sparrows employ 3-5 different song ... Thorpe, W. H. (1958). "The learning of song patterns by birds, with especial reference to the song of the chaffinch Fringilla ...
The NTS directs signals about these functions to a central pattern generator (CPG). This CPG actually coordinates the sequences ... doi:10.1111/j.1526-4637.2009.00583.x. Hornby, Pamela J. (December 2001). "Central neurocircuitry associated with emesis". The ...
Behavioral evidence for a central pattern generator". The Journal of Neuroscience. 21 (14): 5374-5380. Kleinfeld, D. (2008). " ... Gao, P; Bermejo, R; Zeigler, HP (2001). "Whisker deafferentation and rodent whisking patterns: ...
Biological neural network Central nervous system Central pattern generator Stein, P. S. G. (1983). The vertebrate scratch ... Mortin, L. I., & Stein, P. S. G. (1989). "Spinal cord segments containing key elements of the central pattern generators for ... Results from animal studies have indicated that spinal neural networks known as central pattern generators (CPGs) are ... CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Earhart G. M., Stein P. S. G. (2000). "Step, swim, and scratch motor patterns in the ...
Among them, the synchronization of bursting neurons in central pattern generators of biological systems. Early 2000s: ... In 2000, Mikhail publishes his latest book on physicsThe dynamics of Patterns. Mikhail Rabinovich published over 250 peer ...
Instead of using a central pattern generator it uses reflexes which generate the gait. The reflexes are triggered by ground ... for example where a moveable upper body mass on the robot keeps the walking pattern stable even on uneven terrain. The ...
Baev K.V. (2012). "Solution of the Problem of Central Pattern Generators and a New Concept of Brain Functions". Neurophysiology ... Lashley suggested that brain interference patterns could play a role in perception, but was unsure how such patterns might be ... He demonstrated that the information pattern of a three-dimensional object can be encoded in a beam of light, which is more-or- ... As long as a part of the hologram is large enough to contain the interference pattern, that part can recreate the entirety of ...
... showing that central pattern generator (CPG) might be involved in cyclic arm swing. However, these findings do not imply ... Biomechanics of sprint running Bipedalism Central pattern generator F. C. Anderson, M. G. Pandy (2003). Dynamic Optimization of ... were investigated in this perspective and the results pointed a common central control mechanism. Performing the left- ...
Based on biologically hypothesized connections of the central pattern generator in the salamander, a robotic system has been ... Ijspeert, A. J. (2001). "A Connectionist Central Pattern Generator for the Aquatic and Terrestrial Gaits of a Simulated ... However, this pattern can change based on the particular undulating animal, the environment, and the metric in which the animal ... Wavelike motor pattern typically arise from a series of coupled segmental oscillator. Each segmental oscillator is capable of ...
List of regions in the human brain Central pattern generator Central nervous system Gait (human) Motor Control Brain ... Decerebrate cat walks Multi-Layered Multi-Pattern Central Pattern Generator for Adaptive Locomotion of Humanoid Robots. ... responsible for regulating the excitability of reticulospinal neurons that in turn project to spinal central pattern generators ... Step-like motor patterns of the lower extremities can be induced through activation of the spinal circuitry alone; however, ...
A central neural system known as a "Central Pattern Generator" (CPGs) can govern multilink robotic fish locomotion. The CPG is ... the signal from the cerebrum stops and the CPGs can produce and modulate locomotion patterns. Similar to their role in living ... "Charlie: CIA's Robotic Fish - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 12 December 2016. http://tech.mit.edu/V115/ ...
It is also possible that one's desire for control, or other basic motivational patterns, act as a third variable. ... For instance, some hardware random number generators work by amplifying quantum effects into practically usable signals. A more ... it is plausible that the central loci of our responsibility are our choices, or "willings".. ... "formation of macroscopic population dynamics that shapes the patterns of activity of the contributing individuals", applicable ...
