A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the brain, spinal cord, or meninges.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A low molecular weight peptide of about 800-1000 having a negative inotropic effect. It is released into the circulation during experimental hemorrhagic pancreatitis, severe ischemia, and postoligemic shock.
Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.
The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Inflammation of blood vessels within the central nervous system. Primary vasculitis is usually caused by autoimmune or idiopathic factors, while secondary vasculitis is caused by existing disease process. Clinical manifestations are highly variable but include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; behavioral alterations; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; and BRAIN INFARCTION. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp856-61)
A class of drugs producing both physiological and psychological effects through a variety of mechanisms. They can be divided into "specific" agents, e.g., affecting an identifiable molecular mechanism unique to target cells bearing receptors for that agent, and "nonspecific" agents, those producing effects on different target cells and acting by diverse molecular mechanisms. Those with nonspecific mechanisms are generally further classed according to whether they produce behavioral depression or stimulation. Those with specific mechanisms are classed by locus of action or specific therapeutic use. (From Gilman AG, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p252)
A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)
MYCOSES of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges which may result in ENCEPHALITIS; MENINGITIS, FUNGAL; MYELITIS; BRAIN ABSCESS; and EPIDURAL ABSCESS. Certain types of fungi may produce disease in immunologically normal hosts, while others are classified as opportunistic pathogens, causing illness primarily in immunocompromised individuals (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME).
A carbamate with hypnotic, sedative, and some muscle relaxant properties, although in therapeutic doses reduction of anxiety rather than a direct effect may be responsible for muscle relaxation. Meprobamate has been reported to have anticonvulsant actions against petit mal seizures, but not against grand mal seizures (which may be exacerbated). It is used in the treatment of ANXIETY DISORDERS, and also for the short-term management of INSOMNIA but has largely been superseded by the BENZODIAZEPINES. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p603)
Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Bacterial infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges, including infections involving the perimeningeal spaces.
A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.
The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
Tuberculosis of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges (TUBERCULOSIS, MENINGEAL), most often caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and rarely by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The infection may be limited to the nervous system or coexist in other organs (e.g., TUBERCULOSIS, PULMONARY). The organism tends to seed the meninges causing a diffuse meningitis and leads to the formation of TUBERCULOMA, which may occur within the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal spaces. Tuberculous involvement of the vertebral column (TUBERCULOSIS, SPINAL) may result in nerve root or spinal cord compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-20)
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes arising from or involving components of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, cranial nerves, and meninges. Included in this category are primary and metastatic nervous system neoplasms.
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.
An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
A dopamine agonist and serotonin antagonist. It has been used similarly to BROMOCRIPTINE as a dopamine agonist and also for MIGRAINE DISORDERS therapy.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.
A tricyclic dibenzazepine compound that potentiates neurotransmission. Desipramine selectively blocks reuptake of norepinephrine from the neural synapse, and also appears to impair serotonin transport. This compound also possesses minor anticholinergic activity, through its affinity to muscarinic receptors.
Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
The prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking DOPAMINE RECEPTORS. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.
Traumatic injuries to the brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, autonomic nervous system, or neuromuscular system, including iatrogenic injuries induced by surgical procedures.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
MYELIN-specific proteins that play a structural or regulatory role in the genesis and maintenance of the lamellar MYELIN SHEATH structure.
A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
A CNS stimulant that is used to induce convulsions in experimental animals. It has also been used as a respiratory stimulant and in the treatment of barbiturate overdose.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.

Ciprofloxacin decreases the rate of ethanol elimination in humans. (1/1532)

BACKGROUND: Extrahepatic ethanol metabolism is postulated to take place via microbial oxidation in the colon, mediated by aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria. AIMS: To evaluate the role of microbial ethanol oxidation in the total elimination rate of ethanol in humans by reducing gut flora with ciprofloxacin. METHODS: Ethanol was administered intravenously at the beginning and end of a one week period to eight male volunteers. Between ethanol doses volunteers received 750 mg ciprofloxacin twice daily. RESULTS: A highly significant (p=0.001) reduction in the ethanol elimination rate (EER) was detected after ciprofloxacin medication. Mean (SEM) EER was 107.0 (5.3) and 96.9 (4.8) mg/kg/h before and after ciprofloxacin, respectively. Faecal Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus sp. were totally absent after medication, and faecal acetaldehyde production capacity was significantly (p<0.05) decreased from 0.91 (0.15) to 0.39 (0.08) nmol/min/mg protein. Mean faecal alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity was significantly (p<0. 05) decreased after medication, but ciprofloxacin did not inhibit human hepatic ADH activity in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Ciprofloxacin treatment decreased the ethanol elimination rate by 9.4%, with a concomitant decrease in intestinal aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria, faecal ADH activity, and acetaldehyde production. As ciprofloxacin has no effect on liver blood flow, hepatic ADH activity, or cytochrome CYP2E1 activity, these effects are probably caused by the reduction in intestinal flora.  (+info)

Acute effects of ethanol on kainate receptors with different subunit compositions. (2/1532)

Previous studies showed that recombinant homomeric GluR6 receptors are acutely inhibited by ethanol. This study examined the acute actions of ethanol on recombinant homomeric and heteromeric kainate (KA) receptors with different subunit configurations. Application of 25 to 100 mM ethanol produced inhibition of a similar magnitude of both GluR5-Q and GluR6-R KA receptor-dependent currents in Xenopus oocytes. Ethanol decreased the KA Emax without affecting the EC50 and its effect was independent of the membrane holding potential for both of these receptors subtypes. Ethanol also inhibited homomeric and heteromeric receptors transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. In these cells, the expression of heteromeric GluR6-R subunit-containing receptors was confirmed by testing their sensitivity to 1 mM alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid. Ethanol inhibited to a similar extent KA-gated currents mediated by receptors composed of either GluR6 or GluR6 + KA1 subunits, and to a slightly lesser extent receptors composed of GluR6 + KA2 subunits. Acute ethanol's effects were tested on GluR5 KA receptors that are expressed as homomers (GluR5-Q) or heteromers (GluR5-R + KA1 and GluR5-R + KA2). Homomeric and heteromeric GluR5 KA receptors were all inhibited to a similar extent by ethanol; however, there was slightly more inhibition of GluR5-R + KA2 receptors. Thus, recombinant KA receptors with different subunit compositions are all acutely inhibited to a similar extent by ethanol. In light of recent reports that KA receptors regulate neurotransmitter release and mediate synaptic currents, we postulate that these receptors may play a role in acute ethanol intoxication.  (+info)

