A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the brain, spinal cord, or meninges.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A low molecular weight peptide of about 800-1000 having a negative inotropic effect. It is released into the circulation during experimental hemorrhagic pancreatitis, severe ischemia, and postoligemic shock.
Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.
The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Inflammation of blood vessels within the central nervous system. Primary vasculitis is usually caused by autoimmune or idiopathic factors, while secondary vasculitis is caused by existing disease process. Clinical manifestations are highly variable but include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; behavioral alterations; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; and BRAIN INFARCTION. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp856-61)
A class of drugs producing both physiological and psychological effects through a variety of mechanisms. They can be divided into "specific" agents, e.g., affecting an identifiable molecular mechanism unique to target cells bearing receptors for that agent, and "nonspecific" agents, those producing effects on different target cells and acting by diverse molecular mechanisms. Those with nonspecific mechanisms are generally further classed according to whether they produce behavioral depression or stimulation. Those with specific mechanisms are classed by locus of action or specific therapeutic use. (From Gilman AG, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p252)
A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)
MYCOSES of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges which may result in ENCEPHALITIS; MENINGITIS, FUNGAL; MYELITIS; BRAIN ABSCESS; and EPIDURAL ABSCESS. Certain types of fungi may produce disease in immunologically normal hosts, while others are classified as opportunistic pathogens, causing illness primarily in immunocompromised individuals (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME).
A carbamate with hypnotic, sedative, and some muscle relaxant properties, although in therapeutic doses reduction of anxiety rather than a direct effect may be responsible for muscle relaxation. Meprobamate has been reported to have anticonvulsant actions against petit mal seizures, but not against grand mal seizures (which may be exacerbated). It is used in the treatment of ANXIETY DISORDERS, and also for the short-term management of INSOMNIA but has largely been superseded by the BENZODIAZEPINES. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p603)
Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Bacterial infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges, including infections involving the perimeningeal spaces.
A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.
The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
Tuberculosis of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges (TUBERCULOSIS, MENINGEAL), most often caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and rarely by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The infection may be limited to the nervous system or coexist in other organs (e.g., TUBERCULOSIS, PULMONARY). The organism tends to seed the meninges causing a diffuse meningitis and leads to the formation of TUBERCULOMA, which may occur within the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal spaces. Tuberculous involvement of the vertebral column (TUBERCULOSIS, SPINAL) may result in nerve root or spinal cord compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-20)
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes arising from or involving components of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, cranial nerves, and meninges. Included in this category are primary and metastatic nervous system neoplasms.
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.
An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
A dopamine agonist and serotonin antagonist. It has been used similarly to BROMOCRIPTINE as a dopamine agonist and also for MIGRAINE DISORDERS therapy.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.
A tricyclic dibenzazepine compound that potentiates neurotransmission. Desipramine selectively blocks reuptake of norepinephrine from the neural synapse, and also appears to impair serotonin transport. This compound also possesses minor anticholinergic activity, through its affinity to muscarinic receptors.
Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
The prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking DOPAMINE RECEPTORS. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.
Traumatic injuries to the brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, autonomic nervous system, or neuromuscular system, including iatrogenic injuries induced by surgical procedures.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
MYELIN-specific proteins that play a structural or regulatory role in the genesis and maintenance of the lamellar MYELIN SHEATH structure.
A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
A CNS stimulant that is used to induce convulsions in experimental animals. It has also been used as a respiratory stimulant and in the treatment of barbiturate overdose.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.

