Networks of nerve cells that control the firing patterns of MOTOR NEURONS to produce rhythmic movements such as MASTICATION; WALKING; SWIMMING; RESPIRATION; and PERISTALSIS.
Stereotyped patterns of response, characteristic of a given species, that have been phylogenetically adapted to a specific type of situation.
Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.
The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
An infraorder of chiefly marine, largely carnivorous CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, including the genera Cancer, Uca, and Callinectes.
Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.
Family of large marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA. These are called clawed lobsters because they bear pincers on the first three pairs of legs. The American lobster and Cape lobster in the genus Homarus are commonly used for food.
A genus of large marine sea slugs in the family Tritoniidae found in the northern Pacific Ocean. They are used in neurological research.
An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.
A genus of dextrally coiled freshwater snails that includes some species of importance as intermediate hosts of parasitic flukes.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
A species of migratory Old World locusts, in the family ACRIDIDAE, that are important pests in Africa and Asia.
Common name for the only family (Petromyzontidae) of eellike fish in the order Petromyzontiformes. They are jawless but have a sucking mouth with horny teeth.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.
A family of marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, comprising the clawless lobsters. They are found in tropical and subtropical waters and characterized by short spines along the length of the tail and body.
Separation systems containing a relatively long-lived parent radionuclide which produces a short-lived daughter in its decay scheme. The daughter can be periodically extracted (milked) by means of an appropriate eluting agent.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.
An alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic amine, biosynthesized from tyramine in the CNS and platelets and also in invertebrate nervous systems. It is used to treat hypotension and as a cardiotonic. The natural D(-) form is more potent than the L(+) form in producing cardiovascular adrenergic responses. It is also a neurotransmitter in some invertebrates.
A species of European freshwater LEECHES used for BLOODLETTING in ancient times and also for LEECHING in modern times.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Biological actions and events that support the functions of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.
An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.
A genus of side-gilled sea slugs in the family Pleurobranchidae, superorder GASTROPODA. They are opportunistic voracious feeders but prefer the sea anemone.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The part of the face that is below the eye and to the side of the nose and mouth.
The region of the STOMACH at the junction with the DUODENUM. It is marked by the thickening of circular muscle layers forming the pyloric sphincter to control the opening and closure of the lumen.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Branches of the VAGUS NERVE. The superior laryngeal nerves originate near the nodose ganglion and separate into external branches, which supply motor fibers to the cricothyroid muscles, and internal branches, which carry sensory fibers. The RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE originates more caudally and carries efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid. The laryngeal nerves and their various branches also carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.
A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.
Part of the brain located in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA and PONS. It receives neural, chemical and hormonal signals, and controls the rate and depth of respiratory movements of the DIAPHRAGM and other respiratory muscles.
Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
The striated muscle groups which move the LARYNX as a whole or its parts, such as altering tension of the VOCAL CORDS, or size of the slit (RIMA GLOTTIDIS).
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A genus of marine sea slugs in the family Glaucidae, superorder GASTROPODA, found on the Pacific coast of North America. They are used in behavioral and neurological laboratory studies.
Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.
Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.
A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
An alkaloid found in the seeds of STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA. It is a competitive antagonist at glycine receptors and thus a convulsant. It has been used as an analeptic, in the treatment of nonketotic hyperglycinemia and sleep apnea, and as a rat poison.
Sounds used in animal communication.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Stiff hairs projecting from the face around the nose of most mammals, acting as touch receptors.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Manner or style of walking.
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
An order of bottom fishes with short, small, spinous dorsal fins. It is comprised of one family (Batrachoididae) and about 70 species.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Nucleus in the NEOSTRIATUM of bird brains that sends signals for song production and receives auditory input. In some adult SONGBIRDS, research has shown that the size of this nucleus changes seasonally and that it exhibits neurogenesis.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Actinium. A trivalent radioactive element and the prototypical member of the actinide family. It has the atomic symbol Ac, atomic number 89, and atomic weight 227.0278. Its principal isotope is 227 and decays primarily by beta-emission.
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A potent excitatory amino acid antagonist with a preference for non-NMDA iontropic receptors. It is used primarily as a research tool.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Ir, atomic number 77, and atomic weight 192.22.
The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)

The effects of vestibular stimulation rate and magnitude of acceleration on central pattern generation for chest wall kinematics in preterm infants. (1/24)

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Neuropeptide modulation of microcircuits. (2/24)

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Sensory regulation of quadrupedal locomotion: a top-down or bottom-up control system? (3/24)

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DCC mediated axon guidance of spinal interneurons is essential for normal locomotor central pattern generator function. (4/24)

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Episodic swimming in the larval zebrafish is generated by a spatially distributed spinal network with modular functional organization. (5/24)

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Neuronal activity in the isolated mouse spinal cord during spontaneous deletions in fictive locomotion: insights into locomotor central pattern generator organization. (6/24)

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Memory trace in feeding neural circuitry underlying conditioned taste aversion in Lymnaea. (7/24)

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Neuromodulator-evoked synaptic metaplasticity within a central pattern generator network. (8/24)

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We investigated the central nervous coordination between singing motor activity and abdominal ventilatory pumping in crickets. Fictive singing, with sensory feedback removed, was elicited by eserine-microinjection into the brain, and the motor activity underlying singing and abdominal ventilation was recorded with extracellular electrodes. During singing, expiratory abdominal muscle activity is tightly phase coupled to the chirping pattern. Occasional temporary desynchronization of the two motor patterns indicate discrete central pattern generator (CPG) networks that can operate independently. Intracellular recordings revealed a sub-threshold depolarization in phase with the ventilatory cycle in a singing-CPG interneuron, and in a ventilation-CPG interneuron an excitatory input in phase with each syllable of the chirps. Inhibitory synaptic inputs coupled to the syllables of the singing motor pattern were present in another ventilatory interneuron, which is not part of the ventilation-CPG. Our ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The buccal ganglia of Aplysia contain a central pattern generator (CPG) that mediates rhythmic movements of the foregut during feeding. This CPG is a multifunctional circuit and generates at least two types of buccal motor patterns (BMPs), one that mediates ingestion (iBMP) and another that mediates rejection (rBMP). The present study used a computational approach to examine the ways in which an ensemble of identified cells and synaptic connections function as a CPG. Hodgkin-Huxley-type models were developed that mimicked the biophysical properties of these cells and synaptic connections. The results suggest that the currently identified ensemble of cells is inadequate to produce rhythmic neural activity and that several key elements of the CPG remain to be identified ...
Thirumalai V, Marder E (2002) Colocalized neuropeptides activate a central pattern generator by acting on different circuit targets. J Neurosci 22:1874-1882. pubmed. ...
Mentor: Barreto, Jennifer. Reproductive-related behaviors, anxiety, cognition and addiction are known to be modulated by androgens. Besides hormone regulation of behavior, it is well known that neurotransmitters and neuropeptides are molecules underlying behavioral characteristics that are also under the influence of peripheral hormones. The long-term goal of the research program is focused in understanding the neurochemical substrates responsible for behavioral changes after exposure to synthetic androgens. Given that anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) misuse is associated with multiple psychiatric symptoms and endocrine disruption, this study will provides critical data of the biochemical aspects of behavioral changes after androgen exposure, particularly in adolescents, where an increase misuse has been reported. We used pubertal rodents as animal models to determine the effect of chronic exposure to AAS in neurotransmitter and neuropeptide modulation in brain regions involved in anxiety, ...
When humans perform rhythmic upper and lower limb locomotor-like movements, there is an excitatory effect of upper limb exertion on lower limb muscle recruitment. To investigate potential neural mechanisms for this behavioral observation, we developed computer simulations modeling interlimb neural pathways among central pattern generators. We hypothesized that enhancement of muscle recruitment from interlimb spinal mechanisms was not sufficient to explain muscle enhancement levels observed in experimental data. We used Matsuoka oscillators for the central pattern generators (CPG) and determined parameters that enhanced amplitudes of rhythmic steady state bursts. Potential mechanisms for output enhancement were excitatory and inhibitory sensory feedback gains, excitatory and inhibitory interlimb coupling gains, and coupling geometry. We first simulated the simplest case, a single CPG, and then expanded the model to have two CPGs and lastly four CPGs. In the two and four CPG models, the lower limb CPGs
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Whats funny about this video? At one level, its the idea that a 9 month old (or however old this kid is - hes cruising, so hes probably right around there) knows his dance moves well enough to do what he does with his right arm at 0:39. We all know that his brain is…
In rats, the basic licking rhythm is generated by the central pattern generator located in the brainstem. Nevertheless, the licking frequency can be regulated between about 7.5 and 4 Hz by changing the drinking conditions. If these conditions are kep
The Central Pattern Generator (CPG) is a neural circuit that can produce a rhythmic motor pattern with no need for sensory feedback or descending control [6]. We have some references for CPGs below. Pub. med. links are provided if applicable, links to full articles are provided if there is no indication of copyright violation.. ...
Summary: Motor neurons relay signals from the brain and spinal cord to muscles that perform behaviors. However, studies across phyla indicate that motor neurons also contribute to the function of pattern-generating circuits. ...
We study pattern generation and homeostatic regulation in small neural networks with a combination of computational and experimental approaches. Our small neural network of choice is the pyloric pattern-generating circuit in the stomatogastric ganglion of the lobster, one of the best-characterized neural networks in biology.. ...
Compare FAPs, which include the brain, with spinal reflexes in which the brain is not involved. FAPS group simple reflexes and lower FAPs into functional modules capable of more complex goal-oriented behavior. FAPs are thought to originate in the basal ganglia, while Central Pattern Generators (CPGs) generate neuronal patterns of activity that drive FAPs such as the walking FAP.. Identify the brain systems supporting a task when it is novel and effortful compared with systems engaged when the task is routine and reflexive. (Raichle; NCC Cognitive Skill Learning, 655). The supervisory attention system provides a mechanism whereby elements or schemas within the lower-level contention-scheduling system for routine, reflexive behaviors and thoughts can be temporarily modified by activating or inhibiting particular elements within it. (Raichle; NCC Cognitive Skill Learning, 664). FAPs (fixed action patterns) are sets of ready-made motor patterns which produce well-defined and coordinated movements, ...
