Cnidaria: A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Central Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Central Nervous System Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the brain, spinal cord, or meninges.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Central Nervous System Infections: Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Peripheral Nervous System: The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Muscle Fatigue: A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Central Nervous System Viral Diseases: Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.Muscle Denervation: The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Vasculitis, Central Nervous System: Inflammation of blood vessels within the central nervous system. Primary vasculitis is usually caused by autoimmune or idiopathic factors, while secondary vasculitis is caused by existing disease process. Clinical manifestations are highly variable but include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; behavioral alterations; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; and BRAIN INFARCTION. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp856-61)Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.Nerve Crush: Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Nerve Tissue ProteinsSural Nerve: A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Tibial Nerve: The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.Median Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.Facial Nerve: The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Nervous System Physiological Phenomena: Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Central Nervous System Agents: A class of drugs producing both physiological and psychological effects through a variety of mechanisms. They can be divided into "specific" agents, e.g., affecting an identifiable molecular mechanism unique to target cells bearing receptors for that agent, and "nonspecific" agents, those producing effects on different target cells and acting by diverse molecular mechanisms. Those with nonspecific mechanisms are generally further classed according to whether they produce behavioral depression or stimulation. Those with specific mechanisms are classed by locus of action or specific therapeutic use. (From Gilman AG, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p252)Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Myelin Sheath: The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.Enteric Nervous System: Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Ulnar Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Central Nervous System Fungal Infections: MYCOSES of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges which may result in ENCEPHALITIS; MENINGITIS, FUNGAL; MYELITIS; BRAIN ABSCESS; and EPIDURAL ABSCESS. Certain types of fungi may produce disease in immunologically normal hosts, while others are classified as opportunistic pathogens, causing illness primarily in immunocompromised individuals (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME).Muscle Spindles: Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Mice, Inbred C57BLNeuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Cranial Nerves: Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Muscle, Striated: One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Nerve Tissue: Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.Nerve Growth Factor: NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Sense of Coherence: A view of the world and the individual's environment as comprehensible, manageable, and meaningful, claiming that the way people view their life has a positive influence on their health.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Papillary Muscles: Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Central Nervous System Bacterial Infections: Bacterial infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges, including infections involving the perimeningeal spaces.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Phrenic Nerve: The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Demyelinating Diseases: Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Nervous System Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes arising from or involving components of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, cranial nerves, and meninges. Included in this category are primary and metastatic nervous system neoplasms.Abdominal Muscles: Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Radial Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.Quadriceps Muscle: The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Facial Muscles: Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Tuberculosis, Central Nervous System: Tuberculosis of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges (TUBERCULOSIS, MENINGEAL), most often caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and rarely by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The infection may be limited to the nervous system or coexist in other organs (e.g., TUBERCULOSIS, PULMONARY). The organism tends to seed the meninges causing a diffuse meningitis and leads to the formation of TUBERCULOMA, which may occur within the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal spaces. Tuberculous involvement of the vertebral column (TUBERCULOSIS, SPINAL) may result in nerve root or spinal cord compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-20)Muscle Cells: Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Masseter Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Oligodendroglia: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Peripheral Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.Masticatory Muscles: Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental: An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Muscular Atrophy: Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Trauma, Nervous System: Traumatic injuries to the brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, autonomic nervous system, or neuromuscular system, including iatrogenic injuries induced by surgical procedures.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Intercostal Muscles: Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Multiple Sclerosis: An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Ophthalmic Nerve: A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Sense Organs: Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Muscular Diseases: Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Encephalomyelitis: A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle: Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.Microglia: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Mosquito Nets: Free-standing or supported lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester or other material, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby protecting against INSECT BITES; INSECT STINGS, and insect-borne diseases.Splanchnic Nerves: The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Optic Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.Myelin Proteins: MYELIN-specific proteins that play a structural or regulatory role in the genesis and maintenance of the lamellar MYELIN SHEATH structure.Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Pectoralis Muscles: The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Encephalitis, Viral: Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Meningoencephalitis: An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Ganglia: Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Parasympathetic Nervous System: The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Thoracic Nerves: The twelve spinal nerves on each side of the thorax. They include eleven INTERCOSTAL NERVES and one subcostal nerve. Both sensory and motor, they supply the muscles and skin of the thoracic and abdominal walls.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Olfactory Nerve: The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Glossopharyngeal Nerve: The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Psoas Muscles: A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Temporal Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.Leeches: Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Oculomotor Nerve: The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Hypoglossal Nerve: The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.Meninges: The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.Optic Nerve Diseases: Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Abducens Nerve: The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.Accessory Nerve: The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. It has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE (10th cranial) and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.Facial Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., "crocodile tears") and other syndromes.Myofibrils: The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.

*Cnidaria

In scyphozoans, this takes the form of a diffuse nerve net, which has modulatory effects on the nervous system. As well as ... Cnidarians are generally thought to have no brains or even central nervous systems. However, they do have integrative areas of ... muscles; nervous systems; and some have sensory organs. Cnidarians are distinguished from all other animals by having ... Several free-swimming species of Cubozoa and Scyphozoa possess balance-sensing statocysts, and some have simple eyes. Not all ...

*Anatomy

In higher animals, specialized receptors are the basis of sense organs and there is a central nervous system (brain and spinal ... the nerves form a nerve net, but in most animals they are organized longitudinally into bundles. In simple animals, receptor ... The peripheral nervous system is divided into the somatic nervous system which conveys sensation and controls voluntary muscle ... and a peripheral nervous system. The latter consists of sensory nerves that transmit information from sense organs and motor ...

*Nerve

An efferent nerve fiber conducts signals from a motor neuron in the central nervous system to muscles. Bundles of these fibres ... In organisms of radial symmetry nerve nets serve for the nervous system. There is no brain or centralised head region, and ... In vertebrate nervous systems, very few neurons are "identified" in this sense. Researchers believe humans have none-but in ... Efferent nerves conduct signals from the central nervous system along motor neurons to their target muscles and glands. Mixed ...

*Ctenophora

Ctenophores have no brain or central nervous system, but instead have a nerve net (rather like a cobweb) that forms a ring ... The inner layer of the epidermis contains a nerve net, and myoepithelial cells that act as muscles. The internal cavity forms: ... that sense its orientation. The statocyst is protected by a transparent dome made of long, immobile cilia. A ctenophore does ... Ctenophore nerve cells and nervous system evolved separately from other animals and have a different biochemistry. Cydippid ...

*Sea anemone

No specialized sense organs are present but sensory cells include nematocytes and chemoreceptors. The muscles and nerves are ... A primitive nervous system, without centralization, coordinates the processes involved in maintaining homeostasis, as well as ... There are two nerve nets, one in the epidermis and one in the gastrodermis; these unite at the pharynx, the junctions of the ... The polyp has a columnar trunk topped by an oral disc with a ring of tentacles and a central mouth. The tentacles can be ...

*Spasticity

Receptors in the muscles receive messages from the nervous system, which sense the amount of stretch in the muscle and sends ... Damage to the CNS as a result of stroke or spinal cord injury, alter the [net inhibition] of peripheral nerves in the affected ... Spasticity mostly occurs in disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) affecting the upper motor neurons in the form of a ... The damage causes a change in the balance of signals between the nervous system and the muscles. This imbalance leads to ...

*Nervous system

... and related animals have diffuse nerve nets rather than a central nervous system. In most jellyfish the nerve net is spread ... In vertebrate nervous systems very few neurons are "identified" in this sense-in humans, there are believed to be none-but in ... and sending output signals to muscles or glands to activate the response. The evolution of a complex nervous system has made it ... Nervous system William E. Skaggs, Scholarpedia The Nervous System at Wikibooks (human) Nervous System at Wikibooks (non-human) ...

*Flatworm

... the nervous system is concentrated at the head end. This is least marked in the acoels, which have nerve nets rather like those ... Neurocysticercosis, which arises when larvae of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium penetrate the central nervous system, is the ... The larva makes its way to the herbivore's muscles and metamorphoses into an oval worm about 10 millimetres (0.39 in) long, ... However, turbellarian statocysts have no sensory cilia, and how they sense the movements and positions of the solid particles ...

*Nerve net

The nerve net is the simplest form of a nervous system found in multicellular organisms. Unlike central nervous systems, where ... Nerve nets can provide animals with the ability to sense objects through the use of the sensory neurons within the nerve net. ... sensory cells generally extend in an apical direction from the muscle processes of the basal ends. While Ganglia generally ... Most research on the evolution of nervous tissue concerning nerve nets has been conducted using cnidarians. The nervous systems ...

*Echinoderm

... have a simple radial nervous system that consists of a modified nerve net consisting of interconnecting neurons with no central ... As the adductor muscle of the shellfish relaxes, more stomach is inserted and when digestion is complete, the stomach is ... Sea urchins have no particular sense organs but do have statocysts that assist in gravitational orientation, and they have ... The water vascular system, haemal system and perihaemal system form the tubular coelomic system. Echinoderms are an exception ...

*Route of administration

Naloxone counteracts opiate action in the central nervous system when given intravenously and is therefore used in the ... Neural drug delivery is the next step beyond the basic addition of growth factors to nerve guidance conduits. Drug delivery ... Recreationally the colloquial term 'muscling' is used. intraocular, into the eye, e.g., some medications for glaucoma or eye ... NursingTimes.net. 2007. Retrieved April 2, 2013. "DDS Medication Administration Recertification Manual" (PDF). DDS ...

*Brain

... which have no nervous system) and cnidarians (which have a nervous system consisting of a diffuse nerve net), all living ... Blood vessels enter the central nervous system through holes in the meningeal layers. The cells in the blood vessel walls are ... Galen traced out the anatomical relationships among brain, nerves, and muscles, demonstrating that all muscles in the body are ... In other animals additional senses are present, such as the infrared heat-sense of snakes, the magnetic field sense of some ...

*Prosthesis

Targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR) is a technique in which motor nerves, which previously controlled muscles on an amputated ... Their desire is to create an artificial limb that ties directly into the nervous system. Advancements in the processors used in ... These work by sensing, via electrodes, when the muscles in the upper arm move, causing an artificial hand to open or close. In ... Central issues being researched include designing the behavior of the device during stance and swing phases, recognizing the ...

*Jellyfish

... "nerve net". Although traditionally thought not to have a central nervous system, nerve net concentration and ganglion-like ... Muscles are used for the contraction of the body, which sheds the first vortex and pushes the animal forward, but the mesoglea ... "Jellyfish 'can sense ocean currents'". BBC News. Archived from the original on 26 January 2015. Retrieved 26 January 2015. ... Satterlie, Richard A. (April 2011). "Do jellyfish have central nervous systems?". Journal of Experimental Biology. 214 (8): ...

*Starfish

The peripheral nerve system consists of two nerve nets: a sensory system in the epidermis and a motor system in the lining of ... it has a complex nervous system with a nerve ring around the mouth and a radial nerve running along the ambulacral region of ... The interior of the whole canal system is lined with cilia. When longitudinal muscles in the ampullae contract, valves in the ... A few can regrow a complete new disc from a single arm, while others need at least part of the central disc to be attached to ...

*Tunicate

Exact details of the circulatory system are unclear, but the gut, pharynx, gills, gonads, and nervous system seem to be ... Inside the tunic is the body wall or mantle composed of connective tissue, muscle fibres, blood vessels, and nerves. Two ... These may have separate buccal siphons and a single central atrial siphon and may be organized into larger systems, with ... This is drawn through a net lining the pharynx which is being continuously secreted by the endostyle. The net is made of sticky ...

*Mind uploading

The scans would then be analyzed, and a model of the neural net recreated in the system that the mind was being uploaded into. ... For whole brain simulation, this network map should show the connectivity of the whole nervous system, including the spinal ... The mind or "soul" can be defined as the information state of the brain, and is immaterial only in the same sense as the ... It is expected that it is sufficient with a black-box signal processing model of how the neurons respond to nerve impulses ( ...

*Entoprocta

Nerves run from these to the calyx, tentacles and stalk, and to sense organs in all these areas. A band of cells, each with ... The nervous system runs through the connective tissue and just below the epidermis, and is controlled by a pair of ganglia. ... While the great majority are marine, two species live in freshwater: Loxosomatoides sirindhornae, reported in 2004 in central ... and both can be closed by sphincter muscles. The gut is U-shaped, curving down towards the base of the calyx, where it broadens ...

*Hypoxia in fish

Both the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves carry sensory nerve fibres into the brain and central nervous system. Through ... The net consequence of alkalizing the RBC is an increase in Hb-O2 affinity via the Bohr effect. The net influx of Na+ ions and ... the neuroepithelial bodies of the lungs as well as some central and peripheral neurons and vascular smooth muscle cells. In ... The membrane hypothesis was proposed for the carotid body in mice, and it predicts that oxygen sensing is an ion balance ...

*Membrane potential

KOFUJI, P.; NEWMAN, E. A. (2004-01-01). "POTASSIUM BUFFERING IN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM". Neuroscience. 129 (4): 1045-1056. ... Hodgkin AL (1951). "The ionic basis of electrical activity in nerve and muscle". Biol. Rev. 26 (4): 339-409. doi:10.1111/j.1469 ... Because the net flow of charge is inward, this pump runs "downhill", in effect, and therefore does not require any energy ... most of them are voltage-dependent in the sense that they conduct better in one direction than the other (in other words, they ...

*Spider

The basic arthropod central nervous system consists of a pair of nerve cords running below the gut, with paired ganglia as ... The principal eyes are also the only ones with eye muscles, allowing them to move the retina. Having no muscles, the secondary ... Net-casting spiders weave only small webs, but then manipulate them to trap prey. Those of the genus Hyptiotes and the family ... The basic radial-then-spiral sequence visible in orb webs and the sense of direction required to build them may have been ...