Ciprofloxacin decreases the rate of ethanol elimination in humans. (1/1532)

BACKGROUND: Extrahepatic ethanol metabolism is postulated to take place via microbial oxidation in the colon, mediated by aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria. AIMS: To evaluate the role of microbial ethanol oxidation in the total elimination rate of ethanol in humans by reducing gut flora with ciprofloxacin. METHODS: Ethanol was administered intravenously at the beginning and end of a one week period to eight male volunteers. Between ethanol doses volunteers received 750 mg ciprofloxacin twice daily. RESULTS: A highly significant (p=0.001) reduction in the ethanol elimination rate (EER) was detected after ciprofloxacin medication. Mean (SEM) EER was 107.0 (5.3) and 96.9 (4.8) mg/kg/h before and after ciprofloxacin, respectively. Faecal Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus sp. were totally absent after medication, and faecal acetaldehyde production capacity was significantly (p<0.05) decreased from 0.91 (0.15) to 0.39 (0.08) nmol/min/mg protein. Mean faecal alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity was significantly (p<0. 05) decreased after medication, but ciprofloxacin did not inhibit human hepatic ADH activity in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Ciprofloxacin treatment decreased the ethanol elimination rate by 9.4%, with a concomitant decrease in intestinal aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria, faecal ADH activity, and acetaldehyde production. As ciprofloxacin has no effect on liver blood flow, hepatic ADH activity, or cytochrome CYP2E1 activity, these effects are probably caused by the reduction in intestinal flora.  (+info)

Acute effects of ethanol on kainate receptors with different subunit compositions. (2/1532)

Previous studies showed that recombinant homomeric GluR6 receptors are acutely inhibited by ethanol. This study examined the acute actions of ethanol on recombinant homomeric and heteromeric kainate (KA) receptors with different subunit configurations. Application of 25 to 100 mM ethanol produced inhibition of a similar magnitude of both GluR5-Q and GluR6-R KA receptor-dependent currents in Xenopus oocytes. Ethanol decreased the KA Emax without affecting the EC50 and its effect was independent of the membrane holding potential for both of these receptors subtypes. Ethanol also inhibited homomeric and heteromeric receptors transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. In these cells, the expression of heteromeric GluR6-R subunit-containing receptors was confirmed by testing their sensitivity to 1 mM alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid. Ethanol inhibited to a similar extent KA-gated currents mediated by receptors composed of either GluR6 or GluR6 + KA1 subunits, and to a slightly lesser extent receptors composed of GluR6 + KA2 subunits. Acute ethanol's effects were tested on GluR5 KA receptors that are expressed as homomers (GluR5-Q) or heteromers (GluR5-R + KA1 and GluR5-R + KA2). Homomeric and heteromeric GluR5 KA receptors were all inhibited to a similar extent by ethanol; however, there was slightly more inhibition of GluR5-R + KA2 receptors. Thus, recombinant KA receptors with different subunit compositions are all acutely inhibited to a similar extent by ethanol. In light of recent reports that KA receptors regulate neurotransmitter release and mediate synaptic currents, we postulate that these receptors may play a role in acute ethanol intoxication.  (+info)

NMDA receptor characterization and subunit expression in rat cultured mesencephalic neurones. (3/1532)

1. NMDA-induced changes in free intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were determined in individual cultured rat mesencephalic neurones by the fura-2 method. mRNA expression encoding NMDA receptor subunits (NR1, NR2A-D) was examined by RT-PCR. 2. NMDA (1-100 microM, plus 10 microM glycine) induced a concentration-dependent increase in [Ca2+]i (EC50 = 5.7 microM). The effect of NMDA was virtually insensitive to tetrodotoxin (0.3 microM) and nitrendipine (1 microM), but dependent on extracellular Ca2+. 5,7-Dichlorokynurenic acid (10 microM), a specific antagonist at the glycine binding site on the NMDA receptor, abolished the NMDA response. 3. Memantine, an open-channel blocker, and ifenprodil, a preferential non-competitive NR1/NR2B receptor antagonist diminished the NMDA effect with an IC50 value of 0.17 and 1 microM, respectively. Ethanol at 50 and 100 mM caused about 25 and 45%-inhibition, respectively. 4. Agarose gel analysis of the PCR products followed by ethidium bromide fluorescence or CSPD chemiluminescence detection revealed an almost exclusive expression of the NR1 splice variants lacking exon (E) 5 and E22. The 3' splice form without both E21 and E22 exceeded that containing E21 by approximately 4 fold. The relative amounts of NR2A, NR2B, NR2C corresponded to approximately 1:2:1. NR2D mRNA was also detectable. 5. In conclusion, mesencephalic neurones bear ethanol-sensitive NMDA receptors which might be involved in the development of ethanol dependence and withdrawal. The high affinity of NMDA to this receptor, its sensitivity to ifenprodil and memantine may suggest that the mesencephalic NMDA receptor comprises the NR1 splice variant lacking E5, NR2B, and NR2C, respectively.  (+info)