Central pattern generator Challenge Point Framework Hearing Multisensory integration Proprioception Vestibular system Visual ... This presented an issue related to the storage capacity of the central nervous system; a vast array of movements would require ... Marder E, Calabrese RL (July 1996). "Principles of rhythmic motor pattern generation". Physiol. Rev. 76 (3): 687-717. PMID ... contains the generalized rules that generate the spatial and temporal muscle patterns to produce a specified movement.p. 32 ...
... by networks called central pattern generators (CPGs). CPGs can produce these patterns even in the absence of inputs that carry ... Central Pattern Generators. Dirk Bucher, New Jersey Institute of Technology and Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey, USA Gal ... Diaz‐Rios M and Miller MW (2006) Target‐specific regulation of synaptic efficacy in the feeding central pattern generator of ... Marder E and Bucher D (2001) Central pattern generators and the control of rhythmic movements. Current Biology 11 (23): R986- ...
How Do Central Pattern Generators Work? @ www.bio.brandeis.edu Hoopers Review of Central Pattern Generators (PDF)[dead link] ... Central pattern generators (CPGs) are biological neural networks that produce rhythmic patterned outputs without sensory ... Thus, humans also possess a central pattern generator for locomotion that is capable not only of rhythmic pattern generation ... Central pattern generators, as part of the neural circuitry of an organism, can be modulated to adapt to the organisms needs ...
The leech heartbeat neural network is one of the most simple central pattern generators (CPG). In biology, CPG provide for ... The leech heartbeat neural network is one of the most simple central pattern generators (CPG). In biology, CPG provide for ... Real-time biomimetic Central Pattern Generators in an FPGA for hybrid experiments. Matthieu Ambroise1, Timothée Levi1*, ... Ijspeert, A. (2008). Central pattern generators for locomotion control in animals and robots: a review. J. Neural Netw. 21, 642 ...
Central pattern generators are neural networks organized to produce any rhythmic output without requiring a rhythmic input. In ... The central pattern generators responsible for locomotion in vertebrates reside as half-center modules in the cervical and ... Barriére G, Leblond H, Provencher J, Rossignol S. Prominent Role of the Spinal Central Pattern Generator in the Recovery of ... There exists significant coordination between the central pattern generators actuating individual limbs in mammals. There is ...
Cholecystokinin-like peptide is a modulator of a crustacean central pattern generator. GG Turrigiano and AI Selverston ... The STG contains 2 central pattern generators (CPGs), the pyloric and the gastric mill CPGs. Bath application of CCK8 to the ... Cholecystokinin-like peptide is a modulator of a crustacean central pattern generator ... Cholecystokinin-like peptide is a modulator of a crustacean central pattern generator ...
1997) Basic buildings blocks of vertebrate central pattern generators. in Neurons, networks and motor behavior, eds Stein PSG, ... 1992) Activation of the central pattern generators for locomotion by serotonin and excitatory amino acids in neonatal rat. J ... 1998) Distribution of central pattern generators for rhythmic motor outputs in the spinal cord of limbed vertebrates. Ann NY ... Firing Properties of Identified Interneuron Populations in the Mammalian Hindlimb Central Pattern Generator. Simon J. B. Butt, ...
On peripheral control mechanisms acting on the central pattern generators for swimming in the dogfish ... On peripheral control mechanisms acting on the central pattern generators for swimming in the dogfish ... On peripheral control mechanisms acting on the central pattern generators for swimming in the dogfish ... On peripheral control mechanisms acting on the central pattern generators for swimming in the dogfish ...
Jalil S, Allen D, Yourker J and Shilnikov A. Toward robust phase-locking in Melibe swim central pattern generator model. J. ... Hu X, Youker J., Wojcik J, Clewley R and Shilnikov A, Phase and exact models for multifunctional central pattern generators, ... Wojcik J., Clewley R, and Shilnikov A., Order parameter for bursting polyrhythms in multifunctional central pattern generators ... of individual neurons and polyrhythmic bursting patterns discovered in multifunctional central pattern generators governing ...
... several models have computationally explored the network hypothesis of central respiratory rhythm generation.1, 2One ... We hypothesized that our model of the central respiratory pattern generator, when appropriately modified to include vagal ... Nonlinear Dynamics of a Model of the Central Respiratory Pattern Generator. In: Honda Y., Miyamoto Y., Konno K., Widdicombe J.G ... C. von Euler, Brainstem mechanisms for generation and control of breathing pattern, in: "Handbook of Physiology. The ...