*William James

... tense muscles, and so on; sympathetic nervous system) and that we can sense what is going on inside our body much the same as ... In What Pragmatism Means, James writes that the central point of his own doctrine of truth is, in brief, that "Truths emerge ... "Mysticism Defined by William James". www.bodysoulandspirit.net. Buss, David M. Evolutionary psychology: the new science of the ... and nerves are the basis of all sensations, all ideas, and all motions..." James disagreed with associationism in that he ...

*Star-nosed mole

... the processing also occurs at a very high speed almost approaching the upper limit at which nervous systems are capable of ... This structure is divided into a high resolution central fovea region (the central 11th pair of rays) and less sensitive ... They are controlled by tendons by a complex series of muscles that are attached to the skull in order to perform a role that ... "BBC Nature - Tactile sense videos, news and facts". BBC. BBC Nature. 1970-01-01. Retrieved 2014-02-20. Album Jet (2013) Catania ...

*Dysarthria

Neurological injury due to damage in the central or peripheral nervous system may result in weakness, paralysis, or a lack of ... has both senses but usually refers to arthropathy. Cranial nerves that control the muscles relevant to dysarthria include the ... Online Speech and Voice Disorder Support (VoiceMatters.net) American Speech-Language-Hearing Association News About Dysarthria ... the facial nerve (VII), the glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), the vagus nerve (X), and the hypoglossal nerve (XII). The term is from ...

*Leptin

... the nervous system consists of two main parts, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The ... Obici S, Rossetti L (December 2003). "Minireview: nutrient sensing and the regulation of insulin action and energy balance". ... This drop causes reversible decreases in thyroid activity, sympathetic tone, and energy expenditure in skeletal muscle, and ... "Jeffrey Friedman receives Shaw Prize for discovery of leptin". News-Medical.net. 2009. "The Lasker Foundation - 2010 Awards". ...

