Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Central Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Cacao: A tree of the family Sterculiaceae (or Byttneriaceae), usually Theobroma cacao, or its seeds, which after fermentation and roasting, yield cocoa and chocolate.Cocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Trauma Centers: Specialized hospital facilities which provide diagnostic and therapeutic services for trauma patients.Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.Injury Severity Score: An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.Hallucinogens: Drugs capable of inducing illusions, hallucinations, delusions, paranoid ideations, and other alterations of mood and thinking. Despite the name, the feature that distinguishes these agents from other classes of drugs is their capacity to induce states of altered perception, thought, and feeling that are not experienced otherwise.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).Benzodiazepines: A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.Amantadine: An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.Rimantadine: An RNA synthesis inhibitor that is used as an antiviral agent in the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Antiparkinson Agents: Agents used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The most commonly used drugs act on the dopaminergic system in the striatum and basal ganglia or are centrally acting muscarinic antagonists.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Stevens-Johnson Syndrome: Rare cutaneous eruption characterized by extensive KERATINOCYTE apoptosis resulting in skin detachment with mucosal involvement. It is often provoked by the use of drugs (e.g., antibiotics and anticonvulsants) or associated with PNEUMONIA, MYCOPLASMA. It is considered a continuum of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.TextbooksSolutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Mandibular Reconstruction: The physical restoration of oromandibular defects.Libraries, Digital: Libraries in which a major proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format, rather than on paper or MICROFORM.BooksPatents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Phenylpropanolamine: A sympathomimetic that acts mainly by causing release of NOREPINEPHRINE but also has direct agonist activity at some adrenergic receptors. It is most commonly used as a nasal vasoconstrictor and an appetite depressant.Enterococcaceae: A family of gram-positive bacteria in the order Lactobacillales, phylum Firmicutes.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Anaplasma centrale: A species of gram-negative bacteria causing mild ANAPLASMOSIS in CATTLE. It also can infect SHEEP and GOATS. It is transmitted by TICKS.BrazilEncephalitis, St. Louis: A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)Encephalitis Virus, St. Louis: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiologic agent of ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.Anaplasma marginale: A species of gram-negative bacteria and causative agent of severe bovine ANAPLASMOSIS. It is the most pathogenic of the ANAPLASMA species.Anaplasmosis: A disease of cattle caused by parasitization of the red blood cells by bacteria of the genus ANAPLASMA.Anaplasma: A genus of gram-negative bacteria whose organisms are obligate parasites of vertebrates. Species are transmitted by arthropod vectors with the host range limited to ruminants. Anaplasma marginale is the most pathogenic species and is the causative agent of severe bovine anaplasmosis.Equipment and Supplies: Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.Device Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.Equipment Safety: Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.Medical Device Legislation: Laws and regulations pertaining to devices used in medicine, proposed for enactment, or enacted by a legislative body.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.

Effects of stimulants of abuse on extrapyramidal and limbic neuropeptide Y systems. (1/2306)

Neuropeptide Y (NPY), an apparent neuromodulating neuropeptide, has been linked to dopamine systems and dopamine-related psychotic disorders. Because of this association, we determined and compared the effects of psychotomimetic drugs on extrapyramidal and limbic NPY systems. We observed that phencyclidine, methamphetamine (METH), (+)methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and cocaine, but not (-)MDMA, similarly reduced the striatal content of NPY-like immunoreactivity from 54% (phencyclidine) to 74% [(+) MDMA] of control. The effects of METH on NPY levels in the nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra were characterized in greater detail. We observed that METH decreased NPY levels in specific regions of the nucleus accumbens and the caudate, but had no effect on NPY in the globus pallidus or the substantia nigra. The dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390 blocked these effects of METH, suggesting that NPY levels throughout the nucleus accumbens and the caudate are regulated through D1 pathways. The D2 receptor antagonist eticlopride did not appear to alter the METH effect, but this was difficult to determine because eticlopride decreased NPY levels by itself. A single dose of METH was sufficient to lower NPY levels, in some, but not all, regions examined. The effects on NPY levels after multiple METH administrations were substantially greater and persisted up to 48 h after treatment; this suggests that synthesis of this neuropeptide may be suppressed even after the drug is gone. These findings suggest that NPY systems may contribute to the D1 receptor-mediated effects of the psychostimulants.  (+info)

Behavioral, toxic, and neurochemical effects of sydnocarb, a novel psychomotor stimulant: comparisons with methamphetamine. (2/2306)

Sydnocarb (3-(beta-phenylisopropyl)-N-phenylcarbamoylsydnonimine) is a psychostimulant in clinical practice in Russia as a primary and adjunct therapy for a host of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and depression. It has been described as a stimulant with an addiction liability and toxicity less than that of amphetamines. The present study undertook to evaluate the psychomotor stimulant effects of sydnocarb in comparison to those of methamphetamine. Sydnocarb increased locomotor activity of mice with reduced potency (approximately 10-fold) and efficacy compared with methamphetamine. Sydnocarb blocked the locomotor depressant effects of haloperidol at doses that were inactive when given alone. The locomotor stimulant effects of both methamphetamine and sydnocarb were dose-dependently blocked by the dopamine D1 and D2 antagonists SCH 39166 and spiperone, respectively; blockade generally occurred at doses of the antagonists that did not depress locomotor activity when given alone. In mice trained to discriminate methamphetamine from saline, sydnocarb fully substituted for methamphetamine with a 9-fold lower potency. When substituted for methamphetamine under self-administration experiments in rats, 10-fold higher concentrations of sydnocarb maintained responding by its i.v. presentation. Sydnocarb engendered stereotypy in high doses with approximately a 2-fold lower potency than methamphetamine. However, sydnocarb was much less efficacious than methamphetamine in inducing stereotyped behavior. Both sydnocarb and methamphetamine increased dialysate levels of dopamine in mouse striatum; however, the potency and efficacy of sydnocarb was less than methamphetamine. The convulsive effects of cocaine were significantly enhanced by the coadministration of nontoxic doses of methamphetamine but not of sydnocarb. Taken together, the present findings indicate that sydnocarb has psychomotor stimulant effects that are shared by methamphetamine while demonstrating a reduced behavioral toxicity.  (+info)

Light-induced calcium influx into retinal axons is regulated by presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activity in vivo. (3/2306)

Visual activity is thought to be a critical factor in controlling the development of central retinal projections. Neuronal activity increases cytosolic calcium, which was hypothesized to regulate process outgrowth in neurons. We performed an in vivo imaging study in the retinotectal system of albino Xenopus laevis tadpoles with the fluorescent calcium indicator calcium green 1 dextran (CaGD) to test the role of calcium in regulating axon arbor development. We find that visual stimulus to the retina increased CaGD fluorescence intensity in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon arbors within the optic tectum and that branch additions to retinotectal axon arbors correlated with a local rise in calcium in the parent branch. We find three types of responses to visual stimulus, which roughly correlate with the ON, OFF, and SUSTAINED response types of RGC reported by physiological criteria. Imaging in bandscan mode indicated that patterns of calcium transients were nonuniform throughout the axons. We tested whether the increase in calcium in the retinotectal axons required synaptic activity in the retina; intraocular application of tetrodotoxin (10 microM) or nifedipine (1 and 10 microM) blocked the stimulus-induced increase in RGC axonal fluorescence. A second series of pharmacological investigations was designed to determine the mechanism of the calcium elevation in the axon terminals within the optic tectum. Injection of bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-AM (BAPTA-AM) (20 mM) into the tectal ventricle reduced axonal calcium levels, supporting the idea that visual stimulation increases axonal calcium. Injection of BAPTA (20 mM) into the tectal ventricle to chelate extracellular calcium also attenuated the calcium response to visual stimulation, indicating that calcium enters the axon from the extracellular medium. Caffeine (10 mM) caused a large increase in axonal calcium, indicating that intracellular stores contribute to the calcium signal. Presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) may play a role in axon arbor development and the formation of the topographic retinotectal projection. Injection of nicotine (10 microM) into the tectal ventricle significantly elevated RGC axonal calcium levels, whereas application of the nAChR antagonist alphaBTX (100 nM) reduced the stimulus-evoked rise in RGC calcium fluorescence. These data suggest that light stimulus to the retina increases calcium in the axon terminal arbors through a mechanism that includes influx through nAChRs and amplification by calcium-induced calcium release from intracellular calcium stores. Such a mechanism may contribute to developmental plasticity of the retinotectal system by influencing both axon arbor elaboration and the strength of synaptic transmission.  (+info)

The Ca2+ channel blockade changes the behavioral and biochemical effects of immobilization stress. (4/2306)

We investigated how the effects of chronic immobilization stress in rats are modified by Ca2+ channel blockade preceding restraint sessions. The application of nifedipine (5 mg/kg) shortly before each of seven daily 2 h restraint sessions prevented the development of sensitized response to amphetamine as well as the stress-induced elevation of the densities of L-type Ca2+ channel in the hippocampus and significantly reduced the elevation of the densities of [3H]nitrendipine binding sites in the cortex and D1 dopamine receptors in the limbic forebrain. Neither stress, nor nifedipine affected the density of alpha 1-adrenoceptors and D1 receptors in the cerebral cortex nor D2 dopamine receptors in the striatum. A single restraint session caused an elevation of blood corticosterone level that remained unaffected by nifedipine pretreatment, but the reduction of this response during the eighth session was significantly less expressed in nifedipine-treated rats. We conclude that L-type calcium channel blockade prevents development of several stress-induced adaptive responses.  (+info)

