Networks of nerve cells that control the firing patterns of MOTOR NEURONS to produce rhythmic movements such as MASTICATION; WALKING; SWIMMING; RESPIRATION; and PERISTALSIS.
Stereotyped patterns of response, characteristic of a given species, that have been phylogenetically adapted to a specific type of situation.
Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.
The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
An infraorder of chiefly marine, largely carnivorous CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, including the genera Cancer, Uca, and Callinectes.
Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.
Family of large marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA. These are called clawed lobsters because they bear pincers on the first three pairs of legs. The American lobster and Cape lobster in the genus Homarus are commonly used for food.
A genus of large marine sea slugs in the family Tritoniidae found in the northern Pacific Ocean. They are used in neurological research.
An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.
A genus of dextrally coiled freshwater snails that includes some species of importance as intermediate hosts of parasitic flukes.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
A species of migratory Old World locusts, in the family ACRIDIDAE, that are important pests in Africa and Asia.
Common name for the only family (Petromyzontidae) of eellike fish in the order Petromyzontiformes. They are jawless but have a sucking mouth with horny teeth.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.
A family of marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, comprising the clawless lobsters. They are found in tropical and subtropical waters and characterized by short spines along the length of the tail and body.
Separation systems containing a relatively long-lived parent radionuclide which produces a short-lived daughter in its decay scheme. The daughter can be periodically extracted (milked) by means of an appropriate eluting agent.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.
An alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic amine, biosynthesized from tyramine in the CNS and platelets and also in invertebrate nervous systems. It is used to treat hypotension and as a cardiotonic. The natural D(-) form is more potent than the L(+) form in producing cardiovascular adrenergic responses. It is also a neurotransmitter in some invertebrates.
A species of European freshwater LEECHES used for BLOODLETTING in ancient times and also for LEECHING in modern times.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Biological actions and events that support the functions of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.
An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.
A genus of side-gilled sea slugs in the family Pleurobranchidae, superorder GASTROPODA. They are opportunistic voracious feeders but prefer the sea anemone.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The part of the face that is below the eye and to the side of the nose and mouth.
The region of the STOMACH at the junction with the DUODENUM. It is marked by the thickening of circular muscle layers forming the pyloric sphincter to control the opening and closure of the lumen.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Branches of the VAGUS NERVE. The superior laryngeal nerves originate near the nodose ganglion and separate into external branches, which supply motor fibers to the cricothyroid muscles, and internal branches, which carry sensory fibers. The RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE originates more caudally and carries efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid. The laryngeal nerves and their various branches also carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.
A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.
Part of the brain located in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA and PONS. It receives neural, chemical and hormonal signals, and controls the rate and depth of respiratory movements of the DIAPHRAGM and other respiratory muscles.
Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
The striated muscle groups which move the LARYNX as a whole or its parts, such as altering tension of the VOCAL CORDS, or size of the slit (RIMA GLOTTIDIS).
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A genus of marine sea slugs in the family Glaucidae, superorder GASTROPODA, found on the Pacific coast of North America. They are used in behavioral and neurological laboratory studies.
Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.
Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.
A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
An alkaloid found in the seeds of STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA. It is a competitive antagonist at glycine receptors and thus a convulsant. It has been used as an analeptic, in the treatment of nonketotic hyperglycinemia and sleep apnea, and as a rat poison.
Sounds used in animal communication.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Stiff hairs projecting from the face around the nose of most mammals, acting as touch receptors.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Manner or style of walking.
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
An order of bottom fishes with short, small, spinous dorsal fins. It is comprised of one family (Batrachoididae) and about 70 species.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Nucleus in the NEOSTRIATUM of bird brains that sends signals for song production and receives auditory input. In some adult SONGBIRDS, research has shown that the size of this nucleus changes seasonally and that it exhibits neurogenesis.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Actinium. A trivalent radioactive element and the prototypical member of the actinide family. It has the atomic symbol Ac, atomic number 89, and atomic weight 227.0278. Its principal isotope is 227 and decays primarily by beta-emission.
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A potent excitatory amino acid antagonist with a preference for non-NMDA iontropic receptors. It is used primarily as a research tool.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Ir, atomic number 77, and atomic weight 192.22.
The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)

The effects of vestibular stimulation rate and magnitude of acceleration on central pattern generation for chest wall kinematics in preterm infants. (1/24)

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Neuropeptide modulation of microcircuits. (2/24)

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Sensory regulation of quadrupedal locomotion: a top-down or bottom-up control system? (3/24)

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DCC mediated axon guidance of spinal interneurons is essential for normal locomotor central pattern generator function. (4/24)

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Episodic swimming in the larval zebrafish is generated by a spatially distributed spinal network with modular functional organization. (5/24)

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Neuronal activity in the isolated mouse spinal cord during spontaneous deletions in fictive locomotion: insights into locomotor central pattern generator organization. (6/24)

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Memory trace in feeding neural circuitry underlying conditioned taste aversion in Lymnaea. (7/24)

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Neuromodulator-evoked synaptic metaplasticity within a central pattern generator network. (8/24)

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Central pattern generators (CPGs) are neural networks located within the central nervous system that are capable of generating and controlling rhythmic movements without sensory feedback. These networks are responsible for producing patterns of muscle activation necessary for various motor behaviors, such as walking, swimming, and breathing. CPGs can generate these patterns autonomously, allowing for the coordination of movement even in the absence of input from the environment or higher-level cognitive processes. They are thought to consist of interconnected populations of neurons that can produce oscillatory activity, which forms the basis for rhythmic movements. The properties and organization of CPGs have been studied extensively in various animal models, including invertebrates and vertebrates, and they are an active area of research in neuroscience and robotics.

In the context of medicine and biology, instinct is not typically used as a medical term. However, in general terms, instinct refers to a complex, adaptive behavior that is inherited and is not based on learning or reasoning. It's a genetically programmed response to certain stimuli that helps an organism survive and reproduce.

In psychology, instincts are often considered to be innate drives or motivations that underlie behavior. In this context, the term "instinct" may be used in a medical or clinical setting to describe certain behaviors or responses that are thought to have a strong biological basis and are not primarily learned or voluntary.

It's important to note that the concept of instinct is complex and can be interpreted differently across various fields of study, so any definition may depend on the context in which it is being used.

In invertebrate biology, ganglia are clusters of neurons that function as a centralized nervous system. They can be considered as the equivalent to a vertebrate's spinal cord and brain. Ganglia serve to process sensory information, coordinate motor functions, and integrate various neural activities within an invertebrate organism.

Invertebrate ganglia are typically found in animals such as arthropods (insects, crustaceans), annelids (earthworms), mollusks (snails, squids), and cnidarians (jellyfish). The structure of the ganglia varies among different invertebrate groups.

For example, in arthropods, the central nervous system consists of a pair of connected ganglia called the supraesophageal ganglion or brain, and the subesophageal ganglion, located near the esophagus. The ventral nerve cord runs along the length of the body, containing pairs of ganglia that control specific regions of the body.

In mollusks, the central nervous system is composed of several ganglia, which can be fused or dispersed, depending on the species. In cephalopods (such as squids and octopuses), the brain is highly developed and consists of several lobes that perform various functions, including learning and memory.

Overall, invertebrate ganglia are essential components of the nervous system that allow these animals to respond to environmental stimuli, move, and interact with their surroundings.

In the context of medicine, "periodicity" refers to the occurrence of events or phenomena at regular intervals or cycles. This term is often used in reference to recurring symptoms or diseases that have a pattern of appearing and disappearing over time. For example, some medical conditions like menstrual cycles, sleep-wake disorders, and certain infectious diseases exhibit periodicity. It's important to note that the duration and frequency of these cycles can vary depending on the specific condition or individual.

Locomotion, in a medical context, refers to the ability to move independently and change location. It involves the coordinated movement of the muscles, bones, and nervous system that enables an individual to move from one place to another. This can include walking, running, jumping, or using assistive devices such as wheelchairs or crutches. Locomotion is a fundamental aspect of human mobility and is often assessed in medical evaluations to determine overall health and functioning.

Motor neurons are specialized nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord that play a crucial role in controlling voluntary muscle movements. They transmit electrical signals from the brain to the muscles, enabling us to perform actions such as walking, talking, and swallowing. There are two types of motor neurons: upper motor neurons, which originate in the brain's motor cortex and travel down to the brainstem and spinal cord; and lower motor neurons, which extend from the brainstem and spinal cord to the muscles. Damage or degeneration of these motor neurons can lead to various neurological disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA).

Interneurons are a type of neuron that is located entirely within the central nervous system (CNS), including the brain and spinal cord. They are called "inter" neurons because they connect and communicate with other nearby neurons, forming complex networks within the CNS. Interneurons receive input from sensory neurons and/or other interneurons and then send output signals to motor neurons or other interneurons.

Interneurons are responsible for processing information and modulating neural circuits in the CNS. They can have either excitatory or inhibitory effects on their target neurons, depending on the type of neurotransmitters they release. Excitatory interneurons release neurotransmitters such as glutamate that increase the likelihood of an action potential in the postsynaptic neuron, while inhibitory interneurons release neurotransmitters such as GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) or glycine that decrease the likelihood of an action potential.

Interneurons are diverse and can be classified based on various criteria, including their morphology, electrophysiological properties, neurochemical characteristics, and connectivity patterns. They play crucial roles in many aspects of CNS function, such as sensory processing, motor control, cognition, and emotion regulation. Dysfunction or damage to interneurons has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, including epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorder.

Brachyura is a term used in the classification of crustaceans, specifically referring to a group of decapods known as "true crabs." This infraorder includes a wide variety of crab species that are characterized by having a short and broad abdomen, which is typically tucked under the thorax and protected by the shell.

The term Brachyura comes from the Greek words "brachys," meaning short, and "oura," meaning tail. This refers to the reduced abdomen that distinguishes this group of crabs from other decapods such as shrimps, lobsters, and crayfish.

Brachyura species are found in a wide range of habitats, including freshwater, marine, and terrestrial environments. They can be found all over the world, with some species adapted to live in extreme conditions such as deep-sea hydrothermal vents or intertidal zones. Some well-known examples of Brachyura include the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), the European shore crab (Carcinus maenas), and the coconut crab (Birgus latro).

Leeches are parasitic worms that belong to the family Hirudinidae and the phylum Annelida. They are typically cylindrical in shape, have a suction cup at both ends, and possess rows of sharp teeth that allow them to attach to a host and feed on their blood.

In a medical context, leeches have been used for therapeutic purposes in a practice known as hirudotherapy. This technique involves applying leeches to certain parts of the body to draw out blood and promote healing. The saliva of some leech species contains substances that act as anticoagulants, which can help improve circulation and reduce swelling in the affected area.

However, it's important to note that the use of leeches for medical purposes is not without risks, including infection and allergic reactions. Therefore, it should only be performed under the supervision of a trained healthcare professional.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nephropidae" is not a medical term. It is actually a taxonomic category in zoology, specifically a family of decapod crustaceans that includes lobsters and crayfish. If you have a question related to biology or veterinary medicine, I'd be happy to try to help with that.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tritonia Sea Slug" is not a widely recognized medical term or classification. The term "Tritonia" refers to a genus of small to medium-sized sea slugs, also known as nudibranchs, which are marine gastropod mollusks. They are often noted for their vibrant colors and intricate patterns.

However, if you're asking about a specific medical condition or substance related to this creature, could you please provide more context? I'd be happy to help further if I can.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "swimming" is not typically considered a medical term. It refers to the act of moving through water using your arms and legs in a rhythmic pattern, often as a form of exercise, recreation, or competition. However, if you're referring to a medical condition related to swimming, such as "swimmer's ear" (otitis externa), I would be happy to provide a definition for that.

Swimmer's ear is a type of outer ear infection caused by water remaining in the ear after swimming or bathing, creating a moist environment that can lead to bacterial growth. It can also be caused by scratching or damaging the lining of the ear canal through the use of cotton swabs or other objects. Symptoms may include itching, redness, pain, and sometimes discharge from the ear. If left untreated, swimmer's ear can lead to more serious complications, such as hearing loss or damage to the inner ear.

"Lymnaea" is a genus of freshwater snails, specifically aquatic pulmonate gastropod mollusks. These snails are commonly known as pond snails or ram's horn snails due to their spiral shell shape that resembles a ram's horn. They have a wide global distribution and can be found in various freshwater habitats, such as ponds, lakes, streams, and wetlands.