*Earthworm

The central nervous system consists of two ganglia above the mouth, one on either side, connected to a nerve cord running back ... Under the skin is a layer of nerve tissue, and two layers of muscles-a thin outer layer of circular muscle, and a much thicker ... annelida.net. Retrieved May 15, 2012. "Earthworm species name database". Blakemore, Robert J. (2012). Cosmopolitan Earthworms ... but is also used to feel and chemically sense the worm's surroundings. Some species of earthworm can even use the prehensile ...
Ax, P. 1989. Basic phylogenetic systematization of Metazoa. Pp. 453-470 in K. B. B. Fernholm and H. Jornvall (eds.). The Hierarchy of Life. Elsevier, Amsterdam.. Bridge, D., C. W. Cunningham, R. DeSalle, and L. W. Buss. 1995. Class-level relationships in the phylum Cnidaria: Molecular and morphological evidence. Molec. Biol. Evol. 12:679-689. Bridge, D., C. W. Cunningham, B. Schierwater, R. DeSalle, and L. W.. Buss. 1992. Class-level relationships in the phylum Cnidaria: Evidence from mitochondrial genome structure. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 89:8750-8753. Brusca, C. B. and G. J. Brusca. 1990. Invertebrates. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland MA.. Dunn, D. F. 1982. Cnidaria. Pp. 669-705 in S. P. Parker (ed.) Synopsis and Classification of Living organisms. McGraw-Hill, New York.. Fautin, D. G. and R. N. Mariscal. 1991. Cnidaria: Anthozoa. Pp. 267-358 in F. W. Harrison and J. A. Westfall (eds.) Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates, volume 2: Placozoa, Porifera, Cnidaria, and ...
Ax, P. 1989. Basic phylogenetic systematization of Metazoa. Pp. 453-470 in K. B. B. Fernholm and H. Jornvall (eds.). The Hierarchy of Life. Elsevier, Amsterdam.. Bridge, D., C. W. Cunningham, R. DeSalle, and L. W. Buss. 1995. Class-level relationships in the phylum Cnidaria: Molecular and morphological evidence. Molec. Biol. Evol. 12:679-689. Bridge, D., C. W. Cunningham, B. Schierwater, R. DeSalle, and L. W.. Buss. 1992. Class-level relationships in the phylum Cnidaria: Evidence from mitochondrial genome structure. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 89:8750-8753. Brusca, C. B. and G. J. Brusca. 1990. Invertebrates. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland MA.. Dunn, D. F. 1982. Cnidaria. Pp. 669-705 in S. P. Parker (ed.) Synopsis and Classification of Living organisms. McGraw-Hill, New York.. Fautin, D. G. and R. N. Mariscal. 1991. Cnidaria: Anthozoa. Pp. 267-358 in F. W. Harrison and J. A. Westfall (eds.) Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates, volume 2: Placozoa, Porifera, Cnidaria, and ...
Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online The Human Brain During the Third Trimester: Volume 3 (Atlas of Human Central Nervous System Development) file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with The Human Brain During the Third Trimester: Volume 3 (Atlas of Human Central Nervous System Development) book. Happy reading The Human Brain During the Third Trimester: Volume 3 (Atlas of Human Central Nervous System Development) Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF The Human Brain During the Third Trimester: Volume 3 (Atlas of Human Central Nervous System Development) at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and ...
By using immunocytochemistry and radioimmunoassays, several substances resembling vertebrate or invertebrate neuropeptides have been found in the nervous systems of coelenterates. The most abundant neuropeptides were those related to the molluscan neuropeptide Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-amide (FMRFamide). Of antisera against different fragments of FMRFamide, those against RFamide were superior in recognizing the coelenterate peptide. Incubation of whole mounts with these RFamide antisera visualized the coelenterate nervous system in such a detail as has previously not been possible. By using a radioimmunoassay with a RFamide antiserum and [J-125]-YFMRFamide as tracer, the RFamide-like peptide from sea anemones was isolated. After cation-exchange chromatography, gelfiltration and HPLC, this peptide was obtained in a pure form ...
Several tetracosapolyenoic acids (TPA) were detected in lipids of different marine coelenterates. Two of these acids were isolated and their structures were confirmed by chemical and spectral methods as all-cis-6,9,12,15,18-tetracosapentaenoic and all-cis-6,9,12,15,18,21-tetracosahexaenoic acid. Their distribution among lipids of a number of species of different classes of coelenterates from the northern and tropical seas, among neutral and polar lipids of these organisms was investigated. Significant quantities of TPA were found in all of the Octacorallia species studied. In some cases the sum of TPA reaches the level of 20% of total lipid fatty acids. The fatty acid composition of different coelenterates is also discussed. © 1991 ...
What is the difference between Coelenterates and Platyhelminthes? Coelenterates are diploblastic invertebrates; Platyhelminthes are triploblastic invertebrates
Cnidaria is a rich phylum that includes thousands of marine species. In this study, we focused on Anthozoa and Hydrozoa that are represented by the Nematostella vectensis (Sea anemone) and Hydra magnipapillata genomes. We present a method for ranking the toxin-like candidates from complete proteomes of Cnidaria. Toxin-like functions were revealed using ClanTox, a statistical machine-learning predictor trained on ion channel inhibitors from venomous animals. Fundamental features that were emphasized in training ClanTox include cysteines and their spacing along the sequences. Among the 83,000 proteins derived from Cnidaria representatives, we found 170 candidates that fulfill the properties of toxin-like-proteins, the vast majority of which were previously unrecognized as toxins. An additional 394 short proteins exhibit characteristics of toxin-like proteins at a moderate degree of confidence. Remarkably, only 11% of the predicted toxin-like proteins were previously classified as toxins. Based on our
1. Feeding can be initiated in Anemonia sulcata by mechanical, chemical or electrical stimulation of the tentacles provided the stimulus sets up sufficiently prolonged excitation. Owing to rapid adaptation, mechanical stimuli rarely set up enduring excitation and inert objects are therefore usually rejected. Chemical stimuli set up prolonged excitation and food objects are therefore usually accepted. A series of electrical stimuli can produce rejection or feeding according to whether it is brief or prolonged.. 2. The sensitivity of the tentacles varies greatly a different foods. It is greatest to animal foods. There is great sensitivity to certain kinds of mucus.. 3. The active substances of natural foods are closely associated with protein. They fail to pass through a membrane which retains colloids. A feeding reaction can be obtained to food substances which appear to be insoluble in water.. 4. Though the active substances of many natural foods are not in free solution, soluble derivatives of ...
The hydromedusa Polyorchis penicillatus is a good model system to study neurotransmission in coelenterates. Using a radioimmunoassay for the peptide sequence Arg-Phe-NH2 (RFamide), two peptides have now been purified from acetic acid extracts of this medusa. The structure of one of these peptides was established as pyroGlu-Leu-Leu-Gly-Gly-Arg-Phe-NH2, and was named Pol-RFamide. This peptide belongs to the same peptide family as a recently isolated neuropeptide from sea anemones (pyroGlu-Gly-Arg-Phe-NH2). Using antisera to Pol-RFamide, the peptide was found to be exclusively localized in neurones of Polyorchis, among them neurones associated with smooth-muscle fibres. This suggests that Pol-RFamide might be a transmitter or modulator at neuromuscular junctions ...
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Background: Coral reef ecosystems are declining in response to global climate change and anthropogenic impacts. Yet patterns of standing genetic variation within cnidarian species, a major determinant of adaptive potential, are virtually unknown at genome-scale resolution. We explore patterns of genome-wide polymorphism and identify candidate loci under selection in the sea anemone Aiptasia, an important laboratory model system for studying the symbiosis between corals and dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium. Results: Low coverage genome sequencing revealed large genetic distances among globally widespread lineages, novel candidate targets of selection, and considerably higher heterozygosity than previously reported for Aiptasia. More than 670,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified among 10 Aiptasia individuals including two pairs of genetic clones. Evolutionary relationships based on genome-wide ...
Bayer, F. M. 1956. Octocorallia. Pp. F166-F230 in: R. C. Moore (ed.), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology Part F: Coelenterata. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, Lawrence.. Bayer, F. M., M. Grasshoff, and J. Verseveldt. 1983. Illustrated trilingual glossary of morphological and anatomical terms applied to Octocorallia. E. J. Brill / Dr. W.Backhuys, Leiden. 75 pp.. Berntson, E. A., S. C. France, and L. S. Mullineaux. 1999. Phylogenetic relationships within the Class Anthozoa (Phylum Cnidaria) based on nuclear 18S rDNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 13: 417-433.. Bridge, D., C. W. Cunningham, R. deSalle, and L. W. Buss. 1995. Class-level relationships in the phylum Cnidaria: Molecular and morphological evidence. Molecular Biology and Evolution 12: 679-689.. Chen, C. A., D. M. Odorico, M. ten Lohuis, J. E. N. Veron, and D. J. Miller. 1995. Systematic relationships within the Anthozoa (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) using the ...
Traditional skull and facial bone reconstructions with hard tissues have a long history with good clinical outcomes. However, they have certain disadvantages. The benefits of synthetic materials are the avoidance of donor-site morbidity and scars, but also shorter hospitalization time, lower expenses and known composition. Custom-made skull bone implant can produced based on patients clinical need utilizing rapid prototyping technologies. This will result in very high accuracy of the form of the skull defect.. Polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA) is one of the most widely used alloplastic material in surgery. Bioactive glass S53P4 (BAG) particles have been used in various clinical indications. BAG was added to composite implant of PMMA with glass fibre reinforcement to enhance bone ingrowth to implant, and to utilize BAG`s antimicrobial effects. Ten patients cranial defects are treated with composite implants. ...
Atlas of human central nervous system development , Atlas of human central nervous system development , کتابخانه دیجیتالی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی و خدمات درمانی شهید بهشتی
Background Apoptosis, one of many types of programmed cell loss of life, is conducted and regulated with a organic proteins network. vertebrate, nematode, and insect genomes, got multiple paralogs in the cnidarian-bilaterian ancestor. Different people of the ancestral Apaf-1 family members resulted in the extant protein in nematodes/pests and in deuterostomes, detailing significant functional differences between proteins that until had been thought to be orthologous today. Similarly, 173220-07-0 IC50 the advancement from the Bcl-2 and caspase proteins families appears 173220-07-0 IC50 amazingly complicated and evidently included significant gene reduction in nematodes and pests and expansions in deuterostomes. Bottom line The rising picture from the evolution from the apoptosis network is certainly among a succession of lineage-specific expansions and loss, which combined with limited amount of apoptotic proteins families, led to apparent commonalities between ...
The body plans cnidarians generally have radial symmetry (Fig. 3.25 A). Because the tentacles of corals, jellyfish, and sea anemones have this radial structure, they can sting and capture food coming from any direction.. Many cnidarians take two main structural forms during their life cycles, a polyp form and a medusa form. The polyp form has a body shaped like a hollow cylinder or a bag that opens and closes at the top (Fig. 3.25 A). Tentacles form a ring around a small mouth at the top of the bag. The mouth leads to a central body cavity, the gastrovascular cavity (Fig. 3.24 B). Polyps attach to hard surfaces with their mouths up. Because they are sessile organisms, they can only capture food that touches their tentacles. Their mesoglea layer is very thin. Corals and sea anemones are polyps. Most of these animals are small, but a few sea anemones can grow as large as 1 meter in diameter. The second structural form that cnidarians have is called the medusa form. Medusa bodies are shaped ...
Cnidaria (Gr., cnidae, nettle) is a phylum of mostly marine Metazoa distinguished by cnidocysts, subcellular capsules containing an inverted tubule capable of everting and, in some cases, discharging venom
Green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) and calcium-activated photoproteins of the aequorin/clytin family, now widely used as research tools, were originally isolated from the hydrozoan jellyfish Aequora victoria. It is known that bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) is possible between these proteins to generate flashes of green light, but the native function and significance of this phenomenon is unclear. Using the hydrozoan Clytia hemisphaerica, we characterized differential expression of three clytin and four GFP genes in distinct tissues at larva, medusa and polyp stages, corresponding to the major in vivo sites of bioluminescence (medusa tentacles and eggs) and fluorescence (these sites plus medusa manubrium, gonad and larval ectoderms ...
The toxicity of Cnidaria is a subject of concern for its influence on human activities and public health. During the last decades, the mechanisms of cell injury caused by cnidarian venoms have been studied utilizing extracts from several Cnidaria that have been tested in order to evaluate some fundamental parameters, such as the activity on cell survival, functioning and metabolism, and to improve the knowledge about the mechanisms of action of these compounds. In agreement with the modern tendency aimed to avoid the utilization of living animals in the experiments and to substitute them with in vitro systems, established cell lines or primary cultures have been employed to test cnidarian extracts or derivatives. Several cnidarian venoms have been found to have cytotoxic properties and have been also shown to cause hemolytic effects. Some studied substances have been shown to affect tumour cells and microorganisms, so making cnidarian extracts particularly interesting for their possible ...
Corals, sea anemones and jellyfish belong to a group of animals called cnidarians (pronounced nid-air-e-ans). There are two others in the cnidarian group: hydroids, known collectively as sea firs; and siphonophores, such as the Portuguese man-of-war, which are not single creatures, but colonies of many specialised individuals.. With 1,048 marine species, cnidarians are one of the largest groups of invertebrates in New Zealand waters. Although they may look quite different from each other, they share a common ancestry.. A feature of cnidarians is that they may have two forms. In one, the medusa or jellyfish phase, it is free swimming; in the other, it attaches to a surface and is called a polyp.. Cnidarians have a simple sac-like body, with a single opening surrounded by a ring of tentacles. Their body is made of two distinct layers of tissue, separated by a thick gelatinous substance called mesoglea.. All cnidarians have specialised stinging or nettle cells in their tentacles (their name ...
Brooding in the octocoral Xenia macrospiculata is described. Young planulae of X. macrospiculatawere found in brooding pouches located below the anthocodia among the polyps cavities. These cavities...
Cnidarians disdinguising feature is their cnidocytes, which are specialized cells that are used for capturing prey. Their bodies are made of mesoglea, a gelatinous substance, which is layered in between to layers of epithelial tissue, which are one cell-layer thick. Cnidaria have a very simple digestive tract known as the gastrovascular cavity. The gastrovascular cavity is located at the center of the sac-like body and is accessed by a single opening. This opening serves as the mouth and anus. Cnidarians also have tentacles with stinging cells. These cells are used to subdue prey, and some contain toxins irritating or poisonous to humans. Cnidarians exist as one of two types. The first is a polyp, which has a barrel shape and attaches to the sea floor via its body. Extending upwards off of the body are the tentacles. Some species of polyps can propagate vegetatively, meaning that they reproduce asexually through methods such as budding (an outgrowth of the parent separates to form a new ...
Cnidarian, also called coelenterate, any member of the phylum Cnidaria (Coelenterata), a group made up of more than 9,000 living species. Mostly marine animals, the cnidarians include the corals, hydras,…
Story Summary: Present addresses: Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, John Innes Centre, Norwich NR4 7UH, UK (P. A. W. ); Institute of Human Genetics, University of Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany (A. -K. Here we report the genome of Hydra magnipapillataand compare it to the genomes of the anthozoan Nematostella vectensis6and other animals. Comparisons of the Hydragenome to the genomes of other animals shed light on the evolution of epithelia, contractile tissues, developmentally regulated transcription factors, the Spemann-Mangold organizer, pluripotency genes and the neuromuscular junction. The genomic basis of cnidarian evolution has so far been viewed from the perspective of an anthozoan, the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis6. Hydrais a medusozoan that diverged from anthozoans at least 540 millions year ago. We generated draft assemblies of the Hydra magnipapillatagenome using a whole-genome shotgun approach (Supplementary Information sections 1-3and Supplementary ...
Reef-building corals and many other cnidarians are symbiotic with dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. It has long been known that the endosymbiotic algae transfer much of their photosynthetically fixed carbon to the host and that this can provide much of the hosts total energy. However, it has remained unclear which metabolite(s) are directly translocated from the algae into the host tissue. We reexamined this question in the small sea anemone Aiptasia using labeling of intact animals in the light with 13C-bicarbonate, rapid homogenization and separation of animal and algal fractions, and analysis of metabolite labeling by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We found labeled glucose in the animal fraction within 2 min of exposure to 13C-bicarbonate, whereas no significant labeling of other compounds was observed within the first 10 min. Although considerable previous evidence has suggested that glycerol might be a major translocated metabolite, we saw no significant labeling of ...
The mold, protozoan, and coelenterate mitochondrial code and the mycoplasma/spiroplasma code is the genetic code used by various organisms, in some cases with slight variations, notably the use of UGA as a tryptophan codon rather than a stop codon. AAs = FFLLSSSSYY**CCWWLLLLPPPPHHQQRRRRIIIMTTTTNNKKSSRRVVVVAAAADDEEGGGG Starts = --MM---------------M------------MMMM---------------M------------ Base1 = TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG Base2 = TTTTCCCCAAAAGGGGTTTTCCCCAAAAGGGGTTTTCCCCAAAAGGGGTTTTCCCCAAAAGGGG Base3 = TCAGTCAGTCAGTCAGTCAGTCAGTCAGTCAGTCAGTCAGTCAGTCAGTCAGTCAGTCAGTCAG Bases: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T) or uracil (U). Amino acids: Alanine (Ala, A), Arginine (Arg, R), Asparagine (Asn, N), Aspartic acid (Asp, D), Cysteine (Cys, C), Glutamic acid (Glu, E), Glutamine (Gln, Q), Glycine (Gly, G), Histidine (His, H), Isoleucine (Ile, I), Leucine (Leu, L), Lysine (Lys, K), Methionine (Met, M), Phenylalanine (Phe, F), Proline (Pro, P), ...
The majority of individuals who commence treatment for HIV in the UK start with a regimen that includes EFV in combination with other antiretrovirals. These regimens are convenient (once daily dosing) and highly efficacious. However EFV has several potential drawbacks including continued CNS toxicity, the potential for teratogenesis and a low barrier to the development of virological resistance. In the past the only alternative NNRTI available was nevirapine which appears to have a lower rate of virological success and is associated with potentially life threatening toxicities including hepatotoxicity and cutaneous toxicity including the Stevens-Johnson syndrome.. Clinically controlled trials frequently reported undesirable nervous system side effects in patients receiving 600 mg EFV with other antiretroviral agents, including dizziness,insomnia, somnolence, impaired concentration and abnormal dreaming. CNS symptoms of moderate to severe intensity were experienced by 19.4% ...