Effects of impaired Ca2+ homeostasis on contraction in postinfarction myocytes. (5/2306)

The significance of altered Ca2+ influx and efflux pathways on contractile abnormalities of myocytes isolated from rat hearts 3 wk after myocardial infarction (MI) was investigated by varying extracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]o, 0.6-5.0 mM) and pacing frequency (0.1-5.0 Hz). Myocytes isolated from 3-wk MI hearts were significantly longer than those from sham-treated (Sham) hearts (125 +/- 1 vs. 114 +/- 1 micrometer, P < 0.0001). At high [Ca2+]o and low pacing frequency, conditions that preferentially favored Ca2+ influx over efflux, Sham myocytes shortened to a greater extent than 3-wk MI myocytes. Conversely, under conditions that favored Ca2+ efflux (low [Ca2+]o and high pacing frequency), MI myocytes shortened more than Sham myocytes. At intermediate [Ca2+]o and pacing frequencies, differences in steady-state contraction amplitudes between Sham and MI myocytes were no longer significant. Collectively, the interpretation of these data was that Ca2+ influx and efflux pathways were subnormal in MI myocytes and that they contributed to abnormal cellular contractile behavior. Because Na+/Ca2+ exchange activity, but not whole cell Ca2+ current, was depressed in 3-wk MI rat myocytes, our results on steady-state contraction are consistent with, but not proof of, the hypothesis that depressed Na+/Ca2+ exchange accounted for abnormal contractility in MI myocytes. The effects of depressed Na+/Ca2+ exchange on MI myocyte mechanical activity were further evaluated in relaxation from caffeine-induced contractures. Because Ca2+ uptake by sarcoplasmic reticulum was inhibited by caffeine and with the assumption that intracellular Na+ and membrane potential were similar between Sham and MI myocytes, myocyte relaxation from caffeine-induced contracture can be taken as an estimate of Ca2+ extrusion by Na+/Ca2+ exchange. In MI myocytes, in which Na+/Ca2+ exchange activity was depressed, the half time of relaxation (1.54 +/- 0.14 s) was significantly (P < 0.02) prolonged compared with that measured in Sham myocytes (1.10 +/- 0.10 s).  (+info)

Modulation of temperature-induced tone by vasoconstrictor agents. (6/2306)

One of the primary cardiovascular adjustments to hyperthermia is a sympathetically mediated increase in vascular resistance in the viscera. Nonneural factors such as a change in vascular tone or reactivity may also contribute to this response. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether vascular smooth muscle tone is altered during heating to physiologically relevant temperatures >37 degrees C. Gradually increasing bath temperature from 37 degrees C (normothermia) to 43 degrees C (severe hyperthermia) produced graded contractions in vascular ring segments from rat mesenteric arteries and thoracic aortae. In untreated rings these contractions were relatively small, whereas hyperthermia elicited near-maximal increases in tension when rings were constricted with phenylephrine or KCl before heating. In phenylephrine-treated mesenteric arterial rings, the contractile responses to heating were markedly attenuated by the Ca2+ channel antagonists nifedipine and diltiazem. Diltiazem also blocked the contractile responses to heating in thoracic aortic rings. These results demonstrate that hyperthermia has a limited effect on tension generation in rat vascular smooth muscle in the absence of vascular tone. However, in the presence of agonist-induced tone, tension generation during heating is markedly enhanced and dependent on extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, these data suggest that local regulation of vascular tone can contribute to the hemodynamic adjustments to hyperthermia.  (+info)

Five caffeine metabolite ratios to measure tobacco-induced CYP1A2 activity and their relationships with urinary mutagenicity and urine flow. (7/2306)

To choose a sensitive protocol to discriminate populations exposed and not exposed to inducers, five urinary metabolite ratios (MRs) [MR1 (17X + 17U)/137X, MR2 (5-acetylamino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracil [AFMU] + 1X + 1U)/17U, MR3 (17X/137X), MR4 (AFMU + 1X + 1U + 17X + 17U)/137X, and MR5 (AFMU + 1X + 1U)/17X] were calculated in 4-5 h and 0-24 h urine samples after caffeine intake. One hundred twenty-five healthy volunteers (59 nonsmokers and 66 smokers) were included in the study. All ratios showed a log-normal distribution. MR2 in the two time intervals was the only ratio nondependent on the urine flow. Differences between nonsmokers and smokers could be detected with all ratios at 4-5 h. However, only MR2 and, to a lesser extent, MR5 allowed the discrimination of higher cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) activity in smokers in the 0-24 h sample. Although smokers had increased urinary mutagenicity in relation to nonsmokers, a significant association between MRs and urine mutagenicity was observed only with MR2 in the 4-5 h interval; this ratio/time schedule being that of higher association with tobacco consumption. The most flow-dependent ratios, MR1, MR3, and MR4, were closely correlated with each other at the two intervals. The flow dependency profile of each ratio may explain their different power to indicate both tobacco exposure and tobacco-derived mutagenicity. In conclusion, MR2 in the period of 4-5 h after caffeine intake seems preferable, especially at high urine flow rates.  (+info)

Necessary role for ventral tegmental area adenylate cyclase and protein kinase A in induction of behavioral sensitization to intraventral tegmental area amphetamine. (8/2306)

In the present study, we investigated the effects of selective activation or inhibition of ventral tegmental area (VTA) adenylate cyclase (AC) and protein kinase A (PKA) on long-term sensitization induced by repeated intra-VTA or peripheral amphetamine (AMPH). Selective inhibition of AC by SQ 22,536 (9-(tetrahydro-2-furanyl)-9H-purin-6-amine; 100 nmol/side bilateral into VTA) had no effect on acute basal locomotion but attenuated the locomotor stimulation induced by acute i.p. AMPH (1.5 mg/kg). Coinjection of SQ 22,536 (100 nmol/side) fully blocked the sensitization induced by repeated intra-VTA AMPH (15 nmol/side) but had no detectable effect on the sensitization induced by repeated i. p. AMPH. Persistent activation of AC by intra-VTA cholera toxin (500 ng/side) modestly increased acute locomotion and induced a robust sensitization to i.p. AMPH challenge 10 days after the last of three repeated VTA microinjections. Selective inhibition of PKA by Rp-adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphothioate triethylamine (Rp-cAMPS; 25 nmol/side) had no effect on acute basal or AMPH-stimulated locomotion. Coinjection of Rp-cAMPS (25 nmol/side) fully blocked the sensitization induced by repeated intra-VTA AMPH but had no effect on sensitization induced by repeated i.p. AMPH. Intra-VTA microinjection of the selective PKA activator Sp-adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphothioate triethylamine (Sp-cAMPS; 25-100 nmol/side) dose-dependently stimulated acute locomotion and exerted synergistic effects on locomotor activity when coinfused into the VTA with AMPH but had no detectable effect on acute i.p. AMPH-induced locomotion. Repeated intra-VTA Sp-cAMPS did not induce sensitization to AMPH challenge but potentiated the sensitization induced by repeated i.p. AMPH. These results suggest that VTA cAMP signal transduction is necessary for the induction of persistent sensitization to intra-VTA amphetamine and that peripheral and intra-VTA AMPH may not induce behavioral sensitization by identical mechanisms.  (+info)

*Analeptic

An analeptic, in medicine, is a central nervous system stimulant. The term analeptic typically refers to respiratory analeptics ... "Central nervous system stimulants: basic pharmacology and relevance to anaesthesia and critical care". Anaesthesia & Intensive ... Analeptics are central nervous system stimulants that include a wide variety of medications used to treat depression, attention ... This begins the process of relaying the signal to the central nervous system. Doxapram blocks leak potassium channels in the ...

*Sydnone

LEMONT B. KIER, LAURETTA E. FOX, D. DHAWAN & I. W. WATERS (1962). "A New Class of Central Nervous System Stimulants". Nature. ... group can be found as a substructure in the stimulant drugs feprosidnine and mesocarb. Sydnone was first prepared in 1935 by ...

*Chlorphentermine

2001). "Amphetamine-type central nervous system stimulants release norepinephrine more potently than they release dopamine and ...

*Alkaloid

Cocaine, caffeine, and cathinone are stimulants of the central nervous system. Mescaline and many of indole alkaloids (such as ... Alkaloids can be toxic too (e.g. atropine, tubocurarine). Although alkaloids act on a diversity of metabolic systems in humans ... Other alkaloids possess psychotropic (e.g. psilocin) and stimulant activities (e.g. cocaine, caffeine, nicotine, theobromine), ... in German and some other Central-European languages, this is still the name of the drug. The term "morphine", used in English ...

*Heart rate

Central nervous system stimulants such as substituted amphetamines increase heart rate. Central nervous system depressants or ... Caffeine and nicotine are both stimulants of the nervous system and of the cardiac centres causing an increased heart rate. ... beginning with the central nervous system. Heart rate is not a stable value and it increases or decreases in response to the ... It is also influenced by central factors through sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves. Nervous influence over the heartrate ...

*Paraxanthine

Like caffeine, paraxanthine is a psychoactive central nervous system (CNS) stimulant. It possesses a potency roughly equal to ...

*Drug policy of Oregon

Heroin is especially lethal because it depresses the central nervous system, unlike cocaine and meth which are stimulants. In ... However, Oregon uses a felony "grid block" system for the sentencing of nearly all felony crimes including all drug crimes ... The most used substances were marijuana, methamphetamine and illicit painkillers and stimulants. Oregonians consume an average ...

*List of drugs banned by WADA

Stimulants directly affect the central nervous system, increasing blood flow and heart rate. Stimulants that are banned include ... stimulants, diuretics, narcotics, and cannabinoids. Blood doping is the injection of red blood cells, related blood products ...

