Central Nervous System Parasitic Infections: Infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges caused by parasites.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Parasitic Diseases: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.Toxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral: Infections of the BRAIN caused by the protozoan TOXOPLASMA gondii that primarily arise in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES (see also AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS). The infection may involve the brain diffusely or form discrete abscesses. Clinical manifestations include SEIZURES, altered mentation, headache, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp41-3)Toxoplasmosis: The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.Leucovorin: The active metabolite of FOLIC ACID. Leucovorin is used principally as an antidote to FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS.Toxoplasmosis, Congenital: Prenatal protozoal infection with TOXOPLASMA gondii which is associated with injury to the developing fetal nervous system. The severity of this condition is related to the stage of pregnancy during which the infection occurs; first trimester infections are associated with a greater degree of neurologic dysfunction. Clinical features include HYDROCEPHALUS; MICROCEPHALY; deafness; cerebral calcifications; SEIZURES; and psychomotor retardation. Signs of a systemic infection may also be present at birth, including fever, rash, and hepatosplenomegaly. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p735)Toxoplasmosis, Ocular: Infection caused by the protozoan parasite TOXOPLASMA in which there is extensive connective tissue proliferation, the retina surrounding the lesions remains normal, and the ocular media remain clear. Chorioretinitis may be associated with all forms of toxoplasmosis, but is usually a late sequel of congenital toxoplasmosis. The severe ocular lesions in infants may lead to blindness.Pyrimethamine: One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.Sulfadiazine: One of the short-acting SULFONAMIDES used in combination with PYRIMETHAMINE to treat toxoplasmosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and in newborns with congenital infections.Chorioretinitis: Inflammation of the choroid in which the sensory retina becomes edematous and opaque. The inflammatory cells and exudate may burst through the sensory retina to cloud the vitreous body.Immune System Diseases: Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated, or both.Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.Schistosomiasis: Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.Egypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.Schistosomiasis mansoni: Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni. It is endemic in Africa, the Middle East, South America, and the Caribbean and affects mainly the bowel, spleen, and liver.Trypanosomiasis, Bovine: Infection in cattle caused by various species of trypanosomes.Neurology: A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.Central Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Demeclocycline: A TETRACYCLINE analog having a 7-chloro and a 6-methyl. Because it is excreted more slowly than TETRACYCLINE, it maintains effective blood levels for longer periods of time.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Angiostrongylus: A genus of parasitic nematodes of the superfamily METASTRONGYLOIDEA. Two species, ANGIOSTRONGYLUS CANTONENSIS and A. vasorum, infest the lungs of rats and dogs, respectively. A. cantonensis is transmissible to man where it causes frequently fatal infection of the central nervous system.Myiasis: The invasion of living tissues of man and other mammals by dipterous larvae.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Veterinarians: Individuals with a degree in veterinary medicine that provides them with training and qualifications to treat diseases and injuries of animals.Strongylida Infections: Infections with nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA.Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Anthelmintics: Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.Cysticercosis: Infection with CYSTICERCUS, the larval form of the various tapeworms of the genus Taenia (usually T. solium in man). In humans they penetrate the intestinal wall and invade subcutaneous tissue, brain, eye, muscle, heart, liver, lung, and peritoneum. Brain involvement results in NEUROCYSTICERCOSIS.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Neurocysticercosis: Infection of the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal structures with the larval forms of the genus TAENIA (primarily T. solium in humans). Lesions formed by the organism are referred to as cysticerci. The infection may be subacute or chronic, and the severity of symptoms depends on the severity of the host immune response and the location and number of lesions. SEIZURES represent the most common clinical manifestation although focal neurologic deficits may occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp46-50)Taenia solium: Species of tapeworm in the genus TAENIA, that infects swine. It is acquired by humans through the ingestion of cured or undercooked pork.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)Lymphedema: Edema due to obstruction of lymph vessels or disorders of the lymph nodes.ConnecticutBrain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Intracranial Hypertension: Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.Pharmacy Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the receiving, storing, and distribution of pharmaceutical supplies.Pharmacists: Those persons legally qualified by education and training to engage in the practice of pharmacy.Location Directories and Signs: Directory signs or listings of designated areas within or without a facility.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Victoria: A state in southeastern Australia, the southernmost state. Its capital is Melbourne. It was discovered in 1770 by Captain Cook and first settled by immigrants from Tasmania. In 1851 it was separated from New South Wales as a separate colony. Self-government was introduced in 1851; it became a state in 1901. It was named for Queen Victoria in 1851. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1295 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, p574)Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