Effects of alcohol and cholesterol feeding on lipoprotein metabolism and cholesterol absorption in rabbits. (4/1532)

Alcohol fed to rabbits in a liquid formula at 30% of calories increased plasma cholesterol by 36% in the absence of dietary cholesterol and by 40% in the presence of a 0.5% cholesterol diet. The increase was caused almost entirely by VLDL, IDL, and LDL. Cholesterol feeding decreased the fractional catabolic rate for VLDL and LDL apoprotein by 80% and 57%, respectively, and increased the production rate of VLDL and LDL apoprotein by 75% and 15%, respectively. Alcohol feeding had no effect on VLDL apoprotein production but increased LDL production rate by 55%. The efficiency of intestinal cholesterol absorption was increased by alcohol. In the presence of dietary cholesterol, percent cholesterol absorption rose from 34.4+/-2.6% to 44.9+/-2.5% and in the absence of dietary cholesterol, from 84.3+/-1.4% to 88.9+/-1.0%. Increased cholesterol absorption and increased LDL production rate may be important mechanisms for exacerbation by alcohol of hypercholesterolemia in the cholesterol-fed rabbit model.  (+info)

Mode of action of ICS 205,930, a novel type of potentiator of responses to glycine in rat spinal neurones. (5/1532)

The effect of a novel potentiator of glycine responses, ICS 205,930, was studied by whole-cell recordings from spinal neurones, and compared with that of other known potentiators, in an attempt to differentiate their sites of action. The ability of ICS 205,930 (0.2 microM) to potentiate glycine responses persisted in the presence of concentrations of Zn2+ (5-10 microM) that were saturating for the potentiating effect of this ion. Preincubation with 10 microM Zn2+ before application of glycine plus Zn2+ had an inhibitory effect, which did not result from Zn2+ entry into the neurone, since it persisted with either 10 mM internal EGTA or 10 microM internal Zn2+. To test whether the potentiating effects of ICS 205,930 and Zn2+ interact, both compounds were applied without preincubation. The potentiating effect of ICS 205,930 was similar for responses to glycine and for responses to glycine plus Zn2+, provided the concentrations of agonist were adjusted so as to induce control responses of identical amplitudes. ICS 205,930 remained able to potentiate glycine responses in the presence of ethanol (200 mM). ICS 205,930 also retained its potentiating effect in the presence of the anaesthetic propofol (30 90 microM), which strongly potentiated glycine responses but, in contrast with ICS 205,930, also markedly increased the resting conductance. The anticonvulsant chlormethiazole (50-100 microM) neither potentiated glycine responses nor prevented the effect of ICS 205,930, even though it increased the resting conductance and potentiated GABA(A) responses. The mechanism of action of ICS 205,930 appears to be different from those by which Zn2+, propofol or ethanol potentiate glycine responses.  (+info)

Sweat ethanol concentrations are highly correlated with co-existing blood values in humans. (6/1532)

This study compared the concentration of ethanol, both absolute and relative to water content, in sweat and blood. Ten male volunteers consumed approximately 13 mmol (kg body weight)-1 of ethanol. Blood and sweat samples were collected approximately 1, 2 and 3 h following ingestion. Sweat was collected following pilocarpine iontophoresis using an anaerobic technique that prevented ethanol evaporation. In addition, the water content of sweat and blood samples was determined. The correlation between sweat and blood ethanol, expressed in mmol l-1, was r = 0.98. The slope of the relationship was 0.81. When corrected for the water content in each sample, and expressed as mmoles per litre of water, the correlation remained very high (r = 0.97) while the slope increased to 1.01. These results suggest that rapid and complete equilibrium of ethanol occurs across the sweat gland epithelium.  (+info)