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Afferent input has been shown to play a major role in our capacity to reactivate spinal circuits that generate coordinated rhythmic flexion and extension of the limb muscles in spinal cord injury patients. Our studies revealed that stimulation of sacrocaudal afferents (SCA) is a potent means for activating the locomotor central pattern generators (CPGs) in rodents spinal cords that lack the descending control from the brain. These studies showed that capacity of SCA to induce the locomotor rhythm depends on activation of sacrocaudal neurons the crossed and uncrossed projections of which, ascend through the ventral and lateral white matter funiculi (VF,VLF, LF, and DLF) to the limb innervating segments of the cord. The project examines the axonal projections, spatial distribution, organization and physiological properties of these sacrocaudal neurons and evaluates their role in the generation of afferent induced rhythmicity in the spinal cord. The studies are performed in collaboration with Dr. ...
When sinusoidal movements were artificially imposed on the tail region of the curarized spinal dogfish during fictive locomotion the coordinated burst pattern recorded in the ventral roots was effectively entrained to follow movement frequencies above as well as below the resting rate. The entrainment was characterized by: (1) a broad range of effective movement frequencies and amplitudes (down to a few degrees); (2) frequency-dependent timing of entrained bursts to the movement; (3) constant burst durations at low and moderate frequencies; (4) incomplete entrainment in response to high or low movement frequencies combined with a low amplitude; (5) entrainment was still present when mean position of movement was displaced laterally; (6) effects persisted when the tail region was devoid of skin and muscle tissue. Entrainment effects may be explained by the activation of stretch receptors on either side of the vertebral column-spinal cord, exciting the presumed central pattern generators (CPGs) ...
This article introduces the notion of cognitive pattern generators and suggests, by analogy with the central pattern generators of the motor system, that these pattern generators operate to organize neural activity underlying aspects of action-oriented cognition. It is further proposed that the basal ganglia are involved in the control of cognitive as well as motor pattern generators. Disorders of the basal ganglia may thereby contribute to neural circuit dysfunctions that are expressed as positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.. ...
A data pattern generator in which the address generation of a program counter (11) is controlled in accordance with an operation code and an operand read out of an instruction memory (12). An address/data pattern is generated in response to an address/data computing instruction read out of the instruction memory (12). Random logic patterns for testing a logic circuit are prestored in a data buffer memory (18) and are read out therefrom using an address created by an address pointer (19). The address generation of the address pointer (19) is controlled by control instructions and data written in a control instruction memory (22) and a load data memory (21) which are accessed by an address provided from the program counter (11).
Those of you interested in my last article on central pattern generator chips may also want to read a new piece Ive written for EE Times, this time on the use of CPGs in modular robots. It partly covers the salamander robot built by Auke Ijspeert and his team EPFL (and widely reported on after an article about it appeared in Science), but goes on to discuss how CPG-based locomotion may is being used to make Roombots: modular, self-organizing furniture that can walk around on its own.. This kind of work is an important step in the evolution of modular robotics, which I first got a chance to write about some years ago. There are very real problems to be grappled with, both in terms of the electronic and the mechanical design. This article explains how the EPFL team are handling the control side of this problem.. ...
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How does this work? Theres been a fair bit of progress since the early days of decorticate cats. We now understand that the motor system is arranged in a hierarchy, as illustrated in the figure below. First, we make the decision to start walking (this requires the brain). The brain then gives the command (start walking) to a different part of the nervous system: a circuit of neurons located in the spinal cord called the central pattern generator, or CPG. Once activated, the CPG activates the relevant muscles and essentially takes care of all of the details. So that is the general strategy for locomotion: when we decide to walk, our brains recruit the appropriate CPG, and this CPG is responsible for activating the appropriate muscles at the appropriate time. And thus, although we consciously decide to start and stop walking, we dont need to think about it in between. Once initiated, the motion persists without cortical input ...
Prof. Erik Zornik [biology 2012-] has been awarded a $444,000 grant from the National Institutes of Health to support his research on mechanisms in the brain that generate rhythmic behavior-with the goal of finding new treatments for neurological disorders.. Prof. Zornik is interested in how behavioral variation is encoded in neural circuits. His research investigates a hindbrain central pattern generator (CPG) that generates the courtship vocal behaviors of African clawed frogs, Xenopus laevis.. Adults of this species exhibit a rich vocal repertoire of at least seven call types that range from rhythmically simple to temporally complex, Zornik explains. Xenopus vocalizations are sexually differentiated; males and females produce calls with distinct temporal characteristics that are regulated by steroid hormones during development and in adulthood. This makes their vocal behaviors an ideal subject for understanding the neural basis of behavior and behavioral plasticity. ...
Locomotor gaits depend on the interplay between distributed spinal neural networks termed central pattern generators generating rhythmic and coordinated movements, primary afferents and descending supraspinal inputs. Recent studies demonstrated that the mouse display a rich repertoire of locomotor gaits. Changes in locomotor gaits occur in mutant mice lacking particular neurons or molecular signaling pathways implicated in the normal establishment of these neural networks Given the role of the Down Syndrome Cell Adherence Molecule (DSCAM) to the formation and maintenance of spinal interneuronal circuits and sensorimotor integration, we have investigated its functional contribution to locomotor gaits over a wide range of locomotor speeds using freely walking mice ...
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... such as the central pattern generators responsible for some automatic reflex actions. Such networks can generate a complex ... ISBN 978-0-262-11133-1. Hooper, Scott L. "Central Pattern Generators." Embryonic ELS (1999) http://www.els.net/elsonline/ ... Mauro A (1960). "Properties of thin generators pertaining to electrophysiological potentials in volume conductors". J. ... temporal pattern of action potentials that is used to coordinate muscular contractions, such as those involved in breathing or ...
... called a central pattern generator. Central pattern generators are neuronal circuits that-when activated-can produce rhythmic ... Frequency changes are also commonly observed in central pattern generators and directly relate to the speed of motor activities ... Like pacemaker neurons in central pattern generators, subtypes of cortical cells fire bursts of spikes (brief clusters of ... Examples are walking, breathing, and swimming, Most evidence for central pattern generators comes from lower animals, such as ...
"Cortical control of a whisking central pattern generator". J. Neurophysiol. 96 (1): 209-217. doi:10.1152/jn.00071.2006. PMC ... Neurons in this region project to a specific subcortical nucleus in which a pattern generator coordinates the cyclic rhythm of ... Woolsey, C.N., Settlage, P.H., Meyer, D.R., Sencer, W., Hamuy, T.P. and Travis, A.M. (1952). "Pattern of localization in ... The human primary motor cortex is located on the anterior wall of the central sulcus. It also extends anteriorly out of the ...
The central pattern generators are made up of different groups of spinal interneurons. There are four principal types of neural ... Guertin, PA (2012). "Central pattern generator for locomotion: anatomical, physiological, and pathophysiological considerations ... Neural circuits in the spinal cord called central pattern generators are responsible for controlling motor instructions ... A resulting repetitive pattern is the outcome that only stops if one or more of the synapses fail, or if an inhibitory feed ...
Biological neural network Central nervous system Central pattern generator Stein, P. S. G. (1983). The vertebrate scratch ... Mortin, L. I., & Stein, P. S. G. (1989). "Spinal cord segments containing key elements of the central pattern generators for ... Results from animal studies have indicated that spinal neural networks known as central pattern generators (CPGs) are ... and scratch motor patterns in the turtle". Journal of Neurophysiology. 84 (5): 2181-2190. doi:10.1152/jn.2000.84.5.2181. ...
... showing that central pattern generator (CPG) might be involved in cyclic arm swing. However, these findings do not imply ... Biomechanics of sprint running Bipedalism Central pattern generator F. C. Anderson, M. G. Pandy (2003). Dynamic Optimization of ... were investigated in this perspective and the results pointed a common central control mechanism. Performing the left- ...
List of regions in the human brain Central pattern generator Central nervous system Gait (human) Motor Control Brain ... Decerebrate cat walks Multi-Layered Multi-Pattern Central Pattern Generator for Adaptive Locomotion of Humanoid Robots. ... responsible for regulating the excitability of reticulospinal neurons that in turn project to spinal central pattern generators ... Step-like motor patterns of the lower extremities can be induced through activation of the spinal circuitry alone; however, ...
It is believed the activation of the central pattern generator leads to the improvement in gait pattern. Improving trunk ... improve the heel-toe gait pattern, straighten out a patient's posture, and increase arm swing patterns. Research has shown gait ... Murray M.P.; Sepic S.B.; Gardner G.M.; Downs W.J. (1978). "Walking patterns of men with Parkinsonism". Am J Phys Med. 57: 278- ... The intra-individual variability in foot strike pattern is found to be surprisingly lower in PD patients compared with normal ...
Stimulation of the command neuron triggers a lower level central pattern generator whose motorneurons and interneurons produce ... Command neurons receive a convergence of integrative and sensory input and output to a multifarious group of pattern generating ... naturally occurring behavior pattern. Command neurons act as neural decision making cells; push buttons that can trigger a ... a particular fixed action pattern. The term command neuron first appeared in a 1964 paper titled "Interneurons Commanding ...
As a chain type system, locomotion by CPG (Central Pattern Generator) controller in various shapes has been demonstrated by M- ... The outer Roombots DOF is using the same axis-orientation as Molecubes, the third, central Roombots axis enables the module to ...