NMDA receptor characterization and subunit expression in rat cultured mesencephalic neurones. (3/1532)

1. NMDA-induced changes in free intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were determined in individual cultured rat mesencephalic neurones by the fura-2 method. mRNA expression encoding NMDA receptor subunits (NR1, NR2A-D) was examined by RT-PCR. 2. NMDA (1-100 microM, plus 10 microM glycine) induced a concentration-dependent increase in [Ca2+]i (EC50 = 5.7 microM). The effect of NMDA was virtually insensitive to tetrodotoxin (0.3 microM) and nitrendipine (1 microM), but dependent on extracellular Ca2+. 5,7-Dichlorokynurenic acid (10 microM), a specific antagonist at the glycine binding site on the NMDA receptor, abolished the NMDA response. 3. Memantine, an open-channel blocker, and ifenprodil, a preferential non-competitive NR1/NR2B receptor antagonist diminished the NMDA effect with an IC50 value of 0.17 and 1 microM, respectively. Ethanol at 50 and 100 mM caused about 25 and 45%-inhibition, respectively. 4. Agarose gel analysis of the PCR products followed by ethidium bromide fluorescence or CSPD chemiluminescence detection revealed an almost exclusive expression of the NR1 splice variants lacking exon (E) 5 and E22. The 3' splice form without both E21 and E22 exceeded that containing E21 by approximately 4 fold. The relative amounts of NR2A, NR2B, NR2C corresponded to approximately 1:2:1. NR2D mRNA was also detectable. 5. In conclusion, mesencephalic neurones bear ethanol-sensitive NMDA receptors which might be involved in the development of ethanol dependence and withdrawal. The high affinity of NMDA to this receptor, its sensitivity to ifenprodil and memantine may suggest that the mesencephalic NMDA receptor comprises the NR1 splice variant lacking E5, NR2B, and NR2C, respectively.  (+info)

Effects of alcohol and cholesterol feeding on lipoprotein metabolism and cholesterol absorption in rabbits. (4/1532)

Alcohol fed to rabbits in a liquid formula at 30% of calories increased plasma cholesterol by 36% in the absence of dietary cholesterol and by 40% in the presence of a 0.5% cholesterol diet. The increase was caused almost entirely by VLDL, IDL, and LDL. Cholesterol feeding decreased the fractional catabolic rate for VLDL and LDL apoprotein by 80% and 57%, respectively, and increased the production rate of VLDL and LDL apoprotein by 75% and 15%, respectively. Alcohol feeding had no effect on VLDL apoprotein production but increased LDL production rate by 55%. The efficiency of intestinal cholesterol absorption was increased by alcohol. In the presence of dietary cholesterol, percent cholesterol absorption rose from 34.4+/-2.6% to 44.9+/-2.5% and in the absence of dietary cholesterol, from 84.3+/-1.4% to 88.9+/-1.0%. Increased cholesterol absorption and increased LDL production rate may be important mechanisms for exacerbation by alcohol of hypercholesterolemia in the cholesterol-fed rabbit model.  (+info)

Mode of action of ICS 205,930, a novel type of potentiator of responses to glycine in rat spinal neurones. (5/1532)

The effect of a novel potentiator of glycine responses, ICS 205,930, was studied by whole-cell recordings from spinal neurones, and compared with that of other known potentiators, in an attempt to differentiate their sites of action. The ability of ICS 205,930 (0.2 microM) to potentiate glycine responses persisted in the presence of concentrations of Zn2+ (5-10 microM) that were saturating for the potentiating effect of this ion. Preincubation with 10 microM Zn2+ before application of glycine plus Zn2+ had an inhibitory effect, which did not result from Zn2+ entry into the neurone, since it persisted with either 10 mM internal EGTA or 10 microM internal Zn2+. To test whether the potentiating effects of ICS 205,930 and Zn2+ interact, both compounds were applied without preincubation. The potentiating effect of ICS 205,930 was similar for responses to glycine and for responses to glycine plus Zn2+, provided the concentrations of agonist were adjusted so as to induce control responses of identical amplitudes. ICS 205,930 remained able to potentiate glycine responses in the presence of ethanol (200 mM). ICS 205,930 also retained its potentiating effect in the presence of the anaesthetic propofol (30 90 microM), which strongly potentiated glycine responses but, in contrast with ICS 205,930, also markedly increased the resting conductance. The anticonvulsant chlormethiazole (50-100 microM) neither potentiated glycine responses nor prevented the effect of ICS 205,930, even though it increased the resting conductance and potentiated GABA(A) responses. The mechanism of action of ICS 205,930 appears to be different from those by which Zn2+, propofol or ethanol potentiate glycine responses.  (+info)

Sweat ethanol concentrations are highly correlated with co-existing blood values in humans. (6/1532)

This study compared the concentration of ethanol, both absolute and relative to water content, in sweat and blood. Ten male volunteers consumed approximately 13 mmol (kg body weight)-1 of ethanol. Blood and sweat samples were collected approximately 1, 2 and 3 h following ingestion. Sweat was collected following pilocarpine iontophoresis using an anaerobic technique that prevented ethanol evaporation. In addition, the water content of sweat and blood samples was determined. The correlation between sweat and blood ethanol, expressed in mmol l-1, was r = 0.98. The slope of the relationship was 0.81. When corrected for the water content in each sample, and expressed as mmoles per litre of water, the correlation remained very high (r = 0.97) while the slope increased to 1.01. These results suggest that rapid and complete equilibrium of ethanol occurs across the sweat gland epithelium.  (+info)

Diffusion of dialkylnitrosamines into the rat esophagus as a factor in esophageal carcinogenesis. (7/1532)