Some Lymnaea species are known for their use in scientific research, particularly in the fields of neurobiology and malacology (the study of mollusks). For instance, Lymnaea stagnalis is a well-studied model organism used to investigate learning and memory processes at the molecular, cellular, and behavioral levels.

However, it's important to note that "Lymnaea" itself does not have a direct medical definition as it refers to a genus of snails rather than a specific medical condition or disease.

A nerve net, also known as a neural net or neuronal network, is not a medical term per se, but rather a concept in neuroscience and artificial intelligence (AI). It refers to a complex network of interconnected neurons that process and transmit information. In the context of the human body, the nervous system can be thought of as a type of nerve net, with the brain and spinal cord serving as the central processing unit and peripheral nerves carrying signals to and from various parts of the body.

In the field of AI, artificial neural networks are computational models inspired by the structure and function of biological nerve nets. These models consist of interconnected nodes or "neurons" that process information and learn patterns through a process of training and adaptation. They have been used in a variety of applications, including image recognition, natural language processing, and machine learning.

"Locusta migratoria" is the scientific name for the migratory locust, which is a species of short-horned grasshopper. While it is not a medical term, I can provide some general information about this insect.

Migratory locusts are known for their ability to form large swarms that can travel long distances, consuming vast amounts of vegetation and causing significant damage to crops and pastures. They are native to Africa, Asia, and Europe but have been introduced to other parts of the world as well. The migratory locust is a agricultural pest and can pose a serious threat to food security in areas where they occur in large numbers.

From a medical perspective, some species of grasshoppers, including the migratory locust, can carry various pathogens that may affect humans and animals if ingested or come into contact with mucous membranes. However, there are no specific medical concerns associated with "Locusta migratoria" itself.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "lampreys" is not a medical term. It refers to a type of jawless aquatic vertebrate that are eel-like in appearance. They are parasitic creatures, with a suction cup-like mouth and circular rows of teeth, which they use to attach to fish and suck their body fluids. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to help with those!

The spinal cord is a major part of the nervous system, extending from the brainstem and continuing down to the lower back. It is a slender, tubular bundle of nerve fibers (axons) and support cells (glial cells) that carries signals between the brain and the rest of the body. The spinal cord primarily serves as a conduit for motor information, which travels from the brain to the muscles, and sensory information, which travels from the body to the brain. It also contains neurons that can independently process and respond to information within the spinal cord without direct input from the brain.

The spinal cord is protected by the bony vertebral column (spine) and is divided into 31 segments: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal. Each segment corresponds to a specific region of the body and gives rise to pairs of spinal nerves that exit through the intervertebral foramina at each level.

The spinal cord is responsible for several vital functions, including:

1. Reflexes: Simple reflex actions, such as the withdrawal reflex when touching a hot surface, are mediated by the spinal cord without involving the brain.
2. Muscle control: The spinal cord carries motor signals from the brain to the muscles, enabling voluntary movement and muscle tone regulation.
3. Sensory perception: The spinal cord transmits sensory information, such as touch, temperature, pain, and vibration, from the body to the brain for processing and awareness.
4. Autonomic functions: The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system originate in the thoracolumbar and sacral regions of the spinal cord, respectively, controlling involuntary physiological responses like heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and respiration.

Damage to the spinal cord can result in various degrees of paralysis or loss of sensation below the level of injury, depending on the severity and location of the damage.

Mollusca is not a medical term per se, but a major group of invertebrate animals that includes snails, clams, octopuses, and squids. However, medically, some mollusks can be relevant as they can act as vectors for various diseases, such as schistosomiasis (transmitted by freshwater snails) and fascioliasis (transmitted by aquatic snails). Therefore, a medical definition might describe Mollusca as a phylum of mostly marine invertebrates that can sometimes play a role in the transmission of certain infectious diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Palinuridae" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic family name in the classification of organisms, specifically for a group of deep-sea swimming lobsters known as "slipper lobsters." They are called this because their large antennae look like slippers. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to help with those!

Radionuclide generators, also known as "radiogenic sources" or "generator systems," are devices that contain a parent radionuclide that decays into a daughter radionuclide. The parent nuclide has a longer half-life than the daughter nuclide and remains within the generator system, while the daughter nuclide is produced continuously through the decay process and can be extracted for use in medical imaging or therapeutic procedures.

The most common type of radionuclide generator used in nuclear medicine is the technetium-99m (^99m Tc) generator, which contains molybdenum-99 (^99 Mo) as the parent nuclide. Molybdenum-99 has a half-life of 66 hours and decays into technetium-99m, which has a half-life of only 6 hours. Technetium-99m emits gamma rays that can be detected by gamma cameras, making it useful for a wide range of diagnostic procedures such as bone scans, lung perfusion imaging, and myocardial perfusion imaging.

Radionuclide generators are typically used in hospitals and medical centers where they can provide a convenient and cost-effective way to produce small quantities of radionuclides for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. The extracted daughter nuclide can be used immediately, reducing the need for complex shipping and handling procedures associated with other radioactive materials.

An action potential is a brief electrical signal that travels along the membrane of a nerve cell (neuron) or muscle cell. It is initiated by a rapid, localized change in the permeability of the cell membrane to specific ions, such as sodium and potassium, resulting in a rapid influx of sodium ions and a subsequent efflux of potassium ions. This ion movement causes a brief reversal of the electrical potential across the membrane, which is known as depolarization. The action potential then propagates along the cell membrane as a wave, allowing the electrical signal to be transmitted over long distances within the body. Action potentials play a crucial role in the communication and functioning of the nervous system and muscle tissue.

'Nervous system physiological phenomena' refer to the functions, activities, and processes that occur within the nervous system in a healthy or normal state. This includes:

1. Neuronal Activity: The transmission of electrical signals (action potentials) along neurons, which allows for communication between different cells and parts of the nervous system.

2. Neurotransmission: The release and binding of neurotransmitters to receptors on neighboring cells, enabling the transfer of information across the synapse or junction between two neurons.

3. Sensory Processing: The conversion of external stimuli into electrical signals by sensory receptors, followed by the transmission and interpretation of these signals within the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord).

4. Motor Function: The generation and execution of motor commands, allowing for voluntary movement and control of muscles and glands.

5. Autonomic Function: The regulation of internal organs and glands through the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system, maintaining homeostasis within the body.

6. Cognitive Processes: Higher brain functions such as perception, attention, memory, language, learning, and emotion, which are supported by complex neural networks and interactions.

7. Sleep-Wake Cycle: The regulation of sleep and wakefulness through interactions between the brainstem, thalamus, hypothalamus, and basal forebrain, ensuring proper rest and recovery.

8. Development and Plasticity: The growth, maturation, and adaptation of the nervous system throughout life, including processes such as neuronal migration, synaptogenesis, and neural plasticity.

9. Endocrine Regulation: The interaction between the nervous system and endocrine system, with the hypothalamus playing a key role in controlling hormone release and maintaining homeostasis.

10. Immune Function: The communication between the nervous system and immune system, allowing for the coordination of responses to infection, injury, or stress.

"Biological clocks" refer to the internal time-keeping systems in living organisms that regulate the timing of various physiological processes and behaviors according to a daily (circadian) rhythm. These rhythms are driven by genetic mechanisms and can be influenced by environmental factors such as light and temperature.

In humans, biological clocks help regulate functions such as sleep-wake cycles, hormone release, body temperature, and metabolism. Disruptions to these internal timekeeping systems have been linked to various health problems, including sleep disorders, mood disorders, and cognitive impairment.

Octopamine is not primarily used in medical definitions, but it is a significant neurotransmitter in invertebrates, including insects. It is the equivalent to noradrenaline (norepinephrine) in vertebrates and has similar functions related to the "fight or flight" response, arousal, and motivation. Insects use octopamine for various physiological processes such as learning, memory, regulation of heart rate, and modulation of muscle contraction. It also plays a role in the social behavior of insects like aggression and courtship.

'Hirudo medicinalis' is the scientific name for the European medicinal leech, which is a species of parasitic worm that belongs to the family Hirudinidae. These leeches are commonly used in medicine for therapeutic purposes, particularly in microvascular surgery and rehabilitation of arterial and venous insufficiencies.

The saliva of 'Hirudo medicinalis' contains various bioactive substances, including anticoagulants (hirudin), vasodilators, and anesthetics, which help to prevent blood clotting, improve local circulation, and reduce pain during bloodletting. These properties make them useful in promoting wound healing, reducing swelling, and alleviating symptoms of osteoarthritis and other inflammatory conditions.

It is important to note that the use of 'Hirudo medicinalis' should be carried out under the supervision of trained medical professionals, as improper application can lead to infection or other complications.

Neurological models are simplified representations or simulations of various aspects of the nervous system, including its structure, function, and processes. These models can be theoretical, computational, or physical and are used to understand, explain, and predict neurological phenomena. They may focus on specific neurological diseases, disorders, or functions, such as memory, learning, or movement. The goal of these models is to provide insights into the complex workings of the nervous system that cannot be easily observed or understood through direct examination alone.

Respiratory physiological processes refer to the functions and mechanisms involved in respiration, which is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between an organism and its environment. This process includes several steps:

1. Ventilation: The movement of air into and out of the lungs, driven by the contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles.
2. External Respiration: The exchange of gases between the alveoli (air sacs) in the lungs and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries. Oxygen diffuses from the alveoli into the blood, while carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood into the alveoli.
3. Transport of Gases: The circulation of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. Oxygen is carried by hemoglobin in red blood cells to the body's tissues, while carbon dioxide is carried as bicarbonate ions in plasma or dissolved in the blood.
4. Internal Respiration: The exchange of gases between the blood and the body's tissues. Oxygen diffuses from the blood into the cells, while carbon dioxide diffuses from the cells into the blood.
5. Cellular Respiration: The process by which cells convert glucose and oxygen into water, carbon dioxide, and energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). This process occurs in the mitochondria of the cell.

These processes are essential for maintaining life and are regulated to meet the body's changing metabolic needs.

'Aplysia' is a genus of marine mollusks belonging to the family Aplysiidae, also known as sea hares. These are large, slow-moving herbivores that inhabit temperate and tropical coastal waters worldwide. They have a unique appearance with a soft, ear-like parapodia on either side of their body and a rhinophore at the front end, which they use to detect chemical cues in their environment.

One of the reasons 'Aplysia' is well-known in the medical and scientific community is because of its use as a model organism in neuroscience research. The simple nervous system of 'Aplysia' has made it an ideal subject for studying the basic principles of learning and memory at the cellular level.

In particular, the work of Nobel laureate Eric Kandel and his colleagues on 'Aplysia' helped to establish important concepts in synaptic plasticity, a key mechanism underlying learning and memory. By investigating how sensory stimulation can modify the strength of connections between neurons in 'Aplysia', researchers have gained valuable insights into the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie learning and memory processes in all animals, including humans.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Pleurobranchaea" is not a medical term. It is actually the name of a genus of small to medium-sized sea slugs, commonly known as sidegill slugs or hopside gills, that are found in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. These marine animals belong to the family Pleurobranchidae within the mollusk class Gastropoda.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or healthcare topics, I would be happy to help. Please provide more information so I can better assist you.

Electric stimulation, also known as electrical nerve stimulation or neuromuscular electrical stimulation, is a therapeutic treatment that uses low-voltage electrical currents to stimulate nerves and muscles. It is often used to help manage pain, promote healing, and improve muscle strength and mobility. The electrical impulses can be delivered through electrodes placed on the skin or directly implanted into the body.

In a medical context, electric stimulation may be used for various purposes such as:

1. Pain management: Electric stimulation can help to block pain signals from reaching the brain and promote the release of endorphins, which are natural painkillers produced by the body.
2. Muscle rehabilitation: Electric stimulation can help to strengthen muscles that have become weak due to injury, illness, or surgery. It can also help to prevent muscle atrophy and improve range of motion.
3. Wound healing: Electric stimulation can promote tissue growth and help to speed up the healing process in wounds, ulcers, and other types of injuries.
4. Urinary incontinence: Electric stimulation can be used to strengthen the muscles that control urination and reduce symptoms of urinary incontinence.
5. Migraine prevention: Electric stimulation can be used as a preventive treatment for migraines by applying electrical impulses to specific nerves in the head and neck.