*Picrotoxin

However, due to its antagonist effect on GABA receptors, it has been used as a central nervous system stimulant. It was also ... Picrotoxin acts as a central nervous system and respiratory stimulant. It is extremely toxic to fish and humans, as well as ... It mainly impacts the central nervous system, causing seizures and respiratory paralysis in high enough doses. Picrotoxin is an ... In this synthesis, eight asymmetric centers were stereoselectively prepared on a cis-fused hydrindane ring system using several ...

*Drug Recognition Expert

Central Nervous System depressants (Benzodiazepines), CNS stimulants (Methamphetamine), Dissociative anesthetics (PCP), ...

*Dimenhydrinate

Theophylline is very closely related to caffeine and theobromine, mild central nervous system stimulants. It was thought by ... poisoning as both show antagonism of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in both the central and autonomic nervous system, which ... Toxicology also manifests in the autonomic nervous system, primarily at the neuromuscular junction, resulting in ataxia and ... Other CNS effects occur within the limbic system and hippocampus, causing confusion and temporary amnesia due to decreased ...

*Psychoactive drug

Classes of drugs frequently used recreationally include: Stimulants, which activate the central nervous system. These are used ... Hypnotics, which depress the central nervous system. Opioid analgesics, which also depress the central nervous system. These ... Exposure to a psychoactive substance can cause changes in the structure and functioning of neurons, as the nervous system tries ... possibly explaining why these chemicals and their receptors exist within the nervous system. During the 20th century, many ...

*Margaritaria discoidea

These trees contain many alkaloids including phyllochrysine (a central nervous system stimulant) and securinine. Oral ... The bark is used as a purgative in West Africa and anthelmintic in Central Africa. The Fula people use the bark for toothache, ... in the Central African Republic a decoction is used for post-partum pains, and in the Republic of the Congo for stomach and ... while in Ubangi a decoction of roots and leafy twigs is also used for blennorrhoea A wash of the decoction is a stimulant in ...

*Phentermine

January 2001). "Amphetamine-type central nervous system stimulants release norepinephrine more potently than they dopamine and ... Central nervous system effects like overstimulation, restlessness, nervousness, insomnia, tremor, dizziness and headache; there ...

*Harmaline

... is a central nervous system stimulant and a "reversible inhibitor of MAO-A (RIMA)". This means that the risk of a ...

*Caffeine

... is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class. It is the world's most widely consumed ... Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant that reduces fatigue and drowsiness. At normal doses, caffeine has variable ... Caffeine overdose can result in a state of central nervous system over-stimulation called caffeine intoxication (DSM-IV 305.90 ... leading to central nervous system (CNS) stimulation • Amphetamines seem to enhance athletic performance in anaerobic conditions ...

*Catuaba

An infusion of the bark is used in traditional Brazilian medicine as an aphrodisiac and central nervous system stimulant. These ...

*Fenfluramine

"Amphetamine-type central nervous system stimulants release norepinephrine more potently than they release dopamine and ... FDA Announces Withdrawal Fenfluramine and Dexfenfluramine (Fen-Phen) "Drugs banned in India". Central Drugs Standard Control ...

*Antidepressant

January 2001). "Amphetamine-type central nervous system stimulants release norepinephrine more potently than they release ... Psychopharmacologists have also tried adding a stimulant, in particular, d-amphetamine. However, the use of stimulants in cases ... GAD is a common disorder of which the central feature is excessive worry about a number of different events. Key symptoms ... Pies R (April 2010). "Antidepressants Work, Sort of-Our System of Care Does Not". Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. 30 (2 ...

*Monoamine releasing agent

"Amphetamine-type central nervous system stimulants release norepinephrine more potently than they release dopamine and ... Meeusen R, Watson P, Hasegawa H, Roelands B, Piacentini MF (1 January 2006). "Central fatigue: the serotonin hypothesis and ... Rothman RB, Blough BE, Baumann MH (January 2007). "Dual dopamine/serotonin releasers as potential medications for stimulant and ... Roelands B, Meeusen R (March 2010). "Alterations in central fatigue by pharmacological manipulations of neurotransmitters in ...

*Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor

January 2001). "Amphetamine-type central nervous system stimulants release norepinephrine more potently than they release ...

*Fenfluramine/phentermine

"Amphetamine-type central nervous system stimulants release norepinephrine more potently than they release dopamine and ...

*Cocaine

2001). "Amphetamine-Type Central Nervous System Stimulants Release Norepinepehrine more Potently than they Release Dopamine and ... Cocaine is a powerful nervous system stimulant. Its effects can last from fifteen or thirty minutes to an hour. The duration of ... The most extensively studied effect of cocaine on the central nervous system is the blockade of the dopamine transporter ... Additionally, stimulants like cocaine, methamphetamine, and even caffeine cause dehydration and dry mouth. Since saliva is an ...

*Pupillary response

Use of central nervous system stimulant drugs and some hallucinogenic drugs can cause dilation of the pupil. In ophthalmology, ... Dilation of the pupil occurs when the smooth cells of the radial muscle, controlled by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), ... Constriction of the pupil occurs when the circular muscle, controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS), contracts. ...

*AL-1095

3. β-cis-2-(4'-Chlorobenzhydryl)-3-quinuclidinol, a New Central Nervous System Stimulant. Importance of the Benzhydryl ... AL-1095, developed by Aldrich[citation needed], is a centrally acting stimulant drug with comparable effects to amphetamine, ...

*Rauwolscine

... is a central nervous system stimulant, a local anesthetic and a vague aphrodisiac. Rauwolscine acts predominantly ...

*Khat

"Herbal stimulant khat to be banned". BBC News. 3 July 2013.. *^ "BBC News - Khat: What impact will UK herb stimulant ban have?" ... As with all illegal drugs, operating a motor vehicle with detectable levels of Khat or its metabolites in one's system can also ... In Uganda it is grown in Central region, kasenge Nakawuka road, nkugulutale, kisozi, Nsaggu and some parts of Western region of ... In mice, cathinone produces the same types of nervous pacing or repetitive scratching behaviours associated with amphetamines.[ ...