Parasitic central nervous system infections in immunocompromised hosts: malaria, microsporidiosis, leishmaniasis, and African trypanosomiasis. (1/12)Immunosuppression associated with HIV infection or following transplantation increases susceptibility to central nervous system (CNS) infections. Because of increasing international travel, parasites that were previously limited to tropical regions pose an increasing infectious threat to populations at risk for acquiring opportunistic infection, especially people with HIV infection or individuals who have received a solid organ or bone marrow transplant. Although long-term immunosuppression caused by medications such as prednisone likely also increases the risk for acquiring infection and for developing CNS manifestations, little published information is available to support this hypothesis. In an earlier article published in Clinical Infectious Diseases, we described the neurologic manifestations of some of the more common parasitic CNS infections. This review will discuss the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of the following additional parasitic CNS infections: malaria, microsporidiosis, leishmaniasis, and African trypanosomiasis. (+info)
Cerebral alveolar echinoccosis mimicking primary brain tumor. (2/12)We present a case of cerebral infestation by Echinococcosis multilocularis mimicking an infiltrative primary brain tumor. A heavily calcified mass invading the midbrain enhanced in a cauliflower-like fashion with small peripheral nodules present on MR imaging. Perfusion-weighted MR imaging revealed low relative cerebral blood volume within the calcified lesion and peripheral hyperemia. Single-voxel proton MR spectroscopy with an echo time of 135 milliseconds was normal. (+info)
Intraprostatic hydatid cyst: an unusual presentation. (3/12)A case of intraprostatic cyst is reported. The patient presented with a completely evacuated hydatid cyst of the prostate. The intraprostatic cystic cavity that was communicating with the urethra developed urinary stones. The patient had transurethral resection of the prostate, the stones in the cyst were pushed into the bladder and fragmented using a ballistic lithotripter. Pathological examination concluded to a prostatic hydatid cyst that had evacuated through the urethra and was complicated by stone formation within the residual cavity. Postoperative course was uneventful and follow-up did not show evidence of recurrence. This is the first case of hydatid cyst of the prostate to present as an intraprostatic stone pouch. (+info)
Molecular confirmation of Sappinia pedata as a causative agent of amoebic encephalitis. (4/12)(+info)
Update on eosinophilic meningoencephalitis and its clinical relevance. (5/12)(+info)
Alzheimer's disease - a neurospirochetosis. Analysis of the evidence following Koch's and Hill's criteria. (6/12)(+info)
Cerebral schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma haematobium confirmed by PCR analysis of brain specimen. (7/12)(+info)
Primary brain hydatosis. (8/12)(+info)
White blood cell
... parasitic infections, collagen diseases, and disease of the spleen and central nervous system. They are rare in the blood, but ... In HIV infection, these T cells are the main index to identify the individual's immune system integrity. CD8+ cytotoxic T cells ... The most important causes of eosinophilia include allergies such as asthma, hay fever, and hives; and also parasitic infections ... They primarily deal with parasitic infections. Eosinophils are also the predominant inflammatory cells in allergic reactions. ...
List of MeSH codes (C10)
... central nervous system parasitic infections MeSH C10.228.228.205.250 --- central nervous system helminthiasis MeSH C10.228. ... central nervous system MeSH C10.228.140.300.850.125 --- aids arteritis, central nervous system MeSH C10.228.140.300.850.250 ... central nervous system MeSH C10.500.190.600 --- central nervous system venous angioma MeSH C10.500.190.800 --- sinus pericranii ... central nervous system MeSH C10.114.875.350 --- lupus vasculitis, central nervous system MeSH C10.114.875.700 --- temporal ...
The host's central nervous system responds to the parasite as it would to any other infection. The hallmarks of such response ... For example, evidence has shown that infection by the parasitic worm Pomphorhynchus laevis leads to altered drifting behavior ... Mechanisms of altering the host's behavior include infection of the host's central nervous system and altered neurochemical ... infection of the central nervous system and altered neurochemical communication. Some parasites alter host behavior by ...
Differential diagnoses of depression
NCC is the most common helminthic (parasitic worm) infestation of the central nervous system worldwide. Humans develop ... Depression after infection with West Nile virus Murray KO, Resnick M, Miller V. Depression after infection with West Nile virus ... In addition to pituitary tumors, tumors in various locations in the central nervous system may cause depressive symptoms and be ... Humans can be infected in 3 different ways: ingestion of tissue cysts, ingestion of oocysts, or in utero infection with ...
In VLM, larvae migration incites inflammation of internal organs and sometimes the central nervous system. Symptoms depend on ... High parasitic loads or repeated infection can lead to visceral larva migrans (VLM). VLM is primarily diagnosed in young ... Physiological reactions to Toxocara infection depend on the host's immune response and the parasitic load. Most cases of ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Parasitic diseases. "New CDC study results show Toxocara infection more ...
Minor infection may be without symptoms. Complications may include inflammation of heart muscle, central nervous system ... Trichinosis is a parasitic disease caused by roundworms of the Trichinella type. During the initial infection, invasion of the ... from worms entering the central nervous system. The CNS is compromised by trichinosis in 10-24% of reported cases of cerebral ... The risk of death from infection is low. The great majority of trichinosis infections have either minor or no symptoms and no ...
... migration of the flukes into other body organs including the central nervous system. There it can cause neurological symptoms ... When the infection has expanded to severe symptoms, it can be lethal. The signs of cowpox infection in cats can be seen as, ... Cryptosporidiosis is a parasitic disease that is transmitted through contaminated food or water from an infected person or ... The infection resolves on its own but those who are immunosuppressed can progress to systemic infection that closely resembles ...
registration required) Hughes, A.J. and Biggs, B.A. "Parasitic worms of the central nervous system: an Australian perspective ... Sparganosis is a parasitic infection caused by the Diphyllobothrium or the plerocercoid larvae of the genus Spirometra ... 2006). "Sparganum mansoni parasitic infection in the lung showing a nodule". Pathology International. 56 (11): 674-7. doi: ... The infection is transmitted by ingestion of contaminated water, ingestion of a second intermediate host such as a frog or ...