It is important to note that electric stimulation should only be administered under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as improper use can cause harm or discomfort.

A "cheek" is the fleshy, muscular area of the face that forms the side of the face below the eye and above the jaw. It contains the buccinator muscle, which helps with chewing by moving food to the back teeth for grinding and also assists in speaking and forming facial expressions. The cheek also contains several sensory receptors that allow us to perceive touch, temperature, and pain in this area of the face. Additionally, there is a mucous membrane lining inside the mouth cavity called the buccal mucosa which covers the inner surface of the cheek.

The pylorus is the lower, narrow part of the stomach that connects to the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). It consists of the pyloric canal, which is a short muscular tube, and the pyloric sphincter, a circular muscle that controls the passage of food from the stomach into the duodenum. The pylorus regulates the entry of chyme (partially digested food) into the small intestine by adjusting the size and frequency of the muscular contractions that push the chyme through the pyloric sphincter. This process helps in further digestion and absorption of nutrients in the small intestine.

Feeding behavior refers to the various actions and mechanisms involved in the intake of food and nutrition for the purpose of sustaining life, growth, and health. This complex process encompasses a coordinated series of activities, including:

1. Food selection: The identification, pursuit, and acquisition of appropriate food sources based on sensory cues (smell, taste, appearance) and individual preferences.
2. Preparation: The manipulation and processing of food to make it suitable for consumption, such as chewing, grinding, or chopping.
3. Ingestion: The act of transferring food from the oral cavity into the digestive system through swallowing.
4. Digestion: The mechanical and chemical breakdown of food within the gastrointestinal tract to facilitate nutrient absorption and eliminate waste products.
5. Assimilation: The uptake and utilization of absorbed nutrients by cells and tissues for energy production, growth, repair, and maintenance.
6. Elimination: The removal of undigested material and waste products from the body through defecation.

Feeding behavior is regulated by a complex interplay between neural, hormonal, and psychological factors that help maintain energy balance and ensure adequate nutrient intake. Disruptions in feeding behavior can lead to various medical conditions, such as malnutrition, obesity, eating disorders, and gastrointestinal motility disorders.

The laryngeal nerves are a pair of nerves that originate from the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) and provide motor and sensory innervation to the larynx. There are two branches of the laryngeal nerves: the superior laryngeal nerve and the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

The superior laryngeal nerve has two branches: the external branch, which provides motor innervation to the cricothyroid muscle and sensation to the mucous membrane of the laryngeal vestibule; and the internal branch, which provides sensory innervation to the mucous membrane of the laryngeal vestibule.

The recurrent laryngeal nerve provides motor innervation to all the intrinsic muscles of the larynx, except for the cricothyroid muscle, and sensation to the mucous membrane below the vocal folds. The right recurrent laryngeal nerve has a longer course than the left one, as it hooks around the subclavian artery before ascending to the larynx.

Damage to the laryngeal nerves can result in voice changes, difficulty swallowing, and respiratory distress.

A decerebrate state is a medical condition that results from severe damage to the brainstem, specifically to the midbrain and above. This type of injury can cause motor responses characterized by rigid extension of the arms and legs, with the arms rotated outward and the wrists and fingers extended. The legs are also extended and the toes pointed downward. These postures are often referred to as "decerebrate rigidity" or "posturing."

The decerebrate state is typically seen in patients who have experienced severe trauma, such as a car accident or gunshot wound, or who have suffered from a large stroke or other type of brain hemorrhage. It can also occur in some cases of severe hypoxia (lack of oxygen) to the brain, such as during cardiac arrest or drowning.

The decerebrate state is a serious medical emergency that requires immediate treatment. If left untreated, it can lead to further brain damage and even death. Treatment typically involves providing supportive care, such as mechanical ventilation to help with breathing, medications to control blood pressure and prevent seizures, and surgery to repair any underlying injuries or bleeding. In some cases, patients may require long-term rehabilitation to regain lost function and improve their quality of life.

Serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is a monoamine neurotransmitter that is found primarily in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, blood platelets, and the central nervous system (CNS) of humans and other animals. It is produced by the conversion of the amino acid tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), and then to serotonin.

In the CNS, serotonin plays a role in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, memory, learning, and behavior, among other functions. It also acts as a vasoconstrictor, helping to regulate blood flow and blood pressure. In the GI tract, it is involved in peristalsis, the contraction and relaxation of muscles that moves food through the digestive system.

Serotonin is synthesized and stored in serotonergic neurons, which are nerve cells that use serotonin as their primary neurotransmitter. These neurons are found throughout the brain and spinal cord, and they communicate with other neurons by releasing serotonin into the synapse, the small gap between two neurons.

Abnormal levels of serotonin have been linked to a variety of disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and migraines. Medications that affect serotonin levels, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are commonly used to treat these conditions.

Efferent pathways refer to the neural connections that carry signals from the central nervous system (CNS), which includes the brain and spinal cord, to the peripheral effectors such as muscles and glands. These pathways are responsible for the initiation and control of motor responses, as well as regulating various autonomic functions.

Efferent pathways can be divided into two main types:

1. Somatic efferent pathways: These pathways carry signals from the CNS to the skeletal muscles, enabling voluntary movements and postural control. The final common pathway for somatic motor innervation is the alpha-motor neuron, which synapses directly onto skeletal muscle fibers.
2. Autonomic efferent pathways: These pathways regulate the function of internal organs, smooth muscles, and glands. They are further divided into two subtypes: sympathetic and parasympathetic. The sympathetic system is responsible for the 'fight or flight' response, while the parasympathetic system promotes rest and digestion. Both systems use a two-neuron chain to transmit signals from the CNS to the effector organs. The preganglionic neuron has its cell body in the CNS and synapses with the postganglionic neuron in an autonomic ganglion located near the effector organ. The postganglionic neuron then innervates the target organ or tissue.

In summary, efferent pathways are the neural connections that carry signals from the CNS to peripheral effectors, enabling motor responses and regulating various autonomic functions. They can be divided into somatic and autonomic efferent pathways, with further subdivisions within the autonomic system.

The Respiratory Center is a group of neurons located in the medulla oblongata and pons within the brainstem that are responsible for controlling and regulating breathing. It receives inputs from various sources, including chemoreceptors that detect changes in oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in the blood, as well as mechanoreceptors that provide information about the status of the lungs and airways. Based on these inputs, the respiratory center generates signals that are sent to the diaphragm and intercostal muscles to control the rate and depth of breathing, ensuring adequate gas exchange in the lungs.

Damage to the respiratory center can result in abnormal breathing patterns or even respiratory failure, highlighting its critical role in maintaining proper respiratory function.

An "escape reaction" is a behavioral response displayed by an organism when it attempts to escape from a harmful, noxious, or stressful stimulus or situation. This response is typically characterized by rapid and directed movement away from the source of discomfort or danger. It is a fundamental survival mechanism that is observed across many species, including humans.

In a medical context, an escape reaction may be observed in response to painful medical procedures or treatments. For example, a patient may try to move or pull away during an injection or other invasive procedure. Healthcare providers must be aware of and prepared to manage escape reactions to ensure the safety and comfort of their patients during medical procedures.

"Motor activity" is a general term used in the field of medicine and neuroscience to refer to any kind of physical movement or action that is generated by the body's motor system. The motor system includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles that work together to produce movements such as walking, talking, reaching for an object, or even subtle actions like moving your eyes.

Motor activity can be voluntary, meaning it is initiated intentionally by the individual, or involuntary, meaning it is triggered automatically by the nervous system without conscious control. Examples of voluntary motor activity include deliberately lifting your arm or kicking a ball, while examples of involuntary motor activity include heartbeat, digestion, and reflex actions like jerking your hand away from a hot stove.

Abnormalities in motor activity can be a sign of neurological or muscular disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy, or multiple sclerosis. Assessment of motor activity is often used in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

Deglutition is the medical term for swallowing. It refers to the process by which food or liquid is transferred from the mouth to the stomach through a series of coordinated muscle movements and neural responses. The deglutition process involves several stages, including oral preparatory, oral transit, pharyngeal, and esophageal phases, each of which plays a critical role in ensuring safe and efficient swallowing.

Dysphagia is the medical term for difficulty with swallowing, which can result from various underlying conditions such as neurological disorders, structural abnormalities, or muscular weakness. Proper evaluation and management of deglutition disorders are essential to prevent complications such as aspiration pneumonia, malnutrition, and dehydration.

The brainstem is the lower part of the brain that connects to the spinal cord. It consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. The brainstem controls many vital functions such as heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory and motor information between the cerebral cortex and the rest of the body. Additionally, several cranial nerves originate from the brainstem, including those that control eye movements, facial movements, and hearing.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, "movement" refers to the act or process of changing physical location or position. It involves the contraction and relaxation of muscles, which allows for the joints to move and the body to be in motion. Movement can also refer to the ability of a patient to move a specific body part or limb, which is assessed during physical examinations. Additionally, "movement" can describe the progression or spread of a disease within the body.

Neural inhibition is a process in the nervous system that decreases or prevents the activity of neurons (nerve cells) in order to regulate and control communication within the nervous system. It is a fundamental mechanism that allows for the balance of excitation and inhibition necessary for normal neural function. Inhibitory neurotransmitters, such as GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) and glycine, are released from the presynaptic neuron and bind to receptors on the postsynaptic neuron, reducing its likelihood of firing an action potential. This results in a decrease in neural activity and can have various effects depending on the specific neurons and brain regions involved. Neural inhibition is crucial for many functions including motor control, sensory processing, attention, memory, and emotional regulation.

Neural pathways, also known as nerve tracts or fasciculi, refer to the highly organized and specialized routes through which nerve impulses travel within the nervous system. These pathways are formed by groups of neurons (nerve cells) that are connected in a series, creating a continuous communication network for electrical signals to transmit information between different regions of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves.

Neural pathways can be classified into two main types: sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent). Sensory neural pathways carry sensory information from various receptors in the body (such as those for touch, temperature, pain, and vision) to the brain for processing. Motor neural pathways, on the other hand, transmit signals from the brain to the muscles and glands, controlling movements and other effector functions.

The formation of these neural pathways is crucial for normal nervous system function, as it enables efficient communication between different parts of the body and allows for complex behaviors, cognitive processes, and adaptive responses to internal and external stimuli.

The laryngeal muscles are a group of skeletal muscles located in the larynx, also known as the voice box. These muscles play a crucial role in breathing, swallowing, and producing sounds for speech. They include:

1. Cricothyroid muscle: This muscle helps to tense the vocal cords and adjust their pitch during phonation (voice production). It is the only laryngeal muscle that is not innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Instead, it is supplied by the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve.
2. Posterior cricoarytenoid muscle: This muscle is primarily responsible for abducting (opening) the vocal cords during breathing and speaking. It is the only muscle that can abduct the vocal cords.
3. Lateral cricoarytenoid muscle: This muscle adducts (closes) the vocal cords during phonation, swallowing, and coughing.
4. Transverse arytenoid muscle: This muscle also contributes to adduction of the vocal cords, working together with the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle. It also helps to relax and lengthen the vocal cords during quiet breathing.
5. Oblique arytenoid muscle: This muscle is involved in adducting, rotating, and shortening the vocal cords. It works together with the transverse arytenoid muscle to provide fine adjustments for voice production.
6. Thyroarytenoid muscle (Vocalis): This muscle forms the main body of the vocal cord and is responsible for its vibration during phonation. The vocalis portion of the muscle helps control pitch and tension in the vocal cords.

These muscles work together to enable various functions of the larynx, such as breathing, swallowing, and speaking.

The digestive system is a complex group of organs and glands that process food. It converts the food we eat into nutrients, which the body uses for energy, growth, and cell repair. The digestive system also eliminates waste from the body. It is made up of the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) and other organs that help the body break down and absorb food.

The GI tract includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus. Other organs that are part of the digestive system include the liver, pancreas, gallbladder, and salivary glands.

The process of digestion begins in the mouth, where food is chewed and mixed with saliva. The food then travels down the esophagus and into the stomach, where it is broken down further by stomach acids. The digested food then moves into the small intestine, where nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream. The remaining waste material passes into the large intestine, where it is stored until it is eliminated through the anus.