To indicate how readily nitrosamines (NAms) diffuse into the esophagus, we measured diffusion rate (flux) through rat esophagus of dialkyl-NAms using side-by-side diffusion apparatuses. Mucosal and serosal flux at 37 degrees C of two NAms, each at 50 microM, was followed for 90 min by gas chromatography-thermal energy analysis of NAms in the receiver chamber. Mucosal flux of one or two NAms at a time gave identical results. Mucosal flux was highest for the strong esophageal carcinogens methyl-n-amyl-NAm (MNAN) and methylbenzyl-NAm. Mucosal esophageal flux of 11 NAms was 18-280 times faster and flux of two NAms through skin was 13-28 times faster than that predicted for skin from the molecular weights and octanol:water partition coefficients, which were also measured. Mucosal: serosal flux ratio was correlated (P < 0.05) with esophageal carcinogenicity and molecular weight. For seven NAms tested for carcinogenicity by Druckrey et al. [(1967) Z. Krebsforsch., 69, 103-201], mucosal flux was correlated with esophageal carcinogenicity with borderline significance (P = 0.07). The MNAN:dipropyl-NAm ratio for mucosal esophageal flux was unaffected when rats were treated with phenethylisothiocyanate and was similar to that for forestomach, indicating no involvement by cytochromes P450. Mucosal esophageal flux of MNAN and dimethyl-NAm was reduced by >90% on enzymic removal of the stratum corneum, was unaffected by 0.1 mM verapamil and was inhibited 67-94% by 1.0 mM KCN and 82-93% by 0.23% ethanol. NAm flux through rat skin and jejunum was 5-17% of that through esophagus. Flux through skin increased 5-13 times after enzymic or mechanical removal of the epidermis; the histology probably explained this difference from esophagus. Hence, NAms could be quite rapidly absorbed by human esophagus when NAm-containing foods or beverages are swallowed, the esophageal carcinogenicity of NAms may be partly determined by their esophageal flux and NAm flux probably occurs by passive diffusion.  (+info)

Dental anesthetic management of a patient with ventricular arrhythmias. (8/1532)

During routine deep sedation for endodontic therapy, a dentist-anesthesiologist observed premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) on a 62-yr-old woman's electrocardiogram (EKG) tracing. The dentist was able to complete the root canal procedure under intravenous (i.v.) sedation without any problems. The dentist-anesthesiologist referred the patient for medical evaluation. She was found to be free from ischemic cardiac disease with normal ventricular function. The patient was cleared to continue her dental treatment with deep sedation. She subsequently continued to undergo dental treatment with deep intravenous sedation without incident, although her EKG exhibited frequent PVCs, up to 20 per minute, including couplets and episodes of trigeminy. This article will review indications for medical intervention, antiarrhythmic medications, and anesthetic interventions for perioperative PVCs.  (+info)