This rhythmic firing is the result of Central Pattern Generators (CPGs), which operate regardless of whether a motion is ... Different gait patterns are characterized by differences in limb-movement patterns, overall velocity, forces, kinetic and ... about actual stepping patterns as they occur and compare them to the intended stepping pattern. When there is a discrepancy ... Gait patterns are velocity and age dependent. For example, as age increased so did velocity. Meanwhile, as age increases, ...
Feldman's early research focused on locating the central pattern generator responsible for breathing in 1986 identified the pre ...
... of the neural tube into rhombomeric segments may regulate spatial and temporal appearance of the central pattern generator. ... Rhombomeres determine the pattern of the following maturation of the rhombencephalon into its final parts. The final parts are ... Mutations in the Gli2 protein causes more severe damage in the ventral patterning of the hindbrain than that of the spinal cord ... Lebel M, Mo R, Shimamura K, Hui CC (February 2007). "Gli2 and Gli3 play distinct roles in the dorsoventral patterning of the ...
P. Arena, L. Fortuna, M. Frasca, and L. Patane, "CNN Based Central Pattern Generators with Sensory Feedback", Int'l Workshop on ... and lamprey gaits using a Central Pattern Generator (CPG). They were able to function using only feedback from the environment ... spatio-temporal patterns oscillating in time, hysteresis, memory, and heterogeneity. Furthermore, pattern generation was used ... Chung-Yu Wu and Chiu-Hung Cheng from National Chiao Tung University designed a RM-CNN processor to learn more about pattern ...
Other motor nuclei include gaze centers, which enable the eyes to track and fixate objects, and central pattern generators, ... It plays a central role in states of consciousness like alertness and sleep. Injury to the reticular formation can result in ... Parabrachial and pedunculopontine glutamatergic neurons] provide heavy innervation to the lateral hypothalamus, central nucleus ...
When CO2 levels in the lamprey's blood climb too high, a signal is sent to a central pattern generator that causes the lamprey ... This linkage between the CO2 detection system and the central pattern generator is extremely similar to the linkage between ... The same basic pattern is found in the lungfish Protopterus and in terrestrial salamanders, and was probably the pattern found ...
Central pattern generator Reflex arc Neural oscillations Neural network Neural development - comprises the processes that ... The human nervous system consists of two main parts: the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). ... Sleep Anesthesia Coma Reticular formation Central nervous system General terms Meninges Spinal cord Gray columns White ... Evolution of human intelligence Evolution of the human brain Paleoneurology Neuroscience Neurology Paleoneurology The central ...
Zupanc, G.K.H. (2020). "Development of a sexual dimorphism in a central pattern generator driving a rhythmic behavior: the role ... Salisbury, G.J.P.; Sîrbulescu, R.F.; Moran, B.; Auclair, J.R.; Zupanc, G.K.H.; Agar, J.N. (2015). "The central nervous system ... To maintain a constant ratio between the peripheral motor and sensory elements on the one side, and the central elements on the ... He and his team also demonstrated that the continued generation of new neurons in the adult central nervous system of teleost ...
Central pattern generatorEdit. Main article: Central pattern generator. Synchronized firing of neurons also forms the basis of ... called a central pattern generator. Central pattern generators are neuronal circuits that-when activated-can produce rhythmic ... Examples are walking, breathing, and swimming,[57] Most evidence for central pattern generators comes from lower animals, such ... Marder E, Bucher D (2001). "Central pattern generators and the control of rhythmic movements". Curr Biol. 11 (23): R986-R996. ...
Hooper SL (March 2000). "Central pattern generators". Curr. Biol. 10 (5): R176. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.133.3378. doi:10.1016/S0960- ... such as escape reflexes and others controlled by central pattern generators.[71][bx] ... one that has been exploited biologically to form central pattern generators and mimicked in artificial neural networks. ... In neurons, action potentials play a central role in cell-to-cell communication by providing for-or with regard to saltatory ...
Central pattern generationEdit. A central pattern generator (CPG) is defined as a neural network that does not require sensory ... Hooper, Scott L. (1999-2010). "Central Pattern Generators". Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. John Wiley & Sons. doi:10.1038/npg. ... Evidence for a central rhythm generator for locomotion in man". Brain. 117 (Pt 5): 1143-59. doi:10.1093/brain/117.5.1143. PMID ... This allows for self-sustaining patterns of oscillation. Furthermore, new motor patterns, such as athletic skills or the ...
... of the oddball paradigm is being used heavily in Schizophrenia research to study the effects in neuronal generator patterns in ... A frontro-central N2 component of ERP is primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas only the centro-parietal P3 ... In ERP research it has been found that an event-related potential across the parieto-central area of the skull that usually ...
Konishi, M. (2010). "From central pattern generator to sensory template in the evolution of birdsong". Brain & Language. 115 (1 ... Howell, Steve N. G. & Sophie Webb (1995). A Guide to the Birds of Mexico and Northern Central America. Oxford University Press ... Thorpe, W. H. (1958). "The learning of song patterns by birds, with especial reference to the song of the chaffinch Fringilla ... Bird Language: Exploring the Language of Nature with Jon Young A blog with stories and tips for learning the patterns in bird ...
"Multiple Rhythmic States in a Model of the Respiratory Central Pattern Generator". Journal of Neurophysiology. 101 (4): 2146-65 ... Neuronal discharge patterns are altered during the depressed synaptic inhibition, contributing to the reformation of the ... This single neuronal network can create multiple respiratory rhythmic patterns and is by itself both necessary and sufficient ... It is hypothesized that the pre-Bötzinger complex is the main location of the rhythmic pattern generation circuitry involved in ...
This signal is produced by a ringing generator at the central office. When the switching system directs a call to a particular ... distinctive ringing patterns would need to be used to identify the called subscriber; these were audible to the multiple users ... A ring generator or ringing voltage generator is a device which outputs 20 cycle sinusoidal AC at up to 110 volts peak to power ... Stand-alone ringing voltage generators are commercially manufactured; ring generators are also pre-built for inclusion in other ...
... central pattern generators). However, modeling work suggests that this alone is insufficient,[24] because the neuromuscular ... Major neuromodulators in the central nervous system include: dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, histamine, norepinephrine and ... Opioid peptides - a large family of endogenous neuropeptides that are widely distributed throughout the central and peripheral ... are used very generally throughout the central nervous system. ... Central (frontal+parietal). *Lateral (frontal+parietal+temporal ...
9] - The .NET 2.0+ Framework now provides semi-coroutine (generator) functionality through the iterator pattern and yield ... Each actor has its own procedures (this again logically separates the code), but they voluntarily give up control to central ... while generators cannot, instead transferring control back to the generator's caller. That is, since generators are primarily ... new queue generator produce loop while q is not full create some new items add the items to q yield consume generator consume ...
No.2 generator has since been removed leaving No.3 as the only surviving early generator plant. No.3 plant comprising a General ... The original central third of the powerhouse remains structurally intact. This section originally housed Nos.1 and 2 turbo- ... The place is important in demonstrating the evolution or pattern of Queensland's history. The Mount Isa Mine Early ... generators. No.3 turbo generator (made in England by The General Electric Co Ltd., Witton, Birmingham) was installed in line ...
2 MP Regt was the main force generator for TF 3-08 which deployed in the fall of 2008. 2 MP Regt was the main force generator ... or Canadian Disruptive Pattern (CADPAT). Members of the unit involved in policing duties wear OPD and all others wear CADPAT. ... Central and Eastern Europe), OP IMPACT (operations against ISIS in Iraq), and OP RENAISSANCE (Disaster relief in Nepal after ...
Norah Head is of national cultural significance because it was the last colonial built lighthouse on the central NSW coast and ... The lighthouse electric power is backed-up by a Lister diesel generator. The original 1902 Chance Bros lens is intact and ... The place is important in demonstrating the course, or pattern, of cultural or natural history in New South Wales. The ... They are of concrete block construction with terracotta tiles roofs in the marseilles pattern. The former stables building, ...
It is also possible that one's desire for control, or other basic motivational patterns, act as a third variable. ... For instance, some hardware random number generators work by amplifying quantum effects into practically usable signals. A more ... it is plausible that the central loci of our responsibility are our choices, or "willings".. ... "formation of macroscopic population dynamics that shapes the patterns of activity of the contributing individuals", applicable ...
Central pattern generator (CPG). *NMDA receptor. *Lateral inhibition. *Fixed action pattern. *Krogh's Principle ... an excellent example of how motor programs are integrated with incoming sensory information when generating a behavior pattern ...
This is a graded response: the greater the deformation, the greater the generator potential. If the generator potential reaches ... comparison of the human capacity with response patterns of mechanoreceptive afferents from the monkey hand". Journal of ... they can rapidly transmit sensory information regarding joint positions to the central nervous system.[14] ... Deforming the corpuscle creates a generator potential in the sensory neuron arising within it. ...
Whereas in central sleep apnea the body's motions of breathing stop, in OSA the chest not only continues to make the movements ... There are patterns of unusual facial features that occur in recognizable syndromes. Some of these craniofacial syndromes are ... a handheld patient controller to allow it to be switched on before sleep and is powered by an implantable pulse generator, ... As in central apnea, pauses are followed by a relative decrease in blood oxygen and an increase in the blood carbon dioxide. ...
Central and peripheral[edit]. Central and peripheral refer to the distance towards and away from the centre of something.[33] ... In projectional radiography terminology, an anteroposterior (AP) projection is taken with the X-ray generator anteriorly (such ... plus the typical horizontal eye pattern of the Sparassidae ... Central (from Latin centralis) describes something close to the ... but in the case of radiates indicates the central point, rather than a central axis as in vertebrates. Thus, there are multiple ...
Bishop: Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning, Springer, ISBN 0-387-31073-8. ... Most algorithms are based on a pseudorandom number generator that produces numbers X that are uniformly distributed in the half ...