The liver, pancreas, and gallbladder play important roles in the digestive process as well. The liver produces bile, a substance that helps break down fats in the small intestine. The pancreas produces enzymes that help digest proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. The gallbladder stores bile until it is needed in the small intestine.

Overall, the digestive system is responsible for breaking down food, absorbing nutrients, and eliminating waste. It plays a critical role in maintaining our health and well-being.

A ganglion is a cluster of neuron cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system. Ganglia are typically associated with nerves and serve as sites for sensory processing, integration, and relay of information between the periphery and the central nervous system (CNS). The two main types of ganglia are sensory ganglia, which contain pseudounipolar neurons that transmit sensory information to the CNS, and autonomic ganglia, which contain multipolar neurons that control involuntary physiological functions.

Examples of sensory ganglia include dorsal root ganglia (DRG), which are associated with spinal nerves, and cranial nerve ganglia, such as the trigeminal ganglion. Autonomic ganglia can be further divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia, which regulate different aspects of the autonomic nervous system.

It's worth noting that in anatomy, "ganglion" refers to a group of nerve cell bodies, while in clinical contexts, "ganglion" is often used to describe a specific type of cystic structure that forms near joints or tendons, typically in the wrist or foot. These ganglia are not related to the peripheral nervous system's ganglia but rather are fluid-filled sacs that may cause discomfort or pain due to their size or location.

Afferent pathways, also known as sensory pathways, refer to the neural connections that transmit sensory information from the peripheral nervous system to the central nervous system (CNS), specifically to the brain and spinal cord. These pathways are responsible for carrying various types of sensory information, such as touch, temperature, pain, pressure, vibration, hearing, vision, and taste, to the CNS for processing and interpretation.

The afferent pathways begin with sensory receptors located throughout the body, which detect changes in the environment and convert them into electrical signals. These signals are then transmitted via afferent neurons, also known as sensory neurons, to the spinal cord or brainstem. Within the CNS, the information is further processed and integrated with other neural inputs before being relayed to higher cognitive centers for conscious awareness and response.

Understanding the anatomy and physiology of afferent pathways is essential for diagnosing and treating various neurological conditions that affect sensory function, such as neuropathies, spinal cord injuries, and brain disorders.

Neurons, also known as nerve cells or neurocytes, are specialized cells that constitute the basic unit of the nervous system. They are responsible for receiving, processing, and transmitting information and signals within the body. Neurons have three main parts: the dendrites, the cell body (soma), and the axon. The dendrites receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors, while the axon transmits these signals to other neurons, muscles, or glands. The junction between two neurons is called a synapse, where neurotransmitters are released to transmit the signal across the gap (synaptic cleft) to the next neuron. Neurons vary in size, shape, and structure depending on their function and location within the nervous system.

Electrophysiology is a branch of medicine that deals with the electrical activities of the body, particularly the heart. In a medical context, electrophysiology studies (EPS) are performed to assess abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) and to evaluate the effectiveness of certain treatments, such as medication or pacemakers.

During an EPS, electrode catheters are inserted into the heart through blood vessels in the groin or neck. These catheters can record the electrical activity of the heart and stimulate it to help identify the source of the arrhythmia. The information gathered during the study can help doctors determine the best course of treatment for each patient.

In addition to cardiac electrophysiology, there are also other subspecialties within electrophysiology, such as neuromuscular electrophysiology, which deals with the electrical activity of the nervous system and muscles.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hermissenda" is not a medical term or concept. It is actually the name of a genus of small sea slugs that are often used as model organisms in scientific research, particularly in the field of neuroscience. The Hermissenda crassicornis has been extensively studied due to its relatively simple nervous system and large neurons, which make it a useful subject for studying learning, memory, and sensory processing. However, it is not a term used in medical diagnosis or treatment.

Spinal nerve roots are the initial parts of spinal nerves that emerge from the spinal cord through the intervertebral foramen, which are small openings between each vertebra in the spine. These nerve roots carry motor, sensory, and autonomic fibers to and from specific regions of the body. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerve roots in total, with 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal pair. Each root has a dorsal (posterior) and ventral (anterior) ramus that branch off to form the peripheral nervous system. Irritation or compression of these nerve roots can result in pain, numbness, weakness, or loss of reflexes in the affected area.

The digestive system is a complex network of organs and glands that work together to break down food into nutrients, which are then absorbed and utilized by the body for energy, growth, and cell repair. The physiological phenomena associated with the digestive system include:

1. Ingestion: This is the process of taking in food through the mouth.
2. Mechanical digestion: This involves the physical breakdown of food into smaller pieces through processes such as chewing, churning, and segmentation.
3. Chemical digestion: This involves the chemical breakdown of food molecules into simpler forms that can be absorbed by the body. This is achieved through the action of enzymes produced by the mouth, stomach, pancreas, and small intestine.
4. Motility: This refers to the movement of food through the digestive tract, which is achieved through a series of coordinated muscle contractions called peristalsis.
5. Secretion: This involves the production and release of various digestive juices and enzymes by glands such as the salivary glands, gastric glands, pancreas, and liver.
6. Absorption: This is the process of absorbing nutrients from the digested food into the bloodstream through the walls of the small intestine.
7. Defecation: This is the final process of eliminating undigested food and waste products from the body through the rectum and anus.

Overall, the coordinated functioning of these physiological phenomena ensures the proper digestion and absorption of nutrients, maintaining the health and well-being of the individual.

The Central Nervous System (CNS) is the part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord. It is called the "central" system because it receives information from, and sends information to, the rest of the body through peripheral nerves, which make up the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS).

The CNS is responsible for processing sensory information, controlling motor functions, and regulating various autonomic processes like heart rate, respiration, and digestion. The brain, as the command center of the CNS, interprets sensory stimuli, formulates thoughts, and initiates actions. The spinal cord serves as a conduit for nerve impulses traveling to and from the brain and the rest of the body.

The CNS is protected by several structures, including the skull (which houses the brain) and the vertebral column (which surrounds and protects the spinal cord). Despite these protective measures, the CNS remains vulnerable to injury and disease, which can have severe consequences due to its crucial role in controlling essential bodily functions.

Electromyography (EMG) is a medical diagnostic procedure that measures the electrical activity of skeletal muscles during contraction and at rest. It involves inserting a thin needle electrode into the muscle to record the electrical signals generated by the muscle fibers. These signals are then displayed on an oscilloscope and may be heard through a speaker.

EMG can help diagnose various neuromuscular disorders, such as muscle weakness, numbness, or pain, and can distinguish between muscle and nerve disorders. It is often used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests, such as nerve conduction studies, to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the nervous system.

EMG is typically performed by a neurologist or a physiatrist, and the procedure may cause some discomfort or pain, although this is usually minimal. The results of an EMG can help guide treatment decisions and monitor the progression of neuromuscular conditions over time.

A synapse is a structure in the nervous system that allows for the transmission of signals from one neuron (nerve cell) to another. It is the point where the axon terminal of one neuron meets the dendrite or cell body of another, and it is here that neurotransmitters are released and received. The synapse includes both the presynaptic and postsynaptic elements, as well as the cleft between them.

At the presynaptic side, an action potential travels down the axon and triggers the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft through exocytosis. These neurotransmitters then bind to receptors on the postsynaptic side, which can either excite or inhibit the receiving neuron. The strength of the signal between two neurons is determined by the number and efficiency of these synapses.

Synapses play a crucial role in the functioning of the nervous system, allowing for the integration and processing of information from various sources. They are also dynamic structures that can undergo changes in response to experience or injury, which has important implications for learning, memory, and recovery from neurological disorders.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "grasshoppers" is not a term used in medical definitions. Grasshoppers are a type of insect that belongs to the order Orthoptera and suborder Caelifera. They are known for their long hind legs which they use for jumping, and some species can jump over 20 times their own body length. If you have any questions about medical terminology or topics, I'd be happy to help with those instead!

Synaptic transmission is the process by which a neuron communicates with another cell, such as another neuron or a muscle cell, across a junction called a synapse. It involves the release of neurotransmitters from the presynaptic terminal of the neuron, which then cross the synaptic cleft and bind to receptors on the postsynaptic cell, leading to changes in the electrical or chemical properties of the target cell. This process is critical for the transmission of signals within the nervous system and for controlling various physiological functions in the body.

A hindlimb, also known as a posterior limb, is one of the pair of extremities that are located distally to the trunk in tetrapods (four-legged vertebrates) and include mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. In humans and other primates, hindlimbs are equivalent to the lower limbs, which consist of the thigh, leg, foot, and toes.

The primary function of hindlimbs is locomotion, allowing animals to move from one place to another. However, they also play a role in other activities such as balance, support, and communication. In humans, the hindlimbs are responsible for weight-bearing, standing, walking, running, and jumping.

In medical terminology, the term "hindlimb" is not commonly used to describe human anatomy. Instead, healthcare professionals use terms like lower limbs or lower extremities to refer to the same region of the body. However, in comparative anatomy and veterinary medicine, the term hindlimb is still widely used to describe the corresponding structures in non-human animals.

Electrophysiological phenomena refer to the electrical properties and activities of biological tissues, cells, or organ systems, particularly in relation to nerve and muscle function. These phenomena can be studied using various techniques such as electrocardiography (ECG), electromyography (EMG), and electroencephalography (EEG).

In the context of cardiology, electrophysiological phenomena are often used to describe the electrical activity of the heart. The ECG is a non-invasive test that measures the electrical activity of the heart as it contracts and relaxes. By analyzing the patterns of electrical activity, doctors can diagnose various heart conditions such as arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, and electrolyte imbalances.

In neurology, electrophysiological phenomena are used to study the electrical activity of the brain. The EEG is a non-invasive test that measures the electrical activity of the brain through sensors placed on the scalp. By analyzing the patterns of electrical activity, doctors can diagnose various neurological conditions such as epilepsy, sleep disorders, and brain injuries.

Overall, electrophysiological phenomena are an important tool in medical diagnostics and research, providing valuable insights into the function of various organ systems.

In a medical context, feedback refers to the information or data about the results of a process, procedure, or treatment that is used to evaluate and improve its effectiveness. This can include both quantitative data (such as vital signs or laboratory test results) and qualitative data (such as patient-reported symptoms or satisfaction). Feedback can come from various sources, including patients, healthcare providers, medical equipment, and electronic health records. It is an essential component of quality improvement efforts, allowing healthcare professionals to make informed decisions about changes to care processes and treatments to improve patient outcomes.

Respiratory mechanics refers to the biomechanical properties and processes that involve the movement of air through the respiratory system during breathing. It encompasses the mechanical behavior of the lungs, chest wall, and the muscles of respiration, including the diaphragm and intercostal muscles.

Respiratory mechanics includes several key components:

1. **Compliance**: The ability of the lungs and chest wall to expand and recoil during breathing. High compliance means that the structures can easily expand and recoil, while low compliance indicates greater resistance to expansion and recoil.
2. **Resistance**: The opposition to airflow within the respiratory system, primarily due to the friction between the air and the airway walls. Airway resistance is influenced by factors such as airway diameter, length, and the viscosity of the air.
3. **Lung volumes and capacities**: These are the amounts of air present in the lungs during different phases of the breathing cycle. They include tidal volume (the amount of air inspired or expired during normal breathing), inspiratory reserve volume (additional air that can be inspired beyond the tidal volume), expiratory reserve volume (additional air that can be exhaled beyond the tidal volume), and residual volume (the air remaining in the lungs after a forced maximum exhalation).
4. **Work of breathing**: The energy required to overcome the resistance and elastic forces during breathing. This work is primarily performed by the respiratory muscles, which contract to generate negative intrathoracic pressure and expand the chest wall, allowing air to flow into the lungs.
5. **Pressure-volume relationships**: These describe how changes in lung volume are associated with changes in pressure within the respiratory system. Important pressure components include alveolar pressure (the pressure inside the alveoli), pleural pressure (the pressure between the lungs and the chest wall), and transpulmonary pressure (the difference between alveolar and pleural pressures).

Understanding respiratory mechanics is crucial for diagnosing and managing various respiratory disorders, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and restrictive lung diseases.