Diffusion of dialkylnitrosamines into the rat esophagus as a factor in esophageal carcinogenesis. (7/1532)

To indicate how readily nitrosamines (NAms) diffuse into the esophagus, we measured diffusion rate (flux) through rat esophagus of dialkyl-NAms using side-by-side diffusion apparatuses. Mucosal and serosal flux at 37 degrees C of two NAms, each at 50 microM, was followed for 90 min by gas chromatography-thermal energy analysis of NAms in the receiver chamber. Mucosal flux of one or two NAms at a time gave identical results. Mucosal flux was highest for the strong esophageal carcinogens methyl-n-amyl-NAm (MNAN) and methylbenzyl-NAm. Mucosal esophageal flux of 11 NAms was 18-280 times faster and flux of two NAms through skin was 13-28 times faster than that predicted for skin from the molecular weights and octanol:water partition coefficients, which were also measured. Mucosal: serosal flux ratio was correlated (P < 0.05) with esophageal carcinogenicity and molecular weight. For seven NAms tested for carcinogenicity by Druckrey et al. [(1967) Z. Krebsforsch., 69, 103-201], mucosal flux was correlated with esophageal carcinogenicity with borderline significance (P = 0.07). The MNAN:dipropyl-NAm ratio for mucosal esophageal flux was unaffected when rats were treated with phenethylisothiocyanate and was similar to that for forestomach, indicating no involvement by cytochromes P450. Mucosal esophageal flux of MNAN and dimethyl-NAm was reduced by >90% on enzymic removal of the stratum corneum, was unaffected by 0.1 mM verapamil and was inhibited 67-94% by 1.0 mM KCN and 82-93% by 0.23% ethanol. NAm flux through rat skin and jejunum was 5-17% of that through esophagus. Flux through skin increased 5-13 times after enzymic or mechanical removal of the epidermis; the histology probably explained this difference from esophagus. Hence, NAms could be quite rapidly absorbed by human esophagus when NAm-containing foods or beverages are swallowed, the esophageal carcinogenicity of NAms may be partly determined by their esophageal flux and NAm flux probably occurs by passive diffusion.  (+info)

Dental anesthetic management of a patient with ventricular arrhythmias. (8/1532)

During routine deep sedation for endodontic therapy, a dentist-anesthesiologist observed premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) on a 62-yr-old woman's electrocardiogram (EKG) tracing. The dentist was able to complete the root canal procedure under intravenous (i.v.) sedation without any problems. The dentist-anesthesiologist referred the patient for medical evaluation. She was found to be free from ischemic cardiac disease with normal ventricular function. The patient was cleared to continue her dental treatment with deep sedation. She subsequently continued to undergo dental treatment with deep intravenous sedation without incident, although her EKG exhibited frequent PVCs, up to 20 per minute, including couplets and episodes of trigeminy. This article will review indications for medical intervention, antiarrhythmic medications, and anesthetic interventions for perioperative PVCs.  (+info)