The majority of individuals who commence treatment for HIV in the UK start with a regimen that includes EFV in combination with other antiretrovirals. These regimens are convenient (once daily dosing) and highly efficacious. However EFV has several potential drawbacks including continued CNS toxicity, the potential for teratogenesis and a low barrier to the development of virological resistance. In the past the only alternative NNRTI available was nevirapine which appears to have a lower rate of virological success and is associated with potentially life threatening toxicities including hepatotoxicity and cutaneous toxicity including the Stevens-Johnson syndrome.. Clinically controlled trials frequently reported undesirable nervous system side effects in patients receiving 600 mg EFV with other antiretroviral agents, including dizziness,insomnia, somnolence, impaired concentration and abnormal dreaming. CNS symptoms of moderate to severe intensity were experienced by 19.4% ...
Two aspects of cytokine therapy of intracerebral tumors are considered in this study: modulation of tumor growth in vivo and central nervous system toxicity. Coimplantation of RG-2 glioma cells and retroviral vector producer cell lines was performed to provide a local source of interleukin-2 (IL-2) or IFN-γ within the tumor and coinitiate an antitumor immune response. We demonstrated that local intratumoral production of IL-2 and IFN-γ generates a cell-mediated antitumor response in vivo. This response was manifest as a diffuse infiltration of monocytes/macrophages, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and activation of microglial OX42+ cells in intracerebral RG2 tumors. The cell-mediated antitumor immune response resulted in the early suppression of intracranial and subcutaneous tumor growth, but the effect was not sustained and there were no tumor regressions. The absence of increased survival of animals with intracranial tumors is explained in part by the severe ...
Longevity and competence were studied in planulae of several species of Red Sea soft corals, including the zooxanthellate planulae of Litophyton arboreum, Nephthea sp. and Xenia umbellata, and the azooxanthellate planulae of Parerythropodium fulvum fulvum and Dendronephthya hemprichi. The relationship between presence of zooxanthellae in the planulae and their competence, longevity and caloric content was examined. Planulae of X. umbellata and D. hemprichi had the longest competency of 76 and 74 d, respectively, planulae of P. f. fulvum were competent for a maximal period of 64 d, and planulae of L. arboreum and Nephthea sp. showed a similar competency of 57 d. The highest longevity of 155 d was found in planulae of X. umbellata. Planulae of P. f. fulvum, D. hemprichi and L. arboreum had maximum longevities of 76, 81 and 92 d, respectively. No significant differences existed between the competence or longevity of the zooxanthellate and azooxanthellate planulae. The ratio of the maximum values of ...
This work concerns the roles of neuron glia interactions in the control of neuronal survival during Central Nervous System (CNS) development in Drosophila. The question of whether glia are required to maintain neuronal survival in insects was addressed. Firstly, the GAL4 system was used to achieve in vivo targeted genetic ablation of glia. Secondly, plasmid rescue and P-element excision were exploited to locate and mutate genes which might participate in neuron glia interactions. Targeted glial ablation did not affect pioneer neuron survival. However, increased apoptosis was observed among the FasII and 22C10 expressing subsets of the follower neurons. Targeted ablation only of the interface glia was sufficient to induce follower neuron apoptosis. This difference in the survival requirements of pioneer and follower neurons may be instructive in patterning of the CNS. Neuronal apoptosis was rescued by ablating glia in an ...
The first step in generating cellular diversity in the Drosophila central nervous system is the formation of a segmentally reiterated array of neural precursor cells, called neuroblasts. Subsequently, each neuroblast goes through an invariant cell lineage to generate neurons and/or glia. Using molecular lineage markers, I show that (1) each neuroblast forms at a stereotyped time and position; (2) the neuroblast pattern is indistinguishable between thoracic and abdominal segments; (3) the development of individual neuroblasts can be followed throughout early neurogenesis; (4) gene expression in a neuroblast can be reproducibly modulated during its cell lineage; (5) identified ganglion mother cells form at stereotyped times and positions; and (6) the cell lineage of four well-characterized neurons can be traced back to two identified neuroblasts. These results set the stage for investigating neuroblast specification and the mechanisms controlling neuroblast ...
Jellyfish are important components of marine food webs and form problematic blooms that negatively impact human enterprise. Jellyfish of the genus Aurelia (Class Scyphozoa) are common bloom-formers in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). Aurelia have a multi-modal life cycle where the perennial polyp produces seasonal medusae. Abiotic tolerance ranges and limits strongly influence the distribution of marine species but are unknown for most jellyfish species. Tolerance limits for survival are crucial to understanding present polyp distribution and how distribution may change in climate change scenarios. We sampled and barcoded two Aurelia species from the GoM, namely Aurelia sp. 9 and a possible new species found offshore (Aurelia sp. new). Planulae obtained from one medusa of Aurelia sp. new, and five medusae of Aurelia sp. 9 were used to establish laboratory cultures. Polyps of Aurelia coerulea, a species native to Japan but introduced in North America, Australia, and Europe, were obtained from a local aquarium,
Figure 2: Body Response to Chronic Pain.The central nervous system tissue might respond by undergoing any number of adaptive changes. Thickening and inflammation of the membrane layers surrounding the spinal cord and brain might occur, leading to irritation and lack of normal motion of central nervous system tissue, imbalance and restricted mobility of the spinal column, or adverse strain on the peripheral nervous system.. Spinal cord neurons receiving chronic pain signals from the periphery also can undergo long-term change due to the activation of microglial cells (central nervous system immune cells), because abnormally increased sensitivity (sensitization) of the nerve cells might occur. This can maintain a state of overwhelming activity of the pain pathways, thus causing constant pain sensation.. ...
Group A streptococcus (GAS) infection causes a strong inflammatory response associated with cytokine storms, leading to multiorgan failure, which is characterized as streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. However, little is known about GAS subcutaneous infection-mediated brain inflammation. Therefore, we used a bioluminescent GAS strain and reporter mice carrying firefly luciferase under transcriptional control of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) promoter to concurrently monitor the host immune response and bacterial burden in a single mouse. Notably, in addition to the subcutaneous inoculation locus at the back of mice, we detected strong luminescence signals from NF-κB activation and increased inflammatory cytokine production in the brain, implying the existence of central nervous system inflammation after GAS subcutaneous infection. The inflamed brain exhibited an increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ...
The Trapezia Pocillopora/Acropora Crab, or Acro Crab for short, is a small commensal crustacean which lives its whole life within the branches of Pocillopora corals and Acropora Corals if no Pocilloporid corals are available, aiding in the proper water flow between the branches to keep these areas clean. In a symbiotic relationship with its host coral, the Trapezia Pocillopora/Acropora Crab is thought to feed on particulates trapped by the coral polyps, fallen detritus, and the corals secreted mucus. In turn, the crabs guard the coral from invaders and fend off predators. The importance of the Trapezia Pocillopora/Acropora Crabs role within a larger reef ecosystem is just now being recognized. Previously considered by hobbyists to be a coral "pest," the Trapezia Pocillopora/Acropora Crab may actually improve your success with SPS husbandry. Since the crabs constantly clean and defend their hosts, corals hosting Trapezia sp. have higher survival rates and stronger growth. In the home ...
Abstract: Cnidarians are the most primitive invertebrates alive today to possess eyes. The complex eyes of the cubozoan jellyfish Carybdea marsupialis exhibit many similarities to the camera-type eyes of higher metazoans including the presence of a cornea, lens, and retina of ciliated photoreceptors. It is these similarities that make understanding the evolution and development of eyes in basal cnidarians important, as they may lead to a better understanding of eye evolution. During the transformation of the polyp to the eye-bearing medusa, the development and arrangement of several components were followed including the neuropeptide FMRFamide, UV opsin-like protein (indicates photoreceptor formation), J1-crystallin (indicates lens formation), and shielding pigment formation. The first ocelli to appear were the complex eyes followed by the simple ocelli; the small complex eye was the first to exhibit pigment formation (melanin) as well as photoreceptor maturation. J1-crystallin was located in ...
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Larva stage (planula) of a box jellyfish (Carybdea alata). This box jellyfish belongs to the Cubozoa group of Cnidarians. The larval stage of Cnidarians is called the planula and it is a free swimming developmental stage. Cubozoan planulae are pear-shaped, have pigment spots that may be sensitive to light, and swim for a few days using cilia. After a planula settles, it grows into a polyp. The cubozoan polyp can crawl around and bud off more polyps. Like all cnidarians, cubozoans possess nematocysts, cells that fire a barb and transfer venom. When a nematocyst contacts something that might be prey or predator, the barb uncoils and fires from the capsule along with toxic venom. Magnification x200 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/4164
Dinoflagellates are ubiquitous marine and freshwater protists. The endosymbiotic relationship between dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium (also known as zooxanthellae) and corals forms the basis of coral reefs. We constructed and analyzed a cDNA library from a cultured Symbiodinium species clade A (CassKB8). The majority of annotated ESTs from the Symbiodinium sp. CassKB8 library cover metabolic genes. Most of those belong to either carbohydrate or energy metabolism. In addition, components of extracellular signal transduction pathways and genes that play a role in cell-cell communication were identified. In a subsequent analysis, we determined all orthologous cDNA sequences between this library (1,484 unique sequences) and a library from a Symbiodinium species clade C (C3) (3,336 unique sequences) that was isolated directly from its symbiotic host. A set of 115 orthologs were identified between Symbiodinium sp. CassKB8 and Symbiodinium sp. C3. These orthologs were subdivided into three ...
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Cnidarian sexual reproduction often involves a complex life cycle with both polyp and medusa stages. For example, in Scyphozoa (jellyfish) and Cubozoa (box jellies) a larva swims until it finds a good site, and then becomes a polyp. This grows normally but then absorbs its tentacles and splits horizontally into a series of disks that become juvenile medusae, a process called strobilation. The juveniles swim off and slowly grow to maturity, while the polyp re-grows and may continue strobilating periodically. The adults have gonads in the gastroderm, and these release ova and sperm into the water in the breeding season.[9][10]. This phenomenon of succession of differently organized generations (one asexually reproducing, sessile polyp, followed by a free-swimming medusa or a sessile polyp that reproduces sexually)[24] is sometimes called "alternation of asexual and sexual phases" or "metagenesis", but should not be confused with the alternation of generations as found in plants.. Shortened forms ...
The vertebrate central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. These lie in the midline of the body and are protected by the skull and vertebrae respectively. This collection of billions of neurons is arguably the most complex object known. The central nervous system along with the peripheral nervous system comprise a primary division of controls that command all physical activities of a vertebrate. Neurons of the central nervous system affect consciousness and mental activity while spinal extensions of central nervous system neuron pathways affect skeletal muscles and organs in the body. The peripheral system is composed of the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous ...
Title:Analgesic and CNS Depressant Activities of Sea Anemone Heteractis aurora Nematocyst Toxin. VOLUME: 16 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):Sengapillai Thangaraj, Subramanian Bragadeeswaran, Natarajah Srikumaran and Anbukkarasu Suguna. Affiliation:Marine Biotoxinology Lab. Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Annamalai University, Parangipettai - 608 502, Tamil Nadu, India.. Keywords:Analgesic activity, CNS depressant activity, Heteractis aurora, Haemolytic activity, Sea anemone.. Abstract:Marine organisms are the excellent sources for biologically active compounds. Cnidarian venoms are potentially valuable materials used for biomedical research and drug development. The present work was carried out to analyse haemolytic, analgesic and CNS depressant activity of sea anemone Heteractis aurora. In haemolytic assay, among the five different RBC blood cells, the chicken blood exhibited maximum hemolytic activity of 64 Hemolytic Unit (HU). The maximum Analgesic Ratio (AR) of 5 ...
Luciferase reporter constructs are widely used for analysis of gene regulation when characterizing promoter and enhancer elements. We report that the recently developed codon-modified Renilla luciferase construct included as an internal standard for cotransfection must be used with great caution with respect to the amount of DNA transfected. Also, the dual-luciferase reporter vectors encoding Photinus pyralis firefly or Renilla reniformis luciferase showed a linear increase in dose-response with increasing amounts of transfected DNA, but at higher levels of transfected DNA, a reduction in expressed levels of luciferase activity resulted. In addition, treatment with type I interferon (IFN) was found to significantly reduce levels of P. pyralis firefly and Renilla luciferase activity. In contrast, cells transfected with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter construct showed no significant IFN-associated change. The reduction in luciferase activity resulting from IFN treatment was not due to ...
Notch signalling, SoxB and Group A bHLH proneural genes are conserved regulators of the neurogenic program in many bilaterians. However, the ancestry of their functions and interactions is not well understood. We address this question in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, a representative of the Cnidaria, the sister clade to the Bilateria. It has previously been found that the SoxB orthologue NvSoxB(2) is expressed in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in Nematostella and promotes the development of both neurons and nematocytes, whereas Notch signalling has been implicated in the negative regulation of neurons and the positive regulation of nematocytes. Here, we clarify the role of Notch by reporting that inhibition of Notch signalling increases the numbers of both neurons and nematocytes, as well as increasing the number of NvSoxB(2)-expressing cells. This suggests that Notch restricts neurogenesis by limiting the generation of NPCs. We then characterise NvAth-like (Atonal/Neurogenin family) ...
Mechanisms of cell interaction with fibronectin have been studied with proteolytic fibronectin fragments that have well-defined ligand binding properties. Results of a previous study (Rogers, S. L., J. B. McCarthy, S. L. Palm, L. T. Furcht, and P. C. Letourneau, 1985, J. Neurosci., 5:369-378) demonstrated that (a) central (CNS) and peripheral (PNS) nervous system neurons adhere to, and extend neurites on a 33-kD carboxyl terminal fibronectin fragment that also binds heparin, and (b) neurons from the PNS, but not the CNS, have stable interactions with a 75-kD cell-binding fragment and with intact fibronectin. In the present study domain-specific reagents were used in inhibition assays to further differentiate cell surface interactions with the two fibronectin domains, and to define the significance of these domains to cell interactions with the intact fibronectin molecule. These reagents are (a) a soluble synthetic tetrapeptide Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGDS; ...
The effect of sea anemone toxins from Parasicyonis actinostoloides and Anemonia sulcata on the Na conductance in crayfish giant axons was studied under voltage-clamp conditions. The toxin slowed the Na inactivation process without changing the kinetics of Na activation or K activation in an early stage of the toxin effect. An analysis of the Na current profile during the toxin treatment suggested an all-or-none modification of individual Na channels. Toxin-modified Na channels were partially inactivated with a slower time course than that of the normal inactivation. This slow inactivation in steady state decreased in its extent as the membrane was depolarized to above -45 mV, so that practically no inactivation occurred at the membrane potentials as high as +50 mV. In addition to inhibition of the normal Na inactivation, prolonged toxin treatment induced an anomalous closing in a certain population of Na channels, indicated by very slow components of the Na tail current. The observed ...
Global Central Nervous System Partnering 2010 to 2017 provides the full collection of Central Nervous System disease deals signed between the worlds pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies since 2010.. Trends in Central Nervous System partnering deals. Financial deal terms for headline, upfront and royalty by stage of development. Central Nervous System partnering agreement structure. Central Nervous System partnering contract documents. Top Central Nervous System deals by value. Most active Central Nervous System dealmakers. Most of the deals included within the report occur when a licensee obtains a right or an option right to license a licensors ...
Symbiotic dinoflagellates are unicellular photosynthetic algae that live in mutualistic symbioses with many marine organisms. Within the transcriptome of coral endosymbionts Symbiodinium sp. (type C3), we discovered the sequences of two novel and highly polymorphic hemoglobin-like genes and proposed their 3D protein structures. At the protein level, four isoforms shared between 87 and 97% sequence identity for Hb-1 and 78-99% for Hb-2, whereas between Hb-1 and Hb-2 proteins, only 15-21% sequence homology has been preserved. Phylogenetic analyses of the dinoflagellate encoding Hb sequences have revealed a separate evolutionary origin of the discovered globin genes and indicated the possibility of horizontal gene transfer. Transcriptional regulation of the Hb-like genes was studied in the reef-building coral Acropora aspera exposed to elevated temperatures (6-7°C above average sea temperature) over a 24-h period and a 72-h period, as well as to nutrient stress. Exposure to elevated ...
Looking for online definition of Polyp and medusa in the Medical Dictionary? Polyp and medusa explanation free. What is Polyp and medusa? Meaning of Polyp and medusa medical term. What does Polyp and medusa mean?
Title:Crude Venom from Nematocysts of the Jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca as a Tool to Study Cell Physiology. VOLUME: 15 ISSUE: 2. Author(s):Rossana Morabito, Giuseppina L. Spada, Rosalia Crupi, Emanuela Esposito and Angela Marino. Affiliation:Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Viale F. Stagno DAlcontres 31, 98166 Messina, Italy.. Keywords:Biological assays, crude venom, jellyfish, nematocysts, Pelagia noctiluca.. Abstract:Marine animals represent a source of novel bioactive compounds considered as a good research model, whose mechanism of action is intriguing and still under debate. Among stinging animals, Cnidarians differentiated highly specialized cells, termed nematocytes, containing a capsule fluid with toxins and an inverted tubule, synergistically responsible for mechanisms of defence and predation. Such compounds include proteins and secondary metabolites with toxic action. With the aim of better elucidating the effects of Cnidarian venom upon cell targets, this short ...
Unicellular photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium are the most common endosymbionts of reef-building scleractinian corals, living in a symbiotic partnership known to be highly susceptible to environmental changes such as hyperthermic stress. In this study, we identified members of two major heat shock proteins (HSPs) families, Hsp70 and Hsp90, in Symbiodinium sp. (clade C) with full-length sequences that showed the highest similarity and evolutionary relationship with other known HSPs from dinoflagellate protists. Regulation of HSPs gene expression was examined in samples of the scleractinian coral Acropora millepora subjected to elevated temperatures progressively over 18 h (fast) and 120 h (gradual thermal stress). Moderate to severe heat stress at 26°C and 29°C (+3°C and +6°C above average sea temperature) resulted in an increase in algal Hsp70 gene expression from 39% to 57%, while extreme heat stress (+9°C) reduced Hsp70 transcript abundance by 60% (after 18 h) and 70%