Strychnine is a highly toxic, colorless, bitter-tasting crystalline alkaloid that is derived from the seeds of the Strychnos nux-vomica tree, native to India and Southeast Asia. It is primarily used in the manufacture of pesticides and rodenticides due to its high toxicity to insects and mammals.

Medically, strychnine has been used in the past as a stimulant and a treatment for various conditions such as asthma, heart failure, and neurological disorders. However, its use in modern medicine is extremely rare due to its narrow therapeutic index and high toxicity.

Strychnine works by blocking inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, leading to increased muscle contractions, stiffness, and convulsions. Ingestion of even small amounts can cause severe symptoms such as muscle spasms, rigidity, seizures, and respiratory failure, which can be fatal if left untreated.

It is important to note that strychnine has no legitimate medical use in humans and its possession and use are highly regulated due to its high toxicity and potential for abuse.

Animal vocalization refers to the production of sound by animals through the use of the vocal organs, such as the larynx in mammals or the syrinx in birds. These sounds can serve various purposes, including communication, expressing emotions, attracting mates, warning others of danger, and establishing territory. The complexity and diversity of animal vocalizations are vast, with some species capable of producing intricate songs or using specific calls to convey different messages. In a broader sense, animal vocalizations can also include sounds produced through other means, such as stridulation in insects.

'Animal behavior' refers to the actions or responses of animals to various stimuli, including their interactions with the environment and other individuals. It is the study of the actions of animals, whether they are instinctual, learned, or a combination of both. Animal behavior includes communication, mating, foraging, predator avoidance, and social organization, among other things. The scientific study of animal behavior is called ethology. This field seeks to understand the evolutionary basis for behaviors as well as their physiological and psychological mechanisms.

"Newborn animals" refers to the very young offspring of animals that have recently been born. In medical terminology, newborns are often referred to as "neonates," and they are classified as such from birth until about 28 days of age. During this time period, newborn animals are particularly vulnerable and require close monitoring and care to ensure their survival and healthy development.

The specific needs of newborn animals can vary widely depending on the species, but generally, they require warmth, nutrition, hydration, and protection from harm. In many cases, newborns are unable to regulate their own body temperature or feed themselves, so they rely heavily on their mothers for care and support.

In medical settings, newborn animals may be examined and treated by veterinarians to ensure that they are healthy and receiving the care they need. This can include providing medical interventions such as feeding tubes, antibiotics, or other treatments as needed to address any health issues that arise. Overall, the care and support of newborn animals is an important aspect of animal medicine and conservation efforts.

N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) is not a medication but a type of receptor, specifically a glutamate receptor, found in the post-synaptic membrane in the central nervous system. Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. NMDA receptors are involved in various functions such as synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. They also play a role in certain neurological disorders like epilepsy, neurodegenerative diseases, and chronic pain.

NMDA receptors are named after N-Methyl-D-Aspartate, a synthetic analog of the amino acid aspartic acid, which is a selective agonist for this type of receptor. An agonist is a substance that binds to a receptor and causes a response similar to that of the natural ligand (in this case, glutamate).

Neurotransmitter agents are substances that affect the synthesis, storage, release, uptake, degradation, or reuptake of neurotransmitters, which are chemical messengers that transmit signals across a chemical synapse from one neuron to another. These agents can be either agonists, which mimic the action of a neurotransmitter and bind to its receptor, or antagonists, which block the action of a neurotransmitter by binding to its receptor without activating it. They are used in medicine to treat various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and Parkinson's disease.

Vibrissae are stiff, tactile hairs that are highly sensitive to touch and movement. They are primarily found in various mammals, including humans (in the form of eyelashes and eyebrows), but they are especially prominent in certain animals such as cats, rats, and seals. These hairs are deeply embedded in skin and have a rich supply of nerve endings that provide the animal with detailed information about its environment. They are often used for detecting nearby objects, navigating in the dark, and maintaining balance.

Membrane potential is the electrical potential difference across a cell membrane, typically for excitable cells such as nerve and muscle cells. It is the difference in electric charge between the inside and outside of a cell, created by the selective permeability of the cell membrane to different ions. The resting membrane potential of a typical animal cell is around -70 mV, with the interior being negative relative to the exterior. This potential is generated and maintained by the active transport of ions across the membrane, primarily through the action of the sodium-potassium pump. Membrane potentials play a crucial role in many physiological processes, including the transmission of nerve impulses and the contraction of muscle cells.

A larva is a distinct stage in the life cycle of various insects, mites, and other arthropods during which they undergo significant metamorphosis before becoming adults. In a medical context, larvae are known for their role in certain parasitic infections. Specifically, some helminth (parasitic worm) species use larval forms to infect human hosts. These invasions may lead to conditions such as cutaneous larva migrans, visceral larva migrans, or gnathostomiasis, depending on the specific parasite involved and the location of the infection within the body.

The larval stage is characterized by its markedly different morphology and behavior compared to the adult form. Larvae often have a distinct appearance, featuring unsegmented bodies, simple sense organs, and undeveloped digestive systems. They are typically adapted for a specific mode of life, such as free-living or parasitic existence, and rely on external sources of nutrition for their development.

In the context of helminth infections, larvae may be transmitted to humans through various routes, including ingestion of contaminated food or water, direct skin contact with infective stages, or transmission via an intermediate host (such as a vector). Once inside the human body, these parasitic larvae can cause tissue damage and provoke immune responses, leading to the clinical manifestations of disease.

It is essential to distinguish between the medical definition of 'larva' and its broader usage in biology and zoology. In those fields, 'larva' refers to any juvenile form that undergoes metamorphosis before reaching adulthood, regardless of whether it is parasitic or not.

"Cat" is a common name that refers to various species of small carnivorous mammals that belong to the family Felidae. The domestic cat, also known as Felis catus or Felis silvestris catus, is a popular pet and companion animal. It is a subspecies of the wildcat, which is found in Europe, Africa, and Asia.

Domestic cats are often kept as pets because of their companionship, playful behavior, and ability to hunt vermin. They are also valued for their ability to provide emotional support and therapy to people. Cats are obligate carnivores, which means that they require a diet that consists mainly of meat to meet their nutritional needs.

Cats are known for their agility, sharp senses, and predatory instincts. They have retractable claws, which they use for hunting and self-defense. Cats also have a keen sense of smell, hearing, and vision, which allow them to detect prey and navigate their environment.

In medical terms, cats can be hosts to various parasites and diseases that can affect humans and other animals. Some common feline diseases include rabies, feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and toxoplasmosis. It is important for cat owners to keep their pets healthy and up-to-date on vaccinations and preventative treatments to protect both the cats and their human companions.

"Nonlinear dynamics is a branch of mathematics and physics that deals with the study of systems that exhibit nonlinear behavior, where the output is not directly proportional to the input. In the context of medicine, nonlinear dynamics can be used to model complex biological systems such as the human cardiovascular system or the brain, where the interactions between different components can lead to emergent properties and behaviors that are difficult to predict using traditional linear methods. Nonlinear dynamic models can help to understand the underlying mechanisms of these systems, make predictions about their behavior, and develop interventions to improve health outcomes."

Proprioception is the unconscious perception of movement and spatial orientation arising from stimuli within the body itself. It is sometimes described as the "sixth sense" and it's all about knowing where your body parts are, how they are moving, and the effort being used to move them. This information is crucial for motor control, balance, and coordination.

The proprioceptive system includes sensory receptors called proprioreceptors located in muscles, tendons, and joints that send messages to the brain through nerves regarding body position and movement. These messages are then integrated with information from other senses, such as vision and vestibular sense (related to balance), to create a complete understanding of the body's position and motion in space.

Deficits in proprioception can lead to problems with coordination, balance, and fine motor skills.

Evoked potentials (EPs) are medical tests that measure the electrical activity in the brain or spinal cord in response to specific sensory stimuli, such as sight, sound, or touch. These tests are often used to help diagnose and monitor conditions that affect the nervous system, such as multiple sclerosis, brainstem tumors, and spinal cord injuries.

There are several types of EPs, including:

1. Visual Evoked Potentials (VEPs): These are used to assess the function of the visual pathway from the eyes to the back of the brain. A patient is typically asked to look at a patterned image or flashing light while electrodes placed on the scalp record the electrical responses.
2. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials (BAEPs): These are used to evaluate the function of the auditory nerve and brainstem. Clicking sounds are presented to one or both ears, and electrodes placed on the scalp measure the response.
3. Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (SSEPs): These are used to assess the function of the peripheral nerves and spinal cord. Small electrical shocks are applied to a nerve at the wrist or ankle, and electrodes placed on the scalp record the response as it travels up the spinal cord to the brain.
4. Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs): These are used to assess the function of the motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord. A magnetic or electrical stimulus is applied to the brain or spinal cord, and electrodes placed on a muscle measure the response as it travels down the motor pathway.

EPs can help identify abnormalities in the nervous system that may not be apparent through other diagnostic tests, such as imaging studies or clinical examinations. They are generally safe, non-invasive procedures with few risks or side effects.

Medical science often defines and describes "walking" as a form of locomotion or mobility where an individual repeatedly lifts and sets down each foot to move forward, usually bearing weight on both legs. It is a complex motor activity that requires the integration and coordination of various systems in the human body, including the musculoskeletal, neurological, and cardiovascular systems.

Walking involves several components such as balance, coordination, strength, and endurance. The ability to walk independently is often used as a measure of functional mobility and overall health status. However, it's important to note that the specific definition of walking may vary depending on the context and the medical or scientific field in question.

Afferent neurons, also known as sensory neurons, are a type of nerve cell that conducts impulses or signals from peripheral receptors towards the central nervous system (CNS), which includes the brain and spinal cord. These neurons are responsible for transmitting sensory information such as touch, temperature, pain, sound, and light to the CNS for processing and interpretation. Afferent neurons have specialized receptor endings that detect changes in the environment and convert them into electrical signals, which are then transmitted to the CNS via synapses with other neurons. Once the signals reach the CNS, they are processed and integrated with other information to produce a response or reaction to the stimulus.

A reflex is an automatic, involuntary and rapid response to a stimulus that occurs without conscious intention. In the context of physiology and neurology, it's a basic mechanism that involves the transmission of nerve impulses between neurons, resulting in a muscle contraction or glandular secretion.

Reflexes are important for maintaining homeostasis, protecting the body from harm, and coordinating movements. They can be tested clinically to assess the integrity of the nervous system, such as the knee-j jerk reflex, which tests the function of the L3-L4 spinal nerve roots and the sensitivity of the stretch reflex arc.

Excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) are electrical signals that occur in the dendrites and cell body of a neuron, or nerve cell. They are caused by the activation of excitatory synapses, which are connections between neurons that allow for the transmission of information.

When an action potential, or electrical impulse, reaches the end of an axon, it triggers the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft, the small gap between the presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes. The excitatory neurotransmitters then bind to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane, causing a local depolarization of the membrane potential. This depolarization is known as an EPSP.

EPSPs are responsible for increasing the likelihood that an action potential will be generated in the postsynaptic neuron. When multiple EPSPs occur simultaneously or in close succession, they can summate and cause a large enough depolarization to trigger an action potential. This allows for the transmission of information from one neuron to another.

It's important to note that there are also inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) which decrease the likelihood that an action potential will be generated in the postsynaptic neuron, by causing a local hyperpolarization of the membrane potential.

Biomechanics is the application of mechanical laws to living structures and systems, particularly in the field of medicine and healthcare. A biomechanical phenomenon refers to a observable event or occurrence that involves the interaction of biological tissues or systems with mechanical forces. These phenomena can be studied at various levels, from the molecular and cellular level to the tissue, organ, and whole-body level.

Examples of biomechanical phenomena include:

1. The way that bones and muscles work together to produce movement (known as joint kinematics).
2. The mechanical behavior of biological tissues such as bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments under various loads and stresses.
3. The response of cells and tissues to mechanical stimuli, such as the way that bone tissue adapts to changes in loading conditions (known as Wolff's law).
4. The biomechanics of injury and disease processes, such as the mechanisms of joint injury or the development of osteoarthritis.
5. The use of mechanical devices and interventions to treat medical conditions, such as orthopedic implants or assistive devices for mobility impairments.

Understanding biomechanical phenomena is essential for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies for a wide range of medical conditions, from musculoskeletal injuries to neurological disorders.