"Will Toshiba's Bit-Patterned Drives Change the HDD Landscape?". PC Magazine. August 19, 2010. Retrieved August 21, 2010.. ... Data transfer rate (read/write) can be measured by writing a large file to disk using special file generator tools, then ... "Xyratex no-go for bit-patterned media". The Register. April 24, 2010. Retrieved August 21, 2010.. ... A 2011 summary of research, into SSD and magnetic disk failure patterns by Tom's Hardware summarized research findings as ...
The pattern of radiation delivery is determined using highly tailored computing applications to perform optimization and ... Depending upon the irradiated zone, late effect neuropathy may occur in either the central nervous system (CNS) or the ... Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator. *Accidents and incidents. *Policy. *Fusion. *Radioisotope thermoelectric ( ... damage-associated molecular patterns and cardiovascular toxicity following cancer therapy". Therapeutic Advances in ...
Whether being published under pseudonym or not, Kierkegaard's central writing on religion was Fear and Trembling, and Either/Or ... ISBN 978-0830822379 1986, 1992), says "human beings are explanation generators" and he agrees with Kierkegaard that it would be ... Logical theorems, mathematical symbols, physical-statistical laws can never become patterns of human existence. To be human ... In September 1850, the Western Literary Messenger wrote: "While Martensen with his wealth of genius casts from his central ...
Gas generator. engine core. HP compressor. high-pressure compressor (also HPC). HP turbine. high-pressure turbine. Intake ram ... In the aerospace industry, chevrons are the saw tooth patterns on the trailing edges of some jet engine nozzles[24] that are ... The bypass air exits from the fins whilst the exhaust from the core exits from the central nozzle. This fluted jetpipe design ... The core (or gas generator) of the engine must generate enough power to drive the fan at its design flow and pressure ratio. ...
In any event, bottles or activated generators account for the pattern of burned out aluminum skin on top of the aircraft, as ... Except that the "fireball" had nothing to do with it; it was most likely the empty/vapour central tank going off (it was a very ... The two-mask generator is approximately 63 mm (2.5 in) in diameter and 223 mm (8.8 in) long. The three-mask generator is ... Anything nearby that happens to ignite will burn intensely because of the rich oxygen supply.) and Chemical oxygen generator ( ...
Grant EN, Wagner R, Weiss KB (August 1999). "Observations on emerging patterns of asthma in our society". J Allergy Clin ... ini berlaku baik untuk generator ion negatif maupun positif.[128] ... Bikol Central. *Български. *Bahasa Banjar. *বাংলা. *Bosanski. * ...
They also have a grid of emergency back-up generators to provide power in the event of an outage. An event that could prevent ... 8 August 2019: Nyonoksa radiation accident at the State Central Navy Testing Range at Nyonoksa, near Severodvinsk, Russia. ... Due to the topographical nature of Japan, as well as the weather pattern for the prefecture, cesium deposits as well as other ... A flawed reactor design and inadequately trained personnel led to a failed backup generator test. This test led to a power ...
Usually, these generators are Diesel engine driven, although smaller buildings may use a gasoline engine driven generator and ... This central battery system consists of lead-acid battery cell units to make up a 12 or 24 VDC system as well as stand-by cells ... Unlike emergency lights, emergency lighting is not a type of light fixture; it is a pattern of the building's normal lights ... it is usual to run the system from a diesel generator with automatic switchover to the mains supply should the generator fail. ...
As in the examples above, the spring used a single, central mount which isolated the left and right movements. The FRP spring ... toe pattern, roll center height, scrub radius, scuff and more. ...
Oxygen toxicity to the lungs and central nervous system can also occur in deep scuba diving and surface supplied diving.[6][103 ... Chemical catalysts can be used as well, such as in chemical oxygen generators or oxygen candles that are used as part of the ... 2008). "Performance of oxygen delivery devices when the breathing pattern of respiratory failure is simulated". Anaesthesia. 63 ... Brown, Theodore L.; LeMay, Burslen (2003). Chemistry: The Central Science. Prentice Hall/Pearson Education. p. 958. ISBN 978-0- ...
Patterning[edit]. Patterning in MEMS is the transfer of a pattern into a material. ... Micropower, Hydrogen generators, gas turbines, and electrical generators made of etched silicon ... They usually consist of a central unit that processes data (the microprocessor) and several components that interact with the ... Diamond patterning[edit]. A simple way to carve or create patterns on the surface of nanodiamonds without damaging them could ...
Central membrane proteins in plants, such as ETO2, ERS1 and EIN2, are used for ethylene signaling in many plant growth ... Commercial ripening rooms use "catalytic generators" to make ethylene gas from a liquid supply of ethanol. Typically, a gassing ... "Ethylene- and shade-induced hypocotyl elongation share transcriptome patterns and functional regulators", "Plant Physiology", ...
Konishi, M. (2010). "From central pattern generator to sensory template in the evolution of birdsong". Brain & Language. 115: ... Howell, Steve N. G. & Sophie Webb (1995). A Guide to the Birds of Mexico and Northern Central America. Oxford University Press ... Thorpe, W. H. (1958). "The learning of song patterns by birds, with especial reference to the song of the chaffinch Fringilla ... Bird Language: Exploring the Language of Nature with Jon Young A blog with stories and tips for learning the patterns in bird ...
Coutts[77] describes dreams as playing a central role in a two-phase sleep process that improves the mind's ability to meet ... Hobson, J.A.; McCarly, R.W. (1977). "The brain as a dream-state generator: An activation-synthesis hypothesis of the dream ... According to Tsoukalas (2012) the biology of dreaming is related to the reactive patterns elicited by predatorial encounters ( ... The bulk of the narrative describes a dream vision experienced by its central character, Rhonabwy, a retainer of Madog, in ...
For instance in central and southern Florida the payback period could easily be 7 years or less rather than the 12.6 years ... "Integrated appraisal of micro-generators: Methods and applications". Proceedings of the ICE - Energy. 161 (2): 5, Fig. 1. doi: ... same latitude average insolation can vary a great deal from location to location due to differences in local weather patterns ... When a solar water heating and hot-water central heating system are used together, solar heat will either be concentrated in a ...
However, statistical techniques combined with a generator ('Unbiased Statistics of a CSP - A Controlled-Bias Generator'),[8] ... "Ask for some patterns that they don't have puzzles. : General". Forum.enjoysudoku.com. Retrieved 2013-10-20.. ... The 44 equivalence classes play a central role in other enumeration approaches as well, and speculation will return to the ... Application of counting symmetry patterns for duplicate paired digits achieved reduction to 174 and then to 71 equivalence ...
A pattern between the victims relates to Oliver's list from when he first started out as the Hood. This further angers the ... During the S.T.A.R. Labs incident, Central City Police Department (CCPD) undercover officer Tina Boland develops a sonic scream ... The team soon realizes that, after a period of time, a backup generator will activate, igniting the methane gas currently ... Felicity uses the pattern to predict future victims and the team splits up. Evelyn encounters Prometheus and engages him, ...
... pulatlility is observed in oscillatory activity from pacemakers and central pattern generators. Pulsatile activity is critical ... This pattern in amplitude of release is observed to be consistent across vertebrates.[8] Studies done in humans, rats and sheep ... are released regularly from the adrenal cortex at following a circadian pattern in addition to its release as a part of the ... in which chemical products are secreted in a regular pattern. The most common cellular products observed to be released in this ...
Central Standard[9]. allt. [äl̪t̪]. 'everything'. Laminal denti-alveolar. See Swedish phonology. ... Bertinetto, Marco; Loporcaro, Michele (2005). "The sound pattern of Standard Italian, as compared with the varieties spoken in ... Runaround generator. *^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 92.. *^ For example Beal (2004).. *^ a b Recasens & Espinosa (2005), p. 4. ... "Voiced Alveolar Lateral - Central , Els Sons del Català".. "Voiced Alveolar Lateral - Nord Occidental , Els Sons del Català".. ...
Competitive markets are massive and generally efficient generators of economic wealth. They must therefore have a central place ... heavy restrictions on union activities including on strike action and pattern bargaining, the privatization of government run ... The market is indivisible; it cannot be an instrument in the hands of central planners".[76] However, it should be noted that ...
Central pattern generator (CPG). *NMDA receptor. *Lateral inhibition. *Fixed action pattern. *Krogh's Principle ... The discharge patterns of these neurons - recorded in freely moving toads - "predict" prey-catching reactions, e.g. the tongue ... From an evolutionary point of view it is important to note that the tetrapod vertebrates share a common pattern of homologous ... These actions constitute a series of well-defined behavioral patterns. One reason for this type of stimulus-response chain is ...
Bellman's contribution is remembered in the name of the Bellman equation, a central result of dynamic programming which ... Memoization is also encountered as an easily accessible design pattern within term-rewrite based languages such as Wolfram ...
Oscar Salemink (2003). The Ethnography of Vietnam's Central Highlanders: A Historical Contextualization, 1850-1990. University ... In 2012, Vietnamese police in Chau Giang village stormed into a Cham Mosque, stole the electric generator, and also raped Cham ... in accordance with their own cultural patterns, social institutions and legal systems.[20] ... Oscar Salemink (2003). The Ethnography of Vietnam's Central Highlanders: A Historical Contextualization, 1850-1990. University ...
Thirumalai V, Marder E (2002) Colocalized neuropeptides activate a central pattern generator by acting on different circuit ...
Whats a central pattern generator? Essentially its any neural network - the one for this kids leg is in his spinal cord, for ... Beyonces Central Pattern Generator. Peter Freed, M.D.. October 8, 2009. October 2, 2012. Psychotherapy ... Central pattern generators for bipedal locomotion. Journal of mathematical biology (2006) vol. 53 (3) pp. 474-89 ... The neuroself explanation is that what were witnessing is rogue central pattern generators (CPGs for short) taking momentary ...
Feedforward discharges couple the singing central pattern generator and ventilation central pattern generator in the cricket ... couple the singing central pattern generator and ventilation central pattern generator in the cricket abdominal central nervous ... Occasional temporary desynchronization of the two motor patterns indicate discrete central pattern generator (CPG) networks ... Abdominal ventilation, Central pattern generation, Corollary discharge, Fictive singing, Motor systems coordination. ...