*Cicuta

Its primary toxic effect is to act as a stimulant in the central nervous system. It is a non-competitive gamma-aminobutyric ... Three members of the genus contain a toxin named cicutoxin which causes central nervous system stimulatory effects including ... Cicuta douglasii is found in the northwest corner of North America, while Cicuta virosa is only found in central Europe and in ... Water hemlock has a branched root systems with tubules, while poison hemlock has a single tap root. Another reliable method to ...
Cocaine is derived from the leaves of the Cocoa plant and is one of the must abused drugs today. The side effects of Cocaine can be deadly.
Concerta (Methylphenidate) 36mg tablets/pills:. Concerta (methylphenidate) is a central nervous system stimulant. It affects chemicals in the brain and nerves that contribute to hyperactivity and impulse control.. Concerta is used to treat attention deficit disorder (ADD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is indicated for use in children 6 years of age and older, adolescents, and adults up to the age of 65. Concerta should be used as an integral part of a treatment program that includes psychological, educational, and social measures.. You can buy Concerta (Methylphenidate) 36mg tablets online without prescription (No RX). ...
I-Doser Software Adderall - Adderall / Stimulant (VERY STRONG) / 35 MinutesAdderall is a central nervous system stimulant. It affects chemicals in the brain and nerves that contribute to hyperactivity and impulse control. This dose was designed to work in similar fashion to Adderall: a psychostimulant medication composed of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine, which is
Vyvanse: Lisdexamfetamine belongs to the class of medications known as central nervous system stimulants. It is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It works by affecting the balance of natural chemicals in the brain. It helps to increase attention and decrease hyperactivity and impulsiveness in children with ADHD. Lisdexamfetamine should be part of a treatment plan that includes other treatments (e.g., counselling, education).
Amphetamine salt/powder: Amphetamine is a potent central nervous system stimulant of the phenethylamine class that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy.
and a methyl group adjacent to the phenyl. A large number of chemicals fall into this category, including the club drug MDMA (Ecstasy) and methamphetamine. It is because of the close association with methamphetamine that amphetamine is mistakenly thought of as speed. It is important to note that such an "amphetamine class" does not technically exist. Phamacodynamically, these drugs all fall under the umbrella of central nervous system stimulants; chemically, they are phenylethylamines. Amphetamine, for example, is methylated phenylethylamine, and methamphetamine is double methylated phenylethylamine.. Amphetamine traditionally comes in the salt-form amphetamine sulphate and is comprised of 50% l- and 50% d-amphetamine (where l- and d- refer to levo and dextro, the two optical orientations the amphetamine structure can have). In the United States, pharmaceutical products containing solely amphetamine (for example, Biphetamine) are no longer manufactured. Today, dextroamphetamine (d-amphetamine) ...
Caffeine is a commonplace central nervous system stimulant drug which occurs in nature as part of the coffee, tea, yerba mate and other plants. It is also an additive in many consumer products, most notably beverages advertised as energy drinks. Caffeine is also added to sodas such as Coca-Cola and Pepsi, where, on the ingredients listing, it is designated as a flavoring agent, due to pure caffeine powder having a bitter flavour. Caffeines mechanism of action is somewhat different from that of cocaine and the substituted amphetamines; caffeine blocks adenosine receptors A and A2A. Adenosine is a by-product of cellular activity, and stimulation of adenosine receptors produces feelings of tiredness and the need to sleep. Caffeines ability to block these receptors means the levels of the bodys natural stimulants, dopamine and norepinephrine, continue at higher levels. Mild physical dependence can result from excessive caffeine intake. Caffeine addiction, or a pathological and compulsive form of ...
A type of drug that increases the levels of certain chemicals in the brain and increases alertness, attention, energy, and physical activity. CNS stimulants also raise blood pressure and increase heart rate and breathing rate. They are used to treat depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (a disorder in which a person has problems paying attention, controlling actions, and remaining still or quiet), and narcolepsy (a sleep disorder). Also called central nervous system stimulant ...
Methamphetamine is a powerful central nervous system stimulant that is highly addictive. The drug is illegally "cooked" in makeshift labs from house hold chemicals and over the counter medications. Methamphetamine production and use releases volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including acids, bases, metals, chemical salts, in additional to the meth itself. The VOCs become airborne and are deposited throughout the property and on the contents of buildings.. The presence of these chemicals pose a health risk to those who come into contact with the chemical residues deposited on premise surfaces or contents. Due to these health risks, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) - State Board of Health standards sets re-occupation standards that protect occupants form residual chemicals left from production of use of meth, and define clean up levels for contaminated properties. State regulations require that decontamination be performed by qualified companies with trained and ...
How to Use Caffeine for Effective Weight Loss. Caffeine helps you lose weight, theres no doubt about it. This is a relevant factor when we consider that caffeine is the most commonly consumed psychoactive drug in the world.. As with any drug, there are risks and rewards associated with consumption. And the effects can be short-lived. From a cup of coffee (or many) to a pot of green tea, this post is going to delve into how to get the greatest health benefits from your caffeine. Well look at how to achieve weight and fat loss with caffeine while avoiding the detrimental side effects.. By the time youre done the reading, youll be an expert on how this stimulant affects the human system. What caffeine does in the body, why it works for weight loss and how to consume it responsibly.. What is Caffeine?. Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant.. Its used by millions of people worldwide on a daily basis to increase wakefulness, alleviate fatigue and improve concentration. It has ...
Free Online Library: Second in a series: stimulants and malnutrition; Counselors must understand symptoms, results of discontinued use. by Addiction Professional; Health care industry Health, general Psychology and mental health Research Amphetamines Caffeine Usage Central nervous system stimulants Complications and side effects Patient outcomes Cocaine Nicotine Stimulants Workaholism
What Is Adderall? Adderall is a central nervous system stimulant made up of two different chemicals called amphetamine and dextroamphetamine. These chemicals combine to change brain chemistry and help neurotransmitters send messages between nerve cells in the brain. When prescribed by doctors in the U.S. for medical reasons, Adderall can be taken in 5, 7.5, […]. Read More. ...
Fatigue is one of the most prevalent symptoms occurring in peri- and postmenopausal women. It is strongly associated with reduced quality of life in this population. Studies have shown a strong association between fatigue and menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes, vaginal symptoms, and sexual dysfunction. Because sleep disturbance commonly co-occurs in women with hot flashes as a result of nocturnal hot flashes disrupting sleep, sleep disturbance may explain the association between hot flashes and fatigue in this population. However evidence suggests that fatigue can occur in the absence of sleep disruption, indicating that sleep problems do not exclusively explain the etiology of fatigue in this population.. Armodafinil is a wakefulness-promoting agent that acts as a central nervous system stimulant. It is chemically and pharmacologically unrelated to other CNS stimulants, such as methylphenidate and amphetamine. Armodafinil is FDA approved to increase wakefulness in patients with excessive ...
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has revealed white matter abnormalities in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Stimulant treatment may affect such abnormalities. The current study investigated associations between long-term stimulant treatment and white matter integrity within the frontal-striatal and mesolimbic pathways, in a large sample of children, adolescents and young adults with ADHD. Participants with ADHD (N=172; mean age 17, range 9-26) underwent diffusion-weighted MRI scanning, along with an age- and gendermatched group of 96 control participants. Five study-specific white matter tract masks (orbitofrontal-striatal, orbitofrontal-amygdalar, amygdalar-striatal, dorsolateral-prefrontal-striatal and medialprefrontal- striatal) were created. First we analyzed case-control differences in fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) within each tract. Second, FA and MD in each tract was predicted from cumulative stimulant intake within the ADHD group. ...
It is also known as coke, is a strong stimulant drug mostly used as a recreational drug. It is commonly inhaled as smoke or injected into a vein. Cocaine is addictive because of its effect on the reward pathway in the brain. Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is collected from the leaves of the coca plant. It rises levels of central nervous system and an appetite suppressant, giving rise to what has been described as a euphoric sense of happiness and increased energy. It is a potent central nervous system stimulant. Its effects can last from 20 minutes to several hours, depending upon the dosage of cocaine consumed, purity, and method of administration. Between 14 and 21 million people use the cocaine each year. Cocaine was first isolated from the leaves in 1860. Since 1961 the international Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs has required countries to make recreational use of cocaine as illegal and considered crime.. ...
Methamphetamine or popularly known as meth is a powerful synthetic central nervous system stimulant. It can generate short but rapid euphoric high, causing
It is also known as coke, is a strong stimulant drug mostly used as a recreational drug. It is commonly inhaled as smoke or injected into a vein. Cocaine is addictive because of its effect on the reward pathway in the brain. Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is collected from the leaves of the coca plant. It rises levels of central nervous system and an appetite suppressant, giving rise to what has been described as a euphoric sense of happiness and increased energy. It is a potent central nervous system stimulant. Its effects can last from 20 minutes to several hours, depending upon the dosage of cocaine consumed, purity, and method of administration. Between 14 and 21 million people use the cocaine each year. Cocaine was first isolated from the leaves in 1860. Since 1961 the international Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs has required countries to make recreational use of cocaine as illegal and considered crime.. ...
Nicotine is only one of the thousands of chemicals in tobacco, but it is the major component that acts on the brain. The lungs readily absorb nicotine from the smoke of cigarettes, cigars, or pipes. The tissues of the mouth can also absorb nicotine when a person smokes cigars or pipes or chews tobacco.. Nicotine reaches the brain in seconds and has a direct effect on the body for up to 30 minutes. When a person uses tobacco regularly, the levels of nicotine accumulate in the body during the day and persist overnight, exposing the person to the effects of nicotine for 24 hours.. In the body, nicotine acts as both a central nervous system stimulant and sedative. The person immediately feels the stimulant effect and pleasurable sensation. It increases alertness, relaxes muscles, improves memory and attention, and decreases irritability. The stimulant effect causes a sudden increase in blood pressure, breathing rate, and heart rate. The central nervous system stimulation is followed by depression ...
Pipradrol (Meratran) is a mild central nervous system stimulant (norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor) that is no longer widely used in most countries due to concerns about its abuse potential. Pipradrol is still used in some European countries, and even rarely in the United States. Pipradrol was developed in the 1940s, and found use initially for treating obesity. It was subsequently used for the treatment of a variety of other conditions such as narcolepsy, ADHD, and most particularly for counteracting the symptoms of senile dementia, this being the only application for which it is still used medically.[medical citation needed] Pipradrol proved useful for these applications as its relatively mild stimulant effects gave it a good safety profile compared to stronger stimulants.[medical citation needed] It was also studied as an adjutant treatment for depression and schizophrenia although it was never widely used for these purposes. Pipradrol was made illegal in many countries in the late ...