Gait is a medical term used to describe the pattern of movement of the limbs during walking or running. It includes the manner or style of walking, including factors such as rhythm, speed, and step length. A person's gait can provide important clues about their physical health and neurological function, and abnormalities in gait may indicate the presence of underlying medical conditions, such as neuromuscular disorders, orthopedic problems, or injuries.

A typical human gait cycle involves two main phases: the stance phase, during which the foot is in contact with the ground, and the swing phase, during which the foot is lifted and moved forward in preparation for the next step. The gait cycle can be further broken down into several sub-phases, including heel strike, foot flat, midstance, heel off, and toe off.

Gait analysis is a specialized field of study that involves observing and measuring a person's gait pattern using various techniques, such as video recordings, force plates, and motion capture systems. This information can be used to diagnose and treat gait abnormalities, improve mobility and function, and prevent injuries.

The medulla oblongata is a part of the brainstem that is located in the posterior portion of the brainstem and continues with the spinal cord. It plays a vital role in controlling several critical bodily functions, such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. The medulla oblongata also contains nerve pathways that transmit sensory information from the body to the brain and motor commands from the brain to the muscles. Additionally, it is responsible for reflexes such as vomiting, swallowing, coughing, and sneezing.

Patch-clamp techniques are a group of electrophysiological methods used to study ion channels and other electrical properties of cells. These techniques were developed by Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann, who were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1991 for their work. The basic principle of patch-clamp techniques involves creating a high resistance seal between a glass micropipette and the cell membrane, allowing for the measurement of current flowing through individual ion channels or groups of channels.

There are several different configurations of patch-clamp techniques, including:

1. Cell-attached configuration: In this configuration, the micropipette is attached to the outer surface of the cell membrane, and the current flowing across a single ion channel can be measured. This configuration allows for the study of the properties of individual channels in their native environment.
2. Whole-cell configuration: Here, the micropipette breaks through the cell membrane, creating a low resistance electrical connection between the pipette and the inside of the cell. This configuration allows for the measurement of the total current flowing across all ion channels in the cell membrane.
3. Inside-out configuration: In this configuration, the micropipette is pulled away from the cell after establishing a seal, resulting in the exposure of the inner surface of the cell membrane to the solution in the pipette. This configuration allows for the study of the properties of ion channels in isolation from other cellular components.
4. Outside-out configuration: Here, the micropipette is pulled away from the cell after establishing a seal, resulting in the exposure of the outer surface of the cell membrane to the solution in the pipette. This configuration allows for the study of the properties of ion channels in their native environment, but with the ability to control the composition of the extracellular solution.

Patch-clamp techniques have been instrumental in advancing our understanding of ion channel function and have contributed to numerous breakthroughs in neuroscience, pharmacology, and physiology.

Dopamine is a type of neurotransmitter, which is a chemical messenger that transmits signals in the brain and nervous system. It plays several important roles in the body, including:

* Regulation of movement and coordination
* Modulation of mood and motivation
* Control of the reward and pleasure centers of the brain
* Regulation of muscle tone
* Involvement in memory and attention

Dopamine is produced in several areas of the brain, including the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area. It is released by neurons (nerve cells) and binds to specific receptors on other neurons, where it can either excite or inhibit their activity.

Abnormalities in dopamine signaling have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric conditions, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and addiction.

In anatomical terms, the stomach is a muscular, J-shaped organ located in the upper left portion of the abdomen. It is part of the gastrointestinal tract and plays a crucial role in digestion. The stomach's primary functions include storing food, mixing it with digestive enzymes and hydrochloric acid to break down proteins, and slowly emptying the partially digested food into the small intestine for further absorption of nutrients.

The stomach is divided into several regions, including the cardia (the area nearest the esophagus), the fundus (the upper portion on the left side), the body (the main central part), and the pylorus (the narrowed region leading to the small intestine). The inner lining of the stomach, called the mucosa, is protected by a layer of mucus that prevents the digestive juices from damaging the stomach tissue itself.

In medical contexts, various conditions can affect the stomach, such as gastritis (inflammation of the stomach lining), peptic ulcers (sores in the stomach or duodenum), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and stomach cancer. Symptoms related to the stomach may include abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, and difficulty swallowing.

Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules that are used by neurons to communicate with each other and with other cells in the body. They are produced in the cell body of a neuron, processed from larger precursor proteins, and then transported to the nerve terminal where they are stored in secretory vesicles. When the neuron is stimulated, the vesicles fuse with the cell membrane and release their contents into the extracellular space.

Neuropeptides can act as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators, depending on their target receptors and the duration of their effects. They play important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including pain perception, appetite regulation, stress response, and social behavior. Some neuropeptides also have hormonal functions, such as oxytocin and vasopressin, which are produced in the hypothalamus and released into the bloodstream to regulate reproductive and cardiovascular function, respectively.

There are hundreds of different neuropeptides that have been identified in the nervous system, and many of them have multiple functions and interact with other signaling molecules to modulate neural activity. Dysregulation of neuropeptide systems has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as chronic pain, addiction, depression, and anxiety.

A computer simulation is a process that involves creating a model of a real-world system or phenomenon on a computer and then using that model to run experiments and make predictions about how the system will behave under different conditions. In the medical field, computer simulations are used for a variety of purposes, including:

1. Training and education: Computer simulations can be used to create realistic virtual environments where medical students and professionals can practice their skills and learn new procedures without risk to actual patients. For example, surgeons may use simulation software to practice complex surgical techniques before performing them on real patients.
2. Research and development: Computer simulations can help medical researchers study the behavior of biological systems at a level of detail that would be difficult or impossible to achieve through experimental methods alone. By creating detailed models of cells, tissues, organs, or even entire organisms, researchers can use simulation software to explore how these systems function and how they respond to different stimuli.
3. Drug discovery and development: Computer simulations are an essential tool in modern drug discovery and development. By modeling the behavior of drugs at a molecular level, researchers can predict how they will interact with their targets in the body and identify potential side effects or toxicities. This information can help guide the design of new drugs and reduce the need for expensive and time-consuming clinical trials.
4. Personalized medicine: Computer simulations can be used to create personalized models of individual patients based on their unique genetic, physiological, and environmental characteristics. These models can then be used to predict how a patient will respond to different treatments and identify the most effective therapy for their specific condition.

Overall, computer simulations are a powerful tool in modern medicine, enabling researchers and clinicians to study complex systems and make predictions about how they will behave under a wide range of conditions. By providing insights into the behavior of biological systems at a level of detail that would be difficult or impossible to achieve through experimental methods alone, computer simulations are helping to advance our understanding of human health and disease.

Mastication is the medical term for the process of chewing food. It's the first step in digestion, where food is broken down into smaller pieces by the teeth, making it easier to swallow and further digest. The act of mastication involves not only the physical grinding and tearing of food by the teeth but also the mixing of the food with saliva, which contains enzymes that begin to break down carbohydrates. This process helps to enhance the efficiency of digestion and nutrient absorption in the subsequent stages of the digestive process.

Neuronal plasticity, also known as neuroplasticity or neural plasticity, refers to the ability of the brain and nervous system to change and adapt as a result of experience, learning, injury, or disease. This can involve changes in the structure, organization, and function of neurons (nerve cells) and their connections (synapses) in the central and peripheral nervous systems.

Neuronal plasticity can take many forms, including:

* Synaptic plasticity: Changes in the strength or efficiency of synaptic connections between neurons. This can involve the formation, elimination, or modification of synapses.
* Neural circuit plasticity: Changes in the organization and connectivity of neural circuits, which are networks of interconnected neurons that process information.
* Structural plasticity: Changes in the physical structure of neurons, such as the growth or retraction of dendrites (branches that receive input from other neurons) or axons (projections that transmit signals to other neurons).
* Functional plasticity: Changes in the physiological properties of neurons, such as their excitability, responsiveness, or sensitivity to stimuli.

Neuronal plasticity is a fundamental property of the nervous system and plays a crucial role in many aspects of brain function, including learning, memory, perception, and cognition. It also contributes to the brain's ability to recover from injury or disease, such as stroke or traumatic brain injury.

Spinal cord injuries (SCI) refer to damage to the spinal cord that results in a loss of function, such as mobility or feeling. This injury can be caused by direct trauma to the spine or by indirect damage resulting from disease or degeneration of surrounding bones, tissues, or blood vessels. The location and severity of the injury on the spinal cord will determine which parts of the body are affected and to what extent.

The effects of SCI can range from mild sensory changes to severe paralysis, including loss of motor function, autonomic dysfunction, and possible changes in sensation, strength, and reflexes below the level of injury. These injuries are typically classified as complete or incomplete, depending on whether there is any remaining function below the level of injury.

Immediate medical attention is crucial for spinal cord injuries to prevent further damage and improve the chances of recovery. Treatment usually involves immobilization of the spine, medications to reduce swelling and pressure, surgery to stabilize the spine, and rehabilitation to help regain lost function. Despite advances in treatment, SCI can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life and ability to perform daily activities.

Batrachoidiformes is an order of primarily marine ray-finned fish that includes the genera Batrachoides, Halophryne, Porichthys, and Thalassophryne. These fish are characterized by having a stout body, large head, and strong, bony mouthparts. They are often called "toadfish" due to their warty skin and toad-like appearance. Some species have the ability to produce sounds, which they use for communication and mating. They are found in tropical and subtropical waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, as well as in the Mediterranean Sea.

Excitatory amino acid antagonists are a class of drugs that block the action of excitatory neurotransmitters, particularly glutamate and aspartate, in the brain. These drugs work by binding to and blocking the receptors for these neurotransmitters, thereby reducing their ability to stimulate neurons and produce an excitatory response.

Excitatory amino acid antagonists have been studied for their potential therapeutic benefits in a variety of neurological conditions, including stroke, epilepsy, traumatic brain injury, and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. However, their use is limited by the fact that blocking excitatory neurotransmission can also have negative effects on cognitive function and memory.

There are several types of excitatory amino acid receptors, including N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), and kainite receptors. Different excitatory amino acid antagonists may target one or more of these receptor subtypes, depending on their specific mechanism of action.

Examples of excitatory amino acid antagonists include ketamine, memantine, and dextromethorphan. These drugs have been used in clinical practice for various indications, such as anesthesia, sedation, and treatment of neurological disorders. However, their use must be carefully monitored due to potential side effects and risks associated with blocking excitatory neurotransmission.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Skeletal muscle, also known as striated or voluntary muscle, is a type of muscle that is attached to bones by tendons or aponeuroses and functions to produce movements and support the posture of the body. It is composed of long, multinucleated fibers that are arranged in parallel bundles and are characterized by alternating light and dark bands, giving them a striped appearance under a microscope. Skeletal muscle is under voluntary control, meaning that it is consciously activated through signals from the nervous system. It is responsible for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and lifting objects.

Glutamic acid is an alpha-amino acid, which is one of the 20 standard amino acids in the genetic code. The systematic name for this amino acid is (2S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid. Its chemical formula is HO2CCH(NH2)CH2CH2CO2H.

Glutamic acid is a crucial excitatory neurotransmitter in the human brain, and it plays an essential role in learning and memory. It's also involved in the metabolism of sugars and amino acids, the synthesis of proteins, and the removal of waste nitrogen from the body.

Glutamic acid can be found in various foods such as meat, fish, beans, eggs, dairy products, and vegetables. In the human body, glutamic acid can be converted into gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), another important neurotransmitter that has a calming effect on the nervous system.

Reaction time, in the context of medicine and physiology, refers to the time period between the presentation of a stimulus and the subsequent initiation of a response. This complex process involves the central nervous system, particularly the brain, which perceives the stimulus, processes it, and then sends signals to the appropriate muscles or glands to react.

There are different types of reaction times, including simple reaction time (responding to a single, expected stimulus) and choice reaction time (choosing an appropriate response from multiple possibilities). These measures can be used in clinical settings to assess various aspects of neurological function, such as cognitive processing speed, motor control, and alertness.

However, it is important to note that reaction times can be influenced by several factors, including age, fatigue, attention, and the use of certain medications or substances.

In medical terms, the heart is a muscular organ located in the thoracic cavity that functions as a pump to circulate blood throughout the body. It's responsible for delivering oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and removing carbon dioxide and other wastes. The human heart is divided into four chambers: two atria on the top and two ventricles on the bottom. The right side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs, while the left side receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it out to the rest of the body. The heart's rhythmic contractions and relaxations are regulated by a complex electrical conduction system.