Paper details:. Central nervous system depressants present many dangers for abusers. Looking at the drugs in this class, describe (in at least 250 words) the risks associated with abuse and discuss at least one problem that counselors should be concerned with during a clients withdrawal and treatment.. ...
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​GHB is a central nervous system depressant that causes drowsiness and reduces heart rate. It is used to treat sleep disorders but can be dangerous if misused.
The most commonly abused prescription drugs among teenagers are opioids, central nervous system depressants, and stimulants - like Roxies.
The European Code Against Cancer focuses on actions that describes actions that individuals can take to reduce their risk of developing cancer.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of acute ethanol administration on hepatic protein and glycoprotein secretion in vivo. AU - Volentine, G. D.. AU - Tuma, D. J.. AU - Sorrell, M. F.. PY - 1982/1/1. Y1 - 1982/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0020355393&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0020355393&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0020355393. VL - 2. SP - No. 89. JO - Hepatology. JF - Hepatology. SN - 0270-9139. IS - 5. ER - ...
CNS (Central Nervous System) depression usually happens if an individual abuses a substance that causes a slowdown of the brains activity. Such substances are referred to as CNS depressants. Sedatives, hypnotics, and tranquilizers are some examples of CNS depressants.. Recently, opioid painkillers have been prescribed by doctors for certain conditions. However, opioid painkillers are sometimes overused by patients. This overuse of opioid painkillers can lead to complications.. CNS depressants are also sometimes used as recreational drugs. Recreational use of CNS depressants is usually hazardous and is often illegal. The greatest danger lies in individuals not understanding the risks involved in the misuse of CNS depressants.. Some individuals combine various CNS depressants. For example, they may take alcohol and painkillers at the same time. This often leads to a life-threatening situation.. Hazards of using CNS depressants include long-term adverse effects, overdose, withdrawal symptoms (when ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stable histone methylation changes at proteoglycan network genes following ethanol exposure. AU - Gavin, David P.. AU - Hashimoto, Joel G.. AU - Lazar, Nathan H.. AU - Carbone, Lucia. AU - Crabbe, John Jr. AU - Guizzetti, Marina. PY - 2018/8/30. Y1 - 2018/8/30. N2 - Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a chronic mental illness in which patients often achieve protracted periods of abstinence prior to relapse. Epigenetic mechanisms may provide an explanation for the persisting gene expression changes that can be observed even after long periods of abstinence and may contribute to relapse. In this study, we examined two histone modifications, histone 3 lysine 4 tri-methylation (H3K4me3) and histone 3 lysine 27 tri-methylation (H3K27me3), in the prefrontal cortex of Withdrawal Seizure Resistant (WSR) mice 21 days after 72 h of ethanol vapor exposure. These histone modifications were selected because they are associated with active promoters (H3K4me3) and repressed gene expression in a ...
Dive into the research topics of Glutathione depletion and recovery after acute ethanol administration in the aging mouse. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
The Ethanol Effect is the newest hour-long special from the team behind Detroit Public Televisions Alfred I. DuPont/Columbia University Award-winning series Beyond the Light Switch.. From Iowas farm fields to Washingtons corridors of power, and from the algae-choked surface of the Great Lakes to the poisoned depths of the Gulf of Mexico, The Ethanol Effect investigates the human, environmental and political costs of growing and refining corn for ethanol in America. Our guide through the tangled web of ethanols influence is David Biello. Follow Biello as he untangles the web of ethanols unexpected influence on our daily in The Ethanol Effect ...
The Ethanol Effect is the newest hour-long special from the team behind Detroit Public Televisions Alfred I. DuPont/Columbia University Award-winning series Beyond the Light Switch.. From Iowas farm fields to Washingtons corridors of power, and from the algae-choked surface of the Great Lakes to the poisoned depths of the Gulf of Mexico, The Ethanol Effect investigates the human, environmental and political costs of growing and refining corn for ethanol in America. Our guide through the tangled web of ethanols influence is David Biello. Follow Biello as he untangles the web of ethanols unexpected influence on our daily in The Ethanol Effect ...
The present article provides an up-to-date review summarizing almost 18 years of research in genetically selected Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring (msP) rats. The results of this work demonstrate that msP rats have natural preference for ethanol characterized by a spontaneous binge-type of drinking that leads to pharmacologically significant blood ethanol levels. This rat line is highly vulnerable to relapse and presentation of stimuli predictive of alcohol availability or foot-shock stress can reinstate extinguished drug-seeking up to 8 months from the last alcohol experience. The msP rat is highly sensitive to stress, shows an anxious phenotype and has depressive-like symptoms that recover following ethanol drinking. Interestingly, these animals have an up-regulated corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) receptor 1 system. Clinical studies have shown that alcoholic patients often drink ethanol in the attempt to self-medicate from negative affective states and to search for anxiety ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Subcellular location of secretory proteins retained in the liver during the ethanol-induced inhibition of hepatic protein secretion in the rat. AU - Volentine, Gary D. AU - Tuma, Dean J. AU - Sorrell, Michael Floyd. PY - 1986/1/1. Y1 - 1986/1/1. N2 - Ethanol administration inhibits the secretion of proteins by the liver, resulting in their hepatocellular retention. Experiments were designed in this study to determine the subcellular location of the retained secretory proteins. Ethanol was administered acutely to nonfasted rats by gastric intubation, whereas control animals received an isocaloric dose of glucose. Two hours after intubation, when maximum blood ethanol levels (45 mM) were observed, [3H]leucine and [14C]fucose were injected simultaneously into the dorsal vein of the penis. The labeling of secretory proteins was determined in the liver and plasma at various time periods after label injection. Ethanol treatment decreased the secretion of both leucine- and ...
Chronic intermittent ethanol vapor exposure (CIE) in rodents produces reliable and high blood ethanol concentration and behavioral symptoms associated with moderate to severe alcohol use disorder (AUD)—for example, escalation of operant ethanol self-administration, a feature suggestive of transition from recreational to addictive use, is a widely replicated behavior in rats that experience CIE. Herein, we present evidence from a subset of rats that do not demonstrate escalation of ethanol self-administration following seven weeks of CIE. These low responders (LR) maintain low ethanol self-administration during CIE, demonstrate lower relapse to drinking during abstinence and reduced reinstatement of ethanol seeking triggered by ethanol cues when compared with high responders (HR). We examined the blood ethanol levels in LR and HR rats during CIE and show higher levels in LR compared with HR. We also examined peak corticosterone levels during CIE and show that LR rats have higher levels compared
March 2013. Subjects. This model has been predominantly been studied using adult (65-75 days of age) male C57BL/6J mice obtained from Jackson Laboratories (Bar Harbor, ME). Although experimental parameters have been optimized using these mice, we have conducted studies with adult female C57BL/6J mice, as well as other inbred mouse strains including DBA/2J and C3H/Hecr, selectively bred HAP/LAP lines, and and BXD RI lines. Mice are acclimated to the facility for at least two weeks prior to experimental use. Mice are individually housed in standard polypropylene pans with wood-chip bedding and stainless steel wire lids. The mice are housed under a modified light/dark cycle (lights on at 0200 hr) to allow for behavioral testing to be conducted during the dark phase of the cycle. Rodent food (Wayne Lab-Blox) and water is available ad libitum at all times during the studies.. General Experimental Design and Strategy. The overall objective of this chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure model ...