The larvae then move into the new host's stomach wall and make their way to the central nervous system, as in white-tailed deer ... The prevalence and infection rate of P. tenuis in deer is density dependent, meaning that increased rates of infection by the ... However, brainworm larvae are difficult to distinguish from other parasitic worm species which can also be found in fecal ... The eggs are dislodged from the central nervous system and pass into the lungs where they hatch. The larvae are then coughed up ...
Environmental issues with coral reefs
The damaged central nervous systems affected fish behaviour and diminishing their sensory capacity to a point "likely to impair ... The diseases of coral may consist of bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infections. Due to many of the dramatic changes in ... a fungal infection that kills soft corals such as sea fans, and increasing yellow band disease, a bacterial infection that ... Its enzyme system dissolves the wax in stony corals, and allows the starfish to feed on the living animal. Starfish face ...
... for immune system to cause inflammatory response anywhere in the central nervous system, the cells from immune system must pass ... It is believed that the immune system response could be to viral, bacterial, fungal, or parasitic infection; however, it is not ... Central nervous system nerve regeneration would be able to repair or regenerate the damage caused to the spinal cord. It would ... A brain MRI may be needed to identify the extent of central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Lumbar puncture is important for ...
... specific form of cysticercosis called neurocysticercosis is said to be the most common infection of the central nervous system ... Taeniasis is a parasitic disease due to infection with tapeworms belonging to the genus Taenia. The two most important human ... The total global infection is estimated to be between 40 and 60 million people. In the US, the incidence of infection is low, ... Infection by T. solium is normally asymptomatic. Heavy infection is indicated by intestinal irritation, anaemia, and ...
Signs and symptoms of HIV/AIDS
HIV infection may lead to a variety of neuropsychiatric sequelae, either by infection of the now susceptible nervous system by ... Luft BJ, Chua A (August 2000). "Central Nervous System Toxoplasmosis in HIV Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Therapy". Current ... and parasitic infections; and uncommon opportunistic infections such as cryptosporidiosis, microsporidiosis, Mycobacterium ... The stages of HIV infection are acute infection (also known as primary infection), latency and AIDS. Acute infection lasts for ...
Neglected tropical diseases
Neurocystocercosis, or the parasitic infection of the nervous system, can be fatal. Taeniasis is not fatal. It is usually ... additionally found that there was a 13-fold greater chance of a drug entering the marking being for central-nervous-system ... Helminth infections, as the most common infection of humans, are often found to be in multi-infection systems. For example, in ... The effect of each worm weakens the immune system of those infected, making infection from the other easier and more severe. ...
The larvae are then transported via the blood to the central nervous system, where they are the most common cause of ... 20 June 2001). "Land snail infection rates for the human parasitic nematode, Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lung worm) with ... Although the clinical disease caused by Angiostrongylus invasion into the central nervous system is commonly referred to as " ... in someone with classic symptoms as the disease evolves with the migration of the worms into the central nervous system. ...
Neurocysticercosis, which arises when larvae of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium penetrate the central nervous system, is the ... WHO Expert Committee (1987). "Public health significance of intestinal parasitic infections" (PDF). Bulletin of the World ... However, neurocysticercosis resulting from penetration of T. solium larvae into the central nervous system is the major cause ... Infection of the digestive system by adult tapeworms causes abdominal symptoms that are unpleasant but not disabling or life- ...
But the young larvae upon infection can move to the nervous system, where they induce severe neurological disease, as well as ... but are capable of migrating to central nervous system causing serious neurological disease. Setaria cervi shows sexual ... Setaria cervi is a species of parasitic roundworms belonging to the genus Setaria. It infects cattle, bison, yak, reindeer, ... Second moulting follows after 11 days of infection. Soon after, the juveniles move back to haemocoel to become fully infective ...
Immune-mediated inflammatory changes occur in the skin, lung, liver, intestine, central nervous system, and eyes. Signs of the ... 1992). "Parasitic Helminth Infection and Cognitive Function in School Children". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. ... Ascaris lumbricoides infection, trichuriasis (Trichuris infection), and hookworm infection (includes necatoriasis and ... Paragonimus infection) Schistosomiasis/bilharziasis (Schistosoma infection) Moniliformis infection Helminths are transmitted to ...
Honda H, Warren DK (September 2009). "Central nervous system infections: meningitis and brain abscess". Infectious disease ... A parasitic cause is often assumed when there is a predominance of eosinophils (a type of white blood cell) in the CSF. The ... Raman Sharma R (2010). "Fungal infections of the nervous system: current perspective and controversies in management". ... can rather largely be attributed to the response of the immune system to the entry of bacteria into the central nervous system ...