Looking for online definition of Caput medusa in the Medical Dictionary? Caput medusa explanation free. What is Caput medusa? Meaning of Caput medusa medical term. What does Caput medusa mean?
Modern transformation and genome editing techniques have shown great success across a broad variety of organisms. However, no study of successfully applied genome editing has been reported in a dinoflagellate despite the first genetic transformation of Symbiodinium being published about 20 years ago. Using an array of different available transformation techniques, we attempted to transform Symbiodinium microadriaticum (CCMP2467), a dinoflagellate symbiont of reef-building corals, in order to perform CRISPR-Ca9 mediated genome editing. Plasmid vectors containing the chloramphenicol resistance gene under the control of the CaMV p35S promoter as well as several putative endogenous promoters were used to test a variety of transformation techniques including biolistics, electroporation, silica whiskers and glass bead agitation. We report that we have been unable to confer chloramphenicol resistance to our specific Symbiodinium strain. These results are intended to provide other researchers with ...
Antho-KAamide (L-3-phenyllactyl-Phe-Lys-Ala-NH2) and Antho-RIamide (L-3-phenyllactyl-Tyr-ArgIle-NH2) are novel neuropeptides isolated from the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. They both inhibited spontaneous contractions of isolated muscle preparations from a wide variety of anemone species (threshold around 10-7 m ). Their actions were universal in that they inhibited every muscle preparation tested, regardless of whether the muscle group was located in the ectoderm or endoderm, or was oriented in a circular or longitudinal direction. Injection of Antho-KAamide or Antho-RIamide into the coelenteron of intact sea anemones resulted in a marked expansion of the animals. Similar shape changes followed feeding or exposure to soluble food extracts. Therefore, we hypothesize that nerve cells that release Antho-KAamide and Antho-RIamide are involved in the expansion phase of feeding behaviour in sea anemones. ...
One of the major consequences of global warming is a rise in sea surface temperature which may affect the survival of marine organisms including phytoplankton. Here, we provide experimental evidence for heat-induced cell death in a symbiotic microalga. Shifting Symbiodinium microadriaticum from 27 to 32°C resulted in an increase in mortality, an increase in caspase 3-like activity, and an increase in nitric oxide (NO) production. The caspase-like activity was strongly correlated with the production of NO in thermally challenged microalgae. For this experiment, the application of Ac-DEVD-CHO, a mammalian caspase 3-specific inhibitor, partly prevented (by 65%) the increase in caspase-like activity. To verify the relationship between NO and the caspase-like activity, S. microadriaticum were subsequently incubated with 1.0 mM of the following chemical NO donors: sodium nitroprusside (SNP), S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) and ...
The invention relates generally to methods of influencing central nervous system cells to produce progeny useful in the treatment of CNS disorders. More specifically, the invention includes methods of exposing a patient suffering from such a disorder to a reagent that modulates the proliferation, migration, differentiation and survival of central nervous system cells. These methods are useful for reducing at least one symptom of the disorder.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Unexpected long-term population dynamics in a canopy-forming gorgonian coral following mass mortality. AU - Cupido, Roberta. AU - Cocito, Silvia. AU - Barsanti, Mattia. AU - Sgorbini, Sergio. AU - Peirano, Andrea. AU - Santangelo, Giovanni. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - Gorgonian corals are long-lived, slow-growing species exhibiting slow population dynamics. Demographic data collected over a period of 11 yr on a small population of temperate, canopyforming gorgonians dwelling near the edge of the summer thermocline in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea enabled us to assess its responses to the large mortality events that occurred in 1999 and 2003. Changes in population density, size structure and recruitment were examined. Overall, 2101 adult colonies and recruits were observed in situ and 240 photographic plots analyzed. During the first 3 years (2004 to 2006) after the mass mortalities, our measurements revealed a dramatic reduction in the density of healthy colonies (90% ...
Neither excitotoxic neurodegeneration nor lipopolysaccharide induces an acute myelomonocytic exudate in the murine central nervous system (CNS) parenchyma (Andersson, P.-B., V. H. Perry, and S. Gordon. 1991. Neuroscience, 42:201; Andersson, P.-B., V. H. Perry, and S. Gordon. 1992. Neuroscience 48:169). In this study formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, platelet-activating factor, interleukin 8 (IL-8), IL-1, or tumor necrosis factor alpha were injected into the hippocampus to assess whether these leukocyte chemotaxins and known mediators of recruitment could bypass this block. They induced morphologic activation of microglia and widespread leukocyte margination but little or no cell exudation into the CNS parenchyma. By contrast, there was acute myelomonocytic cell recruitment to the choroid plexus, meninges, and ventricular system, comparable to that in the skin after subcutaneous injection. The normal CNS parenchyma appears to be a tissue ...
Pax transcription factors are involved in a variety of developmental processes in bilaterians, including eye development, a role typically assigned to Pax-6. Although no true Pax-6 gene has been found in nonbilateral animals, some jellyfish have eyes with complex structures. In the cubozoan jellyfish Tripedalia, Pax-B, an ortholog of vertebrate Pax-2/5/8, had been proposed as a regulator of eye development. Here we have isolated three Pax genes (Pax-A, Pax-B, and Pax-E) from Cladonema radiatum, a hydrozoan jellyfish with elaborate eyes. Cladonema Pax-A is strongly expressed in the retina, whereas Pax-B and Pax-E are highly expressed in the manubrium, the feeding and reproductive organ. Misexpression of Cladonema Pax-A induces ectopic eyes in Drosophila imaginal discs, whereas Pax-B and Pax-E do not. Furthermore, Cladonema Pax-A paired domain protein directly binds to the 5′ upstream region of eye-specific Cladonema opsin genes, whereas Pax-B does not. Our data suggest that Pax-A, but not Pax-B ...
Our results combined with previous studies (15, 16, 23, 29, 55) show that the functional and molecular diversification of Shaker and KCNQ families of voltage-gated K+ channels was largely complete before the divergence of cnidarians and bilaterians. Furthermore, Erg K+ channels, which constitute one of three bilaterian Ether-a-go-go gene subfamilies, are also highly conserved on functional level between cnidarians and vertebrates (70). The other two Ether-a-go-go subfamilies, Elk and Eag, have been identified in Nematostella (1). Thus, eight major classes of voltage-gated K+ channel are conserved between cnidarians and bilaterians, and the characteristic functional properties of six (Shaker, Shab, Shal, Shaw, KCNQ, and Erg) have now been shown to have evolved before the cnidarian/bilaterian divergence. Further support for an early diversification of voltage-gated K+ channels within parahoxozoans is the fact that Shaker, Shab, Shaw, and Erg channels can also be found in the placozoan Trichoplax ...
Relatively few studies have investigated the genetic population structure of sea anemones. This is particularly true for sea anemones that host some of the most iconic fishes on coral reefs, the anemonefishes. One of the main reasons for this knowledge gap is the lack of appropriate genetic markers. We developed and characterized a total of 47 novel polymorphic microsatellite markers for four host sea anemone species from the Indo-Pacific: Entacmaea quadricolor (n = 16 microsatellite markers), Heteractis magnifica (n = 8), Stichodactyla mertensii (n = 13), and Stichodactyla gigantea (n = 10). Here, we report genetic diversity statistics from two different sampling locations for each anemone species. Overall, we found that most markers were highly polymorphic. On average, we found a mean of seven alleles per locus. Observed and expected heterozygosities displayed high variation among loci, ranging from 0.033 to 0.980 and from 0.038 to 0.927, respectively. ...
General: The safety and effectiveness of lidocaine depend on proper dosage, correct technique, adequate precautions, and readiness for emergencies. Standard textbooks should be consulted for specific techniques and precautions for various regional anesthetic procedures.. Resuscitative equipment, oxygen, and other resuscitative drugs should be available for immediate use. (See WARNINGS and ADVERSE REACTIONS). The lowest dosage that results in effective anesthesia should be used to avoid high plasma levels and serious adverse effects. Syringe aspirations should also be performed before and during each supplemental injection when using indwelling catheter techniques. During the administration of epidural anesthesia, it is recommended that a test dose be administered initially and that the patient be monitored for central nervous system toxicity and cardiovascular toxicity, as well as for signs of unintended intrathecal administration before proceeding. When ...
Jellyfish, anemones, corals, and hydroids all belong to the Phylum Cnidaria, and a principal characteristic of this group is the presence of stinging cells called cnidocytes. Within each cnidocyte is a capsule (the cnidocyst) which contains a hollow thread and a fluid which is neurotoxic. When this capsule is discharged, strings of proteins in the capsule fluid break up into many fragments, and this produces a rapid rise in the osmotic pressure capsule which forces the hollow thread (which is fastened to the capsule wall) to be turned inside out (like the finger of a rubber glove) as it is fired towards the food item the jellyfish is trying to capture, or an enemy which is threatening the jellyfish. The hollow stinging thread is sent towards the food or enemy at a very high rate of speed and is able to penetrate most living materials, much like the piece of straw that is blown into a tree during a tornado. The hollow thread now acts as a conduit for the capsules toxin, and the latter either ...
Corals form the framework of the worlds coral reefs and are under threat from increases in disease and bleaching (symbiotic dysfunction), yet the mechanisms of pathogen and symbiont recognition remain largely unknown. Here we describe the isolation and characterisation of an ancient mannose-binding lectin in the coral Acropora millepora, which is likely to be involved in both processes. The lectin (Millectin) was isolated by affinity chromatography and was shown to bind to bacterial pathogens as well as coral symbionts, dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. cDNA analysis of Millectin indicate extensive sequence variation in the binding region, reflecting its ability to recognise various mannose-like carbohydrate structures on non-self cells, including symbionts and pathogens. This is the first mannose-binding lectin to show extensive sequence variability as observed for pattern recognition proteins in other invertebrate immune systems and, given that invertebrates rely on non-adaptive ...
Recent molecular analyses indicate that many reef coral species belong to hybridizing species complexes or "syngameons." Such complexes consist of numerous genetically distinct species or lineages, which periodically split and/or fuse as they extend through time. During splitting and fusion, morphologic intermediates form and species overlap. Here we focus on processes associated with lineage fusion, specifically introgressive hybridization, and the recognition of such hybridization in the fossil record. Our approach involves comparing patterns of ecologic and morphologic overlap in genetically characterized modern species with fossil representatives of the same or closely related species. We similarly consider the long-term consequences of past hybridization on the structure of modern-day species boundaries.. Our study involves the species complex Montastraea annularis s.l. and is based in the Bahamas, where, unlike other Caribbean locations, two of the three members of the ...
Healthy thalli of Parmelia sulcata Taylor were transplanted to 8 localities in the surroundings of a power station (La Robla, Leon, Spain), the sole pollution source in the region. Changes in chlorophyll a fluorescence were monitored in the transplants 12 months, 18 months and 24 months after transplantation. Statistically significant differences were observed in the ratio of variable to maximal fluorescence, non-photochemical fluorescence quenching and vitality index. The decrease in fluorescence parameters was higher in the localities of Cuadros and Rabanal de Fenar, which are situated a few kilometres away from the power station and in the same direction as the prevailing winds ...
Background: Gain-of-function mutations of the nociceptive voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7 lead to inherited pain syndromes, such as paroxysmal extreme pain disorder (PEPD). One characteristic of these mutations is slowed fast-inactivation kinetics, which may give rise to resurgent sodium currents. It is long known that toxins from Anemonia sulcata, such as ATX-II, slow fast inactivation and skin contact for example during diving leads to various symptoms such as pain and itch. Here, we investigated if ATX-II induces resurgent currents in sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion (DRGs) and how this may translate into human sensations. Results: In large A-fiber related DRGs ATX-II (5 nM) enhances persistent and resurgent sodium currents, but failed to do so in small C-fiber linked DRGs when investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Resurgent currents are thought to depend on the presence of the sodium channel beta 4-subunit. Using RT-qPCR experiments, we show that small ...
HABITAT: An arid country species. RANGE: Central Africa from Mauritania and Senegal to Ethiopia. SUBSPECIES: None. FEATURES: This is the largest mainland tortoise, with some adults reaching over 24 inches (50cms) in length and weighing over 100 lbs (50 kilos). The carapace is serrated; the anal scutes are split with the females having a wider opening than the males. The animal has a wide, rather fl attened carapace, yellow or pale brown in colour. Both limbs and the moderately large head are of the same colour as the carapace. The legs have thick scales and two or three strong gular spurs. The hatchlings have pale yellow carapaces with narrow brown bordered scutes. A 5 year old roughly weighs 40 lbs (20 kilos). Males are larger than females; copulation takes place during the rainy season with the males uttering grunting sounds. Clutches are usually large (between 15 and 30 eggs or even more) and have long incubation times (3-5 months depending on the temperature in the nesting ...
Although animal neuroscience is an established and accepted fact, the neurobiology of plants remains controversial despite the fact that electrical signaling in plants was described by M.L. Berthelon in De lElectricité des Végétaux (Aylon, Paris) 1783, eight years before the first reference of animal electrical signaling by L. Galvani in 1791. This is likely because plant responses to environmental stimuli are significantly (1000 to 100,000 times based on measured refractory periods for action potentials (APs) in Lupinus shoots by Adam Paszewski and Tadeusz Zawadzki, Action Potentials in Lupinus angustifolius L. Shoots (Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Lublin, Poland 1976)) slower than those in animals (with the exception of a few - the touch-sensitive mimosa (Mimosa pudica) and Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) that require speed to close their leaves and shut their traps since in general, plants do not require the speed of animals to escape predators or capture prey) and because of ...
Molecular analyses have led to an increased knowledge of the number and distribution of morphologically cryptic species in the worlds oceans and, concomitantly, to the identification of non-indigenous species (NIS). Traditional taxonomy and accurate delimitation of species life histories and autecology lag far behind, however, even for the most widely distributed taxa, such as the moon jellyfish Aurelia (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) species complex. Here we analysed mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and nuclear 28S ribosomal RNA (28S) gene sequences to assign polyps, ephyrae, and medusae collected in the Mediterranean Sea to different phylogenetic species. We find evidence for three Aurelia species, none of which are referable to the type species of the genus, Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus, 1758), and describe the anatomical, morphometric, and developmental variation within and between them. We identify Aurelia coerulea von Lendenfeld, 1884 and Aurelia solida Browne, 1905 as established ...
Aeby, G.S., Work, T., Coles, S., and Lewis, T. 2006. Coral Disease Across the Hawaiian Archipelago. EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 87(36): suppl.. Aronson, R.B. and Precht, W.F. 2001b. White-band disease and the changing face of Caribbean coral reefs. Hydrobiologia 460: 25-38.. Bruckner A.W. 2002. Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Trade in Stony Corals: Development of Sustainable Management Guidelines. NMFS-OPR-22: 163.. Bruno, J.F., Selig, E.R., Casey, K.S., Page, C.A., Willis, B.L., Harvell, C.D., Sweatman, H., and Melendy, A.M. 2007. Thermal stress and coral cover as drivers of coral disease outbreaks. PLoS Biology 5(6): e124.. Colgan, M.W. 1987. Coral Reef Recovery on Guam (Micronesia) After Catastrophic Predation by Acanthaster Planci. Ecology 68(6): 1592-1605.. Ditlev, H. 2003. Scleractinian corals (Cnidaria:Anthozoa) from Sabah, North Borneo. Description of one new genus and eight new species, with notes on their taxonomy and ecology. Zool. Med. Leiden 77(9): ...
The diel vertical dynamics of gelatinous zooplankton in physically stratified conditions over the 100-m isobath (~110 km offshore) in the South Brazilian Bight (26°45S; 47°33W) and the relationship to hydrography and food availability were analyzed by sampling every six hours over two consecutive days. Zooplankton samples were taken in three depth strata, following the vertical structure of the water column, with cold waters between 17 and 13.1°C, influenced by the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) in the lower layer (|70 m); warm (|20°C) Tropical Water in the upper 40 m; and an intermediate thermocline with a deep chlorophyll-a maximum layer (0.3-0.6 mg m-3). Two distinct general patterns were observed, emphasizing the role of (i) physical and (ii) biological processes: (i) a strong influence of the vertical stratification, with most zooplankton absent or little abundant in the lower layer. The influence of the cold SACW on the bottom layer apparently restricted the vertical occupation of ...
Lions mane jellyfish (Cyanea capillata), also known as Hair Jelly and Sea Blubber, are a type of jellyfish which are mostly found in north Atlantic and north Pacific waters. The stings of these jellyfish are painful but not fatal. The species is found near the coast of the U.S. shore line.. The lions mane jellyfish can grow up to 2 m width by its pileus ("bell") and its tentacles up to 30 m long. The largest Lions Mane Jelly recorded was 120 FT, but most jellyfish are far smaller, usually some 30 cm by pileus width and up to 50 cm by tentacle length. It eats mainly plankton and is itself eaten by sunfish, sea turtles and some seabirds. Like all jellyfish, it lives only for one year.. A group of jellyfish is called a smack.. ...
Apt W Jr. 1976. Survival of reniform nematode in desiccated soils. Journal of Nematology 8: 278 (Abstract).. Apt W J, Caswell EP. 1988. Application of nematicides via drip irrigation. Annals of Applied Nematology 2: 1-10.. Ayala A, Ramirez CT. 1964. Host-range, distribution, and bibliography of the reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis, with special reference to Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of University of Puerto Rico 48: 140-160.. Balasubramanian P, Ramakrishnan C. 1983. Resistance to the reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis in tomato. Nematologia Mediterranea 11: 203-204.. Caswell EP, deFrank J, Apt WJ, Tang C-S. 1991. Influence of nonhost plants on population decline of Rotylenchulus reniformis. Journal of Nematology 23: 91-98.. Inserra RN, Dunn RA, McSorley R, Langdon KR, Richmer AY. 1989. Weed hosts of Rotylenchulus reniformis in ornamental nurseries of southern Florida. Nematology Circular No. 171. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of ...