Previous studies in mice and rats have shown that selective breeding for high and low ethanol preference results in divergence of circadian phenotype in the selected lines. These results indicate that some alleles influencing ethanol preference also contribute to circadian rhythm regulation. Selective breeding has also been used to produce lines of mice differing in a number of other ethanol-related traits, while studies of phenotypic and genetic correlation indicate that diverse ethanol-related traits are influenced by both shared and unshared genetics. ...
We previously reported that ethanol elicits an increased protein oxidation in the liver of rats receiving chronic ethanol by continuous intragastric infusion (Tsukamoto-French method). This accumulation of oxidized proteins could result from a decrease in the cytosolic proteolysis, related specifica …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Body temperature differentially affects ethanol sensitivity in both inbred strains and selected lines of mice. AU - Finn, Deborah (Deb). AU - Bejanian, M.. AU - Jones, B. L.. AU - McGivern, R. F.. AU - Syapin, P. J.. AU - Crabbe, John Jr. AU - Alkana, R. L.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - Offsetting ethanol-induced hypothermia in five inbred strains of mice changed ethanol sensitivity within strains and markedly reduced differences between strains in brain sensitivity to hypnotic ethanol doses. The present study extended this work to mice selectivity bred for sensitivity and resistance to ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex (LORR) and hypothermia. In all experiments LORR duration and ethanol concentrations at return of righting reflex were measured after i.p. hypnotic ethanol doses and exposure to 22 or 34°C. In experiment 1, C57BL/6J, A/HeJ, 129/J, LS/Ibg and SS/Ibg mice were given 4.2 g/kg ethanol. In experiment 2, the same mouse genotypes were tested with different ethanol ...
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BACKGROUND: We aimed in the present study, at investigating the gastroprotective effect of carob pods aqueous extract (CPAE) against ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rats as well as the mechanism implicated. METHODS: Adult male wistar rats were used and divided into six groups of ten each: control, EtOH (80% v/v, 4 g/kg b.w.), EtOH 80% + various doses of CPAE (500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, b.w.) and EtOH + Famotidine (10 mg/kg, p.o.) Animals were perorally (p.o.) pre-treated with CPAE during 15 days and intoxicated with a single oral administration of EtOH (4 g/kg b.w.) for two hours. RESULTS: The colorimetric analysis demonstrated that the CPAE exhibited an importance in vitro antioxidant activity against ABTS and DPPH radicals. We found that CPAE pretreatment in vivo, protected against EtOH-induced macroscopic and histological changes induced in stomach mucosa. Carob extract administration also protected against alcohol-induced volume gastric juice decrease. More importantly, We showed that CPAE
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Chronic alcohol exposure affects the central nervous system, influences behavior, and induces neuroadaptive changes in vertebrate species including our own. literature to be alcohol related. We conclude that the zebrafish is an excellent tool for the analysis of genes associated with alcohols actions in vertebrates, one which may facilitate the discovery and better understanding of […]. ...
ERGR, Ethanol gene database, Alcohol gene database, Ethanol-Related Gene Resource, Alcohol-Related Gene Database, Ethanol response gene database, alcoholism gene database
ERGR, Ethanol gene database, Alcohol gene database, Ethanol-Related Gene Resource, Alcohol-Related Gene Database, Ethanol response gene database, alcoholism gene database
How Does E85 Ethanol Affect You? - What is the effect of E85 ethanol flex fuel on the consumer? Learn the answer at HowStuffWorks, including why it is available in only some states.
The effects of ethanol on a fetus are extensive, devastating, and often permanent. Depending upon the population, ethanol affects as many as 2% of all live birt...
This work describes a protocol to quantify ethanol levels in a zebrafish embryo using head space gas chromatography from proper...
Study Flashcards On Nervous System Depressants and Muscle relaxants at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
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Alcohol affects a number of different biochemical pathways and a better understanding of the factors that contribute to alcohol abuse and addiction could lead to improved treatments. Since a lower initial response to the effects of alcohol has been found to correlate with increased risk of future alcoholism, identification of the genes and pathways involved in the acute response might throw light on the genetic factors contributing to addiction. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, reacts in much the same way as mammals to acute ethanol exposure and a team led by Ulrike Heberlein at the University of California is using the fly to explore the links between genetic make-up and response to alcohol. Their latest find is that flies with a mutant version of a gene that they have designated happyhour are less sensitive to the sedative effects of alcohol than flies with a normal copy of the gene. Further studies showed that the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-signalling pathway regulates ethanol ...
Dipole moment of methanol is less than ethanol?Can you tell me what is the efftect of iductive effect on dipole moment. The correct decreasing order of stabili
Eight standard inbred mouse strains were evaluated for ethanol effects on a refined battery of behavioral tests in a study that was originally designed to assess the influence of rat odors in the colony on mouse behaviors. As part of the design of the study, two experimenters conducted the tests, an …
Some farm groups and farm-state lawmakers are expressing anger at the Trump administration over final ethanol rules that they say fail to uphold the presidents promises to the industry
Groups that lobby for the ethanol industry thanked supporters in the Senate Thursday for getting a one-year extension of the 45 cent per gallon tax credit included in pending tax legislation.Brian Jennings of the American Coalition for ethanol released this statement late Thursday: Inclusion of this one-year extension given the forces working to prevent it is an important win
U.S. ethanol and corn groups are irate as Brazil reimposes a 20% tariff on U.S. ethanol following a breakdown in talks between the two countries.
NEW YORK - A U.S. ethanol industry group is pushing lawmakers to craft legislation requiring fuel companies to inform customers what country their fuel came from in hopes of increasing awareness about money spent on oil imported from overseas.
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Intoxicated: 22-33 mmol/L (0.10-0.15 g/100 mL). Poisoned: 44-66 mmol/L (0.20-0.30 g/100 mL). Often fatal: , 88 mmol/L (, 0.40 g/100 mL).. Legal limits vary. For specific information contact local authorities.. Commonly, the legal driving limit is 0.05% that is, 11 mmol/L or 0.05 g/100 mL. In some regions it is 0.08% ,that is, 18 mmol/L or 0.08 g/100 mL.. ...
Zapper, Im sorry to hear you had such a bad episode but it sounds like it has passed. I have been unable to determine what causes my ibs attacks. At first I attributed them to food intolerances but later concluded I am uncertain of the causes. I will have normal BMs and feel fine for days and then have symptoms occurs suddenly. Just sudden onset of cramping spasming etc. sometimes it will last a half day, sometimes up to three days. ... it is starting to wear on me psychologically. My doctor put me on klonopin a few weeks ago. I guess it helps me cope or really just be spaced out and not care. I think it has decreased my ibs symptoms some; it is a central nervous system depressant. I just want to be normal again. I feel like my spiritual stamina is just shot. Every time I think Im improving, I find out Im not. having a messed up GI system is the most psychologically difficult ordeal I have ever been through. You have been amazingly strong through what you have been through ...
All of the costs associated of making ethanol are tied up in the cost of corn and grain and so if you are not careful with buying grain you can be in trouble fast.. While it seems like a lot of gloom and doom for the nations ethanol industry featuring grain and fuel price volatility. Those who study the industry say there is no way ethanol plants dont have a role in the future of alternative energy. Ethanol has had wonderful times but have gone thru a dry spot the last 9 months but they have a rosy future.. Meantime the ethanol industry waits to see the impact of the corn harvest. Part of a cycle these plants live and die by.. Not going away, in fact I think it will continue to grow. ...