... the basic licking rhythm is generated by the central pattern generator located in the brainstem. Nevertheless, the licking ... In rats, the basic licking rhythm is generated by the central pattern generator located in the brainstem. Nevertheless, the ...
Central Pattern Generators and the Control of Motor Behavior. Mentor: Miller, Mark ... and breathing are controlled by neural circuits known as central pattern generators (CPGs). Dr. Millers lab investigates the ... A central component of this effort is directed to understanding the mechanisms of transcriptional memory that perpetuate ... To test this hypothesis, a summer student could examine if nAChR mutants have defective sleep/wake pattern and/or CBZ ...
... by networks called central pattern generators (CPGs). CPGs can produce these patterns even in the absence of inputs that carry ... Central Pattern Generators. Dirk Bucher, New Jersey Institute of Technology and Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey, USA Gal ... Diaz‐Rios M and Miller MW (2006) Target‐specific regulation of synaptic efficacy in the feeding central pattern generator of ... Marder E and Bucher D (2001) Central pattern generators and the control of rhythmic movements. Current Biology 11 (23): R986- ...
The leech heartbeat neural network is one of the most simple central pattern generators (CPG). In biology, CPG provide for ... The leech heartbeat neural network is one of the most simple central pattern generators (CPG). In biology, CPG provide for ... Real-time biomimetic Central Pattern Generators in an FPGA for hybrid experiments. Matthieu Ambroise1, Timothée Levi1*, ... Ijspeert, A. (2008). Central pattern generators for locomotion control in animals and robots: a review. J. Neural Netw. 21, 642 ...
2006) A central pattern generator producing alternative outputs: temporal pattern of premotor activity. J Neurophysiol 96:309- ... 2007a) A central pattern generator producing alternative outputs: pattern, strength, and dynamics of premotor synaptic input to ... Constancy and Variability in the Output of a Central Pattern Generator. Brian J. Norris, Angela Wenning, Terrence Michael ... Constancy and Variability in the Output of a Central Pattern Generator. Brian J. Norris, Angela Wenning, Terrence Michael ...
Cholecystokinin-like peptide is a modulator of a crustacean central pattern generator. GG Turrigiano and AI Selverston ... The STG contains 2 central pattern generators (CPGs), the pyloric and the gastric mill CPGs. Bath application of CCK8 to the ... Cholecystokinin-like peptide is a modulator of a crustacean central pattern generator ... Cholecystokinin-like peptide is a modulator of a crustacean central pattern generator ...
On peripheral control mechanisms acting on the central pattern generators for swimming in the dogfish ... On peripheral control mechanisms acting on the central pattern generators for swimming in the dogfish ... On peripheral control mechanisms acting on the central pattern generators for swimming in the dogfish ... On peripheral control mechanisms acting on the central pattern generators for swimming in the dogfish ...
Central pattern generators. Neuronal circuits that produce rhythmic motor patterns that persist in the absence of sensory ... in which central pattern generator (CPG) neurons drive activity in motor neurons; in turn, motor neurons relay these patterns ... 2017). Motor Neurons Tune Premotor Activity in a Vertebrate Central Pattern Generator. J. Neurosci. 37, 3264-3275. doi:10.1523/ ... 2018). Inhibitory and modulatory inputs to the vocal central pattern generator of a teleost fish. J. Comp. Neurol. 526, 1368- ...
Jalil S, Allen D, Yourker J and Shilnikov A. Toward robust phase-locking in Melibe swim central pattern generator model. J. ... Hu X, Youker J., Wojcik J, Clewley R and Shilnikov A, Phase and exact models for multifunctional central pattern generators, ... Wojcik J., Clewley R, and Shilnikov A., Order parameter for bursting polyrhythms in multifunctional central pattern generators ... of individual neurons and polyrhythmic bursting patterns discovered in multifunctional central pattern generators governing ...
... and feeding are under the control of networks of neurons in the central nervous system known as central pattern generators ( ... In vitro reconstruction of the respiratory central pattern generator of the mollusk Lymnaea ... In vitro reconstruction of the respiratory central pattern generator of the mollusk Lymnaea ... In vitro reconstruction of the respiratory central pattern generator of the mollusk Lymnaea ...
... several models have computationally explored the network hypothesis of central respiratory rhythm generation.1, 2One ... We hypothesized that our model of the central respiratory pattern generator, when appropriately modified to include vagal ... Nonlinear Dynamics of a Model of the Central Respiratory Pattern Generator. In: Honda Y., Miyamoto Y., Konno K., Widdicombe J.G ... C. von Euler, Brainstem mechanisms for generation and control of breathing pattern, in: "Handbook of Physiology. The ...
... These central pattern generators (CPGs) drive the coordinated and rhythmic muscle movements of the crabs stomach and heart, ... Thank you for submitting your article "Two central pattern generators from the crab C. borealis respond robustly and ... Dopamine modulation of transient potassium current evokes phase shifts in a central pattern generator network * RM Harris- ...
Respiratory central pattern generator network in mammalian brainstem (Rubin et al. 2009). ... Multiple rhythmic states in a model of the respiratory central pattern generator. J Neurophysiol 101:2146-65 [PubMed] ... This model is a reduced version of a spatially organized respiratory central pattern generation network consisting of four ...
Computational Model of a Central Pattern Generator (Cataldo et al 2006). Computational Model of a Central Pattern Generator ( ... Computational Model of a Central Pattern Generator (Cataldo et al 2006). Computational Model of a Central Pattern Generator ( ... Computational Model of a Central Pattern Generator (Cataldo et al 2006). Computational Model of a Central Pattern Generator ( ... Computational Model of a Central Pattern Generator (Cataldo et al 2006). Computational Model of a Central Pattern Generator ( ...
Robust Control of a Humanoid Robot Using a Bio-Inspired Approach Based on Central Pattern Generators, Reflexes, and ...
Dynamical systems guided design and analysis of silicon oscillators for central pattern generators .pdf. 2.01 MB. Adobe PDF. ... Dynamical systems guided design and analysis of silicon oscillators for central pattern generators. ... approach is proposed for the analysis and design of bio-inspired silicon central pattern generator (CPG) systems. Based on this ... Dynamical systems guided design and analysis of silicon oscillators for central pattern generators. IEEE transactions on ...
... description of the spatiotemporal pattern of inhibitory synaptic input from the heartbeat central pattern generator (CPG) to ... Calabrese et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2007. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. ... To begin the process of elucidating the relative roles of this pattern of input and motor neuron intrinsic properties and ... Our focus was intersegmental and side-to-side coordination of the asymmetric motor pattern: motor neurons on one side fire ...
The Central Pattern Generator (CPG) is a neural circuit that can produce a rhythmic motor pattern with no need for sensory ... Neural Control of locomotion; Part 1: The central pattern generator from cats to humans. Duysens, Jacques et. al. Gait and ... Evidence for a Spinal Central Pattern Generator in Humans. Dimitrijevic, Milan et. al. Annals New York Academy of Sciences. ... Neural control of locomotion: sensory control of the central pattern generator and its relation to treadmill training. Van de ...
For animals to walk, central pattern generators (CPGs) must be modulated to allow different stride lengths in each leg or ... requires flexible and adaptive fine-tuning of the basic alternating stepping pattern of our two legs. ... Kate Fehlhaber 0 Comments 2014, Bidaye, Central pattern generator, Circuit, CpG, Dickson, Drosophila, Fruit fly, Kinematics, ... Jillian L. Shaw 2 Comments 2013, Bachmann, Central pattern generator, Deep Brain Stimulation, Deep Brain Stimulation of the ...
In the model,a simplified central pattern generator (CPG) architecture inspired by neuroscientific research and DST is ... In the model, a simplified central pattern generator (CPG) architecture inspired by neuroscientific research and DST is ... Central Pattern Generators. Modeling walking on a humanoid robot is a complicated task related to designing an autonomous ... According to Ijspeert, Central Pattern Generators (CPGs), the bio-inspired neural structures discovered in the middle of the ...
... such as the central pattern generators responsible for some automatic reflex actions. Such networks can generate a complex ... ISBN 978-0-262-11133-1. Hooper, Scott L. "Central Pattern Generators." Embryonic ELS (1999) http://www.els.net/elsonline/ ... Mauro A (1960). "Properties of thin generators pertaining to electrophysiological potentials in volume conductors". J. ... temporal pattern of action potentials that is used to coordinate muscular contractions, such as those involved in breathing or ...
Jalil, S., Allen, D. & Shilnikov, A. Modeling study of a Central Pattern Generator in the Melibe seaslug. BMC Neurosci 13, P187 ... Modeling study of a Central Pattern Generator in the Melibe seaslug. *Sajiya Jalil. 1. , ... Central Pattern Generators (CPGs) are small networks of neurons that are experimentally identified as necessary for expressions ... The phase-locked pattern, observed in the experiment, is identified as an attractor in numerical simulations. We find that ...
Eve Marder introduces us to central pattern generators, the circuits in the nervous system that control rhythmic movements such ... 00:01:44.24 to central pattern generators (or CPGs as we call them). 00:01:48.27 and Ill explain that in a moment.. 00:01: ... 00:24:22.17 that allow the central pattern generator to be phase-constant.. 00:24:27.22 And so this, I think, is an important ... In Part 1, Marder introduces us to central pattern generators (CPGs), the circuits in the nervous system that control rhythmic ...
... called a central pattern generator. Central pattern generators are neuronal circuits that-when activated-can produce rhythmic ... Frequency changes are also commonly observed in central pattern generators and directly relate to the speed of motor activities ... Like pacemaker neurons in central pattern generators, subtypes of cortical cells fire bursts of spikes (brief clusters of ... Examples are walking, breathing, and swimming, Most evidence for central pattern generators comes from lower animals, such as ...