Respiratory central pattern generator network in mammalian brainstem (Rubin et al. 2009). ... Multiple rhythmic states in a model of the respiratory central pattern generator. J Neurophysiol 101:2146-65 [PubMed] ... This model is a reduced version of a spatially organized respiratory central pattern generation network consisting of four ...
Computational Model of a Central Pattern Generator (Cataldo et al 2006). Computational Model of a Central Pattern Generator ( ... Computational Model of a Central Pattern Generator (Cataldo et al 2006). Computational Model of a Central Pattern Generator ( ... Computational Model of a Central Pattern Generator (Cataldo et al 2006). Computational Model of a Central Pattern Generator ( ... Computational Model of a Central Pattern Generator (Cataldo et al 2006). Computational Model of a Central Pattern Generator ( ...
Robust Control of a Humanoid Robot Using a Bio-Inspired Approach Based on Central Pattern Generators, Reflexes, and ...
... description of the spatiotemporal pattern of inhibitory synaptic input from the heartbeat central pattern generator (CPG) to ... Calabrese et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2007. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. ... To begin the process of elucidating the relative roles of this pattern of input and motor neuron intrinsic properties and ... Our focus was intersegmental and side-to-side coordination of the asymmetric motor pattern: motor neurons on one side fire ...
The Central Pattern Generator (CPG) is a neural circuit that can produce a rhythmic motor pattern with no need for sensory ... Neural Control of locomotion; Part 1: The central pattern generator from cats to humans. Duysens, Jacques et. al. Gait and ... Evidence for a Spinal Central Pattern Generator in Humans. Dimitrijevic, Milan et. al. Annals New York Academy of Sciences. ... Neural control of locomotion: sensory control of the central pattern generator and its relation to treadmill training. Van de ...
For animals to walk, central pattern generators (CPGs) must be modulated to allow different stride lengths in each leg or ... requires flexible and adaptive fine-tuning of the basic alternating stepping pattern of our two legs. ... Kate Fehlhaber 0 Comments 2014, Bidaye, Central pattern generator, Circuit, CpG, Dickson, Drosophila, Fruit fly, Kinematics, ... Jillian L. Shaw 2 Comments 2013, Bachmann, Central pattern generator, Deep Brain Stimulation, Deep Brain Stimulation of the ...
In the model,a simplified central pattern generator (CPG) architecture inspired by neuroscientific research and DST is ... In the model, a simplified central pattern generator (CPG) architecture inspired by neuroscientific research and DST is ... Central Pattern Generators. Modeling walking on a humanoid robot is a complicated task related to designing an autonomous ... According to Ijspeert, Central Pattern Generators (CPGs), the bio-inspired neural structures discovered in the middle of the ...
Thirumalai V, Marder E (2002) Colocalized neuropeptides activate a central pattern generator by acting on different circuit ...
Eve Marder introduces us to central pattern generators, the circuits in the nervous system that control rhythmic movements such ... 00:01:44.24 to central pattern generators (or CPGs as we call them). 00:01:48.27 and Ill explain that in a moment.. 00:01: ... 00:24:22.17 that allow the central pattern generator to be phase-constant.. 00:24:27.22 And so this, I think, is an important ... In Part 1, Marder introduces us to central pattern generators (CPGs), the circuits in the nervous system that control rhythmic ...
Central pattern generatorEdit. Main article: Central pattern generator. Synchronized firing of neurons also forms the basis of ... called a central pattern generator. Central pattern generators are neuronal circuits that-when activated-can produce rhythmic ... Examples are walking, breathing, and swimming,[57] Most evidence for central pattern generators comes from lower animals, such ... Marder E, Bucher D (2001). "Central pattern generators and the control of rhythmic movements". Curr Biol. 11 (23): R986-R996. ...
Central pattern generators (1). * Gap junctions (1). * Motor control (1). * Neural circuits (1). ...
Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. ... They contract and develop central pattern generator-like neuronal circuits. Finally, we successfully use NMOs to recapitulate ... NMOs; NMPs; central pattern generators; myasthenia gravis; neuromesodermal progenitors; neuromuscular diseases; neuromuscular ...
Relatively little is known about the interneurons that constitute the mammalian locomotor central pattern generator and how ... Abbreviations: cL, contralateral lumbar segment; CPG, central pattern generator; 5-HT, serotonin creatine sulfate; iL, ... components of the ipsilateral locomotor network and describe a group of putative excitatory central pattern generator neurons. ...
In order to describe precisely the fixed action patterns of salmon sexual behavior, we recorded the electromyographic (EMG) ... Rand RH, Cohen AH, Holmes PJ (1988) Systems of coupled oscillators as models of central pattern generators. In: Cohen AH, ... Cohen AH (1988) Evolution of the vertebrate central pattern generator for locomotion. In: Cohen AH, Rossingnol S, Grillner S ( ... Harris-Warrick RM (1988) Chemical modulation of central pattern generators. In: Cohen AH, Rossingnol S, Grillner S (eds) Neural ...
Review - Feedback to the future: motor neuron contributions to central pattern generator function. ... Knee LAR patterns remain similar between yaws and turns, but the addition of forward motion makes hip LAR patterns less clear. ... Sidestep and crossover patterns can be distinguished, however. For instance, during the initial yaw to the left in the first ... 3D). Knee LAR and digital axis angle plots mirror the sidestep turn data; no clear patterns of hip LAR are evident. Both knees ...
Stein, P.S.G. (1984). Central pattern generators in the spinal cord. In Handbook of the Spinal Cord, (ed. R.A. Davidoff). ... Grillner, S. and Zangger, P. (1975). How detailed is the central pattern generation for locomotion? Brain Res. 88, 367-371. ... provide model systems for studying cellular mechanisms underlying central pattern generation using intra- and extracellular ... Miller, S. and Scott, P.D. (1977). The spinal locomotor generator. Exp. Brain Res. 30. 387-403.PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
  • Based on these observations, we discussed the biomechanics for these motor patterns (oviposition, ejaculation, body vibration, and mouth opening), and the neural mechanisms for the pattern generation. (springer.com)
  • 1976) provide model systems for studying cellular mechanisms underlying central pattern generation using intra- and extracellular unit recording techniques. (springer.com)
  • Model for intersegmental coordination of leech swimming: central and sensory mechanisms // J Neurophysiol 87(6): 2760-9. (scorcher.ru)
  • Although connectomes and functional roles for the neuronal subtypes that comprise circuits have begun to be defined, the output of large multicellular networks are difficult to predict from the input pattern because the mechanisms that coordinate and regulate these complex systems remain poorly understood. (elifesciences.org)
  • Scientists have long employed neural oscillators as a method to study neuron/ganglia-based processes that serve as central pattern generators for various organisms and as a method to generate control and coordination signals for various robotic mechanisms. (hindawi.com)
  • Advances in this limb skin vasculature model with genetic studies have improved understanding molecular mechanisms of vascular development and patterning. (jove.com)
  • Similar mechanisms and patterns are studied and extended by researchers in mathematics and physics, and widely applied in control systems such as robotics. (mun.ca)
  • Inhibitory synaptic inputs coupled to the syllables of the singing motor pattern were present in another ventilatory interneuron, which is not part of the ventilation-CPG. (acousti.ca)
  • The generation of slow oscillations did not require fast synaptic transmission, but their patterns were coordinated by local circuit activity. (plos.org)
  • Several types of patterned activity are shown to efficiently induce synaptic plasticity - , but in these experiments, artificial stimulation protocols were used to produce synaptic plasticity. (plos.org)
  • Baro DJ, Ayali A, French L, Scholz NL, Labenia J, Lanning CC, Graubard K, Harris-Warrick RM (2000) Molecular underpinnings of motor pattern generation: differential targeting of shal and shaker in the pyloric motor system. (scorcher.ru)
  • These networks generate the gastric mill (chewing) and pyloric (pumping/filtering of chewed food) motor patterns, respectively. (upenn.edu)