Press Release issued Feb 10, 2017: Caffeine is the worlds most popular drug. It is the most commonly consumed psychoactive substance in the world. Caffeine is a substance that is naturally produced in the leaves and seeds of many plants, including coffee beans, guarana, yerba maté, cacao beans, and tea. Caffeine is determined as a drug because it is a central nervous system stimulant. It is used to provide a boost of energy, causing increased alertness. Caffeine gives most people a temporary energy boost and elevates mood, and is also used to stay awake longer.
Methamphetamines are in a class of drugs which are termed "central nervous system stimulants". This places them in the same class as cocaine, PCP, ecstasy and the newest scourge on the markets, "Bath Salts". This classification of drugs causes people to feel more awake and stimulated. The difference is that Meth is like these other drugs on steroids! Methamphetamines cause the following effects on the human body:. Destructive lifestyle. Methamphetamine, popularly shortened to meth and also nicknamed "ice" or "Speed", is addictive. In other words it produces an initial pleasurable effect, followed by a rebound unpleasant effect. It starts with an "up" and is followed by an unpleasant "down" which can be avoided by taking more of the drug. The longer the "up" is maintained, the worse the "down" feels, and the harder the addict will seek the drug to maintain the high. The harder the addict seeks the drug, the less attention he/she pays to his/her other bodily needs. Addicts stop caring for ...
As with any pharmacologic class, central nervous system stimulants carry the risk of potential drug interactions that can be pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic.
Methylphenidate is a central nervous system stimulant. It affects chemicals in the brain and nerves that contribute to hyperactivity and impulse control.
Caffeine, a naturally occurring xanthine derivative like theobromine and the bronchodilator theophylline, is used as a CNS stimulant, mild diuretic, and respiratory stimulant (in neonates with apnea of prematurity). Often combined with analgesics or with ergot alkaloids, caffeine is used to treat migraine and other headache types. Over the counter, caffeine is available to treat drowsiness or mild water-weight gain ...
Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is a principle member of methylated xanthine alkaloid. Examples of structurally similar substance are theobromine (3,7-dimethylxanthine) and theophylline (1,3-Dimethylxanthine). Xanthine is a product on the pathway in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid by the action of the xanthine oxidase enzyme. Xanthine also occurs complexed with ribose as xanthose. Methylated xanthines are used medicinally as a bronchodilator and as a vasodilator. They stimulates the heart and central nervous system, dilates bronchi and blood vessels, and causes diuresis. Caffeine is soluble in water and alcohol. It can be obtainable from coffee, tea, yerba mate, and guarana. It acts as an natural insecticide to protect plant themselves. Caffeine is used a central nervous system stimulant, diuretic and chemosterilant agent against stored grain pests. It is also used in the treatment of shock, asthma and heart disease. It is used for cardiac irritation, as a respiratory ...
Cocaine is a strong central nervous system stimulant that is widely abused throughout the United Sates. Due to its widespread use, it is important to develop an effective treatment for cocaine dependence. Motivational Interviewing (MI) is often effective when combined with drug treatment. Baseline condition (e.g., abstinence status) and population type (e.g., ethnicity and gender) often affect how an individual responds to treatment for drug dependence. The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of baseline status and population type on treatment response in cocaine dependent individuals. In addition, this study will examine how various cocaine abuse medications target different neuronal systems, withdrawal symptoms, and relapse to drug use.. This study will take place in two phases. Phase I will last 4 weeks; participants will receive MI and undergo contingency-based urine tests in order to achieve the desired baseline condition. Phase II will last 12 weeks. Participants in Phase ...
The diagnosis or history of: Alcoholism, Substance Dependence, or Substance Abuse is disqualifying in the absence of favorable clinical evidence. According to the FAA, Substance includes: Alcohol; other sedatives and hypnotics; anxiolytics; opiods; central nervous system stimulant such as cocaine, amphetamines, and similarly acting sympathomimetic; hallucinogens; phencyclidine or similarly acting arylcyclohexylamines; cannabis; inhalants; and other psychoactive drugs and chemicals. The FAA defines Substance dependence as: A condition in which a person is dependent on a substance, other than tobacco or ordinary xanthine-containing (e.g., caffeine) beverages as evidenced by: Increased tolerance Manifestation of withdrawal symptoms Impaired control of use; or continued use despite damage to physical health or impairment of social, personal, or occupational functioning These issues typically require documentation of sustained abstinence and a psychiatric evaluation performed in compliance with FAA
Caffeine molecular model next to a cup of coffee and coffee beans. Caffeine acts as a central nervous system stimulant. - Stock Image C020/5033
Dr Alison Poulton from the University of Sydney and her coauthors investigated the influence of stimulant medication on the growth and physical development during puberty of adolescent boys with ADHD.. The study found that prolonged treatment for more than three years with stimulant medication was associated with a slower rate of physical development during puberty.. "Our findings suggest that stimulant medication delays the rate of maturation during puberty, including the timing of the peak growth rate, but not the onset of puberty," said Dr Poulton, from Sydney Medical School.. "To maintain an adequate rate of growth during puberty we recommend that boys on ADHD stimulant medication should take the lowest dose that adequately treats their ADHD," said Dr Poulton.. The researchers recruited 65 boys aged between 12 and 16 years who had ADHD and had been on stimulant medication for more than three years. Compared with boys without ADHD, boys aged between 12 and 14 years with ADHD had significantly ...
Generic Name: Amphetamine (am FET a meen) Drug Class: Central Nervous System Stimulant Table of Contents Overview How to Take It Side Effects Warnings & Precautions Drug Interactions Dosage & Missing a Dose Storage Pregnancy or Nursing More Information Overview Adzenys XR-ODT (Amphetamine) affects chemicals in the
Natural News) By now, you may have heard that the U.S. is experiencing an opioid epidemic. The number of Americans who overdose on opioids has quadrupled since 1999. More than 500,000 people have died from opioid overdoses from 2010 to 2015. President Donald Trump declared the opioid crisis a national public health emergency in 2017 as CDC numbers reveal 64,000 deaths from opioid overdose in 2016. For many people, the addiction begins with prescription opioids. Over time tolerance builds. In order to numb their bodies and keep a dopamine rush going, many get the pills illegally, start using cheaper street heroin, or overdose on fentanyl hybrids that are up to fifty times stronger than heroin.. As the severity of the crisis gains national recognition, it is important to recognize that this is not the only drug crisis ravaging American families. There is also a psychiatric drug crisis, a central nervous system stimulant crisis (amphetamine for children), an immunization overload crisis, among ...
Acetaminophen is a pain reliever and a fever reducer. Aspirin is in a group of drugs called salicylates (sa-LIS-il-ATEs). It works by reducing substances in the body that cause pain, fever, and inflammation. Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant. It relaxes muscle contractions in blood vessels to improve blood...
Acetaminophen is a pain reliever and a fever reducer. Aspirin is in a group of drugs called salicylates (sa-LIS-il-ATEs). It works by reducing substances in the body that cause pain, fever, and inflammation. Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant. It relaxes muscle contractions in blood vessels to improve blood...
Kindke this is all so depressing! Makes me even more determined to keep this weight off. What do you think of Lyle McDonalds work? He has added a patch to his stubborn fat solution http://www.bodyrecomposition.com/the-stubborn-fat-solution-patch-1-1/. Its only a booklet and I assume its going to be a hack using some kind of med that either I cant get in my country or will cause interactions with other meds, eg yohimbine, The alternative is - Rauwolscine HCL: targets visceral fat (fat that is stored in the stubborn areas ex- buttocks, stomach and waist). It also acts as a central nervous system stimulant with out the side effects normally associated with strong stimulants (ex- no crash or jitters).* but impossible to get on its own, its always mixed with other thermo ingredients.. ReplyDelete ...
Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant that has powerful effects on the body. It blocks adenosine receptors, preventing adenosine from binding and calming us down. As a result, caffeine promotes wakefulness and improves performance function in low doses. ...
Substance Abuse Counseling: The Psychological Effects of Using Cocaine AN ОVERVІEW: Substance abuse counselors today are seeing more cases of cocaine abuse. The coca plant is a native to South America which has been cultivated for centuries and then refined into a substance called cocaine. This popular recreational drug is also a powerful central nervous system stimulant apart from being a mild topical anesthetic. The most popular method of consuming cocaine is to insufflate it in a powder form. It can also be injected intravenously into the bloodstream. Yet another method of consuming cocaine is to smoke crack or freebase ...
Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant, so your daily java jolts can rev your metabolism 5 to 8%-about 98 to 174 calories a day. A cup of brewed tea can raise your metabolism by 12%, according to one Japanese study. Researchers believe the antioxidant catechins in tea provide the boost. (by way of prevention.com ...
a central nervous system stimulant that increases energy and decreases appetite; used to treat narcolepsy and some forms of depression ...
How To Pass A Drug Test In 24 Hours Or Less. This Is Where You Learn How To Pass A Drug Test In 24 Hours Or Less. As you are probably aware, there is an almost overwhelming amount of information on the internet to learn how to pass s drug test in 24 hours or less for urine, hair, saliva or blood in how to make any name without greek alphabet on fortnite Ways To Pass A Drug Test offers the highest quality products on the market backed by years of clinical testing and development by highly certified hair follicle tests specialists. These chemicals help to regulate mood and modes of thinking. Cocaine is a strong central nervous system stimulant that interferes with the reabsorption process of dopamine, a chemical messenger associated with. ...
Despite media reports and quotes from law enforcement officials, the pharmacological profile for W-18 is not established at this time. We have no data on absorption, distribution, metabolism, or excretion of the substance. We do not know on what specific receptors W-18 acts. We know nothing about receptor binding affinities. We know nothing of the acute effects of the substance. The only piece of pharmacological data that exists for W-18 was acquired via the mouse phenylquinone (PQ) writhing assay. In that test, W-18 had an IC50 equal to 3.7 ng/kg and 50% inhibition. In the same test, morphines IC50 was equal to 38,000 ng/kg and 50% inhibition. It very important to note that the PQ writhing assay is a general or non-specific test in which many compounds not considered to be analgesics, including sympathomimetics and central nervous system stimulants, protect mice against the PQ-induced writhing. The assay results should not be interpreted in any way that insinuates W-18 is approximately 10,000 ...
Joey V. Barnett, Ph.D. is Professor of Pharmacology, Medicine, Pediatrics, and Pathology, Microbiology & Immunology. He received his Bachelors Degree in 1981 from the University of Southern Indiana in Biology. He spent nine months as an undergraduate researcher at the University of Chicago and Argonne National Laboratory prior to entering the Ph.D. program in Pharmacology at VanderbiltUniversity. He received his Ph.D. in 1986 examining the mechanism of action of central nervous system stimulants. He completed postdoctoral studies at Harvard Medical School where his work focused on the development and regulation of autonomic responsiveness in the heart. As an instructor at Harvard, he trained in genetics and began his studies of growth factor signaling during cardiovascular development. He returned to Vanderbilt in 1992 as an Assistant Professor of Medicine and was promoted and tenured in Medicine prior to moving to the Department of Pharmacology in 2000 to direct the Ph.D. program. He has ...