​GHB is a central nervous system depressant that causes drowsiness and reduces heart rate. It is used to treat sleep disorders but can be dangerous if misused.
The most commonly abused prescription drugs among teenagers are opioids, central nervous system depressants, and stimulants - like Roxies.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of acute ethanol administration on hepatic protein and glycoprotein secretion in vivo. AU - Volentine, G. D.. AU - Tuma, D. J.. AU - Sorrell, M. F.. PY - 1982/1/1. Y1 - 1982/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0020355393&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0020355393&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0020355393. VL - 2. SP - No. 89. JO - Hepatology. JF - Hepatology. SN - 0270-9139. IS - 5. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stable histone methylation changes at proteoglycan network genes following ethanol exposure. AU - Gavin, David P.. AU - Hashimoto, Joel G.. AU - Lazar, Nathan H.. AU - Carbone, Lucia. AU - Crabbe, John Jr. AU - Guizzetti, Marina. PY - 2018/8/30. Y1 - 2018/8/30. N2 - Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a chronic mental illness in which patients often achieve protracted periods of abstinence prior to relapse. Epigenetic mechanisms may provide an explanation for the persisting gene expression changes that can be observed even after long periods of abstinence and may contribute to relapse. In this study, we examined two histone modifications, histone 3 lysine 4 tri-methylation (H3K4me3) and histone 3 lysine 27 tri-methylation (H3K27me3), in the prefrontal cortex of Withdrawal Seizure Resistant (WSR) mice 21 days after 72 h of ethanol vapor exposure. These histone modifications were selected because they are associated with active promoters (H3K4me3) and repressed gene expression in a ...
The Ethanol Effect is the newest hour-long special from the team behind Detroit Public Televisions Alfred I. DuPont/Columbia University Award-winning series Beyond the Light Switch.. From Iowas farm fields to Washingtons corridors of power, and from the algae-choked surface of the Great Lakes to the poisoned depths of the Gulf of Mexico, The Ethanol Effect investigates the human, environmental and political costs of growing and refining corn for ethanol in America. Our guide through the tangled web of ethanols influence is David Biello. Follow Biello as he untangles the web of ethanols unexpected influence on our daily in The Ethanol Effect ...
The Ethanol Effect is the newest hour-long special from the team behind Detroit Public Televisions Alfred I. DuPont/Columbia University Award-winning series Beyond the Light Switch.. From Iowas farm fields to Washingtons corridors of power, and from the algae-choked surface of the Great Lakes to the poisoned depths of the Gulf of Mexico, The Ethanol Effect investigates the human, environmental and political costs of growing and refining corn for ethanol in America. Our guide through the tangled web of ethanols influence is David Biello. Follow Biello as he untangles the web of ethanols unexpected influence on our daily in The Ethanol Effect ...
The present article provides an up-to-date review summarizing almost 18 years of research in genetically selected Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring (msP) rats. The results of this work demonstrate that msP rats have natural preference for ethanol characterized by a spontaneous binge-type of drinking that leads to pharmacologically significant blood ethanol levels. This rat line is highly vulnerable to relapse and presentation of stimuli predictive of alcohol availability or foot-shock stress can reinstate extinguished drug-seeking up to 8 months from the last alcohol experience. The msP rat is highly sensitive to stress, shows an anxious phenotype and has depressive-like symptoms that recover following ethanol drinking. Interestingly, these animals have an up-regulated corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) receptor 1 system. Clinical studies have shown that alcoholic patients often drink ethanol in the attempt to self-medicate from negative affective states and to search for anxiety ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Subcellular location of secretory proteins retained in the liver during the ethanol-induced inhibition of hepatic protein secretion in the rat. AU - Volentine, Gary D. AU - Tuma, Dean J. AU - Sorrell, Michael Floyd. PY - 1986/1/1. Y1 - 1986/1/1. N2 - Ethanol administration inhibits the secretion of proteins by the liver, resulting in their hepatocellular retention. Experiments were designed in this study to determine the subcellular location of the retained secretory proteins. Ethanol was administered acutely to nonfasted rats by gastric intubation, whereas control animals received an isocaloric dose of glucose. Two hours after intubation, when maximum blood ethanol levels (45 mM) were observed, [3H]leucine and [14C]fucose were injected simultaneously into the dorsal vein of the penis. The labeling of secretory proteins was determined in the liver and plasma at various time periods after label injection. Ethanol treatment decreased the secretion of both leucine- and ...