ICD-10 Chapter I: Certain infectious and parasitic diseases
Other atypical virus infections of central nervous system Kuru (A81.9) Atypical virus infection of central nervous system, ... of central nervous system NOS Syphilis (late) of central nervous system NOS Syphiloma of central nervous system NOS (A52.7) ... unspecified Rickettsial infection NOS (A80) Acute poliomyelitis (A81) Atypical virus infections of central nervous system ( ... Other viral infections of central nervous system, not elsewhere classified (A88.1) Epidemic vertigo (A89) Unspecified viral ...
Finally, the hyperinfection syndrome causes symptoms in many organ systems, including the central nervous system. Frequently ... On acquiring the infection, there may be respiratory symptoms (Löffler's syndrome). The infection may then become chronic with ... Strongyloidiasis is a human parasitic disease caused by the nematode called Strongyloides stercoralis, or sometimes S. ... and worldwide efforts are aimed at eradicating the infection. Strongyloides infection occurs in five forms. ...
Parasite increased trophic transmission
... for example by creating neuroactive compounds that stimulate a response in the host's central nervous system (CNS), a method ... Another example of a behavioral adaptation is the increase in reproductive output as a response of a parasitic infection, which ... The selective force in susceptible hosts to fight off parasitic infections is often very strong, especially when the parasite ... One of the most conspicuous examples of behavioral adaptation against parasitic infection is self-induced death. The host may ...
Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis is caused by amoeba infection of the central nervous system. It is characterized by ... Acanthamoeba keratitis cases in the past, when were managed by atropine given as an adjuvant therapy without anti-parasitic ... The parasite then spreads through the blood into the central nervous system. Acanthamoeba crosses the blood-brain barrier by ... Khan, N (November 2006). "Acanthamoeba invasion of the central nervous system". International Journal for Parasitology. 37 (2 ...
Central nervous system Immune system Immunology Neurology Beardsley PM, Hauser KF (2014). "Glial modulators as potential ... The neuroimmune system is involved in reflexes associated with parasitic invasions of hosts. Nociceptors are also associated ... an increase in susceptibility to streptococcal skin infections. The neuroimmune system plays a role in Alzheimer's disease. In ... the immune system, and the central nervous system as part of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. G protein-coupled receptors that ...
Coenurosis in humans
... other parasitic diseases affecting nervous system tissue. An important consideration in diagnosing coenurosis properly is ... which can be seen in the central nervous system, muscles, and subcutaneous tissues of infected humans. People with coenurosis ... In humans, this parasitic infection causes a variety of symptoms, depending on where the cyst occurs. The tapeworm larvae group ... Coenurosis is a parasitic infection that results when humans ingest the eggs of dog tapeworm species Taenia multiceps, T. ...
Anatomy of the central nervous system of the Australian echidna. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 125:287- ... Infection with the introduced parasitic tapeworm Spirometra erinaceieuropaei is considered fatal for the echidna. This ... The brain and central nervous system have been extensively studied for evolutionary comparison with placental mammals, ... The infection is seen as being more dangerous in drier areas, where more animals are sharing fewer bodies of water, increasing ...
Central nervous system parasitic infections can occur when parasites invade the blood-brain barrier and can also occur in immunocompromised patients. Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite that can lead to encephalitis and other neurological symptoms. Discover the latest research central nervous system parasitic infections here. ...
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Sappinia pedata is a species of Amoebozoa. Sappinia is a free-living amoeba (a single-celled organism), found in the environment. There are two known species of Sappinia: Sappinia diploidea and Sappinia pedata. Sappinia can cause a disease similar to GAE, However only one case of GAE due to Sappinia infection has ever been reported. In 1998, a healthy 38-year-old man from Texas was found to be infected with Sappinia pedata. Although the patient was hospitalized, he survived without any long-term consequences. This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Brown, M.; Spiegel, F.; Silberman, J. (2007). "Amoeba at attention: phylogenetic affinity of Sappinia pedata". The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology. 54 (6): 511-519. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2007.00292.x. PMID 18070328. Qvarnstrom, Y.; Da Silva, A.; Schuster, F.; Gelman, B.; Visvesvara, G. (2009). "Molecular confirmation of Sappinia pedata as a causative agent of ...
The genus Sappinia with the single species Sappinia pedata was established for an amoeba with two nuclei and pedicellate cysts by Dangeard in 1896. In 1912, Alexeieff transferred an also double nucleated, but apparently sexually reproducing amoeba to this genus as Sappinia diploidea that had been described as Amoeba diploidea by Hartmann and Nägler in 1908. Molecular analyses have confirmed the differentiation between S. pedata and S. diploidea; however, the genus splits into more than two well separated clusters. The genus Sappinia is now classified as a member of the Thecamoebidae and, moreover, as potentially pathogenic. Subacute or chronic CNS infections due to Acanthamoeba spp, Balamuthia mandrillaris, and Sappinia spp., which occasionally cause cerebral abscess, are termed granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE). In 2001, Gelman and colleagues reported a case of severe encephalitis in an immunocompetent young man caused by Sappinia. Another case of GAE and abscess formation was reported ...
Native: indigenous.. Non-native: introduced (intentionally or unintentionally); has become naturalized.. County documented: documented to exist in the county by evidence (herbarium specimen, photograph). Also covers those considered historical (not seen in 20 years). State documented: never been documented from the county, but known from the state. May be present. Or, may be restricted to a small area or a habitat (alpine, marsh, etc.), so unlikely found in some counties.. Note: when native and non-native populations both exist in a county, only native status is shown on the map.. ...