... also known as "potency wood" has few side effects, unlike its counterpart- Yohimbe. The root and bark is primarily used in teas, although the capsules and extracts maybe more effective.. Combine Muira Puama powder with Catuaba Bark powder in capsules for increased energy, increased libido & erections and enhance mood (central nervous system stimulant). Body Builders- this may be a great combination to help naturally increase muscle mass and testosterone levels without the use of synthetic hormones.. As an extract use Muira Puama alone, or combine with Ginkgo for increased neuromuscular function, reduce anxiety and to improve sexual performance & libido.. As a tea, combine Muira Puama with herbs with similar action like Rhemania Root, Ginger Root and/or Sarsparilla Bark for a tasty energy tea and overall health enhancer.. If you plan to use this herb for fertility, remember that you must discontinue its use at the first sign of pregnancy.. If you are not interested in making your own ...
Cocaine molecule. Computer model of the drug cocaine (formula: C17H21NO4). Atoms are spherical and are colour-coded: carbon (light blue), hydrogen (white), oxygen (red) and nitrogen (dark blue). Cocaine is an alkaloid drug obtained from leaves of the coca plant Erythroxylon coca. It has a powerful local anaesthetic action when applied to the skin, and used to be used in surgery. Due to its more notorious effects, however, it has largely been replaced by artificial alternatives. When injected or snorted, the drug acts as a central nervous system stimulant, producing feelings of energy and exhilaration. Psychological dependence can develop. The drug is illegal to own or produce. - Stock Image C023/3665
A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3,5-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP. . ...
A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3,5-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP. . ...
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Increase in production of White Blood Cells, and decrease in growth rate of Bacteria and viruses can be achieved by Immune System Stimulant provided by Southampton Spa.
This advertisement for Ritalin comes from a 1966 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). Ritalin, or methylphenidate, is widely - and controversially - prescribed to children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The drug is an amphetamine-like stimulant which blocks reuptake of the neurotransmitters dopamine and noradrenaline (norepinephrine) in the prefrontal cortex. This seems paradoxical given that it improves concentration and reduces impulsivity in hyperactive children, and exactly why it is an effective treatment for ADHD is still unclear.. In the 1960s, ADHD had not yet been characterized, and Ritalin was prescribed instead for mild depression. The ad is of particular interest because it warns that Ritalin "should not be used to increase mental or physical capacities beyond physiological capacities". So it seems that the non-medical use of Ritalin for cognitive enhancement has a long history.. (From a new medical anthropology blog called Somatosphere, ...
Ritalin (methylphenidate) is used as part of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or ADHD treatment in adults and children, and narcolepsy. Ritalin is abused when you take it without a medical prescription, in larger doses or frequency than suggested, can lead to acute toxicity.Can you overdose on Ritalin? How much Ritalin can cause an OD? What…
Generic Name: methylphenidate (METH-il-FEN-i-date) Brand Name: Ritalin LA Use Ritalin LA extended-release capsules with caution if you have a history of mental or mood problems, or alcohol or substance abuse or dependence. Abuse of Ritalin LA extended-release capsules may cause it to not work as well ...
Amphetamine addiction treatment can help you overcome stimulant addiction in a safe environment. To learn more, contact us today at 866-313-6307.
Ritalin Vs. Adderall - posted in Brain Health: Well, I actually take Ritalin (Methylphenidate, usually as 54mg Concerta) for excessive daytime sleepiness, with good results. I also alternate with Modafinil for a few months now, but its much weaker. Im thinking about trying Adderall and Im wondering about the major differences. In Ritalin I like the fact that it keeps me energies and motivated. The things I dont like is the jitters and frankly the increased sex drive (my...
Anesthetics work by affecting the nervous system to cause numbness or memory loss leading to unconsciousness. The first known anesthetics were bitter herbs and alcohol that were used for minor operations. There is a wide variety of anesthetics both different from each other on the basis of their action. The different types of anesthetics include sedatives, neuromuscular-blocking drugs, hypnotics and an array of other nervous system stimulants or depressants. A patient can be anesthetized with either the intention of causing unconsciousness or loss of sensation. Local anesthesia is where the patient is anesthetized with the intention of causing muscle paralysis in the part of interest such as limbs. The effects of local anesthesia are reversible and the patient is conscious unless the anesthesia is combined with other anesthesia approaches including sedation. Sedation is a type of anesthesia whereby anesthetics are used to suppress the central nervous system mildly by reducing anxiety. It is ...
Is Somnolence a common side effect of Ritalin? View Somnolence Ritalin side effect risks. Male, child 4 years of age, was diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and took Ritalin 0.5 Df, Bid (half Tablet In The Morning And Half Tablet In The Afternoon). Patient was hospitalized.
Is Hypertension a common side effect of Ritalin? View Hypertension Ritalin side effect risks. Male, 18 years of age, was diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, seasonal allergy and took Ritalin 5 Df, Daily.
Ah well I all depends on your body . I take 18 mg concerta I used to take. 5 mg Ritalin in the morning 10 mg ritalin in afternoon and concerta after that. And they took them away . Well anyhow people who been taking it for years need them . Just to be in a normal state . Since their body grew a tolerance to it . But its never good to mix them . I wait a day miss that dose and take x , I wont even drink an energy drink that day if Im taking x . Especially if it body doesnt have enough sleep , or rest . I seen people od on x by combining it not kewl I remember at together as one I met a guy he was pretty chill he was telling me he drank a monster cuz he didnt get enough sleep and had tooken 3 pills and he took his Ritalin in te morning. Later that nite I saw paramedic taking him away in the bed. Not moving and his gf just crying screaming "why am I gonna tell his dad his mom his family " Pretty crazy shit man. ...
If any of the above conditions are noted, its important to question the child and parent further. The symptoms of ADHD, for example, are also signs of sleep-disordered breathing. It is believed that many people who are on stimulant medication for ADHD may not actually have ADHD but may be suffering from sleep-disordered breathing and the consequences of poor quality and poor quantity of sleep.. This is an emotionally charged issue, and I am absolutely not denying the existence or severity of ADHD. We owe it to children who are suffering from difficulty concentrating or focusing, and from impulsivity, and all of the other symptoms diagnosed as ADHD, to delve deeper into their sleep and breathing to be sure that we are not missing this important information, which could alter their entire experience and health. A lifetime on stimulant medications is not without side effects that can affect the child physically, mentally, and psychologically.. For those who are actually suffering from ...
Ritalin - Get up-to-date information on Ritalin side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Ritalin
There are risks to taking Ritalin and Adderall.Parents should know the risk of addiction and overdose.Read on to learn the truth about Ritalin and Adderall.
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The purpose of this work was to determine the very original properties of this new psychostimulant agent against two other conventional stimulants; viz., caffeine and d-amphetamine. (The drug d-amphetamine is still given to aircrew in France; and, of course, it has well-known side effects.) The new drug was studied in our laboratory in the non-human primate, the rhesus monkey. At the dosage indicated -- 25 mg/kg -- there were no side effects in the performance of the animal nor in its vegetative parameters; viz., in blood pressure and heart rate. The main effect of the drug was that it kept the animal awake, though not as a stimulant. This effect would give the impression that the drug is not comprised of an amphetamine-like type of molecule. Its an action which is quite specific - as based on other studies in apes and rats -- in that is appears to work on post-synaptic brain centres at that level of dosage. Of course, at a higher dosage it would probably have a doping effect. (js)*HEART RATE
Ritalin is a commonly prescribed medication with a high risk of abuse. For safe and comfortable detox, professional treatment is the best option.
Every Ritalin addicts case is different, and there are different lengths of treatment, 30, 60, and 90-day, to suit his or her personal needs.
Prescription stimulants are drugs that improve states of alertness and wakefulness. They stimulate both the central nervous system and sympathetic nervous system and often produce euphoric feelings. They help patients suffering from ADD or ADHD and are also used to treat narcolepsy and other sleep disorders. The most used stimulants are Adderall, Adderall XR, Ritalin and Concerta; there are also some new drugs called eugeroics. Adrafinil and Modafinil, marketed as Provigil and Olmifon belong to this class ...
I am quite scared because I take 80mg of ritalin a day to function. I read about this a few weeks ago and now wonder if I should change to the newer drug (vyvanse) . Been on and off ritalin for a life time (31 years old male) Has anyone else read about this concern? Maybe new results?
There is very little good guidance on how to treat ADHD when stimulant abuse or dependence may be a problem. Some literature suggests that you can treat people in recovery with stimulants - even if they have been previously addicted to stimulants. Anyone making the diagnosis of ADHD needs to makes sure that there is good evidence of impairment in addition to the requisite symptoms. Ongoing treatment needs to assure that the stimulants are not being used in an addictive manner. I would define that as not accelerating the dose, not taking medications for indications other than treating ADHD (cramming for an exam, increased ability to tolerate alcohol, etc), not attempting to extract, smoke, inject, or snort the stimulant, not obtaining additional medication from an illegal source, and not using the stimulant in the presence of another active addiction. Addressing this problem frequently requires the use of FDA approved non stimulant medication and off-label approaches ...
Health,...But these unexplained events are exceedingly rare study finds ...MONDAY June 15 (HealthDay News) -- Stimulant medications commonly pre...Children and teens taking ADHD stimulant medications were seven times ... What we found -- to our surprise -- is that even if you take out conf...,ADHD,,Drugs,Linked,to,Sudden,Death,in,Kids,,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
A study suggests that college students who misuse prescription stimulant medications are more likely to exhibit clinically relevant psychiatric dysfunction.
Medications known as stimulants are an effective treatment for children with ADHD. Learn all you need to know about ADHD medication for children here
ADHD medication such as Ritalin usually comes with a plethora of side effects. Would cannabis be an alternative? You can read about it here.
A new US study that raises the possibility of preschoolers with ADHD taking Ritalin has sparked a debate over the safety and appropriateness of such a practice.
Researcher Sang-Moo Kang at Georgia State Universitys new Institute for Biomedical Sciences reports that ginseng can be used to treat flu and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). I have touted in this blog the scientifically demonstrated benefits of elderberry preparations as effective anti-virals and immune system stimulants, so am now happy to add ginseng for something…. ...
BILL turned a corner when he started taking Ritalin three years ago. He had dropped out of high school, had a narrow brush with the law, and was facing an uncertain future. A mate who...
A report in the latest issue of Pediatrics concludes that children treated with Ritalin are not more likely to abuse drugs as adults. A New York Times ...
Three states have barred teachers and other school staffers from recommending that a student be put on Ritalin or any other psychoactive drug - and New...
Detailed drug Information for Ritalin. Includes common brand names, drug descriptions, warnings, side effects and dosing information.
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At age three, Zachary went to pre-school, where he achieved notoriety for figuring out how to unlock the childproof latch on the gate. Lisa and I pulled him out of that school after the counselors got so angry with him for pooping on the playground that they put him in time-out for two hours. Never mind that he was pretending to be an armadillo and that he pooped behind a shed. Clearly, his inability to listen had stretched their limits.. Next was the Montessori school. How does a child get kicked out of a school that prides itself on its philosophy to nurture each child, to encourage him to be self-directed, an active explorer? Well, Zachary was a bit too active an explorer, even for them. He hid in closets and under computer tables. He refused to participate in circle time and became so disruptive that the other children couldnt participate either.. Strangers would come up to me at parks and say, after a few minutes of watching Zachary, "Hes just like my son. He has ADHD, doesnt he?" I ...