There are many opportunities for market growth in the ethanol space, and the National Corn Growers Association (NCGA)works closely with the ethanol associations to help share the story of the benefits of ethanol and drive demand locally and in Washington D.C. Growth Energy CEO Emily Skor sat downwith Iowa corn farmer and Ethanol Action Team Vice Chair Kelly Nieuwenhuis to talk about small refinery exemptions (SREs), E15 in the marketplace and future market growth opportunities.
There are many opportunities for market growth in the ethanol space, and the National Corn Growers Association (NCGA)works closely with the ethanol associations to help share the story of the benefits of ethanol and drive demand locally and in Washington D.C. Growth Energy CEO Emily Skor sat downwith Iowa corn farmer and Ethanol Action Team Vice Chair Kelly Nieuwenhuis to talk about small refinery exemptions (SREs), E15 in the marketplace and future market growth opportunities.
Alcohol is a direct cause of seven forms of cancer. Tough words to swallow, but those are the conclusions of researchers from New Zealand, who say they found that no matter how much you drink, alcohol will increase your risk of cancer.
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The number of air rage incidents has risen by nearly a third fuelled by drinking on flights, according to government figures.
J.D. Power and Associates regularly sends out updates on how vehicle sales are doing in Canada. And like forecasting companies across Canada and the U.S., it reports on how many flexible-fuel vehicles - those that can use E85, a fuel thats primarily made up of plant-based ethanol - are sold....
Classification: Depressant Alcohol is a CNSCentral Nervous System depressant that acts through the GABAa receptor, and is one of the most common strong psychoactives used by humans. It has a long history of use and its intoxicating effects are well-studied and -documented. ...
Classification: Depressant Alcohol is a CNSCentral Nervous System depressant that acts through the GABAa receptor, and is one of the most common strong psychoactives used by humans. It has a long history of use and its intoxicating effects are well-studied and -documented. ...
In previous work, we identified genetic correlations between cAMP accumulation in the cerebellum and sensitivity to the incoordinating effects of ethanol. A genetic correlation suggests that common genes underlie the phenotypes investigated. One method for provisionally identifying genes involved in a given phenotypic measure is quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Using a panel of 30 BXD recombinant inbred strains of mice and the progenitors (DBA/2J and C57BL/6J), and the dowel test for ataxia, we measured the blood ethanol concentrations at the time an animal first fell from the dowel and acute functional tolerance (AFT), and investigated cAMP signaling in the cerebellum. Cyclic AMP accumulation was measured in whole-cell preparations of cerebellar minces from individual mice under basal or stimulated conditions. We conducted a genome-wide QTL analysis of the behavioral and biochemical measures with >2000 genetic markers to identify significant associations. Western blot and comparative ...
Preparation of two oligopeptides from corn protein and their protective effect on acute alcohol intoxication in mice, Naxin Sun, Tongcheng Xu, Yuehui Liu, Chunjiang Ye, Zhuqing Jia
Separately, chronic alcohol ingestion and HIV-1 infection are associated with severe skeletal muscle derangements, including atrophy and wasting, weakness, and fatigue. One prospective cohort study reported that 41% of HIV-infected patients met the criteria for alcoholism, however; few reports exist on the co-morbid effects of these two disease processes on skeletal muscle homeostasis. Thus, we analyzed the atrophic effects of chronic alcohol ingestion in HIV-1 transgenic rats and identified alterations to several catabolic and anabolic factors. Relative plantaris mass, total protein content, and fiber cross-sectional area were reduced in each experimental group compared to healthy, control-fed rats. Alcohol abuse further reduced plantaris fiber area in HIV-1 transgenic rats. Consistent with previous reports, gene levels of myostatin and its receptor activin IIB were not increased in HIV-1 transgenic rat muscle. However, myostatin and activin IIB were induced in healthy and HIV-1 transgenic rats fed
Detroit Public Television (DPTV) is debuting a new ethanol documentary this Sunday, October 9, 2016 at 9:00 pm ET called, The Ethanol Effect. The film, produced by DPTV, takes a look at the controversy surrounding the challenges of the best use for Americas corn production: food or biofuel. The worldwide premier of the documentary is on PBS World Channel. (Click here to view promo clips and for additional air times.). The Ethanol Effect delves into what Ethanol is, demonstrates the production process and investigates the human, environmental and political costs of growing and refining corn for fuel in America. The documentary also dives into why the choices between food or biofuel are sparking controversy across the country. Interestingly, I met the production crew this past January in Altoona, Iowa during the Iowa Renewable Fuels Summit where they had access to various speakers including Iowa Governor Terry Branstad, USDA Ag Secretary Tom Vilsack, presidential hopefuls, and more biofuel ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Responses of cerebral arterioles during chronic ethanol exposure. AU - Mayhan, William. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of ethanol exposure on responses of cerebral arterioles in vivo. Rats were fed liquid diets with or without ethanol for 2-3 mo. Using intravital microscopy, we measured diameter of cerebral arterioles in non-ethanol- and ethanol-fed rats in response to acetylcholine, histamine, ADP, the thromboxane analogue (U- 46619), and nitroglycerin. In non-ethanol-fed rats, acetylcholine, histamine, and ADP produced dose-related dilatation of cerebral arterioles. In ethanol- fed rats, however, acetylcholine produced vasoconstriction, and vasodilatation in response to histamine and ADP was impaired. Dilatation of cerebral arterioles in response to nitroglycerin and vasoconstriction in response to the thromboxane analogue (U-46619) were similar in non-ethanol- fed and ethanol-fed rats. Thus these findings suggest that chronic ...
Chronic alcoholics who also binge drink (i.e., acute on chronic) are prone to an exacerbated liver injury but its mechanism is not understood. We therefore investigated the in vivo effects of chronic and binge ethanol ingestion and compared to chronic ethanol followed by three repeat binge ethanol on the liver of male C57/BL6 mice fed ethanol in liquid diet (4%) for four weeks followed by binge ethanol (intragastric administration, 3.5 g/kg body weight, three doses, 12h apart). Chronic followed by binge ethanol exacerbated fat accumulation, necrosis, decrease in hepatic SAM and SAM:SAH ratio, increase in adenosine levels, and elevated CYP2E1 levels. Histone H3 lysine acetylation (H3AcK9), dually modified phosphoacetylated histone H3 (H3AcK9/PS10), and phosphorylated H2AX increased after binge whereas phosphorylation of histone H3 ser 10 (H3S10) and H3 ser 28 (H3S28) increased after chronic ethanol-binge. Histone H3 lysine 4 and 9 dimethylation increased with a marked dimethylation in H3K9 in chronic
Evidence that brain edema and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels have roles in experimental binge ethanol-induced neurodegeneration has stimulated interest in swelling/edema-linked neuroinflammatory pathways leading to oxidative stress. We report here that neurotoxic binge ethanol exposure produces comparable significant effects in vivo and in vitro on adult rat brain levels of AQP4 as well as neuroinflammation-linked enzymes: key phospholipase A2 (PLA2) family members and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). In adult male rats, repetitive ethanol intoxication (3 gavages/d for 4 d, ∼9 g/kg/d, achieving blood ethanol levels ∼375 mg/dl;
Plasma prolactin, luteinizing hormone and estradiol levels were determined in six normal adult females before and during a period of acute alcohol intoxication. Plasma hormone levels found in these studies were compared with values obtained after administration of an isocaloric beverage. Each woman served as her own control for both studies which were carried out on the same day of the menstrual cycle (day 8, 9 or 10) over two consecutive menstrual cycles. Integrated plasma samples were obtained every 20 min for 6 consecutive hr before acute alcohol administration and during the ascending, peak and descending portions of the blood alcohol curve. After acute alcohol administration, all women achieved a moderate degree of intoxication, with mean peak blood alcohol levels of 88 mg/100 ml. No significant differences in levels of luteinizing hormone and estradiol were detected during any phase of the blood alcohol curve when compared to prealcohol administration values. No significant differences ...