Other pipeline developments include a new company formed to develop OAB treatments, a phase III urothelial cancer study meeting its primary endpoint, the formation of a partnership to study RCC treatment, and more.
Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis | definition of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis by Medical dictionary
Looking for online definition of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in the Medical Dictionary? eosinophilic meningoencephalitis explanation free. What is eosinophilic meningoencephalitis? Meaning of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis medical term. What does eosinophilic meningoencephalitis mean?
This website has been created as an educational resource for veterinary medical professionals. The site contains images and videos that may be considered graphic to non-medical individuals. Use this site at your own risk.. This site is NOT a replacement for sound medical advice from a licensed veterinarian. If you have any questions about the information contained within, especially as to any decisions you wish to make concerning the health or well-being of your pet, please contact your regular veterinarian. Use of this sites implies acceptance of our terms & conditions.. ...
A prospective uncontrolled study evaluating efficacy and safety of intraprostatic injection of onabotulinumtoxinA (onaBoNT-A)...
This trial investigated efficacy and safety of intraprostatic injection of onabotulinumtoxinA (onaBoNT-A) adult men with refractory category-III non-bacterial
Looking for online definition of Gnathostoma spinigerum in the Medical Dictionary? Gnathostoma spinigerum explanation free. What is Gnathostoma spinigerum? Meaning of Gnathostoma spinigerum medical term. What does Gnathostoma spinigerum mean?
Study Flashcards On Spinal Cord Lesions / Brainstem Sections at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Leads to Claudin-5 Degradation via the NF-κB Pathway in BALB-c Mice with Eosinophilic...
Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Leads to Claudin-5 Degradation via the NF-κB Pathway in BALB-c Mice with Eosinophilic Meningoencephalitis Caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
I started having symetric pain, tingling, and numbness in the ulnar nerve path (fingers, hands, wrists, elbows) three years ago. An MRI showed a bulging disk at C5-C6 and spinal cord lesion adjacent to...
Central Nervous System Parasitic Infections | Meta
Central Nervous System Fungal Infections. Central nervous system fungal infections are rare and typically occur in ... Central Nervous System Bacterial Infections. Central nervous system bacterial infections are medical emergencies and include ... Central Nervous System Viral Diseases. Central nervous system viral diseases can cause inflammation leading to encephalitis, ... Central nervous system parasitic infections can occur when parasites invade the blood-brain barrier and can also occur in ...https://www.meta.org/feed-previews/central-nervous-system-parasitic/c416ef1a-d9b1-43bb-98fb-b9be46f53a53
Primary Prophylaxis of Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in HIV-Infected Patients - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Central Nervous System Parasitic Infections. Brain Diseases. Central Nervous System Diseases. Nervous System Diseases. Central ... Protozoan Infections. Parasitic Diseases. Brain Abscess. Abscess. Suppuration. Infection. Central Nervous System Protozoal ... HIV Infections. Toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. ... Nervous System Infections. Levoleucovorin. Pyrimethamine. Antidotes. Protective Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. ...https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00000643?order=4
Assessment of Two Therapeutic Strategies in the Treatment of Children With Congenital Toxoplasmosis - Full Text View -...
Central Nervous System Parasitic Infections. Central Nervous System Infections. Central Nervous System Diseases. Nervous System ... Protozoan Infections. Parasitic Diseases. Central Nervous System Protozoal Infections. ... The severity of congenital infection varies, but in France, where maternal seroconversions during pregnancy are treated, the ... which adds further constraints for both the children and their parents and increases the cost to health care systems. ...https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01202500?recr=Open&cond=%22Parasitic+Diseases%22&rank=15
A Pilot Study of Neurocysticercosis Treatment - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Central Nervous System Helminthiasis. Central Nervous System Parasitic Infections. Parasitic Diseases. Cestode Infections. ... Central Nervous System Infections. Central Nervous System Diseases. Nervous System Diseases. Albendazole. Anthelmintics. ... The infection creates cysts in the brain, causing seizures and headaches among other symptoms. To date no successful preventive ... of this study is to determine if treatment with albendazole improves the clinical outcome of neurocysticercosis infection and/ ...https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00283699
Parasitic Infections of the Central Nervous System. In Neurology and General Medicine, 2nd edition. MJ Aminoff, ed, Churchill ... Parasitic infection of the central nervous system. In Neurology and General Medicine, MJ Aminoff, ed. Churchill Livingstone, ... Salata RA, King CH, Mahmoud AAF, Parasitic Infections of the Central Nervous System, In Neurology and General Medicine, Aminoff ... Non‑specific acquired resistance to parasitic infection. In Immunology of Parasitic Infections. S. Cohen, editor, Blackwell ...http://www.princeton.edu/molfac/mahmoud/contributions/
Advanced Search Results - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)
Categories: Central Nervous System Parasitic Infections Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, ...https://phil.cdc.gov/AdvancedSearchResults.aspx?Search=Central+Nervous+System+Parasitic+Infections&parentid=5724&catid=37727
Advanced Search Results - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)
Categories: Central Nervous System Parasitic Infections Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, ...https://phil.cdc.gov/AdvancedSearchResults.aspx?Search=Central+Nervous+System+Parasitic+Infections&parentid=19348&catid=37726
What is the efficacy of treatment for schistosomiasis (bilharzia) during pregnancy?