This biotope is subject to the normal environmental fluctuations of salinity, temperature and dessication experienced by intertidal pools. Wave action, sediment mobility and abrasion maintains these pools in an early successional stage, characterized by species that can either tolerate disturbance and environmental stress or opportunist species that can recolonize rapidly. The characterizing hydroids and ephemeral algae species and the species associated with this biotope are therefore considered to generally have high rates of resilience (recovery). Due to the frequent disturbances likely to affect this biotope, seasonal changes are likely to be masked by changes caused by wave energy. Some species of hydroids, including Obelia longissima a species found in this biotope, demonstrate seasonal cycles of growth in spring/summer and regression (die back) in late autumn/winter, over wintering as dormant stages or juvenile stages (Gili & Hughes, 1995;Brault & Bourget,1985). Similarly the ephemeral ...
Biotin (vitamin H or vitamin B7) is the essential cofactor of biotin-dependent carboxylases, such as pyruvate carboxylase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Mammals cannot synthesize biotin, while in bacteria, fungi, and plants it is synthesized from pimelate thioester through different pathways. In E. coli and many organisms, pimelate thioester is derived from malonyl-ACP. The pathway starts with the methylation to malonyl-ACP methyl ester, followed by the fatty acid chain elongation cycle to form pimeloyl-ACP methyl ester, which is then demethylated to form pimeloyl-ACP [MD:M00572]. Pimeloyl-ACP is converted to biotin through the final four steps in the biotin bicyclic ring assembly, which are conserved among biotin-producing organisms [MD:M00123]. In B. subtilis, biotin is derived from pimeloyl-ACP formed by oxidative cleavage of long-chain acyl-ACPs [MD:M00573]. Some bacteria synthesize biotin from pimeloyl-CoA derived from pimelate [MD:M00577]. Biotin is covalently attached to biotin-dependent ...
In contrast to the centralized and highly structured nervous systems of bilaterians, some animals (cnidarians and ctenophores) have more simply organized networks, and still others (sponges and placozoans) appear to lack a nervous system entirely [1]. To the extent that these early branching animal phyla (the so called basal metazoa) have retained early metazoan characters, their study can inform our understanding of the early evolution of the nervous system. Although early metazoan phylogeny remains controversial [2-5], among the living phyla sponges were likely the first animal group to diverge, followed by the subsequent branching of placozoans, and then cnidarians/bilaterians. (The placement of ctenophores remains contentious [3, 6]). Both sponges [7] and placozoans (that is, Trichoplax adhaerens) [8] appear to lack a defined neuronal cell type, although evidence for ...
Coral species are difficult to identify due to few distinct morphological features and high levels of phenotypic variation; furthermore, hybridization is thought to play an important role in coral evolution. The genus Pocillopora is one of the most abundant reef-building corals in the Pacific, yet species boundaries within this important group remain enigmatic, with conflicting interpretations of molecular data. To further examine the relationship between morphology and genetic variation, we examined in situ photographs, microscopic images, and molecular markers (ORF, CR, ITS-2) from 59 Pocillopora colonies representing a range of atypical morphologies thought to be rare or endemic to remote locations (the Hawaiian Archipelago, Johnston Atoll, Palmyra Atoll, and Howland Island). Additionally, we combined our data with previously published genetic data from the western Indian Ocean, Taiwan, the Great Barrier Reef, and the tropical east Pacific (n = 298) to examine ...
Medusa Silicone iPhone X Case from Versace Mens Collection. Protected by the Medusa - iPhone case with a three-dimensional Medusa and Versace logo. Compatible with iPhone X.
The lowly jellyfish, a gelatinous, free-swimming Cnidarian, is an unlikely source of scientific inspiration. Yet, in an article published in this weeks issue of Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, researchers from Harvard, MIT, and the Xian Jiaotong University of China reported an innovative method, inspired by jellyfish tentacles, of isolating and removing tumor cells from blood samples.. This novel technology has the potential to transform cancer diagnostis by facilitating efficient retrieval and analysis of cancer cells from the bloodstream. The study developed microfluidic devices coated in a network of dangling DNA aptamers, or stable strands of synthetic DNA, that can identify and capture particles and cells. Like the tentacles of a jellyfish, which extend into water surrounding the animal to capture food particles, the protruding DNA aptamers were designed to extend into blood samples and bind to a surface protein called tyrosine kinase-7 (PTK-7). Because PTK-7 is ...
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We purified a new cytolysin (HMgIII) from the sea anemone, Heteractis magnifica. HMgIII, which has a molecular mass of ~19 kDa, functions as both a cytolysin and a hemolysin. The full-length HMg III cDNA was obtained by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, using primers designed from its N-terminal amino acid sequence and an internal conserved region of two other sea anemone cytolysins: equinatoxin II (EqT II) and cytolysin III. The cDNA contained an open reading frame of 633 bp, which encodes a protein of 211 amino acids. The nascent HMg III protein contained a prepropeptide of 34 amino acids, which includes a signal peptide of 19 amino acids. The mature HMg III has a predicted molecular mass of 19 kDa and a pI of 9.1, and shares 91%, 89%, 65% and 63% amino acid sequence similarity with cytolysin III, cytolysin ST I, tenebrosin-C and equinatoxin (EqT II), respectively. The predicted secondary structure of the mature HMg III comprises 16% α-helix, 23% extended strand and 60% random ...
Aeby, G.S., Work, T., Coles, S., and Lewis, T. 2006. Coral Disease Across the Hawaiian Archipelago. EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 87(36): suppl.. Aronson, R.B. and Precht, W.F. 2001b. White-band disease and the changing face of Caribbean coral reefs. Hydrobiologia 460: 25-38.. Bruno, J.F., Selig, E.R., Casey, K.S., Page, C.A., Willis, B.L., Harvell, C.D., Sweatman, H., and Melendy, A.M. 2007. Thermal stress and coral cover as drivers of coral disease outbreaks. PLoS Biology 5(6): e124.. Colgan, M.W. 1987. Coral Reef Recovery on Guam (Micronesia) After Catastrophic Predation by Acanthaster Planci. Ecology 68(6): 1592-1605.. Cortes, J. and Guzman, H. 1998. Organisms from coral reefs of Costa Rica: Description, geographical distribution and natural history of Pacific zooxanthellate corals (Anthozoa: Scleractinia). Revista de Biologia Tropical 46(1): 55-92.. Fenner, D. 2003. Corals of Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea. Conservation International, Washington, DC.. Glynn, P.W. 1994. ...
Bell and trailing tentacles of a box jellyfish (Cubozoa). Box jellyfish are relatives of true jellyfish, but have a cubic bell and tentacles extending from each lower corner. Unlike true jellyfish they have complex eyes and are active swimmers, avoiding obstacles and chasing after prey. They feed mainly on small fish, which they catch with their stinging tentacles. Some species of box jellyfish have a sting that is rapidly fatal to humans. Filmed in the Gulf of Thailand, near Koh Pha Ngan Island. - Stock Video Clip K004/8614
Sea slug name for a marine gastropod mollusk that lacks a shell as an adult and is usually brightly colored. Australias Sea slugs, or nudibranchs, are distributed throughout the world, with the greatest numbers and the largest kinds found in tropical waters. They creep along the bottom or cling to submerged vegetation, usually in water just below the low tide line. Members of a few species swim on the surface in open ocean. Most sea slugs are under 1 in. (2.5 cm) long, although the largest, found in the Great Barrier Reef of Australia, reaches 12 in. (30 cm). Regarded by many people as the most beautiful of marine animals, sea slugs display a great array of solid colors and patterns. Many have feathery structures (ceratia) on the back, often in a contrasting color. Australia sea slugs have two pairs of tentacles on the head, used for tactile and chemosensory reception, with a small eye at the base of each tentacle. Sea slugs graze on small sessile animals such as coelenterates, sponges, and ...
The Phoenix Islands Protected Area, in the central Pacific waters of the Republic of Kiribati, is a model for large marine protected area (MPA) development and maintenance, but baseline records of the protected biodiversity in its largest environment, the deep sea (>200 m), have not yet been determined. In general, the equatorial central Pacific lacks biogeographic perspective on deep-sea benthic communities compared to more well-studied regions of the North and South Pacific Ocean. In 2017, explorations by the NOAA ship Okeanos Explorer and R/V Falkor were among the first to document the diversity and distribution of deep-water benthic megafauna on numerous seamounts, islands, shallow coral reef banks, and atolls in the region. Here, we present baseline deep-sea coral species distribution and community assembly patterns within the Scleractinia, Octocorallia, Antipatharia, and Zoantharia with respect to different seafloor features and abiotic environmental variables across ...
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Effects of Nitric Oxide. As described above, nitrite can break down under UV light to produce nitric oxide. Consistent with this process, nitric oxide is found to increase during the day and to decrease at night.12 Nitric oxide itself has a variety of different biological effects. Exposure to different concentrations of supplemental nitric oxide was found to speed or inhibit the growth of four species of phytoplankton (Skeletonema costatum, Dicrateria zhanjiangensis nov. sp., Platymonas subcordiformis and Emiliania huxleyi) , consistent with its known role as a growth regulator in terrestrial plants.19. Nitric oxide also may play a role in the symbiosis of certain cnidarians with dinoflagellates. An enzyme that produces nitric oxide has been found in the cnidarian Aiptasia pallida. This enzyme is apparently downregulated when the organism goes into acute heat shock, and inhibitors of the enzyme cause retraction of the tentacles, as is observed under heat shock conditions.20 Further, addition of ...
Lipids are involved in a host of biochemical and physiological processes in corals. Therefore, changes in lipid composition reflect changes in the ecology, nutrition, and health of corals. As such, accurate lipid extraction, quantification, and identification is critical to obtain comprehensive insight into a corals condition. However, discrepancies exist in sample preparation methodology globally, and it is currently unknown whether these techniques generate analogous results. This study compared the two most common sample preparation techniques for lipid analysis in corals: (1) tissue isolation by air-spraying and (2) crushing the coral in toto. Samples derived from each preparation technique were subsequently analysed to quantify lipids and their constituent classes and fatty acids in four common, scleractinian coral species representing three distinct morphotypes (Acropora millepora, Montipora crassotuberculata, Porites cylindrica, and Pocillopora damicornis). Results revealed substantial amounts
In the February 2016 issue of the Annals of Plastic Surgery, a paper was printed on this very topic entitled Silicone-Polytetrafluoroethylene Composite Implants for Asian Rhinoplasty. Over a four year period, 177 Asian patients underwent rhinoplasty using a dorsal composite nasal implant. (about 2/3s primary rhinoplasty and 1/3 secondary rhinoplasty) The average dimenions of the ePTFE coated silicone nasal implants was 1.5 to 5 mm thick and 3.8 to 4.5 cm long. Autologous cartilage was used for tip coverage in every case. Glabellar augmentation was also performed in 11% of the patients.. There was an 11% complication rate which included implant malposition/deviation (5%), persistent redness (2%) and actual infection. (1%) There were no cases of extrusion. There was a 9% revision rate either due to malposition or inadequate dorsal height from the patients perspective. There were no complication differences between use of the implant in primary or secondary rhinoplasty.. The use of an implant, ...
Field experience working with scleractinian corals and a SCUBA certification are desirable. The post holder will conduct research into the physiological and genetic basis for variation in thermal tolerance and the extent to which phenotypic traits in corals are heritable. The successful candidate will be required to process and analyse samples of scleractinian corals and algal symbionts and should have a track record of producing high-quality reproducible biochemical data suitable for publication. This is an exciting opportunity for a postdoctoral researcher to join a five-year project that addresses a highly topical subject in current reef science. The candidate will work directly with Dr. Achim Treumann at the Newcastle University Protein and Proteome Analysis core facility & Dr James Guest, Prof. John Bythell, Prof. Alasdair Edwards in the School of Biology ...
Craspedacusta sowerbyi reproduce asexually in the polyp form, via budding. They can form three different types of buds: polyps, frustules, or medusa buds. The polyp bud grows and develops while still attached to the original polyp. The frustule bud develops into a frustule; they are only able to travel a short distance before developing into a new polyp. The medusa bud detaches to form a free-living adult medusa, which reproduces sexually via fertilized eggs, which develop into planula larva. These larva settle onto underwater surfaces (plant roots, rocks, and tree roots) where they develop into polyps (Peard 2000).. Sexual reproduction is relatively rare in this form of jellyfish. Most populations are strictly male or female (Peard, 2000).. Scientists are still learning about the larvae and the conditions affecting the dispersal of this organism. Correlation studies have demonstrated a relationship between increased travel distance of the larvae and increased polyp feeding. It is believed that ...
scheme of Civil Services Examination (CSE).. MAINS SYLLABUS - INDIAN CIVIL SERVICES EXAMINATION (UPSC). ZOOLOGY. PAPER - I. Section - A. Non-chordata and Chordata. (a) Classification and relationship of various phyla up to subclasses; Acoelomate and Coelomate; Protostomes and Deuterostomes, Bilateralia and Radiata; Status of Protista, Parazoa, Onychophora and Hemichordata; Symmetry.. (b) Protozoa: Locomotion, nutrition, reproduction; evolution of sex; general. features and life history of Paramaecium, Monocystis, Plasmodium and Leishsmania.. (c) Porifera: Skeleton, canal system and reproduction.. (d) Cnidaria: Polymorphism, defensive structures and their mechanism; coral reefs and their formation; metagenesis; general features and life history of Obelia and Aurelia.. (e) Platyhelminthes: Parasitic adaptation; general features and life history of Fasciola and Taenia and their pathogenic symptoms.. (f) Nemathelminthes: General features, life history and parasitic adaptation of Ascaris and ...
scheme of Civil Services Examination (CSE).. MAINS SYLLABUS - INDIAN CIVIL SERVICES EXAMINATION (UPSC). ZOOLOGY. PAPER - I. Section - A. Non-chordata and Chordata. (a) Classification and relationship of various phyla up to subclasses; Acoelomate and Coelomate; Protostomes and Deuterostomes, Bilateralia and Radiata; Status of Protista, Parazoa, Onychophora and Hemichordata; Symmetry.. (b) Protozoa: Locomotion, nutrition, reproduction; evolution of sex; general. features and life history of Paramaecium, Monocystis, Plasmodium and Leishsmania.. (c) Porifera: Skeleton, canal system and reproduction.. (d) Cnidaria: Polymorphism, defensive structures and their mechanism; coral reefs and their formation; metagenesis; general features and life history of Obelia and Aurelia.. (e) Platyhelminthes: Parasitic adaptation; general features and life history of Fasciola and Taenia and their pathogenic symptoms.. (f) Nemathelminthes: General features, life history and parasitic adaptation of Ascaris and ...
The jellyfish are coming!. According to the Marine Conservation Society, increasing numbers of jellyfish - presumably encouraged by the hot weather - are currently bobbing along Britains coastline.. This probably means many bathers will be having a painful aquatic encounter in the next couple of weeks - and some unlucky punters will probably get treated in a novel way.. Help on tap. Thats because lots of people still believe its a good idea to wee on someone whos been stung by a jellyfish.. Bizarre as it sounds, this is true. As temperatures soar this weekend, hundreds of British beachgoers will have their hands poised on their zippers, gunslinger-style, ready to pull down at a moments notice and help anyone running from the water in pain.. Dangerous cure. The hoary old myth that urinating on jellyfish stings lessens the pain is still surprisingly popular in the UK, despite medically making no sense at all. (Really, think about it. Its like saying you should vomit on someone with ...
Jan Tytgat is Full Professor and Head of the Laboratory Toxicology & Pharmacology at the KU Leuven. He holds a Bachelors and Masters degree in Pharmaceutical Sciences (KU Leuven) and obtained a PhD in Physiology (KU Leuven; Prof. Dr E. Carmeliet as promotor). From 1990-92 he stayed at the Harvard Medical School (Boston, USA) for a post-doctoral training (with the late professor Dr. Peter Hess). Jan Tytgats bibliometric data currently (May 2019) are: h index 46, citations 9055 and publications 425. He has received several scientific prizes, among which the prize of the Research Council in 1994 (KU Leuven) and in 2008 the international prize Dr. E. Delcroix (the Flemish Marine Institute, for his research in the area of Cnidaria intoxications and drug discovery starting from marine systems and organisms). In 2013, he received the prize for best scientific dissemination from the Flemish Academy of Arts and Sciences. Jan Tytgat is a member of the Superior Health Council of Belgium and a former ...
Identifying Features: The Moon Jellyfish (Aurelia labiata) ranges from 25 to 40 cm (9.8 to 15.8 in) in diameter and can be easily recognized by the four horseshoe-shaped rings on its bell. A. labiata is not perfectly circular, but has multiple ridges around its bell between its rhopalia. It also has four oral arms leading up to its mouth and many short tentacles all around its bell. A. labiata may be confused with A. aurita, a closely related species found along the eastern Atlantic coast of Northern Europe and the western Atlantic coast of North America in New England and Eastern Canada.. Habitat: Moon jellyfish are found along the west coast of North America all the way from southern Alaska to southern California and as far out into the open ocean as Hawaii. Moon Jellyfish can be found up to 1000m (3280ft) below sea level in waters ranging from -6 to 31 degrees celsius; but often float near the surface, especially in bays and harbours. In the summer and through autumn, moon jelly fish are ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An examination of the cardiovascular effects of an Irukandji jellyfish, Alatina nr mordens. AU - Winter, Kelly. AU - Isbister, Geoffrey. AU - Schneider, Jennifer. AU - Konstantakopoulos, Nicki. AU - SEYMOUR, J. AU - Hodgson, Wayne. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - Irukandji syndrome is usually characterized by delayed severe abdominal, back and chest pain associated with autonomic effects including diaphoresis, hypertension and, in severe cases, myocardial injury and pulmonary oedema. It is most often associated with envenoming by the jellyfish Carukia barnesi, but a number of other jellyfish, including Alatina mordens, are now known to produce Irukandji syndrome. In the present study, nematocyst-derived venom from A. nr mordens (150-250 ?g/kg, i.v.) produced a long-lasting pressor effect in anaesthetised rats. This pressor response (250 ?g/kg, i.v.) was significantly inhibited by prior administration of the ?-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (200 ?g/kg, i.v.) but not by CSL box ...
Dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium are best known as endosymbionts of corals and other invertebrate as well as protist hosts, but also exist free-living in coastal environments. Despite their importance in marine ecosystems, less than 10 loci have been used to explore phylogenetic relationships in this group, and only the multi-copy nuclear ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions 1 and 2 have been used to characterize fine-scale genetic diversity within the nine clades (A-I) that comprise the genus. Here, we describe a three-step molecular approach focused on 1) identifying new candidate genes for phylogenetic analysis of Symbiodinium spp., 2) characterizing the phylogenetic relationship of these candidate genes from DNA samples spanning eight Symbiodinium clades (A-H), and 3) conducting in-depth phylogenetic analyses of candidate genes displaying genetic divergences equal ...