Central pattern generatorEdit. Main article: Central pattern generator. Synchronized firing of neurons also forms the basis of ... called a central pattern generator. Central pattern generators are neuronal circuits that-when activated-can produce rhythmic ... Examples are walking, breathing, and swimming,[57] Most evidence for central pattern generators comes from lower animals, such ... Marder E, Bucher D (2001). "Central pattern generators and the control of rhythmic movements". Curr Biol. 11 (23): R986-R996. ...
Central pattern generators (1). * Gap junctions (1). * Motor control (1). * Neural circuits (1). ...
Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. ... They contract and develop central pattern generator-like neuronal circuits. Finally, we successfully use NMOs to recapitulate ... NMOs; NMPs; central pattern generators; myasthenia gravis; neuromesodermal progenitors; neuromuscular diseases; neuromuscular ...
The Swim Central Pattern Generator The swim CPG produces the pattern of rhythmic activity that drives the swim efferent neurons ... Gating of central pattern generator. J Neurophysiol 53:466-480. * Getting PA, Dekin MS (1985b) Tritonia swimming: a model ... Katz PS, Fickbohm DJ, Lynn-Bullock CP (2001) Evidence that the swim central pattern generator of Tritonia arose from a non- ... Jing J, Gillette R (1999) Central pattern generator for escape swimming in the notaspid sea slug Pleurobranchaea californica. J ...
Relatively little is known about the interneurons that constitute the mammalian locomotor central pattern generator and how ... Abbreviations: cL, contralateral lumbar segment; CPG, central pattern generator; 5-HT, serotonin creatine sulfate; iL, ... components of the ipsilateral locomotor network and describe a group of putative excitatory central pattern generator neurons. ...
In order to describe precisely the fixed action patterns of salmon sexual behavior, we recorded the electromyographic (EMG) ... Rand RH, Cohen AH, Holmes PJ (1988) Systems of coupled oscillators as models of central pattern generators. In: Cohen AH, ... Cohen AH (1988) Evolution of the vertebrate central pattern generator for locomotion. In: Cohen AH, Rossingnol S, Grillner S ( ... Harris-Warrick RM (1988) Chemical modulation of central pattern generators. In: Cohen AH, Rossingnol S, Grillner S (eds) Neural ...
  • Essentially its any neural network - the one for this kid's leg is in his spinal cord, for example, but the one for his arm movement is more likely in his basal ganglia + brainstem + spinal cord - that once triggered produces a sequence of muscle contractions that produce a pattern. (neuroself.com)
  • A basic version of the underlying neural activity is generated in the central nervous system by networks called central pattern generators (CPGs). (els.net)
  • CPGs can produce these patterns even in the absence of inputs that carry specific timing information. (els.net)
  • CPGs can produce patterned activity in the absence of patterned input. (els.net)
  • For rhythmic behaviors such as locomotion and breathing, autonomously active neuronal networks called central pattern generators (CPGs) participate with sensory feedback in timing and coordinating motor neuron activity ( Marder and Calabrese, 1996 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • The STG contains 2 central pattern generators (CPGs), the pyloric and the gastric mill CPGs. (jneurosci.org)
  • Entrainment effects may be explained by the activation of stretch receptors on either side of the vertebral column-spinal cord, exciting the presumed central pattern generators (CPGs) in the hemisegments ipsilateral to the stretch, while inhibiting the contralateral CPGs. (biologists.org)
  • The output of these CPGs, often measured as recordings of motor nerves, is referred to as fictive behavior, as the patterns of nerve activity closely match those that occur during in vivo behavior. (biologists.org)
  • Most rhythmic behaviors such as respiration, locomotion, and feeding are under the control of networks of neurons in the central nervous system known as central pattern generators (CPGs). (sciencemag.org)
  • These central pattern generators (CPGs) drive the coordinated and rhythmic muscle movements of the crab's stomach and heart, respectively. (elifesciences.org)
  • Is there any difference between what you're calling CPGs or habit generators, and what others call procedural memory? (neuroself.com)
  • According to Ijspeert, Central Pattern Generators (CPGs), the bio-inspired neural structures discovered in the middle of the last century ( Hooper, 2001 ), work as a link connecting the sensori-motor level to the Mesencephalic Locomotor Region (MLR) in the brainstem which controls vertebrate locomotion. (frontiersin.org)
  • Central Pattern Generators (CPGs) are small networks of neurons that are experimentally identified as necessary for expressions of behaviors, and the core group capable of controlling various aspects of the behavior. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Repetitive nature of activity patterns of CPGs can be examined through the relative phase relations between bursting interneurons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 00:03:06.00 An Introduction to Central Pattern Generating Circuits (CPGs, as we call them). (ibiology.org)
  • The networks are called central pattern generators (or CPGs for short). (elifesciences.org)
  • What we do know is that even the simplest brains contain pattern-generator circuits (CPGs)[1], which are wired up specifically for generating walking patterns. (eurekalert.org)
  • When properly activated, the CPGs are able to generate the basic pattern of stepping. (physiology.org)
  • Both of these movements, as in all back-boned animals, are controlled by bundles of neurons called central pattern generators (CPGs). (nationalgeographic.com)
  • I derive models and create bifurcation toolkits for studying a stunning array of complex activities such as multistability of individual neurons and polyrhythmic bursting patterns discovered in multifunctional central pattern generators governing vital locomotor behaviors of animals and humans. (gsu.edu)
  • Relatively little is known about the interneurons that constitute the mammalian locomotor central pattern generator and how they interact to produce behavior. (pnas.org)
  • Our findings substantiate the role of EphA4-positive interneurons as significant components of the ipsilateral locomotor network and describe a group of putative excitatory central pattern generator neurons. (pnas.org)
  • A possibility was pointed out that the locomotor pattern generator in the spinal cord may be modulated by descending supraspinal signals and recruited to generate such diverse forms of action patterns in sexual behavior. (springer.com)
  • Polarization of primary afferent terminals of lumbosacral cord elicited by the activity of spinal locomotor generator. (springer.com)
  • When sinusoidal movements were artificially imposed on the tail region of the curarized spinal dogfish during "fictive locomotion' the coordinated burst pattern recorded in the ventral roots was effectively entrained to follow movement frequencies above as well as below the resting rate. (biologists.org)
  • Central pattern generators for bipedal locomotion. (neuroself.com)
  • Cohen AH (1988) Evolution of the vertebrate central pattern generator for locomotion. (springer.com)
  • Cohen AH, Holmes PJ, Rand RH (1982) The nature of the coupling between segmental oscillators of the lamprey spinal generator for locomotion: a mathematical model. (springer.com)
  • Whole-body mechanics and gaits in the gray short-tailed opossum monodelphis domestica: integrating patterns of locomotion in a semi-erect mammal. (cogprints.org)
  • He explains that with locomotion, sometimes the role of the central pattern generator is actually to send signals to inhibit movements, so they become more controlled. (eurekalert.org)
  • Tuntevski K, Freeman S, Yakovenko S. Towards a Minimalistic Central Pattern Generator for Quadrupedal Locomotion. (iit.it)
  • Towards a Minimalistic Central Pattern Generator for Quadrupedal Locomotion. (iit.it)
  • b) Fictive behaviours, that is, activity patterns recorded in the isolated central nervous system that resemble the motor output of the intact animal, are the ultimate proof of the existence of a CPG. (els.net)
  • thus, motor neurons are traditionally considered the last relay from the central nervous system to muscles. (biologists.org)
  • Neural oscillations , or brainwaves , are rhythmic or repetitive patterns of neural activity in the central nervous system . (wikipedia.org)
  • Neural oscillations are observed throughout the central nervous system at all levels, and include spike trains , local field potentials and large-scale oscillations which can be measured by electroencephalography (EEG). (wikipedia.org)
  • The escape swim is generated by identified neurons in the central nervous system (see Fig. 3). (scholarpedia.org)
  • It was later shown that the organized bursting firing pattern that mediates the swim could be produced by the isolated nervous system, proving that the pattern of activity was centrally generated and not the result of a cycle-by-cycle reflex response (Dorsett et al. (scholarpedia.org)
  • In the isolated nervous system, brief electrical stimulation of a body wall nerve, such as Pedal Nerve 2 or 3 is used as a standard stimulus to initiate what is often termed the "fictive" motor pattern. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Grillner S, Wallén P (1984) How does the lamprey central nervous system make the lamprey swim? (springer.com)
  • We find that selective inactivation of Nck in the murine nervous system causes a hopping gait and a defect in the spinal central pattern generator, which is characterized by synchronous firing of bilateral ventral motor neurons. (pnas.org)
  • We investigated the central nervous coordination between singing motor activity and abdominal ventilatory pumping in crickets. (acousti.ca)
  • with defects in the forebrain and central/autonomic nervous system neurons that result in high levels of postnatal lethality from respiratory distress. (jax.org)
  • For example, β-galactosidase expression during embryogenesis is highest in hypothalamus, but also detected in other central nervous system tissues (pons and medulla, spinal cord), peripheral nervous system (dorsal root ganglia), and some non-neuronal tissues (tongue, cartilage brown fat). (jax.org)
  • Serotonin is an important neuromodulatory signalling molecule in the central nervous system that has been linked to a range of conditions including depression, autism, schizophrenia and aggressive behaviour. (le.ac.uk)
  • Recent evidence suggests that some of the links are due to effects of serotonin during development of the central nervous system. (le.ac.uk)
  • Cardiorespiratory integration occurs at multiple levels in the central nervous system (CNS) to coordinate breathing and sympathetic outflow. (scielo.br)
  • High intracellular concentrations of Cl − ions in neurons interfere with synaptic signaling, particularly of the inhibitory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system (CNS), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and are implicated in several neurological diseases, such as epilepsy and schizophrenia. (sciencemag.org)
  • Genomic discovery of ion channel genes in the central nervous system of the lamprey Petromyzon marinus. (nih.gov)
  • Bullock T.H. (1961) The origins of patterned nervous discharge. (scorcher.ru)
  • Christie AE, Stein W, Quinlan JE, Beenhakker MP, Marder E, Nusbaum MP (2004) Actions of a histaminergic/peptidergic projection neuron on rhythmic motor patterns in the stomatogastric nervous system of the crab Cancer borealis. (scorcher.ru)