  • a) Originally, rhythmic motor patterns were thought to arise from chains of reflexes (left panels). (els.net)
  • 2007). Through excitation or inhibition of relevant interneurons in this system, signals of each descending tract could produce compound reflexes to provide desired movement patterns, such as target reaching by the hand (Chapter 13). (informit.com)
  • It involves flexion reflexes, crossed extension reflexes, interlimb coordination, and, in addition, a central pattern generator (CPG) mechanism for rhythm generation (Grillner et al. (informit.com)
  • Alternatively, reflexes 2, 3, and 4 can be coactivated by descending tracts (b) via FG, a function-generator. (informit.com)
  • Circuitoids of purified excitatory interneurons were sufficient to generate oscillatory bursts with properties similar to in vivo central pattern generators. (elifesciences.org)
  • show that there are specific changes in central excitatory input to this neuron concurrent with learning and its consolidation into memory. (nih.gov)
  • 3. The CPU of claim 1, wherein said enable signal generator outputs an enable signal of high level for a first period of a system clock at each cycle. (google.com)
  • 4. The CPU of claim 3, wherein said enable signal generator outputs a low level signal irrespective of the period of the system clock when the edge detection signal or the output signal from the instruction decoder is high level. (google.com)
  • A Central Pattern Generator (CPG) is a kind of neural network capable of generating rhythmic patterned outputs. (mun.ca)
  • In developing limb skin, peripheral nerves provide a spatial template that controls the branching pattern and differentiation of arteries. (jove.com)
  • The limb skin vasculature model has been used to study how peripheral nerves provide a spatial template for the differentiation and patterning of arteries. (jove.com)
  • This model is a reduced version of a spatially organized respiratory central pattern generation network consisting of four neuronal populations (pre-I, early-I, post-I, and aug-E). In this reduction, each population is represented by a single neuron, in an activity-based framework (which includes the persistent sodium current for the pre-I population). (yale.edu)
  • This CPG is a multifunctional circuit and generates at least two types of buccal motor patterns (BMPs), one that mediates ingestion (iBMP) and another that mediates rejection (rBMP). (yale.edu)
  • central pattern generators, intrinsic membrane properties and cellular neurophysiology, multi-photon and confocal laser-scanning microscopy, patch-clamp electrophysiology. (wm.edu)
  • The STG cycle exercises highlight fundamental features of the cellular basis of motor pattern generation and the characterization of dynamical neural systems. (mbl.edu)
  • Neuromodulation provides flexibility of motor pattern generation to adjust output to changing behavioural demands. (els.net)
  • 2016. Model of the songbird nucleus HVC as a network of central pattern generators . (ucsd.edu)
  • 4 Thus, the breath by breath variability in the ventilatory pattern may be explainable as a fundamental component of the process generating the respiratory rhythm, and not the product of intrinsic or extrinsic noise, or overwhelming system dimensionality. (springer.com)
  • We used RNA sequencing-based transcriptome analyses to compare patterns of gene expression in VMN to the surrounding hindbrain across three daily and seasonal time points of high and low sound production to identify candidate genes that underlie VMN's intrinsic and network neuronal properties. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Each of these activity patterns is quantitatively distinct from the others in such parameters as frequency, bout duration, duty value, intersegmental phase delay, and spatial distribution of rhythmic activities. (springer.com)
  • The leech heartbeat neural network is one of the simplest central pattern generators (CPG). (frontiersin.org)
  • Inspiratory pressure, respiratory rate and inspiratory time were adjusted until the subjects ceased spontaneous ventilation, thereby minimising central respiratory input. (bmj.com)
  • But only few studies have addressed the functional linkage between the 'pattern' of spontaneous activity and the resultant plasticity - . (plos.org)
  • eastern wood pewee: note the simple repetitive pattern of ascending and descending tones from a grounding note. (wikipedia.org)
  • This activity can be observed in live animals with videoendoscopy and has been shown to usually occur in two different patterns (Heinzel, 1988). (scholarpedia.org)
  • This paper describes a simple weather generator that can be used in ecological modeling projects. (usda.gov)