March 2013. Subjects. This model has been predominantly been studied using adult (65-75 days of age) male C57BL/6J mice obtained from Jackson Laboratories (Bar Harbor, ME). Although experimental parameters have been optimized using these mice, we have conducted studies with adult female C57BL/6J mice, as well as other inbred mouse strains including DBA/2J and C3H/Hecr, selectively bred HAP/LAP lines, and and BXD RI lines. Mice are acclimated to the facility for at least two weeks prior to experimental use. Mice are individually housed in standard polypropylene pans with wood-chip bedding and stainless steel wire lids. The mice are housed under a modified light/dark cycle (lights on at 0200 hr) to allow for behavioral testing to be conducted during the dark phase of the cycle. Rodent food (Wayne Lab-Blox) and water is available ad libitum at all times during the studies.. General Experimental Design and Strategy. The overall objective of this chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure model ...
Previous studies in mice and rats have shown that selective breeding for high and low ethanol preference results in divergence of circadian phenotype in the selected lines. These results indicate that some alleles influencing ethanol preference also contribute to circadian rhythm regulation. Selective breeding has also been used to produce lines of mice differing in a number of other ethanol-related traits, while studies of phenotypic and genetic correlation indicate that diverse ethanol-related traits are influenced by both shared and unshared genetics. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Body temperature differentially affects ethanol sensitivity in both inbred strains and selected lines of mice. AU - Finn, Deborah (Deb). AU - Bejanian, M.. AU - Jones, B. L.. AU - McGivern, R. F.. AU - Syapin, P. J.. AU - Crabbe, John Jr. AU - Alkana, R. L.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - Offsetting ethanol-induced hypothermia in five inbred strains of mice changed ethanol sensitivity within strains and markedly reduced differences between strains in brain sensitivity to hypnotic ethanol doses. The present study extended this work to mice selectivity bred for sensitivity and resistance to ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex (LORR) and hypothermia. In all experiments LORR duration and ethanol concentrations at return of righting reflex were measured after i.p. hypnotic ethanol doses and exposure to 22 or 34°C. In experiment 1, C57BL/6J, A/HeJ, 129/J, LS/Ibg and SS/Ibg mice were given 4.2 g/kg ethanol. In experiment 2, the same mouse genotypes were tested with different ethanol ...
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BACKGROUND: We aimed in the present study, at investigating the gastroprotective effect of carob pods aqueous extract (CPAE) against ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rats as well as the mechanism implicated. METHODS: Adult male wistar rats were used and divided into six groups of ten each: control, EtOH (80% v/v, 4 g/kg b.w.), EtOH 80% + various doses of CPAE (500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, b.w.) and EtOH + Famotidine (10 mg/kg, p.o.) Animals were perorally (p.o.) pre-treated with CPAE during 15 days and intoxicated with a single oral administration of EtOH (4 g/kg b.w.) for two hours. RESULTS: The colorimetric analysis demonstrated that the CPAE exhibited an importance in vitro antioxidant activity against ABTS and DPPH radicals. We found that CPAE pretreatment in vivo, protected against EtOH-induced macroscopic and histological changes induced in stomach mucosa. Carob extract administration also protected against alcohol-induced volume gastric juice decrease. More importantly, We showed that CPAE
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Chronic alcohol exposure affects the central nervous system, influences behavior, and induces neuroadaptive changes in vertebrate species including our own. literature to be alcohol related. We conclude that the zebrafish is an excellent tool for the analysis of genes associated with alcohols actions in vertebrates, one which may facilitate the discovery and better understanding of […]. ...
How Does E85 Ethanol Affect You? - What is the effect of E85 ethanol flex fuel on the consumer? Learn the answer at HowStuffWorks, including why it is available in only some states.