  • Rhythms in the nervous system are controlled by neural networks within the brain called central pattern generators. (eurekalert.org)
  • And so, it's that, that is the bottle neck for this enormous central nervous system. (coursera.org)
  • The nervous system contains many reasonably small collections of neurons that collectively generate a well-defined pattern of electrical activity, which continues even when those collections of cells are removed from the animal. (gatech.edu)
  • In this module, we consider two types of cells: one that relays information to the central nervous system (brain) for interpretation and a second set, motor neurons which relay information away from the central nervous system to govern voluntary movement. (coursera.org)
  • These observations lead to the question, how are the specific patterns of activities generated and used to control behaviors? (biomedcentral.com)
  • By recording the activity of individual neurons in an intact animal preparation, it was first shown that the activity of neurons in the central ganglia could be correlated with particular behaviors (Willows, 1967). (scholarpedia.org)
  • Accordingly, the speed and pattern of spinal circuits that underlie complex motor behaviors may be regulated by quantitatively gating the intra-network cellular activity ratio of E-to-I neurons. (elifesciences.org)
  • To make complex movements, motor neurons must produce precise patterns of activity. (jneurosci.org)
  • The buccal ganglia of Aplysia contain a central pattern generator (CPG) that mediates rhythmic movements of the foregut during feeding. (yale.edu)
  • A series of action patterns (quivering and spawning act in males, digging, covering, prespawning act and spawning act in females, and the swimming and turning movements in both sexes) were characterized by rhythmic activities of the trunk muscles. (springer.com)
  • Some of these networks send signals with a rhythmic pattern and typically drive repetitive movements such as breathing and walking. (elifesciences.org)
  • Central generators and the spatio-temporal pattern of movements // In:The development of timing control and temporal organization in coordinated action. (scorcher.ru)
  • Central Generators and the Spatio-Temporal Pattern of Movements (Y.I. Arshavsky, S. Grillner, G.N. Orlovsky, Y.V. Panchin). (elsevier.com)
  • Current Research on Temporal Patterns of Movements in Early Motor Development. (elsevier.com)
  • The Role of Reflexes in the Patterning of Limb Movements in the First Six Months of Life (P.M. McDonnell, V.L. Corkum). (elsevier.com)
  • a) Originally, rhythmic motor patterns were thought to arise from chains of reflexes (left panels). (els.net)
  • In spinal and hindbrain circuits in a variety of animals - including flies, worms, leeches, crustaceans, rodents, birds, fish, amphibians and mammals - studies have indicated a crucial role for motor neuron feedback in maintaining normal behavior patterns dictated by the activity of a central pattern generator. (biologists.org)
  • Both types of models may be used to understand the behavior of small biological neural networks, such as the central pattern generators responsible for some automatic reflex actions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neural commands for this rhythmic behavior are generated by a central pattern generator (CPG) that has been well characterized. (scholarpedia.org)
  • In order to describe precisely the fixed action patterns of salmon sexual behavior, we recorded the electromyographic (EMG) activities of trunk and jaw muscles from freely behaving male and female Himé salmon (landlocked sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka ). (springer.com)
  • Ayers J, Carpenter GA, Currie S, Kinch J (1983) Which behavior does the lamprey central motor program mediate? (springer.com)
  • Brain and Behavior: A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective addresses the central aims of cognitive neuroscience, seeking to examine the brain not only by its components but also by their functions. (ecampus.com)
  • However, since the level of activity of the retrotrapezoid nucleus is regulated by converging inputs from wake-promoting systems, behavior-specific inputs from higher centers and by chemical drive, the main focus of the present manuscript is to review the contribution of central chemoreceptors to the control of autonomic and respiratory mechanisms. (scielo.br)
  • Associative neural network models with behavior similar to central path generators have also been developed [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Now, researchers in Japan and Italy propose a new approach to walking pattern generation, based on a hierarchical network of electronic oscillators arranged over two levels, which they have demonstrated using an ant-like hexapod robot. (eurekalert.org)
  • In this paper, the authors approach neural oscillators from a programmer's point of view, providing background and examples for developing neural oscillators to generate rhythmic patterns that can be used in biological modeling and robotics applications. (hindawi.com)
  • Scientists have long employed neural oscillators as a method to study neuron/ganglia-based processes that serve as central pattern generators for various organisms and as a method to generate control and coordination signals for various robotic mechanisms. (hindawi.com)
  • however, literature related to neural oscillators and central pattern generators using these computerized neural network models, such as in [ 10 ], is not so prevalent. (hindawi.com)
  • For researchers wanting to apply the techniques of neural oscillators and/or central path generators for the programming robotic controls, modeling rhythmic patterns, and so forth, without the necessity of understanding complex theoretical mathematical models or learning how simple invertebrates swim, there appears to be no single source of basic information available. (hindawi.com)
  • Pattern generation // Curr Opin Neurobiol 7(6): 781-789. (scorcher.ru)
  • Neuronal and synaptic properties underlying the precise temporal patterning of sequential bursting activity are shaped by neuromodulators to generate different versions of motor patterns. (els.net)
  • Experimental analysis in our lab has provided a quantitative description of the spatiotemporal pattern of inhibitory synaptic input from the heartbeat central pattern generator (CPG) to segmental motor neurons that drive heartbeat in the medicinal leech. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To begin the process of elucidating the relative roles of this pattern of input and motor neuron intrinsic properties and electrical coupling in the elaboration of the heartbeat fictive motor pattern, we constructed a conductance-based ensemble model of all the segmental heart motor neurons and their known synaptic inputs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Modeling experiments, indicate that the most important determinant of the intersegmental and side-to-side phase relations among the heart motor neurons in the model was the spatiotemporal pattern of synaptic inputs, yet phasing was influenced by electrical coupling between the motor neurons in each segment, intersegmental conduction delays in the premotor interneurons, intra-burst synaptic plasticity, and intrinsic membrane currents of the motor neurons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In individual neurons, oscillations can appear either as oscillations in membrane potential or as rhythmic patterns of action potentials , which then produce oscillatory activation of post-synaptic neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibitory synaptic inputs coupled to the syllables of the singing motor pattern were present in another ventilatory interneuron, which is not part of the ventilation-CPG. (acousti.ca)
  • Variations on a theme: Species differences in synaptic connectivity do not predict central pattern generator activity. (umass.edu)
  • Investigation indicates that weak excitatory connections play no significant role in the generation of the pattern but may have stabilizing effect. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Circuitoids of purified excitatory interneurons were sufficient to generate oscillatory bursts with properties similar to in vivo central pattern generators. (elifesciences.org)
  • show that there are specific changes in central excitatory input to this neuron concurrent with learning and its consolidation into memory. (nih.gov)
  • Based on these observations, we discussed the biomechanics for these motor patterns (oviposition, ejaculation, body vibration, and mouth opening), and the neural mechanisms for the pattern generation. (springer.com)
  • Although connectomes and functional roles for the neuronal subtypes that comprise circuits have begun to be defined, the output of large multicellular networks are difficult to predict from the input pattern because the mechanisms that coordinate and regulate these complex systems remain poorly understood. (elifesciences.org)
  • 1976) provide model systems for studying cellular mechanisms underlying central pattern generation using intra- and extracellular unit recording techniques. (springer.com)
  • Model for intersegmental coordination of leech swimming: central and sensory mechanisms // J Neurophysiol 87(6): 2760-9. (scorcher.ru)
  • Elucidating the mechanisms of these sensorimotor transformations has become a central focus of systems neuroscience, as researchers use simple and elegant behavioral tasks to explore the behavioral responses of traditional model species to sensory cues ( 1 - 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Advances in this limb skin vasculature model with genetic studies have improved understanding molecular mechanisms of vascular development and patterning. (jove.com)
  • What circuits produce stereotyped behavioral patterns? (biologists.org)
  • These circuits are defined by their ability to generate rhythmic motor patterns in the absence of sensory feedback or other rhythmic inputs ( Marder and Bucher, 2007 ). (biologists.org)
  • Neuronal circuits that produce rhythmic motor patterns that persist in the absence of sensory feedback or descending inputs. (biologists.org)
  • 00:03:21.00 are produced by central oscillatory circuits. (ibiology.org)
  • They contract and develop central pattern generator-like neuronal circuits. (nih.gov)
  • Dickinson P.S., Mecsas C., Marder E. (1990) Neuropeptide fusion of two motor-pattern generator circuits. (scorcher.ru)
  • MicrocircuitDB: Respiratory central pattern generator network in mammalian brainstem (Rubin et al. (yale.edu)
  • Essentially its any neural network - the one for this kid's leg is in his spinal cord, for example, but the one for his arm movement is more likely in his basal ganglia + brainstem + spinal cord - that once triggered produces a sequence of muscle contractions that produce a pattern. (neuroself.com)
  • Pharyngeal dilator muscle activity is influenced by inputs from the chemoreceptors, 8 the brainstem central respiratory pattern generator (CPG), 9 intrapharyngeal negative pressure 10 and possibly vagal input from lung volume. (bmj.com)
  • More recently, focal acidification of several other brainstem regions in vivo (nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), raphe, pre-Bötzinger complex, locus coeruleus (LC), hypothalamus) has also been found to activate breathing and sympathetic outflow and this evidence has led to the view that central chemoreceptor stimulation is a 'distributed' property (3). (scielo.br)
  • It is now clear that such motor patterns are actually based on CPG networks (right panels) that can produce rhythmic activity in the absence of timing information from sensory feedback, for example, through mutually inhibitory connections between neurons controlling different agonists. (els.net)