The Jellyfish Entrepreneur | Hacker NewsThe Jellyfish Entrepreneur | Hacker News

They have no central nervous system; just a loosely connected net of nerves that control their muscle contractions and very ... simple senses, like swimming towards light and migrating up in the water column at night and down during the day.. I would ... There are competitors: http://www.moonjellyfish.com/products/eon-jellyfish-system http://www.cubicaquarium.com/product- ...
more infohttps://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=5488214

Cnidaria - WikipediaCnidaria - Wikipedia

Nervous system and senses[edit]. Cnidarians are generally thought to have no brains or even central nervous systems. However, ... with motor nerve cells, which lie mostly between the bases of the muscle cells.[10] Some form a simple nerve net. ... In scyphozoans, this takes the form of a diffuse nerve net, which has modulatory effects on the nervous system.[22] As well as ... Nervous system No. Yes, simple. Simple to complex Muscles None. Mostly epitheliomuscular. Mostly myoepithelial. Mostly myocytes ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cnidaria

Cnidaria - WikipediaCnidaria - Wikipedia

Nervous system and senses[edit]. Cnidarians are generally thought to have no brains or even central nervous systems. However, ... In scyphozoans, this takes the form of a diffuse nerve net, which has modulatory effects on the nervous system.[21] As well as ... Nervous system. No. Yes, simple. Simple to complex. Muscles. None. Mostly epitheliomuscular. Mostly myoepithelial. Mostly ... "Do jellyfish have central nervous systems?". Journal of Experimental Biology. 214 (8): 1215-1223. doi:10.1242/jeb.043687. ISSN ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cnidarian

RegenerativeMedicine.net - Article ArchivesRegenerativeMedicine.net - Article Archives

... muscle, and organs, to the central nervous system (CNS). Some are nociceptors or pain nerve cells. They sense and signal tissue ... has identified the subtypes of sensory nerve cells that are likely to contribute to long-term nerve pain from partial nerve ... Researchers Identify Which Sensory Nerve Cells Contribute to Chronic Nerve Pain This...help the understanding of how to target ... Transplantation Shows Promise Against Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders A Step Towards Repairing the Central Nervous System ...
more infohttp://regenerativemedicine.net/NewsletterArchives.asp?qEmpID=6537&qCat=WN

Imarisavannah | PearltreesImarisavannah | Pearltrees

Sciatic Nerve Anatomy. Chap 8 nervous tissue. Animal Systems: Nervous System. Nervous System. Object moved. Cells of the ... It consists of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. Another important part of the nervous system is ... Even animals that dont think have simple nervous systems called nerve nets that help them move. Your nervous system is divided ... muscles, and body. Nervous System. The nervous system is an organ system in charge of sending messages to and from the brain ...
more infohttp://www.pearltrees.com/imarisavannah

HereNow4U.net :: Books Online | Preksha Dhyana: Human Body Part II (Health Care) | [8] Growth, Aging, DeathHereNow4U.net :: Books Online | Preksha Dhyana: Human Body Part II (Health Care) | [8] Growth, Aging, Death

Some of the most tragic changes are observed in the central nervous system. A combination of loss of nerve cells, which are not ... Nerve and muscle-cells show an earlier decline in the functional capabilities than tissues such as those of liver and pancreas ... The sense of the aging person become less acute. There is a progressive hearing loss. The eyes become prone to various ... Deprived of the oxygen and nutrients delivered by this system, the cells of the body begin to die off. Nerve cells are the most ...
more infohttp://herenow4u.net/index.php?id=71927

What Would It Take to Really Build an Artificial Jellyfish? - Scientific American Blog NetworkWhat Would It Take to Really Build an Artificial Jellyfish? - Scientific American Blog Network

SENSING A lattice of neurons known as a nerve net envelops a moon jellys body. In addition to coordinating muscle movement, ... Despite the absence of a brain and complex central nervous system, a jellyfishs impressive array of senses would be especially ... "We have not yet built a true animal or an organism, but what we made is in a sense alive," explains Kevin Kit Parker of Harvard ... Janna Nawroth thinks its possible to weave pacemaker cells from a rats heart into the heart muscle tissue that makes up a ...
more infohttps://blogs.scientificamerican.com/brainwaves/what-would-it-take-to-really-build-an-artificial-jellyfish/

The Nervous System: Organization - Biology LibreTextsThe Nervous System: Organization - Biology LibreTexts

Bilateral symmetry has led to paired structures (nerves, muscles, sense organs, brain). Some flatworms have a nerve net like ... The central nervous system (CNS) is the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is composed of the nerves ... Evolution of Vertebrate Central Nervous Systems. The central nervous system evolved in vertebrates by adding on to what was ... Central Nervous System. The central nervous system is the brain and spinal cord. ...
more infohttps://bio.libretexts.org/Under_Construction/Purgatory/Core_Construction/BIO_102/Reading_and_Lecture_Notes/The_Nervous_System%3A_Organization

Study on the Efferent Innervation of the Body Wall Musculature of Lumbricus Terrestris (L) - PDFStudy on the Efferent Innervation of the Body Wall Musculature of Lumbricus Terrestris (L) - PDF

... send impulses directly to the internal nerve plexus within the body wall muscle layers as well as to the central nervous system ... Intermuscular nerve cells, a component of a nerve net, could not be identified. Internal nerve net 11 is therefore considered ... Longitudinal Muscle Layer SB - Septa! Branch NR - Nerve Ring CM - Circular Muscle Layer SEP - Subepidermal Plexus SC - Sense ... Chapter 9 - Nervous System Chapter 9 - Nervous System 9.1 Introduction (p. 215; Fig. 9.1) A. The nervous system is composed of ...
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Anatomy - WikipediaAnatomy - Wikipedia

In higher animals, specialized receptors are the basis of sense organs and there is a central nervous system (brain and spinal ... the nerves form a nerve net, but in most animals they are organized longitudinally into bundles. In simple animals, receptor ... The peripheral nervous system is divided into the somatic nervous system which conveys sensation and controls voluntary muscle ... and a peripheral nervous system. The latter consists of sensory nerves that transmit information from sense organs and motor ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anatomy

Drug - Flexabenz (5mg) (5mg)  - 10 Tablet   (Cyclobenzaprine) Price List or Cost of Medication | MedindiaDrug - Flexabenz (5mg) (5mg) - 10 Tablet (Cyclobenzaprine) Price List or Cost of Medication | Medindia

Central Nervous System : Seizures, incoordination, speech disorder, tremors, increased muscle tone, convulsions, muscle ... prescribed for pain and stiffness caused by muscle strains and sprains. It works by blocking nerve impulses. ... Special Senses : Loss of taste and ringing in the ear. • Genitourinary : Urinary frequency and retention. ... Please do write to us ([email protected]net) if a drug is missing from our comprehensive drug price list. ...
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What is the Difference Between Nociceptive and Neuropathic Pain?What is the Difference Between Nociceptive and Neuropathic Pain?