Author(s): Devineni, Anita | Advisor(s): Heberlein, Ulrike | Abstract: Ethanol is one of the most widely used and abused drugs in the world. Ethanol consumption produces short-term changes in behavior as well as long-term adaptations that can lead to addiction. The mechanisms underlying both acute and chronic responses to ethanol are still not fully understood. Human and rodent studies have suggested that acute ethanol sensitivity may be related to risk of alcohol abuse, and that the same genes often regulate both types of behavior. In this thesis I have used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model to study the genetic and neural mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced behavior. In Chapter 2, I show that flies prefer to consume food containing ethanol and that this ethanol preference may represent a new model for studying addiction-related behavior. In Chapter 3, I examine the relationships between acute ethanol sensitivity, ethanol tolerance, and ethanol consumption preference by measuring these
The liver plays a key role in the metabolism of alcohol and is also sensitive to the deleterious effects of chronic alcohol consumption. In humans, chronic alcohol consumption leads to a characteristic set of changes to the metabolism of lipids in the liver that is referred to as an alcoholic fatty liver. In humans, AFL is characterized by an increase in liver weight, accumulation of triglyceride and changes in the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. In severe cases, these metabolic changes result in the enlargement and fibrillization of the liver and are considered risk factors for cirrhosis and liver cancer.. Previous work suggests that there may be links between mutations in the circadian system and liver metabolism. The transcription of many genes in liver, including those involved in lipid metabolism, is regulated on the circadian time scale [8, 22]. Furthermore, mice with mutations in core elements of the circadian timing system also exhibit deficits in liver function. In ...
Increasing evidence suggests that ethanol-induced changes in cyclic AMP (cAMP) signal transduction play a critical role in the acute and chronic effects of ethanol. Here we have investigated the effects of ethanol on cAMP signal transduction in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Acute exposure to ethanol had a biphasic effect on glucagon-receptor-dependent cAMP production in intact cells: 25-50 mM-ethanol decreased cAMP, whereas treatment with 100-200 mM-ethanol increased cAMP. After chronic exposure to 50-200 mM-ethanol for 48 h in culture, glucagon-receptor-dependent cAMP levels were increased, but no change in glucagon receptor number was observed. These effects of ethanol were independent of ethanol oxidation. Chronic ethanol treatment also increased adenosine-receptor- and forskolin-stimulated cAMP production. Increased cAMP production was also observed upon stimulation of adenylate cyclase with glucagon, forskolin and F- in membranes isolated from cells cultured with 100 mM-ethanol for ...
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Mice were pretreated with DEX prior to EtOH exposure to determine its protective effects on impaired postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis. Six-day-old neonatal mice were treated with DEX (125 μg/kg) or saline, followed by EtOH at a total of 5 g/kg or an equivalent volume of saline on P7. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to evaluate the neurogenesis and activated microglia in the DG. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) was utilized to assess the expression of inflammatory factors in the hippocampus.. ...
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THE POTENTIATING ACTION OF HYDROXYZINE MUST BE CONSIDERED WHEN THE DRUG IS USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DEPRESSANTS SUCH AS NARCOTICS, NON-NARCOTIC ANALGESICS AND BARBITURATES. Therefore when central nervous system depressants are administered concomitantly with hydroxyzine their dosage should be reduced.. Since drowsiness may occur with use of this drug, patients should be warned of this possibility and cautioned against driving a car or operating dangerous machinery while taking Atarax. Patients should be advised against the simultaneous use of other CNS depressant drugs, and cautioned that the effect of alcohol may be increased.. ...
The present study sought to examine the effects of chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal on glutamate release probability at inputs arising from two subdivisions of the medial prefrontal cortex to the basolateral amygdala. We used a combination of optogenetics and chemogenetics to document the neurophysiological and behavioral alterations of dmPFC and vmPFC terminals in the BLA. The major findings of the study are that withdrawal from chronic ethanol exposure increases optogenetically stimulated glutamate release from dmPFC-BLA terminals but decreases the glutamate release from vmPFC terminals. Additionally, we demonstrate that chemogenetic inhibition of dmPFC terminals in the BLA reduces withdrawal-induced anxiety-like behavior. And finally, we show that local feedback-like GABAergic circuits make significant contributions to optically gated responses from both dmPFC and vmPFC terminals. Together, these data provide the first characterization of how chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal ...
Introduction. How does caffeine and ethanol affect the heart rate? Introduction At rest a normal adult heart beats around 75 times per minute. During strenuous exercise it may rise to 200 beats per minute. The SAN (sino-atrial node) controls the heart rate. Information is sent via two autonomic nerves that link the SAN with cardiovascular centre in the medulla of the brain, the rate increases or decreases depending on the information received. Factors, which affect the heart: , The secretion of adrenaline. This may be under stress, excitement or other emotions. , Movement of the limbs (exercise). Heart rate and breathing rate increase due to oxygen levels falling and levels of carbon dioxide rising. , Blood pressure. When blood pressure is too high, a mechanism prevents increase in heart rate. Adrenaline is a hormone, which is produced by the adrenal gland; it is usually secreted in tiny amounts, when stressed or scared. It raises your heart rate immediately. Adrenaline improves the strength of ...
Intake of ethanol by rats, at a dose of 10 to 12 g/kg daily for two weeks, led to a slower onset and shorter duration of pentobarbital-induced sleep (30 mg/kg i.p.) than in pair-fed controls with isocaloric substitution of sucrose for ethanol. The pentobarbital concentrations in both plasma and brain were significantly lower in ethanol-treated animals at 15 minutes after injection, but not at 30 to 60 minutes. During the latter times, the rate of disappearance of pentobarbital from plasma did not differ in the two groups. The rate of metabolism of pentobarbital by liver slices in vitro was 33% lower for the chronic ethanol group than the controls. In contrast, pretreatment with phenobarbital for one week led to a significant increase in the rate of pentobarbital metabolism by liver slices. It is concluded that the changes in pentobarbital sleeping time after chronic ethanol treatment are primarily the result of changes in sensitivity of the nervous system, rather than of changes in distribution ...
Background: Although the beneficial effects of mild to moderate ethanol consumption have been implied with respect to heart, alcohol abuse has proven to be a major cause of nonischemic cardiomyopathy in Western society. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms, which mediate the pathologic cardiac effects of ethanol, remain largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of chronic ethanol exposure on cardiac apoptosis and expression of some of the genes associated with cardiac remodeling in vivo. Methods: Alcohol-avoiding Alko Non Alcohol rats of both sexes were used. The ethanol-exposed rats (females, n= 6; males, n= 8) were given 12% (v/v) ethanol as the only available fluid from age of three to 24 months of age. The control rats (females, n= 7; males, n= 5) had only water available. At the end of the experiment, free walls of left ventricles of hearts were immediately frozen. Cytosolic DNA fragmentation, reflecting apoptosis, was measured using a commercial ...