The effects of ethanol on a fetus are extensive, devastating, and often permanent. Depending upon the population, ethanol affects as many as 2% of all live birt...
Study Flashcards On Nervous System Depressants and Muscle relaxants at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Alcohol affects a number of different biochemical pathways and a better understanding of the factors that contribute to alcohol abuse and addiction could lead to improved treatments. Since a lower initial response to the effects of alcohol has been found to correlate with increased risk of future alcoholism, identification of the genes and pathways involved in the acute response might throw light on the genetic factors contributing to addiction. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, reacts in much the same way as mammals to acute ethanol exposure and a team led by Ulrike Heberlein at the University of California is using the fly to explore the links between genetic make-up and response to alcohol. Their latest find is that flies with a mutant version of a gene that they have designated happyhour are less sensitive to the sedative effects of alcohol than flies with a normal copy of the gene. Further studies showed that the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-signalling pathway regulates ethanol ...
Dipole moment of methanol is less than ethanol?Can you tell me what is the efftect of iductive effect on dipole moment. The correct decreasing order of stabili
Eight standard inbred mouse strains were evaluated for ethanol effects on a refined battery of behavioral tests in a study that was originally designed to assess the influence of rat odors in the colony on mouse behaviors. As part of the design of the study, two experimenters conducted the tests, an …
Some farm groups and farm-state lawmakers are expressing anger at the Trump administration over final ethanol rules that they say fail to uphold the presidents promises to the industry
U.S. ethanol and corn groups are irate as Brazil reimposes a 20% tariff on U.S. ethanol following a breakdown in talks between the two countries.
NEW YORK - A U.S. ethanol industry group is pushing lawmakers to craft legislation requiring fuel companies to inform customers what country their fuel came from in hopes of increasing awareness about money spent on oil imported from overseas.
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Intoxicated: 22-33 mmol/L (0.10-0.15 g/100 mL). Poisoned: 44-66 mmol/L (0.20-0.30 g/100 mL). Often fatal: , 88 mmol/L (, 0.40 g/100 mL).. Legal limits vary. For specific information contact local authorities.. Commonly, the legal driving limit is 0.05% that is, 11 mmol/L or 0.05 g/100 mL. In some regions it is 0.08% ,that is, 18 mmol/L or 0.08 g/100 mL.. ...
Zapper, Im sorry to hear you had such a bad episode but it sounds like it has passed. I have been unable to determine what causes my ibs attacks. At first I attributed them to food intolerances but later concluded I am uncertain of the causes. I will have normal BMs and feel fine for days and then have symptoms occurs suddenly. Just sudden onset of cramping spasming etc. sometimes it will last a half day, sometimes up to three days. ... it is starting to wear on me psychologically. My doctor put me on klonopin a few weeks ago. I guess it helps me cope or really just be spaced out and not care. I think it has decreased my ibs symptoms some; it is a central nervous system depressant. I just want to be normal again. I feel like my spiritual stamina is just shot. Every time I think Im improving, I find out Im not. having a messed up GI system is the most psychologically difficult ordeal I have ever been through. You have been amazingly strong through what you have been through ...
All of the costs associated of making ethanol are tied up in the cost of corn and grain and so if you are not careful with buying grain you can be in trouble fast.. While it seems like a lot of gloom and doom for the nations ethanol industry featuring grain and fuel price volatility. Those who study the industry say there is no way ethanol plants dont have a role in the future of alternative energy. Ethanol has had wonderful times but have gone thru a dry spot the last 9 months but they have a rosy future.. Meantime the ethanol industry waits to see the impact of the corn harvest. Part of a cycle these plants live and die by.. Not going away, in fact I think it will continue to grow. ...
There are many opportunities for market growth in the ethanol space, and the National Corn Growers Association (NCGA)works closely with the ethanol associations to help share the story of the benefits of ethanol and drive demand locally and in Washington D.C. Growth Energy CEO Emily Skor sat downwith Iowa corn farmer and Ethanol Action Team Vice Chair Kelly Nieuwenhuis to talk about small refinery exemptions (SREs), E15 in the marketplace and future market growth opportunities.