  • central pattern generators, intrinsic membrane properties and cellular neurophysiology, multi-photon and confocal laser-scanning microscopy, patch-clamp electrophysiology. (wm.edu)
  • CPG activity is modified by sensory feedback to adapt the motor pattern to changing environmental parameters. (els.net)
  • The Central Pattern Generator (CPG) is a neural circuit that can produce a rhythmic motor pattern with no need for sensory feedback or descending control [6]. (berkeley.edu)
  • were obtained from commercial suppliers (Leeches USA and Biopharm) and maintained in artificial pond water at 15°C. After the animals were anesthetized in ice, they were dissected in cold saline to prepare chains of ganglia consisting of the head brain to at least midbody ganglion 15 for recording the heart interneuron activity rhythm and the IPSC strength pattern in heart motor neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Recently, several models have computationally explored the network hypothesis of central respiratory rhythm generation. (springer.com)
  • 4 Thus, the breath by breath variability in the ventilatory pattern may be explainable as a fundamental component of the process generating the respiratory rhythm, and not the product of intrinsic or extrinsic noise, or overwhelming system dimensionality. (springer.com)
  • To help evaluate the hypothesis that the central respiratory rhythm is generated by a network of interacting neurons, a network model of respiratory rhythmogenesis is formulated and examined computationally. (mit.edu)
  • This CPG is a multifunctional circuit and generates at least two types of buccal motor patterns (BMPs), one that mediates ingestion (iBMP) and another that mediates rejection (rBMP). (yale.edu)
  • Such networks can generate a complex temporal pattern of action potentials that is used to coordinate muscular contractions, such as those involved in breathing or fast swimming to escape a predator. (wikipedia.org)
  • Figure illustrates how synchronized patterns of action potentials may result in macroscopic oscillations that can be measured outside the scalp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Topics include the mechanism that underlie both action potentials and patterns of spontaneous activity in individual nerve cells, interactions between neurons, and the organization of neurons into larger functional units. (bowdoin.edu)
  • In this paper, a dynamical systems (DS) approach is proposed for the analysis and design of bio-inspired silicon central pattern generator (CPG) systems. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • In this talk I present a minimal model for one such central pattern generator, based on the interaction of nonlinear dynamical systems interacting on a quenched random network. (gatech.edu)
  • 2016. Model of the songbird nucleus HVC as a network of central pattern generators . (ucsd.edu)
  • Benjamin, P.R., Rose, R.M. Central generation of bursting in the feeding system of the snail, Lymnaea stagnalis// J. Exp. (scorcher.ru)
  • Using the leech heartbeat central pattern generator (CPG), we selected three different segmental motor neurons that fire in a functional phase progression but receive input from the same four premotor interneurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Previous work suggested that the phase progression arises because the pattern of relative strength of the four inputs varies systematically across the segmental motor neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • [4] Still others require song to have syllabic diversity and temporal regularity akin to the repetitive and transformative patterns that define music . (wikipedia.org)
  • eastern wood pewee: note the simple repetitive pattern of ascending and descending tones from a grounding note. (wikipedia.org)
  • This model is a reduced version of a spatially organized respiratory central pattern generation network consisting of four neuronal populations (pre-I, early-I, post-I, and aug-E). In this reduction, each population is represented by a single neuron, in an activity-based framework (which includes the persistent sodium current for the pre-I population). (yale.edu)
  • 1 . Rubin JE, Shevtsova NA, Ermentrout GB, Smith JC, Rybak IA (2009) Multiple rhythmic states in a model of the respiratory central pattern generator. (yale.edu)
  • We describe the effects of extreme changes in extracellular pH - from pH 5.5 to 10.4 - on two central pattern generating networks, the stomatogastric and cardiac ganglia of the crab, Cancer borealis . (elifesciences.org)
  • Stochastic weather generators are useful tools for exploring the relationship between organisms and their environment. (usda.gov)
  • Other contributors stress the developmentally invariant timing characteristics of species-typical and perhaps genetically programmed motor patterns of nonhuman organisms. (elsevier.com)
  • Experimentally and computationally, such phase-lags are measured with respect to a reference neuron, thus allowing for an analysis of various activity patterns in a systematic way. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Each of these activity patterns is quantitatively distinct from the others in such parameters as frequency, bout duration, duty value, intersegmental phase delay, and spatial distribution of rhythmic activities. (springer.com)
  • Baro DJ, Ayali A, French L, Scholz NL, Labenia J, Lanning CC, Graubard K, Harris-Warrick RM (2000) Molecular underpinnings of motor pattern generation: differential targeting of shal and shaker in the pyloric motor system. (scorcher.ru)
  • These networks generate the gastric mill (chewing) and pyloric (pumping/filtering of chewed food) motor patterns, respectively. (upenn.edu)
  • Occasional temporary desynchronization of the two motor patterns indicate discrete central pattern generator (CPG) networks that can operate independently. (acousti.ca)
  • And Natsue Yoshimura, also based at the IIR, says: "As the controller responds gradually and embodies a biologically plausible approach to pattern generation, we think that it may be more seamless to drive compared to systems which decode discrete commands. (eurekalert.org)
  • Also examined is the molecular machinery that generates circumscribed motor patterns with stable temporal characteristics, as well as the reversible influences of peripheral feedback on and the interactions among discrete pattern generators. (elsevier.com)
  • We conclude that the number (four) of inputs to each motor neuron, which each vary in strength, and the phase diversity of the temporal pattern of input from the CPG diminish the influence of individual inputs. (jneurosci.org)
  • We used RNA sequencing-based transcriptome analyses to compare patterns of gene expression in VMN to the surrounding hindbrain across three daily and seasonal time points of high and low sound production to identify candidate genes that underlie VMN's intrinsic and network neuronal properties. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The leech heartbeat neural network is one of the simplest central pattern generators (CPG). (frontiersin.org)
  • Heartbeat control in the medicinal leech: a model system for understanding the origin, coordination, and modulation of rhythmic motor patterns // J Neurobiol 27(3): 390-402. (scorcher.ru)
  • The overanalyzing, overthinking front of your brain, the executive center, is lulled by the hum of the movement pattern.At 10 minutes, cardiac drift occurs. (psychcentral.com)
  • 2015. Silicon central pattern generators for cardiac diseases . (ucsd.edu)
  • synapses in the central pattern generator that initiated the action. (bio.net)
  • Marder E, Calabrese RL: Principles of rhythmic motor pattern generation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gottschalk A., Geitz K.A., Richter D.W., Ogilvie M.D., Pack A.I. (1992) Nonlinear Dynamics of a Model of the Central Respiratory Pattern Generator. (springer.com)
  • Despite their basic theoretical differences, both formulations imply the same generic hypothesis: that the temporal characteristics of manifest movement or action are controlled by central agencies acting on the peripheral skeleto-muscular system in a hierarchic top-down mode. (elsevier.com)
  • In developing limb skin, peripheral nerves provide a spatial template that controls the branching pattern and differentiation of arteries. (jove.com)
  • The limb skin vasculature model has been used to study how peripheral nerves provide a spatial template for the differentiation and patterning of arteries. (jove.com)
  • Primary afferent depolarization evoked by the activity of spinal scratching generator. (springer.com)
  • In both cases, other neurons are recruited into this rhythmic activity to generate a whole pattern. (els.net)
  • Jalil S, Allen D, Yourker J and Shilnikov A. Toward robust phase-locking in Melibe swim central pattern generator model. (gsu.edu)
  • 1999). Fictive rhythmic motor patterns induced by NMDA in an in-vitro brain stem-spinal cord preparation from an adult urodele. (cogprints.org)
  • Those motor programs are controlled by central pattern generators in the brain stem. (photonics.com)
  • Things that happen to the brain stem and, and affects central pattern generators. (coursera.org)
  • These studies suggest that motor neurons not only relay motor patterns to the periphery, but directly contribute to pattern generation by providing feedback to upstream circuitry. (biologists.org)
  • It is hypothesized that the pre-Bötzinger complex is the main location of the rhythmic pattern generation circuitry involved in breathing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuromodulation provides flexibility of motor pattern generation to adjust output to changing behavioural demands. (els.net)
  • Our focus was intersegmental and side-to-side coordination of the asymmetric motor pattern: motor neurons on one side fire nearly in synchrony (synchronous coordination), while on the other they fire in a rear-to-front progression (peristaltic coordination). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Tritonia swim CPG has been a model system for studying rhythmic motor pattern generation, neuromodulation, and behavioral plasticity. (scholarpedia.org)
  • The swim motor pattern (Fig. 2) is initiated by chemical stimuli associated with contact with the tube feet of certain predatory seastars. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Figure 2: An example of the swim motor pattern. (scholarpedia.org)
  • A single S-cell is insufficient to activate the swim motor pattern. (scholarpedia.org)
  • However, multiple S-cells firing simultaneously will trigger a swim motor pattern. (scholarpedia.org)
  • These EPSPs are short in duration and therefore do not account for the duration of the swim motor pattern, which can last for more than a minute. (scholarpedia.org)
  • The sensory input from starfish touch is conveyed to interneurons Tr1 and DRI (Fig. 3), which initiate the motor pattern. (scholarpedia.org)
  • 1995), namely, it fires for a brief period of time but activates a longer-lasting rhythmic motor pattern. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Depolarization of Tr1 is occasionally sufficient to trigger a swim motor pattern. (scholarpedia.org)
  • During infancy, the most effective motor pattern(s) and their associated neuronal group(s) are selected through experience. (cogprints.org)
  • Blitz DM, Nusbaum MP (1997) Motor pattern selection via inhibition of parallel pathways. (scorcher.ru)
  • On the other extreme is the hypothesis implying that the sole function of spinal networks is the transformation of the specific phasic supraspinal commands into the motor pattern of postural corrections. (physiology.org)