Parasitic central nervous system infections in immunocompromised hosts. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Apr 1. 40(7):1005-15. [Medline]. ... Houston S, Kowalewska-Grochowska K, Naik S, McKean J, Johnson ES, and Warren K. First Report of Schistosoma mekongi Infection ... Nmorsi O, Ukwandu N, Egwungenya O, Obhiemi N. Evaluation of CD4(+)/CD8(+) status and urinary tract infections associated with ... Th2 cytokines are associated with persistent hepatic fibrosis in human Schistosoma japonicum infection. J Infect Dis. 2007 Jan ...https://www.medscape.com/answers/228392-31690/what-is-the-efficacy-of-treatment-for-schistosomiasis-bilharzia-during-pregnancy
How does the prevalence and severity of schistosomiasis (bilharzia) vary by age?
Infection rates and severity may vary with gender-... more ... The prevalence and severity of schistosomal infections vary ... Parasitic central nervous system infections in immunocompromised hosts. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Apr 1. 40(7):1005-15. [Medline]. ... Infection rates and severity may vary with gender-specific activity at all ages. (Congenital infection has been defined; ... Globally, infections peak in individuals aged 10-19 years. In some areas, the prevalence in this group may approach 100%. ...https://www.medscape.com/answers/228392-31609/how-does-the-prevalence-and-severity-of-schistosomiasis-bilharzia-vary-by-age
CNS Toxoplasmosis in HIV: Overview, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology
Toxoplasmosis is the leading cause of focal central nervous system (CNS) disease in AIDS. CNS toxoplasmosis in HIV-infected ... Parasitic central nervous system infections in immunocompromised hosts. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Apr 1. 40(7):1005-15. [Medline]. ... Infections of the central nervous sytem in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Continuum. 2006. 12:111-32. ... Toxoplasmosis is the leading cause of focal central nervous system (CNS) disease in AIDS. CNS toxoplasmosis in HIV-infected ...https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1167298-overview
Schistosomiasis (Bilharzia) Medication: Anthelmintics
Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by blood flukes (trematodes) of the genus Schistosoma. After malaria and ... Parasitic central nervous system infections in immunocompromised hosts. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Apr 1. 40(7):1005-15. [Medline]. ... It damages the tegument of male schistosome worms so that the patients immune system is able to kill the organisms. It also ... Houston S, Kowalewska-Grochowska K, Naik S, McKean J, Johnson ES, and Warren K. First Report of Schistosoma mekongi Infection ...https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/228392-medication
INBR 7 - Neurosurgery Flashcards by Brainscape Neurosurgery Unair | Brainscape
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system (CNS) worldwide. Humans are the ... Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system (CNS) worldwide. Humans are the ... Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system (CNS) worldwide. Humans are the ... Once inside the intestine, the eggs are released and produce primary larvae that enter the circulatory system. Hematogenous ...https://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/inbr-7-neurosurgery-1743851/packs/3165563
The One Health Approach to Toxoplasmosis: Epidemiology, Control, and Prevention Strategies | SpringerLink
Walker M, Zunt JR (2005) Parasitic central nervous system infections in immunocompromised hosts. Clinical Infectious Diseases ... Du F, Zhang Q, Yu Q, Hu M, Zhou Y, Zhao J (2012a) Soil contamination of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in pig farms in central China ... Jones JL, Kruszon-Moran D, Elder S, Rivera HN, Press C, Montoya JG, McQuillan GM (2018) Toxoplasma gondii infection in the ... Jones JL, Kruszon-Moran D, Wilson M, McQuillan G, Navin T, McAuley JB (2001) Toxoplasma gondii infection in the United States: ...https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10393-019-01405-7
Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis) - Renal and Urology News
"Parasitic central nervous system infections in immunocompromised hosts". Clin Infect Dis. vol. 40. 2005. pp. 1005-15. (Good ... For example, in immunocompromised hosts central nervous system manifestations can occur frequently and include ... All individuals with acute infection should be treated. The success rate is better for treatment of acute infection than of ... Infection usually occurs by the bite of triatomine blood-sucking insect vectors that typically feed on areas of the face such ...https://www.renalandurologynews.com/home/decision-support-in-medicine/dermatology/chagas-disease-american-trypanosomiasis/
An uncommon cause of seizures in children living in developed countries: neurocysticercosis -a case report | Springer for...
Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasitic infection of central nervous system . Taenia solium, responsible of the ... This case emphasizes the need to consider a parasitic infection of the central nervous system, particularly neurocysticercosis ... including the central nervous system, where cysticerci develops .. The clinical manifestations of neurocysticercosis are ... A large part of individuals holding the parasite in the central nervous system are asymptomatic . In some patients symptoms ...https://rd.springer.com/article/10.1186/1824-7288-37-9
The basis of color in muscle foods | Meta
Central Nervous System Parasitic Infections. Central nervous system parasitic infections can occur when parasites invade the ... Central Nervous System Parasitic Infections. Central nervous system parasitic infections can occur when parasites invade the ... Blastomycosis fungal infections spread through inhaling Blastomyces dermatitidis spores. Discover the latest research on ... Blastomycosis fungal infections spread through inhaling Blastomyces dermatitidis spores. Discover the latest research on ...https://www.meta.org/papers/the-basis-of-color-in-muscle-foods/336284
Neurology | Clinical Programs | Clinical Programs | All-Pages
Bacterial, fungal, viral, and parasitic infections of the central nervous system. *• Brain tumors ... Our neurologists specialize in diagnosing, treating, and managing disorders of the brain and nervous system. Common ... physician may recommend an appointment with a neurologist when a patients symptoms are indicative of a brain or nervous system ... Hallmark Health System , 170 Governors Avenue , Medford MA 02155 , 781 979-3000 ...https://www.hallmarkhealth.org/Neurology/All-Pages.html
Brain Inflammation Due to Parasitic Infection in Cats | petMD
Most parasitic infections of the central nervous system are incurable and progress in severity. To prevent your cat from ... contracting such infections keep it indoors and away from wild animals. Dewormers, anthelmintics, and dirofilaricides can also ...https://www.petmd.com/cat/conditions/neurological/c_ct_encephalitis_secondary_to_parasitic_migration?page=2
Fungal and Parasitic CNS Infections | SpringerLink
Central nervous system fungal infections can be broadly divided into those that infect a healthy host such as Cryptococcus, ... In addition to the fungi, several parasitic infections can cause central nervous system infections in children. Of these, ... Imaging features of central nervous system fungal infections. Neurol India. 2007;55:241-50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Central nervous system fungal infections can be broadly divided into those that infect a healthy host such as Cryptococcus, ...https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12098-017-2487-x
Taenia solium Tapeworm Infection, Oregon, 2006-2009 - Volume 17, Number 6-June 2011 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC
We screened for T. solium infection by examining hospital billing codes and medical charts for NCC diagnosed during January 1, ... In 22 households, we confirmed 2 additional NCC case-patients but no current adult intestinal tapeworm infections. NCC is of ... is a parasitic infection of the central nervous system caused by Taenia solium larval cysts. Its epidemiology in cysticercosis- ... Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic infection of the central nervous system caused by Taenia solium larval cysts. Its ...https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/17/6/10-1397_article
Medscape CME Activity - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic infection of the central nervous system caused by Taenia solium larval cysts. Its ... The most severe manifestation involves infection of the central nervous system, neurognathostomiasis. Although gnathostomiasis ... Neurognathostomiasis, a Neglected Parasitosis of the Central Nervous System [PDF - 323 KB - 7 pages] J. Katchanov et al. View ... Neurognathostomiasis, a Neglected Parasitosis of the Central Nervous System. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(7):1174-1180 ...https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/articles/cme/volume-17
Treatment of cerebral cysticercosis with albendazole in elevated dosages
Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system (CNS)1-3. It has been estimated that 50 ... The hexacanth embryo reaches the CNS, via the vascular system. It passes through the capillar wall in the encephalic parenchyma ... In 1999, the patient developed cysts in the quadrigeminal cisterna, with supratentorial dilatation of the ventricular system, ... Fisiopatologia, diagnóstico e tratamento da cisticercose do sistema nervoso central. Temas atuais de neurocirurgia: ...http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0004-282X2008000100032&lng=en&nrm=iso
Enteroparasitosis infections among renal transplant recipients in Khartoum state, Sudan 2012-2013 | BMC Research Notes | Full...