Alcohol is a direct cause of seven forms of cancer. Tough words to swallow, but those are the conclusions of researchers from New Zealand, who say they found that no matter how much you drink, alcohol will increase your risk of cancer.
Alcohol ingested orally is transported to the colon by blood circulation, and after the distribution phase, intracolonic ethanol levels are equal to those in the blood. Recent studies in our laboratory suggest that in the large bowel ethanol is oxidized by a bacteriocolonic pathway. In this pathway …
The number of air rage incidents has risen by nearly a third fuelled by drinking on flights, according to government figures.
J.D. Power and Associates regularly sends out updates on how vehicle sales are doing in Canada. And like forecasting companies across Canada and the U.S., it reports on how many flexible-fuel vehicles - those that can use E85, a fuel thats primarily made up of plant-based ethanol - are sold....
Classification: Depressant Alcohol is a CNSCentral Nervous System depressant that acts through the GABAa receptor, and is one of the most common strong psychoactives used by humans. It has a long history of use and its intoxicating effects are well-studied and -documented. ...
Borodkin, I.S.; Lapina, I.A.; Iaichnikov, I.K., 1982: Effect of low doses of ethanol on the small oscillations of superslow activity and the temperature of the brain
Ethanol Today is a monthly publication produced by the American Coalition for Ethanol. It is the Grassroots voice of the Ethanol Industry and covers topics including current ethanol industry advancements in the production of ethanol, the topics associated with passing legislation in favor of ethanol usage, biological factors in the making of ethanol, and the farmers who grow crops for the production of ethanol.
Learn how drugs and alcohol cause physical changes to the brain that may lead to dependency or chronic addiction. Need help? Call 720.891.4657
Lumina Products - Ethanol | Non Ethanol Fuel Alternatives | Safety ProductsLumina Products | Ethanol | Non Ethanol Fuel Alternatives | Safety Products
етанол ethanol ethanol Ethanol αιθανόλη etanol etanool etanoli éthanol éthanol etanol etanol etanolo etanolis etanols ethanol ethanol etanol etanol etanol etanol etanol етанол etanol ...
Here are a few links to articles about the ethanol subject :crybaby: http://poweretblog.com/2008/12/federal-study-on-ethanol-in-small-engines-released/...
ETHANOL (C2H5OH) HAS A DENSITY OF 0.80g/ml. IF A 10%(v/v) MIXTURE OF ETHANOL IN WATER WAS PREPARED HOW MANY GRAMS OF ETHANOL WOULD BE IN 100ML OF THE MIXTURE? (ASSUMING MIXED VOLUME IS THE SUM OF THE PARTIAL VOLUME) ...
Ethanol Facts - Learn about ethanol how it is made and the uses of Ethanol. Discover why ethanol is a very good sustainable fuel that used used in motor cars all over the world.
ethanol fireplace reviews splashy ethanol fireplace in living room contemporary with fireplace vase next to ethanol fireplace alongside condo ethanol fireplace insert reviews.. ...
Ethanol purity is important as even low levels of contaminants can have a significant effect on the ethanols behaviour. Ethanol is available as several different grades, with the most pure being 99.9 to 100 per cent pure. Specific applications require specific levels of purity.
2-(2,3,6-TRIFLUOROPHENOXY)ETHANOL chemical properties, What are the chemical properties of 2-(2,3,6-TRIFLUOROPHENOXY)ETHANOL 72912-49-3, What are the physical properties of 2-(2,3,6-TRIFLUOROPHENOXY)ETHANOL ect.
Anti Ethanol Anti Ethanol 07 za nejvýhodnější cenu. Vyberte si v nabídce Elnino.cz váš oblíbený parfém či kosmetiku. Doprava do 24 hodin.
Pacific Ethanol Inc. (PEIX) company profile: market capitalization, financial ratios, valuation ratios, short interest, address and number of employees for Pacific Ethanol Inc. (PEIX)
Hi, Ive been reading about using Ethanol for declotting lines with lipids. Is anyone doing this out there and where do you get the ethanol? Thanks
One ethanol producer aims to enter the IPO market next week, and another is planning to later this year, despite mediocre trading from two other ethanol stocks that made their debuts this summer.
Musket operates three unit train facilities to efficiently distribute ethanol for customers at competitive prices. We also operate manifest supply at several terminals, as the market dictates.
Domestic ethanol stocks posted the first draw in three weeks as blending demand continued higher during the third week of November, reaching the highest level since late October.

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