Health,...Study of young adults finds no link between stimulant treatment and al...SATURDAY March 1 (HealthDay News) -- Parents of children who are pres...The report which was funded by the National Institutes of Health is ... The results should reassure clinicians who might be hesitant to treat...,ADHD,Drugs,Wont,Raise,Risk,of,Substance,Abuse,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Firstly, be sure that the stimulant medication is not causing negative mood; it can often do this. Have you had periods of time off of the stimulant recently to be certain? Are you certain that you still have clinically significant ADD; if not, it may be a good idea to go off of the stimulant. Additionally, there are some medications for ADHD now that are not stimulants, and can help with depression, such as Wellbutrin and Strattera ...
Are you aware of the risks of your teen if they abuse their stimulant medication? Be an educated parent. Study drugs are on the rise.
The long-term risk to children who take stimulant drugs to manage ADHD is unknown; this is one of the few points on which there is some agreement. However, opponents of ADHD medications for children argue that this is one experiment that we should not be conducting. The potential risks are far too great, they say. On the other hand, experts who advocate the use of medications for treatment of ADHD argue that over the last 60 years since Ritalin was first used, no long-term side effects have arisen. They add that parents must also weigh the risks against the potential negative consequences of not giving their children medication if, in fact, they would benefit from it ...
So if youre perscribed ritalin, you could probably easily get it pushed up to dexamphetamine if you complain about stomach ache or something Ritalin is worse on the stomach than other stims. According to the National Institutes of Health, stimulants significantly increase anaerobic capacity and knee extension strength while decreasing pain and fatigue during physical activity, making it possible to train more intensely for longer periods of time.. Carried on the day as per normal, bar mild sluggishness In summary: Put it in a full piece of paper, fold the paper up a bunch of times. ...
The World Drug Report 2019 was published by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime in June 2019. The WDR is an annual document, giving the most important information on the developments in the global drug market. It tries to explain the factors that drive the international drug market. Drug production, drug markets and drug use patterns, and counternarcotic interventions are some of the main topics. The World Drug Report 2019 was published in a five part series. This is the fourth part of the report, presenting information on stimulant drugs, including the supply and demand of cocaine, amphetamines, and new psychoactive substances.
Dexedrine is a stimulant medication that can also be a drug of abuse. Learn the signs of addiction to Dexedrine and the approach to treating the disorder.
A database analysis of more than 300,000 individuals concludes there is no increased risk for adverse cardiovascular events associated with the use of stimulant medications by children and youth with autism.
Concerns about inappropriate prescribing or over-prescribing of stimulant medications and incomplete understanding of long-term risks associated with them have led to increasing use of non-pharmacological therapies. It is estimated that over 50% of parents of children diagnosed with ADHD rely … Continue reading →. ...
Two million Americans are addicted to cocaine or other types of stimulants. Breaking free from this kind of addiction is a formidable task. The March 2009…
Compare ratings and reviews on Stimulant Free Products products. Get the scoop on what others have to say and their experience with taking products as part of their training regime.
Prescription medications that increase alertness, attention, energy, blood pressure, and heart and breathing rates. Examples include Adderall, Vyvanse, Ritalin, and Concerta.
Theres an epidemic afoot in the countrys selective high schools: ambitious students under pressure to succeed are increasingly abusing stimulants like Ritalin and Adderall, which they consider as essential as SAT tutors for getting into an Ivy League college.
Stimulants are a class of drugs that speed up the messages between the brain and the body. They can make a person feel more awake, alert, confident or energetic.
Dear Peoples Pharmacy: Our sons fifth-grade teacher just called us in for a conference. She said he has ADD, which surprised us. He has a lot of energy, but no one has ever diagnosed him as
Are you sick of paying the high costs of medications for your child? Does it make you crazy that after 10 years of parenting you can diagnose an ear infection by yourself, but you still have to go to urgent care for the amoxicillin scrip?
FL Coral Gables; 1987162в193. The View from the Penalty Box. Acceptance Testing of Ritaln Devices SMIC staff perform acceptance testing, Neuroreport, 5 (1994) 621.
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by Dan Rusyniak Stimulant-Induced Hyperthermia, a (sort of) memoir. I will admit my biases up front. This post is based primarily on my own research or
From Red Bull to Ritalin and nicotine to natural herbs, heres one reporters quest for the ideal substance to enhance his productivity.
(Prenatal Methamphetamine Exposure) Although research on the medical and developmental effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure is still in its early stages, our experience with almost 20 years of research on the chemically related drug, cocaine, has not identified a recognizable condition, syndrome or disorder that should be termed crack baby nor found the degree of
Objective: To evaluate lisdexamfetamine dimesylate maintenance of efficacy in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).. Method: Adults (aged 18-55 years) who had ADHD meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria, baseline ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS-IV) with adult promptstotal scores of ,22, and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness (CGI-S) ratings of 1, 2, or 3 were enrolled. After previously receiving commercially available lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (30, 50, or 70 mg/d) for ≥6 months with acceptable tolerability and maintaining response during a 3-week open-label phase at a stable lisdexamfetamine dimesylate dose, the participants entered a 6-week double-blind randomized withdrawal phase on treatment with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (same dose) or placebo. Data were collected from April 2009 to July 2010. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants having symptom relapse (≥50% increase in ADHD-RS-IV score and ≥2 rating-point increase in CGI-S score).. Results: ...
Objective Brain dopamine dysfunction in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) could explain why stimulant medications, which increase dopamine signaling, are therapeutically beneficial. However while the acute increases in dopamine induced by stimulant medications have been associated with symptom improvement in ADHD the chronic effects have not been investigated. Method We used positron emission tomography and [11C]cocaine (dopamine transporter radioligand) to measure dopamine transporter availability in the brains of 18 never-medicated adult ADHD subjects prior to and after 12 months of treatment with methylphenidate and in 11 controls who were also scanned twice at 12 months interval but without stimulant medication. Dopamine transporter availability was quantified as non-displaceable binding potential using a kinetic model for reversible ligands. Results Twelve months of methylphenidate treatment increased striatal dopamine transporter availability in ADHD (caudate, putamen and ventral
... The medical indications, patterns of abuse, and adverse effects of phenmetrazine (Preludin) and methylphenidate (Ritalin) compare closely with those of the other stimulants. They have been subject to abuse in countries where freely available, as they are here in localities where medical practitioners write prescriptions on demand. While the abuse of phenmetrazine involves both oral and intravenous use, most of that associated with methylphenidate results from injection after the drug in tablet form is dissolved in water. Complications arising from such use are common since the tablets contain insoluble materials that, upon injection, block small blood vessels and cause serious damage, especially in the lungs and retina of the eye. Anorectic Drugs In recent years a number of drugs have been manufactured and marketed to replace amphetamines as appetite suppressants. These so-called anorectic drugs include benzphetamine (Didrex), ...
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed. text revision). Washington, DC: Author.. Barkley, R.A. (1998, Sept.). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Scientific American. Barry, L.M. & Messer, J.J. (2003). A practical application of self-management for students diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5, 238-248.. B sen, A. (2000, October 10). Dagens Medicin, 41.. Bolanos, C.A., Barrot, M, Berton, O, Wallace-Black, D, Nestler, E.J. (2003). Methylphenidate treatment during pre-and periadolescence alters behavioral responses to emotional stimuli at adulthood. Biological Psychiatry, 54(12), 1317-1329.. Brandon, C.L., Marinelli, M., Baker, L.K., White, F.J. (2001). Enhanced reactivity and vulnerability to cocaine following methylphenidate treatment in adolescent rats. Neuropsychopharmacology, 25(5), 651-661. Brandon, C., & Steiner, H. (2003). Repeated methylphenidate ...
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neuropsychiatric disorder in children and is increasing in prevalence. There has also been a related increase in prescribing stimulant medication despite some controversy whether ADHD medication makes a lasting difference in school performance or achievement. Families who are apprehensive about side effects and with concerns for efficacy of medication pursue integrative medicine as an alternative or adjunct to pharmacologic and cognitive behavioral treatment approaches. Integrative medicine incorporates evidence-based medicine, both conventional and complementary and alternative therapies, to deliver personalized care to the patient, emphasizing diet, nutrients, gut health, and environmental influences as a means to decrease symptoms associated with chronic disorders. Pediatric integrative medicine practitioners are increasing in number throughout the United States because of improvement in patient health outcomes. However, limited
Objective: To investigate whether methamphetamine use is associated with sexual risk behavior among adolescents. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 1,561 male and female high school students in Cape Town (mean age 14.9 years) was conducted using items from the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) HIV Risk Scale. Results: Nine percent of the students had tried methamphetamine and 30% of male and 17% of female students reported sexual debut. Multinomial logistic regression analyses showed that methamphetamine use in the past year was significantly associated with being in a higher HIV/STI risk category (RRR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.10-4.03, p & 0.05). Conclusions: Methamphetamine use, coupled with a high HIV prevalence in South Africa, raises serious cause for concern about the potential for methamphetamine to further exacerbate the prevalence and spread of HIV in Cape Town. © 2012 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Early maternal separation and sex differences in the aversive effects of amphetamine in adult rats. AU - Roma, Peter G.. AU - Davis-Takacs, Catherine. AU - Kohut, Stephen J.. AU - Huntsberry, Mary E.. AU - Riley, Anthony L.. PY - 2008/3/18. Y1 - 2008/3/18. N2 - Early life stress increases vulnerability to psychostimulant abuse, sometimes in a sex-dependent manner. These effects are presumably produced by modulation of neurobiological reward mechanisms; however, drug intake is also influenced by sensitivity to the drugs aversive properties, and little is known about the effects of early life stress on stimulant aversion. To assess this possibility, Sprague-Dawley rat litters experienced daily separation from the dam for 3 h (MS) or 15 min (H) on post-natal days 2-14; control litters (AFR) experienced twice-weekly routine animal facility care only. As adults, the animals were tested for conditioned taste aversions (CTA) induced by 1.5, 2.0 or 3.0 mg/kg d-amphetamine administered ...
mixed amphetamine salts/SR, dexmethylphenidate, dextroamphetamine/SA, methylphenidate/ER/SR/solution, Methylin/ER Vyvanse, Focalin XR, Metadate CD/ER Adderall/ XR, Dexedrine Spansule, Concerta, Daytrana, Focalin, Methylin (chew tab, solution), Ritalin/LA/SR, Strattera, Kapvay A.D.A.M. medical encyclopedia. Oppositional defiant disorder. Atlanta: A.D.A.M., Inc.; c2012. ccessed April, 2012. Antshel, KM, Hargrave TM, Simonescu M, Kaul P, Hendricks K, Faraone SV. Advances in understanding and treating ADHD. BMC Med. 2011;9:72. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Treatment options for ADHD in children and teens: A Review of research for patients and caregivers. Accessed June, 2012. Birnbaum HG, Kessler RC, Lowe SW, et al. Costs of attention deficit disorder (ADHD) in the US: excess costs of persons with ADHD and their family members in 2000. Curr Med Res Opin. 2005;21(2):195-205. Blue Cross Blue Shield of Rhode Island. Plans & Services: Pharmacy: Preferred drug list: Three tier commercial ...