Intestinal parasitic infection was observed in 118 participants and the overall frequency was 19.7%; of which 64 were cases ( ... The risk of harboring parasitic diseases may affect transplant recipients during life expectancy. We aimed in this study to ... Parasitic central nervous system infections in immunocompromised hosts. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;40(7):1005-15.View ArticleGoogle ... Parasitic infection in renal transplant recipients. Transplant Proc. 2007;39:460-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. ...https://bmcresnotes.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13104-018-3716-8
Scientists work to eliminate disease carried by pigs - Fogarty International Center @ NIH
Cysticercosis is a preventable parasitic infection of the central nervous system caused by the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. A ...https://www.fic.nih.gov/News/GlobalHealthMatters/march-april-2015/Pages/neurocysticercosis-peru.aspx
Brain Tissue Swelling and Seizure Activity in Inactive Cysticercosis - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Parasitic Diseases. Central Nervous System Helminthiasis. Central Nervous System Parasitic Infections. Central Nervous System ... Central Nervous System Diseases. Nervous System Diseases. Neurologic Manifestations. Signs and Symptoms. Cestode Infections. ... First, although by definition these lesions are inactive, e.g., not living larvae and do not require anti-parasitic treatment, ... This study will examine what causes seizures in patients with cysticercosis (pork tapeworm infection). A better understanding ...https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00001912
OccurLatest researchOpportunistic infectionsBacterialDisordersDiseasesIntestinalCongenital infectionTapeworm InfectionChronicSchistosomiasisCerebralDiagnosisCystsIntracellularSeverityIntracranialToxoplasmosisSusceptibleOrganOrganismsLesionsPatient'sPorkBrainImmuneAdultOccursChildrenPatientsSpecificLeadsWildHumanYears
- Central nervous system parasitic infections can occur when parasites invade the blood-brain barrier and can also occur in immunocompromised patients. (meta.org)
- Discover the latest research central nervous system parasitic infections here. (meta.org)
- If not treated right away, bacterial meningitis can lead to complications, such as seizures, coma, stroke, or septicemia, which is a serious infection of the bloodstream. (everydayhealth.com)
- A weakened immune system can put you at increased risk for developing both viral and bacterial meningitis. (everydayhealth.com)
- They defend against bacterial or fungal infection. (wikipedia.org)
- Our neurologists specialize in diagnosing, treating, and managing disorders of the brain and nervous system. (hallmarkhealth.org)
- The Company also markets a portfolio of branded pharmaceutical products through its Specialty segment focused principally on central nervous system disorders and parasitic infections. (businesswire.com)
- Aguirre AA, Basu N, Kahn LH, Morin XK, Echaubard P, Wilcox BA, Beasley VR (2019) Transdisciplinary and social-ecological health frameworks-Novel approaches to emerging parasitic and vector-borne diseases. (springer.com)
- The risk of harboring parasitic diseases may affect transplant recipients during life expectancy. (biomedcentral.com)
- In Sudan, intestinal parasites were transmitted via contaminated fresh vegetables that eaten on daily basis [ 20 ], indicating that public health being at high risk of infection with intestinal parasites, resulting in the increase of parasitic diseases harboring by susceptible immunocompromised patients particularly those of renal transplantation. (biomedcentral.com)
- The severity of congenital infection varies, but in France, where maternal seroconversions during pregnancy are treated, the manifestations of the disease are often infraclinical at birth and only appear during the first years of life in the form of retinochoroiditis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Schistosomiasis has been detected in the placenta and newborns have been diagnosed with the disease, thus confirming congenital infection. (medscape.com)
- According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, there are approximately 10 million people with chronic infection. (renalandurologynews.com)
- The latter are more common during the acute phase of the infection but are rarely seen during the chronic phase. (renalandurologynews.com)
- Fungal central nervous system infections should be suspected in any child with subacute to chronic febrile encephalopathy or meningitis with or without raised intracranial pressure, seizures, orbital pain and/or sero-sanguinous nasal discharge. (springer.com)
- The role of immunology in studies of parasitic infections with special reference to schistosomiasis. (princeton.edu)
- Urinary tract morbidity in schistosomiasis haematobia: associations with age and intensity of infection in an endemic area of Coast Province, Kenya. (medscape.com)
- Nmorsi O, Ukwandu N, Egwungenya O, Obhiemi N. Evaluation of CD4(+)/CD8(+) status and urinary tract infections associated with urinary schistosomiasis among some rural Nigerians. (medscape.com)
- The infection creates cysts in the brain, causing seizures and headaches among other symptoms. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- In 1999, the patient developed cysts in the quadrigeminal cisterna, with supratentorial dilatation of the ventricular system, without symptoms of intracranial hypertension ( Fig 1B ). (scielo.br)
- Management of fungal central nervous system infections include specific antifungal therapy and supportive measures for associated problems, management of underlying predisposing condition and surgical intervention in cases with localized disease, abscess or presence of simultaneous foreign body such as intracranial shunts. (springer.com)
- It is almost always due to reactivation of old CNS lesions or to hematogenous spread of a previously acquired infection. (medscape.com)
- First, although by definition these lesions are inactive, e.g., not living larvae and do not require anti-parasitic treatment, they are frequently mistaken for active lesions and patients undergo unnecessary treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Houston S, Kowalewska-Grochowska K, Naik S, McKean J, Johnson ES, and Warren K. First Report of Schistosoma mekongi Infection with Brain Involvement. (medscape.com)
- A particular area of interest within the brain is the hypothalamus that acts as a homeostatic regulator controlling the endocrine system, biological rhythms, cardiovascular system, and general autonomic tone. (yalecancercenter.org)
- Valnoctamide Inhibits Cytomegalovirus Infection in Developing Brain and Attenuates Neurobehavioral Dysfunctions and Brain Abnormalities. (yalecancercenter.org)
- It often begins as a respiratory infection that then travels to the brain. (everydayhealth.com)
- This decline in active infection may reflect that individuals have an increasing host immune response or a decreasing exposure to contaminated water as they age. (medscape.com)
- White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders. (wikipedia.org)
- This indicates a weakened immune system. (wikipedia.org)
- CNS disease occurs during advanced HIV infection when CD4 + counts are less than 200 cells/µL. (medscape.com)
- Infection usually occurs by the bite of triatomine blood-sucking insect vectors that typically feed on areas of the face such as the conjunctiva and thus are frequently referred to as the kissing bug. (renalandurologynews.com)
- As these treatments carry certain risks, which may be severe, notably with regard to haematological or skin conditions, they have to be supervised closely with biological tests, which adds further constraints for both the children and their parents and increases the cost to health care systems. (clinicaltrials.gov)