Neurostimulation therapy is used to excite the nervous tissue in the central nervous system, altering the conductivity of the ... For example, they may sense when there is physical damage to the skin, muscles, bones or connective tissue in the body, or when ... News-Medical.Net provides this medical information service in accordance with these terms and conditions. Please note that ... For neuropathic pain, the aim of the treatment is to relieve the pain caused by damage to the nerves. In most cases, analgesic ...
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Nervous system - New World EncyclopediaNervous system - New World Encyclopedia

... and related animals have diffuse nerve nets rather than a central nervous system. In most jellyfish the nerve net is spread ... including sensing internal and external stimuli, monitoring the organs, coordinating the activity of muscles, initiating ... Central nervous system , Peripheral nervous system , Somatic nervous system , Autonomic nervous system , Sympathetic nervous ... the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.. The somatic nervous system (or sensory-somatic nervous system) ...
more infohttp://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Nervous_system

Exons News, ResearchExons News, Research

Zika virus can be used for treating aggressive human central nervous system tumors, shows study A Brazilian study published ... Alternative splicing plays vital role in adult muscle mass maintenance Despite the importance that changes in muscle mass have ... News-Medical.Net provides this medical information service in accordance with these terms and conditions. Please note that ... Neurons, or nerve cells, in the brain communicate with each other by transmitting electric signals, or firing action potentials ...
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The Neurobiology of Grace Under Pressure: 7 habits that stimulate your vagus nerve and keep you calm, cool, and collected --...The Neurobiology of Grace Under Pressure: 7 habits that stimulate your vagus nerve and keep you calm, cool, and collected --...

The vagus nerve is command central for the function of your parasympathetic nervous system. It is geared to slow you down like ... arousal but an inner sense of calm reflected in a perfect dynamic tension within the yin-yang of your autonomic nervous system ... Relaxing the eye muscles is key to "reading without glasses." Does anyone have experience with this - specifically, with ... E-mails sent to Sott.net become the property of Quantum Future Group, Inc and may be published without notice. ...
more infohttps://www.sott.net/article/257716-The-Neurobiology-of-Grace-Under-Pressure-7-habits-that-stimulate-your-vagus-nerve-and-keep-you-calm-cool-and-collected

Snoring, heart disease and sudden death | Inquirer BusinessSnoring, heart disease and sudden death | Inquirer Business

Medications that relax the central nervous system like sedatives and muscle relaxants should also be avoided. ... and delivers mild electrical stimulation to the hypoglossal nerve in order to increase muscle tone at the back of the tongue so ... the United States Food and Drug Administration granted premarket approval for an upper airway stimulation system that senses ... Disclaimer: Comments do not represent the views of INQUIRER.net. We reserve the right to exclude comments which are ...
more infohttps://business.inquirer.net/180877/snoring-heart-disease-and-sudden-death-2

Ventral nerve cordVentral nerve cord

Circulatory system. Respiratory system. Muscular system. Nervous system. Brain. Ventral nerve cord,. Sympathetic. Sense organs ... the latter a sensory nerve to tha ventral quadrant and six motor nerves to as many muscles. The sensory nerves go to the sense- ... 27). The rule that each ganglion of the central nervous system innervates only the segment in which it originated in the embryo ... 2004 - 2019 www.antcolonies.net - Privacy Policy & Disclaimer. ... Ventral nerve cord The Ventral Nerve-Cord Although the ...
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Paper - The anterior end of the neural tube and the anterior end of the body - EmbryologyPaper - The anterior end of the neural tube and the anterior end of the body - Embryology

... that the enteroceptive impulses are mediated primarily by a nerve-net (vegetative) nervous system, the exteroceptive and ... muscle sense" and "tendon sense" which provide the organism with information concerning its location in space. This property of ... musculature is innervated by the sympathetic system and by the central nervous system as well. In this fundamental fact of ... The whole "mesoderm" so constituted of endodermal and ectodermal elements and innervated by the nerve-net system may be broadly ...
more infohttps://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Paper_-_The_anterior_end_of_the_neural_tube_and_the_anterior_end_of_the_body

ch. 30 - Biology 1120 with Brower at Middle Tennessee State University - StudyBluech. 30 - Biology 1120 with Brower at Middle Tennessee State University - StudyBlue

Nerve net. a diffuse web of interconnected nerve cells in the nervous system of cnidarians. (radially symmetric) ... the evolution of the head where structures for feeding, sensing the environment, and processing information are concentrated ... central nervous system. an interconnected system where some neurons are clustered into one or more large tracts or cords that ... the circulatory system, muscle, and internal structures like bones and organs. radial symmetry ...
more infohttps://www.studyblue.com/notes/note/n/ch-30/deck/19027918

Detecting Cold, Feeling Pain:  Study Reveals Why Menthol FreshDetecting Cold, Feeling Pain: Study Reveals Why Menthol Fresh

Scientists have identified the receptor in cells of the peripheral nervous system that is most responsible for the body s ... pain signals are transmitted from the peripheral nervous system into the bodys central nervous system - moving through nerves ... have identified the receptor in cells of the peripheral nervous system that is most responsible for the bodys ability to sense ... Injectable Gel With MicroRNA Regenerates Heart Muscles. Smoke-Free Laws Reduce New Cases of Lung Cancer. ...
more infohttp://www.medindia.net/news/Detecting-Cold-Feeling-Pain-Study-Reveals-Why-Menthol-Fresh-21492-1.htm

Citizens: Demonstrate Leadership - Integral CityCitizens: Demonstrate Leadership - Integral City

Channel and Net (blood and lymph vascular systems which convey hormones, central nervous system network of neurons, peripheral ... Distributor (blood, lymph, vascular systems). · Converter (mouth, teeth, tongue, facial muscles, salivary glands, stomach, ... Decoder (cells in sense organs, ganglia, nuclei, cortical sense areas, linguistic brain centers, temporoparietal area of ... Input Transducer (eyes, ears, chemoreceptors in nose and tongue, nerve endings and receptors in skin, specialized receptors in ...
more infohttp://integralcity.com/voices-intelligences/citizens/citizens-demonstrate-leadership/

Waterborne & foodborne diseasesWaterborne & foodborne diseases

The virus has a predilection for tissue of mucus-secreting glands and the Central Nervous System. All warm-blooded animals are ... PARALYTIC STAGE -also called DEPRESSION PHASE • Gradual weakness of muscle groups • muscle spasms cease • OCULAR PALSY - ... It has a preferrence for nerve tissues. Rod-shaped rabies viruses colored for effect RHABDOVIRUS: any group of rod-shaped RNA ... a sense of impending doom Hydrophobia (perhaps, SNS stimulation: depresses GI activity , inhibits esophageal, gastric & ...
more infohttps://www.slideshare.net/nhelzki31/waterborne-foodborne-diseases-28232729

Review Of Basic Neuroscience - Pharmacology - ALPF Medical ResearchReview Of Basic Neuroscience - Pharmacology - ALPF Medical Research

The functional unit of the central nervous system (CNS) is the neuron, and most neuropharmacological agents have the neuron as ... The net result of generated IPSPs will be to decrease the number of nerve impulses per unit of time. By these mechanisms, ... such as muscle cells, glandular cells, and specialized receptors, for example, those involved with proprioception, temperature ... sensing, and so on.. The depolarization associated with an action potential results in the calcium-facilitated release of a ...
more infohttps://www.alpfmedical.info/pharmacology/review-of-basic-neuroscience.html

Artificial Nerve System Gives Prosthetic Devices and Robots a Sense of Touch - Neuroscience NewsArtificial Nerve System Gives Prosthetic Devices and Robots a Sense of Touch - Neuroscience News

... were also central to integrating the components into the functional artificial sensory nervous system. ... we connected our artificial afferent nerve to motor nerves to construct a hybrid bioelectronic reflex arc to actuate muscles. ... The group also hopes to create low-power, artificial sensor nets to cover robots, the idea being to make them more agile by ... Artificial Nerve System Gives Prosthetic Devices and Robots a Sense of Touch. Neuroscience News. June 1, 2018. ...
more infohttps://neurosciencenews.com/artificial-nerve-robot-prosthetics-9213/

AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM - PDFAUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM - PDF

AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM Somatic efferent and ANS Somatic Efferent Control is over skeletal muscles. External environment This ... For example, The phrenic nerve innervates the diaphragm muscle. 2. 3 parts of the Nervous System 1. Central Nervous ... The Nervous System pg. 514 11.1: The Role of the Nervous System pg 516-521 Organisms need to senses heir environments to make ... Nervous system. Figure 1 The nervous system. Nervous system Components The nervous system is the central nervous system (CNS ...
more infohttp://docplayer.net/21155641-Autonomic-nervous-system.html
  • the vagus nerve manages the internal organs. (libretexts.org)
  • Researchers continue to confirm that daily habits of mindset and behavior can create a positive snowball effect through a feedback loop linked to stimulating your vagus nerve. (sott.net)
  • In this entry I will show you 7 habits that will stimulate healthy 'vagal tone' and allow you to harness the power of your vagus nerve to help you stay calm, cool, and collected in any storm. (sott.net)
  • Deep diaphragmatic breathing - with a long, slow exhale - is key to stimulating the vagus nerve and slowing heart rate and blood pressure, especially in times of performance anxiety. (sott.net)
  • Healthy cardiac function is directly linked to stimulating the vagus nerve. (sott.net)
  • You can consciously tap the power of your vagus nerve to create inner-calm on demand. (sott.net)
  • What exactly is the vagus nerve? (sott.net)
  • The vagus nerve is known as the wandering nerve because it has multiple branches that diverge from two thick stems rooted in the cerebellum and brainstem that wander to the lowest viscera of your abdomen touching your heart and most major organs along the way. (sott.net)
  • The vagus nerve is constantly sending sensory information about the state of the body's organs "upstream" to your brain . (sott.net)
  • In fact, 80-90% of the nerve fibers in the vagus nerve are dedicated to communicating the state of your viscera up to your brain. (sott.net)
  • When people say "trust your gut" they are in many ways saying, "trust your vagus nerve. (sott.net)
  • Visceral feelings and gut-instincts are literally emotional intuitions transferred up to your brain via the vagus nerve. (sott.net)
  • As with any mind-body feedback loop, messages also travel "downstream" from your conscious mind through the vagus nerve signaling your organs to create an inner-calm so you can "rest-and-digest" during times of safety or to prepare your body for "fight-or-flight" in dangerous situations. (sott.net)
  • Your vagus nerve is the commander-in-chief when it comes to having grace under pressure. (sott.net)
  • The vagus nerve is command central for the function of your parasympathetic nervous system. (sott.net)
  • Anytime you psyche yourself out before an important event, feel intimidated, or insecure your vagus nerve interprets that you are in real danger which exacerbates these negative responses. (sott.net)
  • All of the physical symptoms of performance anxiety - racing heart, sweaty palms, dry mouth, upset stomach, shakiness - are the result of your vagus nerve disengaging. (sott.net)
  • Luckily, you have the power to harness your vagus nerve and keep it engaged to create grace under pressure. (sott.net)
  • Stimulation of the vagus nerve is one usage that we already have for neurostimulators. (virtualworldlets.net)
  • A medusoid does exactly the same thing , with one crucial difference: Whereas a real jellyfish generates electrical impulses to stimulate its muscle cells, a medusoid is entirely dependent on voltage generated by electrodes in its tank. (scientificamerican.com)
  • At the cellular level, the nervous system is defined by the presence of a special type of excitable cell called a neuron (or "nerve cell") that transmits impulses. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The net result of generated IPSPs will be to decrease the number of nerve impulses per unit of time. (alpfmedical.info)
  • Most of the nerves in this part of the body are connected to the hand, and send and receive the electronic impulses that control dexterity, feeling, even emotions. (dvara.net)
  • Like most jellyfish, moon jellies ( Aurelia aurita ), the species that Parker and his colleagues mimicked in their new study, have no hearts, lungs, gills, circulatory system or skeleton. (scientificamerican.com)
  • This type of pain is often described as shooting pain, as it travels along the nerves in an abnormal manner causing abnormal sensations of pain. (news-medical.net)
  • In most cases, analgesic medications are unable to provide effective relief and, instead, the nerves themselves must be targeted. (news-medical.net)
  • Derived from the Greek ἀνατομή anatomē "dissection" (from ἀνατέμνω anatémnō "I cut up, cut open" from ἀνά aná "up", and τέμνω témnō "I cut"), anatomy is the scientific study of the structure of organisms including their systems, organs and tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite benign histology, these tumors and/or their treatment often result in significant, debilitating disorders of endocrine, neurological, behavioral, and metabolic systems. (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, very few of the nerves branch off to muscles and other parts of the upper arm - it's like a freeway with only a few on- and off-ramps, providing a cleaner pathway to the nervous system. (dvara.net)
  • We take skin for granted but it's a complex sensing, signaling and decision-making system," said Zhenan Bao, a professor of chemical engineering and one of the senior authors. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • This artificial sensory nerve system is a step toward making skin-like sensory neural networks for all sorts of applications. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • The new Science paper describes how the researchers constructed an artificial sensory nerve circuit that could be embedded in a future skin-like covering for neuro-prosthetic devices and soft robotics. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • My first implant was inserted by Dr. George Boulos at Tilehurst Surgery in Reading into the upper inside of my left arm, beneath the inner layer of skin and on top of the muscle. (dvara.net)
  • The sympathetic nervous system is geared to rev you up like the gas pedal in an automobile - it thrives on adrenaline and cortisol and is part of the fight-or-flight response. (sott.net)
  • See What You Need to Know About Sciatica Any problem in the lower spine can affect a nerve that feeds into the sciatic nerve, causing sciatica symptoms. (pearltrees.com)
  • However, the multidisciplinary approach based on CBT is not a "cure for tinnitus", as implied in some papers, but rather a system for managing its symptoms and effects on people's lives. (banishtinnitus.net)
  • Watch:Sciatica Animated Video Any problem in the lower spine can affect one of the nerves that feeds into the sciatic nerve, causing pain to radiate along that part of the nerve. (pearltrees.com)