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Sleep problems in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: impact of subtype, comorbidity, and stimulant...Sleep problems in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: impact of subtype, comorbidity, and stimulant...

Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. ... Central Nervous System Stimulants. LinkOut - more resources. Full Text Sources. *Elsevier Science ... Sleep problems in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: impact of subtype, comorbidity, and stimulant ... comorbid oppositional defiant disorder and stimulant medication) rather than ADHD; (2) parasomnias were similar in clinical and ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10517062?dopt=Abstract
  • Sleep problems in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: impact of subtype, comorbidity, and stimulant medication. (nih.gov)
  • The results suggest that the relationship between sleep problems and ADHD is complex and depends on the type of sleep problem assessed as well as confounding factors such as comorbid clinical disorders and treatment with stimulant medication. (nih.gov)
  • Most previous studies of preschool psychotropic use have been demographically limited, focusing on Medicaid samples, region-specific managed-care health maintenance organization (HMO) populations, or privately insured children, 3 , 4 , 12 , 13 whereas others have concentrated on a single medication class (eg, stimulants 14 , 15 or atypical antipyschotics 16 ). (aappublications.org)
  • The purpose of this pilot is to initiate a program of research into the development of effective medication techniques to treat those children with ADHD who are referred because they are 'partial' or 'non-responders' to standard stimulant treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • There is a need for a non-scheduled stimulant medication that can provide symptom control for children with ADHD as the conventional stimulant products do. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • There was a significant gender × stimulant interaction with a greater reduction in AOP for females, whereas the smaller effect of stimulant use on AOP in males did not reach statistical significance. (nih.gov)
  • The original trademark expired but the drug survives today and seems to have become quite popular amongst athletes in the last four years as a stimulant and has made an impact in the category of bodybuilding and power-performance nutrition. (biologicnr.com)
  • Methods and transdermal drug delivery systems for using the compositions are also provided. (google.com)
  • 4 . The device of claim 1 , wherein the release system comprises drug molecules in a matrix formed of a degradable material. (google.co.uk)
  • 5 . The device of claim 1 , wherein the drug is homogeneously distributed within the release system. (google.co.uk)
  • The first is the effect of the chemical properties of the drug on the central nervous system. (centrebadalona.com)
  • Group 1, those who had been treated for 4 weeks with maximal doses of a stimulant, or Group 3, those who developed moderate to severe drug-related side effects, will be switched to the other class of stimulant for a two week trial, unless they have been tried on both classes. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Any drug that enhances the activity of the central nervous system. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Ativan is a member of a benzodiazepine drug class that functions in the brain and central nervous system to enhance the calming effects. (goodreads.com)
  • RESULTS: The majority of patients were poly-drug users and 80% had used both opiates and stimulants the last 30 days prior to treatment admission. (bireme.br)
  • The system, which resembles a conventional tablet in appearance, comprises an osmotically active trilayer core surrounded by a semipermeable membrane with an immediate-release drug overcoat. (rxlist.com)
  • While this home grown supplement results in more elevated amounts of alertness and more prominent capacity to focus, it is a stimulant and not a nootropic. (trackmystack.com)
  • Prescription stimulant use is associated with earlier onset of psychosis. (nih.gov)
  • In a sample of 205 patients recruited from an inpatient psychiatric unit, 40% (n = 82) reported use of stimulants prior to the onset of psychosis. (nih.gov)
  • In some cases psychiatric phenomenon may emerge such as stimulant psychosis , paranoia , and suicidal ideation . (wikipedia.org)
  • 11-16 Early diagnosis has also been shown to improve family functioning and reduce associated service system demands in the short-term, with potential impact across the lifespan when linked to appropriate and effective intervention. (ahrq.gov)
  • The nervous system is also known as the master control unit of the human body, as it operates other major functions such as the circulatory and respiratory systems (Jakab, 2006). (bartleby.com)
  • The violent and aggressive behavior associated with acute stimulant toxicity may partially be driven by paranoia. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, given the complexity of the mechanisms that underlie these potentially fatal outcomes of acute stimulant toxicity, it is impossible to determine what dose may be lethal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other possible risks, especially when different dxm products are combined include increased blood pressure, liver damage, central nervous system toxicity, heart problems. (utdallas.edu)
  • These include the heart, stomach and intestines and other vital organs and body systems. (bartleby.com)
  • It will also include proposed revisions to the DRG system on which the public may comment. (cdc.gov)
  • This protocol is to evaluate the degree to which a combined group and individual 12-Step facilitative (TSF) intervention, Stimulant Abuser Groups to Engage in 12 -Step (STAGE-12), improves substance -related outcomes compared to treatment as usual (TAU) without STAGE-12 among stimulant abusers. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • El objetivo fue analizar el efecto de las drogas alucinógenas, estimulantes y depresoras del SNC, diferentes del alcohol, sobre la gravedad de las lesiones en pacientes ingresados por traumatismos. (scielosp.org)
  • Se analizó la presencia de alcohol, drogas estimulantes (cocaína, anfetaminas y metanfetaminas), depresoras (benzodiacepinas, opiáceos, metadona y barbitúricos) y alucinógenas (THC y PCP) en 1187 pacientes de entre 16 y 70 años de edad ingresados por traumatismo de noviembre de 2012 a junio de 2015. (scielosp.org)
  • La presencia de sustancias depresoras del SNC se asoció con un aumento de la gravedad del traumatismo solo en pacientes también expuestos al alcohol, con una odds ratio ajustada de 4,63 (1,37-15,6) para lesiones moderadas y de 7,83 (2,53-24,21) para lesiones graves. (scielosp.org)
  • Although trends in the United States and in other developing countries indicate either flat or declining alcohol use, rates are rising in many developing countries and in Central and Eastern Europe (World Health Organization 2001). (encyclopedia.com)
  • According to Murray Bowen, father of Natural Systems Theory, there are two types of anxiety: Acute anxiety and chronic anxiety. (psychologytoday.com)
  • The primary objective is to evaluate reduction in percent of days of stimulant use as measured by self-report. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • CONCLUSIONS: There was a substantial reduction in opiate and stimulant use from baseline to all follow-up assessments, most greatly for heroin. (bireme.br)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine whether a combined group and individual 12-Step facilitative (TSF) intervention, Stimulant Abuser Groups to Engage in 12 -Step (STAGE-12), improves substance -related outcomes. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 17 It is hypothesized that early intervention may ultimately reduce the considerable lifetime cost and system demands associated with providing care and support to individuals with ASD and their families. (ahrq.gov)
  • If there is suspected damage to the central nervous system (CNS), specifically an intracranial injury, the child must undergo a computed tomography (CT) scan and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). (bartleby.com)