Statistical data interpretation involves analyzing and interpreting numerical data in order to identify trends, patterns, and relationships. This process often involves the use of statistical methods and tools to organize, summarize, and draw conclusions from the data. The goal is to extract meaningful insights that can inform decision-making, hypothesis testing, or further research.

In medical contexts, statistical data interpretation is used to analyze and make sense of large sets of clinical data, such as patient outcomes, treatment effectiveness, or disease prevalence. This information can help healthcare professionals and researchers better understand the relationships between various factors that impact health outcomes, develop more effective treatments, and identify areas for further study.

Some common statistical methods used in data interpretation include descriptive statistics (e.g., mean, median, mode), inferential statistics (e.g., hypothesis testing, confidence intervals), and regression analysis (e.g., linear, logistic). These methods can help medical professionals identify patterns and trends in the data, assess the significance of their findings, and make evidence-based recommendations for patient care or public health policy.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

"High vocal center" is a term used in the field of speech-language pathology and vocal pedagogy to describe the position of the larynx (voice box) during phonation (voice production). A higher vocal center refers to a position of the larynx that is located more upward and forward in the throat. This position can result in a brighter, more focused sound quality and can be associated with certain vocal techniques used in singing and speaking.

It's important to note that having a high or low vocal center is not inherently good or bad, but rather it depends on the individual's vocal needs and goals. A speech-language pathologist or voice teacher can help assess and provide guidance on appropriate vocal techniques for an individual's specific needs.

Medical Definition of Respiration:

Respiration, in physiology, is the process by which an organism takes in oxygen and gives out carbon dioxide. It's also known as breathing. This process is essential for most forms of life because it provides the necessary oxygen for cellular respiration, where the cells convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and releases waste products, primarily carbon dioxide.

In humans and other mammals, respiration is a two-stage process:

1. Breathing (or external respiration): This involves the exchange of gases with the environment. Air enters the lungs through the mouth or nose, then passes through the pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi, finally reaching the alveoli where the actual gas exchange occurs. Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses into the blood, while carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism, diffuses from the blood into the alveoli to be exhaled.

2. Cellular respiration (or internal respiration): This is the process by which cells convert glucose and other nutrients into ATP, water, and carbon dioxide in the presence of oxygen. The carbon dioxide produced during this process then diffuses out of the cells and into the bloodstream to be exhaled during breathing.

In summary, respiration is a vital physiological function that enables organisms to obtain the necessary oxygen for cellular metabolism while eliminating waste products like carbon dioxide.

Actinium is a naturally occurring radioactive metallic element with the symbol Ac and atomic number 89. It was discovered in 1899 by André-Louis Debierne, a French chemist, who isolated it from uranium ore. Actinium is one of the actinides, a series of elements in the periodic table that are characterized by their radioactivity and their position in the f-block of the periodic table.

Actinium has no biological role in humans or other organisms, and exposure to its radiation can be harmful. It is not found in significant quantities in the environment, but it can be produced artificially through nuclear reactions. Actinium has a few potential medical applications, including as a component of radioactive compounds used for cancer treatment. However, its use in medicine is limited due to its radioactivity and toxicity.

Oviposition is a medical/biological term that refers to the process of laying or depositing eggs by female organisms, including birds, reptiles, insects, and fish. In humans and other mammals, the term is not applicable since they give birth to live young rather than laying eggs.

Functional laterality, in a medical context, refers to the preferential use or performance of one side of the body over the other for specific functions. This is often demonstrated in hand dominance, where an individual may be right-handed or left-handed, meaning they primarily use their right or left hand for tasks such as writing, eating, or throwing.

However, functional laterality can also apply to other bodily functions and structures, including the eyes (ocular dominance), ears (auditory dominance), or legs. It's important to note that functional laterality is not a strict binary concept; some individuals may exhibit mixed dominance or no strong preference for one side over the other.

In clinical settings, assessing functional laterality can be useful in diagnosing and treating various neurological conditions, such as stroke or traumatic brain injury, where understanding any resulting lateralized impairments can inform rehabilitation strategies.

Mechanoreceptors are specialized sensory receptor cells that convert mechanical stimuli such as pressure, tension, or deformation into electrical signals that can be processed and interpreted by the nervous system. They are found in various tissues throughout the body, including the skin, muscles, tendons, joints, and internal organs. Mechanoreceptors can detect different types of mechanical stimuli depending on their specific structure and location. For example, Pacinian corpuscles in the skin respond to vibrations, while Ruffini endings in the joints detect changes in joint angle and pressure. Overall, mechanoreceptors play a crucial role in our ability to perceive and interact with our environment through touch, proprioception (the sense of the position and movement of body parts), and visceral sensation (awareness of internal organ activity).

Chemoreceptor cells are specialized sensory neurons that detect and respond to chemical changes in the internal or external environment. They play a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis within the body by converting chemical signals into electrical impulses, which are then transmitted to the central nervous system for further processing and response.

There are two main types of chemoreceptor cells:

1. Oxygen Chemoreceptors: These cells are located in the carotid bodies near the bifurcation of the common carotid artery and in the aortic bodies close to the aortic arch. They monitor the levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH in the blood and respond to decreases in oxygen concentration or increases in carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions (indicating acidity) by increasing their firing rate. This signals the brain to increase respiratory rate and depth, thereby restoring normal oxygen levels.

2. Taste Cells: These chemoreceptor cells are found within the taste buds of the tongue and other areas of the oral cavity. They detect specific tastes (salty, sour, sweet, bitter, and umami) by interacting with molecules from food. When a tastant binds to receptors on the surface of a taste cell, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to the generation of an action potential. This information is then relayed to the brain, where it is interpreted as taste sensation.

In summary, chemoreceptor cells are essential for maintaining physiological balance by detecting and responding to chemical stimuli in the body. They play a critical role in regulating vital functions such as respiration and digestion.

The term "extremities" in a medical context refers to the most distant parts of the body, including the hands and feet (both fingers and toes), as well as the arms and legs. These are the farthest parts from the torso and head. Medical professionals may examine a patient's extremities for various reasons, such as checking circulation, assessing nerve function, or looking for injuries or abnormalities.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione is a chemical compound that is commonly used in research and scientific studies. It is a member of the quinoxaline family of compounds, which are aromatic heterocyclic organic compounds containing two nitrogen atoms.

The 6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione compound has several notable features, including:

* A quinoxaline ring structure, which is made up of two benzene rings fused to a pyrazine ring.
* A cyano group (-CN) at the 6th position of the quinoxaline ring.
* A nitro group (-NO2) at the 7th position of the quinoxaline ring.
* Two carbonyl groups (=O) at the 2nd and 3rd positions of the quinoxaline ring.

This compound is known to have various biological activities, such as antimicrobial, antifungal, and anticancer properties. However, its use in medical treatments is not widespread due to potential toxicity and lack of comprehensive studies on its safety and efficacy. As with any chemical compound, it should be handled with care and used only under appropriate laboratory conditions.

Iridium is not a medical term, but rather a chemical element with the symbol Ir and atomic number 77. It's a transition metal that is part of the platinum group. Iridium has no known biological role in humans or other organisms, and it is not used in medical treatments or diagnoses.

However, iridium is sometimes mentioned in the context of geological time scales because iridium-rich layers in rock formations are associated with major extinction events, such as the one that marked the end of the Cretaceous period 65 million years ago. The leading hypothesis for this association is that large asteroid impacts can create iridium-rich vapor plumes that settle onto the Earth's surface and leave a distinct layer in the rock record.

Skinfold thickness is a measurement of the thickness of the subcutaneous fat layer (the layer of fat directly beneath the skin) at specific sites on the body. It's typically measured using calipers and is expressed in millimeters (mm). This measurement is often used in health assessments to estimate body fat percentage and overall health status. The most commonly used sites for skinfold thickness measurements are the triceps, biceps, suprailiac (just above the iliac crest), subscapular (underneath the shoulder blade), and abdominal areas.

How Do Central Pattern Generators Work? @ www.bio.brandeis.edu Hoopers Review of Central Pattern Generators(PDF) Dimitrijevic ... Thus, humans also possess a central pattern generator for locomotion that is capable not only of rhythmic pattern generation ... Central pattern generators, as part of the neural circuitry of an organism, can be modulated to adapt to the organisms needs ... Central pattern generators can also play a role in rhythm generation for other functions in vertebrates. For example, the rat ...
The locust frontal ganglion: a central pattern generator network controlling foregut rhythmic motor patterns Amir Ayali, Amir ... The consistent endogenous FG rhythmic pattern indicates the presence of a central pattern generator network. We found the ... a central pattern generator network controlling foregut rhythmic motor patterns. J Exp Biol 15 September 2002; 205 (18): 2825- ... The frontal ganglion central pattern generator. In an in vitro preparation, isolated from all descending and sensory inputs, ...
... are neural networks that produce rhythmic patterned outputs without sensory feedback.[1][2] CPGs have been shown to produce ... rhythmic outputs resembling normal rhythmic motor pattern production even in isolation… ... Central pattern generator. Central pattern generators (CPGs) are neural networks that produce rhythmic patterned outputs ... Functions of central pattern generators. Central pattern generators can serve many functions in vertebrate animals. CPGs can ...
Schneider, S, Askew, CD, Abel, T & Strüder, HK 2010, Exercise, music, and the brain: is there a central pattern generator?, ... Exercise, music, and the brain: is there a central pattern generator?. Stefan Schneider, Christopher D. Askew, Thomas Abel, ... Exercise, music, and the brain: is there a central pattern generator? / Schneider, Stefan; Askew, Christopher D.; Abel, Thomas ... Exercise, music, and the brain: is there a central pattern generator? Journal of Sports Sciences. 2010;28(12):1337-1343. doi: ...
Jalil, S., Allen, D. & Shilnikov, A. Modeling study of a Central Pattern Generator in the Melibe seaslug. BMC Neurosci 13 ( ... Modeling study of a Central Pattern Generator in the Melibe seaslug. *Sajiya Jalil. 1, ... Central Pattern Generators (CPGs) are small networks of neurons that are experimentally identified as necessary for expressions ... The phase-locked pattern, observed in the experiment, is identified as an attractor in numerical simulations. We find that ...
A connectionist central pattern generator for the aquatic and terrestrial gaits of a simulated salamander. A. Ijspeert ... Central pattern generators for locomotion control in animals and robots: a review. A. J. Ijspeert ...
A Hormone-Activated Central Pattern Generator for Courtship. Current Biology, 2010; DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2010.02.027 ... Then we cut leeches in thirds and injected each part with hormone, and found that the hormone acted only in the central part, ... We then cut open that central part and stretched out the skin so we could study in more detail the muscle contractions ... "Finally," he says, "we removed the body entirely, keeping just the nervous system, and found that even the disembodied central ...
2011) Neuromodulation and flexibility in Central Pattern Generator networks. Curr Opin Neurobiol 21:685-692, doi:10.1016/j.conb ... 1991) Neurons that form multiple pattern generators: identification and multiple activity patterns of gastric/pyloric neurons ... 2005) Invertebrate central pattern generation moves along. Curr Biol 15:R685-R699, doi:10.1016/j.cub.2005.08.022, pmid:16139202 ... 2006) Central pattern generating neurons simultaneously express fast and slow rhythmic activities in the stomatogastric ...
A Functional Subnetwork Approach to Multistate Central Pattern Generator Phase Difference Control.- Time-Evolution ...
Set the default random number generator (twister type with seed value 0). % The seed value controls the pattern of random ... The simulation runs for all the specified number of Central transmission slots. Simulates the transmitter chain, receiver chain ... Set the default random number generator (twister type with seed value 0). % The seed value controls the pattern of random ... Number of Central transmission slots numCentralTxSlots = floor(numSlots/slotValue); % Total number of Bluetooth physical ...
Central Pattern Generators and Their Significance for the Foetal Motor Function Einspieler C; Marschik PB ... The Relation between Reading Skills and Eye Movement Patterns in Adolescent Readers: Evidence from a Regular Orthography. ...
... emulating the role of a biological central pattern generator (CPG) neural network. Summarizing this, the multifunctional ...
Central Pattern Generators-CPG) are progressively modulated by supra-spinal brain structures. Spinal neural networks have ... Calhoun, M., Longworth, M., and Chester, V. L. (2011). Gait patterns in children with autism. Clin. Biomech. (Bristol, Avon) 26 ... 2018). Gait pattern and motor performance during discrete gait perturbation in children with autism spectrum disorders. Front. ... Lacquaniti, F., Ivanenko, Y. P., and Zago, M. (2012b). Patterned control of human locomotion. J. Physiol. 590, 2189-2199. doi: ...
Ikeda et al investigated current source generators (dipoles) of human VEP to pattern-onset stimuli. [1] A visual stimulus (a ... Yuksel et al found that carbamazepine slows down central impulse conduction. [5] . Pattern-reversal VEPs were determined before ... What are the generators of median nerve somatosensory evoked potential (SEP)?. What are generators of tibial somatosensory ... this pattern is difficult to explain if SLSEP generator sources are assumed to be linked in series. ...
neurobiology, neuroethology, stomatogastric nervous system, sensorimotor, central pattern generator Website:. http://www. ... DeMaegd ML, Stein W. (2020) Temperature-robust activity patterns arise from coordinated axonal Sodium channel properties. Plos ...
Central Pattern Generators Medicine & Life Sciences 24% * Interneurons Medicine & Life Sciences 22% ... His research interests focus on the causes and consequences of the natural ageing process in both the central nervous system ... Age-Related Changes in Central Nervous System 5-Hydroxytryptamine Signalling and Its Potential Effects on the Regulation of ... groups work uses a systems biology approach to study the effects of increased age on the release of serotonin from both central ...
These physiological responses lead scientists to believe that humans have a central pattern generator (CPG) somewhere in the ... Follow this breathing pattern three or four times, then repeat every 20 minutes as necessary. ...
Whisking derives its rhythm from the brainstem respiratory central pattern generator (see Whisking Pattern Generation). Thus, ... Fee, M S; Mitra, P P and Kleinfeld, D (1997). Central versus peripheral determinants of patterned spike activity in rat ... 1a). These slowly varying whisk amplitudes suggest that the control of whisking amplitude is uncoupled from the patterning of ...
Figure 5: Patterned activity in the neurons of the escape swim central pattern generator (A) and the underlying neuronal ... Jing J and Gillette R (1999) The central pattern generator for escape swimming in the sea slug Pleurobranchaea californica. J ... In the nervous system, only relatively small numbers of motorneurons and sparse central pattern generator (CPG) circuits are ... The motor pattern emerges from the integrated activity of four of the interneurons, which is driven by the action of one, the " ...
Guertin PA, Steuer I. Key central pattern generators of the spinal cord. J Neurosci Res 2009; 87: 2399-2405.. 30. Rossignol S, ... Distributed plasticity of locomotor pattern generators in spinal cord injured patients. Brain 2004; 127: 1019-1034.. 34. ... Therefore, a kinematic pattern for gait in water of subjects with SCI could not be determined due to our small and diverse ... In an attempt to describe the motion patterns of SCI in a water environment, the mean angular trajectories of the SCG are shown ...
Swallowing movements are produced by a central pattern generator located in the medulla oblongata. It has been established on ... The forebrain plays a central role in the processing of information related to complex cognitive activities, sensory and ...
Ijspeert figured that what he was dealing with were two central pattern generators - two sets of nerve networks that would ...
As in mammals, the central pattern generator appears to be located in the pons and medulla oblongata with facilitation and ... Ventilation and breathing pattern are regulated to meet the demands imposed by changes in metabolic activity (e.g., rest and ... Central chemoreceptors affect ventilation in response to changes in arterial PCO2, and hydrogen ion concentration. Peripheral ... It is assumed that there is a central respiratory control center in the avian brain, but this has not been unequivocally ...
Resetting the Respiratory Rhythm with a Spinal Central Pattern Generator Roberto Meza, Nayeli Huidobro, Mayra Moreno-Castillo, ...
... resulting in dysfunction of synaptic neurotransmission and central pattern generators (CPGs). This discovery was published in ... This SLC6A9 mutation carries an autosomal dominant pattern, which was found in the many involved members of their families. ...
... and D2-like receptor activation on a spinal central pattern generator," Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 107, no. 8, pp. 2250- ... F. Elefteriou, "Regulation of bone remodeling by the central and peripheral nervous system," Archives of Biochemistry and ... Dopamine (DA), a pivotal catecholamine neurotransmitter of the central nervous system, plays crucial roles in cognition, ... N. Mühlenfeld, N. Söhling, I. Marzi et al., "Fractures in Parkinsons disease: injury patterns, hospitalization, and ...
Central Pattern Generators 38% * 1994 Increased Walking Variability in Elderly Persons with Congestive Heart Failure. Hausdorff ...
  • Central pattern generators (CPGs) are self-organizing biological neural circuits that produce rhythmic outputs in the absence of rhythmic input. (wikipedia.org)
  • CPGs are further defined as ensembles of neural elements whose properties and connectivity can give rise to characteristic patterns of rhythmic activity in the absence of external inputs. (biologists.com)
  • Central pattern generators (CPGs) are neural networks that produce rhythmic patterned outputs without sensory feedback. (en-academic.com)
  • [ 1 ] [ 2 ] CPGs have been shown to produce rhythmic outputs resembling normal "rhythmic motor pattern production" even in isolation from motor and sensory feedback from limbs and other muscle targets. (en-academic.com)
  • Although anatomical details of CPGs are specifically known in only a few cases, they have been shown to originate from the spinal cords of various vertebrates and to depend on relatively small and autonomous neural networks (rather than the entire nervous system) to generate rhythmic patterns. (en-academic.com)
  • The classical view of CPGs, as specific networks of neurons dedicated to this function alone, has been challenged by numerous data obtained mostly on the central nervous system of invertebrates. (en-academic.com)
  • Central Pattern Generators (CPGs) are small networks of neurons that are experimentally identified as necessary for expressions of behaviors, and the core group capable of controlling various aspects of the behavior. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Repetitive nature of activity patterns of CPGs can be examined through the relative phase relations between bursting interneurons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This simple model can be contrasted with the highly derived and markedly differentiated vertebrate brain, where feeding-related CPGs in cranial nuclei and spinal cord are subordinate to executive functions taken over by the basal ganglia and cortex (cost-benefit decision and premotor patterning) and the hypothalamus (appetitive state). (scholarpedia.org)
  • Over the past few decades, molecular and genetic programs that control neuronal patterning have been used to specifically target spinal interneurons in mice and zebrafish. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a network driven by a pacemaker, one or more neurons act as a core oscillator (pacemaker) that drives other, non-bursting neurons (follower) into a rhythmic pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neurons are not rhythmically active when isolated, but they can produce alternating patterns of activity when coupled by inhibitory connections. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neurons can also produce activity patterns of other relative phasing, including synchrony, depending on the synaptic properties). (wikipedia.org)
  • These results provide an alternative theory to central pattern generator models, because rhythm generating neurons and genetically defined connectivity are not required in our model. (lu.se)
  • Central pattern generators, as part of the neural circuitry of an organism, can be modulated to adapt to the organism's needs and surroundings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, it is accepted that animal locomotion is controlled by a central pattern generator in the spinal cord. (lu.se)
  • However, current central pattern generator models do not explain how a spinal cord circuitry, which has the same basic genetic plan across species, can adapt to control the different biomechanical properties and locomotion patterns existing in these species. (lu.se)
  • The consistent endogenous FG rhythmic pattern indicates the presence of a central pattern generator network. (biologists.com)
  • Accordingly,haemolymph collected at these stages inhibited an ongoing rhythmic pattern when applied onto the ganglion. (biologists.com)
  • In the nervous system , only relatively small numbers of motorneurons and sparse central pattern generator (CPG) circuits are required to generate the simple flexions and stretches of the body needed in their behaviors. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Using progressively more reduced leech preparations -- that is, smaller and smaller pieces of a leech -- the scientists identified the part of its central nervous system responsible for generating the mating behavior. (sciencedaily.com)
  • His research interests focus on the causes and consequences of the natural ageing process in both the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. (brighton.ac.uk)
  • Swallowing is a complex sensorimotor process that depends on information from multiple levels of the central and peripheral nervous system. (cdc.gov)
  • The generator site for VEPs is believed to be the peristriate and striate occipital cortex. (medscape.com)
  • Swallowing occurs when descending excitatory and inhibitory signals from the cortex and subcortex and ascending signals from the oropharyngeal area trigger the central pattern generator in the bulbar reticular formation ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The gate-control theory postulates a mechanism by which the gate is closed again, preventing further central transmission of the nociceptive information to the cortex. (medscape.com)
  • Swallowing movements are produced by a central pattern generator located in the medulla oblongata . (moviecultists.com)
  • The desert locust has served as a leading system for studies of pattern generation and the control of rhythmic motor patterns (e.g. (biologists.com)
  • To date, no studies have examined the neural control of foregut peristalsis and the role of the FG in generating motor patterns associated with locust foregut movements. (biologists.com)
  • These observations lead to the question, how are the specific patterns of activities generated and used to control behaviors? (biomedcentral.com)
  • They are the source of the tightly-coupled patterns of neural activity that drive rhythmic and stereotyped motor behaviors like walking, swimming, breathing, or chewing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The observation in invertebrates of pattern generators temporarily formed before the production of motor activity strengthens the assumption. (en-academic.com)
  • Experimentally and computationally, such phase-lags are measured with respect to a reference neuron, thus allowing for an analysis of various activity patterns in a systematic way. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To be classified as a rhythmic generator, a CPG requires: "two or more processes that interact such that each process sequentially increases and decreases, and that, as a result of this interaction, the system repeatedly returns to its starting condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the description of data from the Tevatron and LHC is not quite as good as for PYTHIA 8, the most advanced of the general purpose event generator programs for these processes, our results are clearly competitive, and can be expected to improve with careful tuning. (lu.se)
  • The TENS unit is small and programmable, and the generators can deliver trains of stimuli with variable current strengths, pulse rates, and pulse widths. (medscape.com)
  • These physiological responses lead scientists to believe that humans have a central pattern generator (CPG) somewhere in the brain. (sporcle.com)
  • Ijspeert figured that what he was dealing with were two 'central pattern generators' - two sets of nerve networks that would produce two different rhythms of movement. (bioedonline.org)
  • Marder E, Calabrese RL: Principles of rhythmic motor pattern generation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The forebrain plays a central role in the processing of information related to complex cognitive activities, sensory and associative functions, and voluntary motor activities . (moviecultists.com)
  • Similar oscillation patterns were found for heart rate and musical pieces. (dshs-koeln.de)
  • Then we cut leeches in thirds and injected each part with hormone, and found that the hormone acted only in the central part, which contains the reproductive organs. (sciencedaily.com)
  • The end result is a new event generator called DIPSY which can be used to simulate complete minimum-bias non-diffractive hadronic collision events. (lu.se)
  • 0.05), and the joint angle patterns were qualitatively similar between groups. (medicaljournals.se)
  • The results of laboratory studies suggest that electrical stimulation delivered by a TENS unit reduces pain through nociceptive inhibition at the presynaptic level in the dorsal horn, thus limiting its central transmission. (medscape.com)
  • A transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) unit consists of 1 or more electrical-signal generators, a battery, and a set of electrodes. (medscape.com)
  • These multiple patterns of divergence and convergence, and the fine-tuning of cellular and synaptic properties they provide, present a major challenge to the understanding of circuit dynamics ( Nadim and Bucher, 2014 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • We present this novel central pattern generating system as a basis for future work on the neural network characterisation and its role in generating and controlling behaviour. (biologists.com)
  • Investigation indicates that weak excitatory connections play no significant role in the generation of the pattern but may have stabilizing effect. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 3 Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (http://www.pcbs.gov.ps/site/512/ default.aspx?tabID=512&lang=en&ItemID=1294&mid=3171&wversion=Staging, accessed on 1 April 2015). (who.int)
  • Results of this study give reason to speculate that a strong relationship exists between intrinsic and extrinsic oscillation patterns during exercise. (dshs-koeln.de)
  • Strong laboratory support was available at the Central Public Health Laboratory of Oman, and the laboratory had been fully accredited by WHO. (who.int)