The IL-10 promoter is regulated through the p38 MAPK pathway in human macrophages (40). Our results demonstrated that acute ethanol treatment increased the levels of phosphorylated p38 in the same LPS-stimulated human monocytes that showed increased IL-10 and reduced TNF-α production. These effects of acute ethanol in our experiments were similar to the effects of CO, a product of HO-1 activation on monocytes (13). Consistent with the previously described role of p38 MAPK activation in IL-10 induction, inhibition of p38 activity with SB203580 prevented ethanol-induced augmentation of monocyte IL-10 production (28, 40). Activation of p38 MAPK has been shown to induce HO-1 expression in various cell types including macrophages (13), hepatocytes (24), pulmonary epithelial cells (41), and vascular cells (42). Our studies revealed that augmentation of p38 MAPK phosphorylation contributed to alcohol-induced HO-1 activation in LPS-stimulated monocytes. Recent studies demonstrated that transcriptional ...
BACKGROUND: The NMDA receptor represents a particularly important site of ethanol action in the CNS. We recently reported that NMDA receptor 2B (NR2B) gene expression was persistently up-regulated following chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) treatment. Increasing evidence that epigenetic mechanisms are involved in dynamic and long-lasting regulation of gene expression in multiple neuroadaptive processes prompted us to investigate the role of DNA methylation in mediating CIE-induced up-regulation of NR2B gene transcription. To dissect the changes of DNA methylation in the NR2B gene, we have screened a large number of CpG sites within its 5-regulatory area following CIE treatment. METHODS: Primary cortical cultured neurons were subjected to ethanol treatment in a CIE paradigm. Bisulfite conversion followed by pyrosequencing was used for quantitative measurement and analysis of CpG methylation status within the 5-regulatory area of the NR2B gene; chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay was ...
Administration of topical antibiotics led to resolution of the lesions within 3 weeks, and there were no signs of scarring or recurrence.. The clinical presentation and histopathologic findings were consistent with a diagnosis of coma blisters.. Clinically, coma blisters are characterized by tense clear or hemorrhagic blisters that develop on erythematous-violaceous macules or plaques of varying size. The lesions typically appear within 24hours of the intake of drugs and within 48 to 72hours of the loss of consciousness. They primarily develop on pressure points, such as fingers and toes, elbows, knees, ankles, and heels. They are self-limiting and heal within days or weeks, without causing scarring or atrophy. The only treatment indicated thus is topical treatment to prevent secondary infections.2,8. Multiple factors have been implicated in the etiology and pathogenesis of coma blisters, including local pressure or friction, generalized hypoxia and tissue ischemia, direct toxicity due to drugs ...
2Research Center for Alcoholic Liver Disease and Pancreatitis and Cirrhosis, School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA. In the search for novel targets for chronic alcohol-induced inflammatory responses, we recently started exploring the therapeutic potential of ATP-gated purinergic P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs). Despite the recognized important role in several neurodegenerative pathologies and inflammatory conditions, the role of P2X7Rs in ethanol-induced inflammation and organ damage is still unknown. Using a chronic ethanol exposure model of alcohol liver disease that combines intragastric (iG) ethanol feeding and high fat diet (Hybrid) in C57BL/6J mice, our recent work demonstrated an increased expression of P2X7Rs that paralleled neuroinflammatory changes in several ethanol-sensitive brain regions. These findings served the basis for the hypothesis that there is a functional link between P2X7Rs and chronic ethanol-induced inflammatory response leading to organ ...
the precise molecular sites and mechanisms of action for ethanol in ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) in general, and in GlyRs and GABAARs specifically, are just now starting to become understood. The present dissertation focuses on studies we conducted that address this issue using molecular biology, pressure antagonism, electrophysiology and molecular modeling strategies to probe, identify and model the initial molecular sites and mechanisms of ethanol action in GlyRs and GABAARs. Specifically, this work focuses on the Loop 2 region in the extracellular domain of GlyRs and GABAARs and (1) Provides evidence that position 52 in Loop 2 is a target for ethanol action and antagonism in GlyRs; (2) Demonstrates that the structural bases for the actions of ethanol and pressure on this common target are different and (3) Provides strong evidence that the structure of Loop 2 in GlyRs, GABAARs and possibly across LGICs may be a key factor in controlling the sensitivity of these receptors to ethanol. ...
Bicarbonate Decreased & Hypotension & Potassium Decreased Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Acute Alcohol Intoxication. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
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The transportation industry has been investigating ethanol as an alternative fuel for many years. Ethanol provides a clean alternative to gasoline, though widespread use of this fuel has been limited due to a number of technical challenges, such as poor cold-start performance and reduced vehicle ran
Ethanols effects on lipid metabolism and membrane lipid composition; membrane protein-lipid interactions; production and isolation of fatty acid ethyl esters and their pathological effects; the effect of ethanol on metastatic and nonmetastatic breast cancer cells. ...
Ethanol, oil and livestock groups all weighed in with opinions on the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) last week as Congress returned to work.
The neurochemical mechanisms that regulate development of alcohol use disorder (AUD) are complex, and gut-brain peptides were recently pinpointed as novel modulators. Gut-brain peptides, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), are well known for their ability to regulate food intake and appetite. GLP-1 also controls glucose homeostasis, which lead to the approval of GLP-1 receptor agonists for treatment of diabetes type II. These pharmacotherapies, including exenatide/exendin-4(Ex4) and liraglutide, have also been tested in various animal modes of AUD. In mice, Ex4 attenuates the acute behavioural responses to alcohol. Rat studies additionally show that Ex4 reduces the intake and the intravenous operant self-administration of alcohol and decreases the motivation to consume alcohol. Further studies established that Ex4 modulates alcohol-mediated behaviours via activation of GLP-1 receptors in reward related areas and an area of the hindbrain. In rodents, liraglutide reduces withdrawal symptoms ...
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Red wine is composed of more than 500 compounds although only a few are present at concentrations of more than 100 mg/L. These include water, glycerol, ethanol, sugar and organic acids. There is increasing evidence supporting the cardioprotective effects of ethanol (Figure 2), although the mechanisms of cardioprotection remain somewhat obscure. Ethanol decreases sympathetic activity, thereby decreasing heart rate and cardiac contraction while inducing coronary vasodilation; all these effects lead to cardioprotection. On the other hand, Grassi et al (50) showed that increased plasma ethanol level significantly elevates the blood pressure, heart rate and sympathetic nerve activity. Low to moderate concentrations of ethanol are shown to inhibit coronary muscle contraction, increase coronary flow and improve the cardiac output (51). The mechanisms by which ethanol is a vasodilator are still unknown, however, a study on the effects of changes in extracellular Ca2+ on muscle contractions supports a ...
Grown in nearly every country, then sent for fermentation by using glucose produced from sugar from the hydrolysis of starch, in the presence of yeast and temperature of less than 37°C to produce ethanol. For instance the conversion of invertase to glucose and fructose or the conversion of glucose to zymase and ethanol. By direct hydration using ethylene (ethylene hydration) or other alkenes from cracking of fractions of distilled crude oil. Ethanol in alcoholic beverages has been consumed by humans since prehistoric times for a variety of hygienic, dietary, medicinal, religious, and recreational reasons. The consumption of large doses of ethanol causes drunkenness (intoxication), which may lead to a hangover as its effects wear off. Depending upon the dose and the regularity of its consumption, ethanol can cause acute respiratory failure or death. Because ethanol impairs judgment in humans, it can be a catalyst for reckless or irresponsible behavior. The LD50 of ethanol in rats is 10.3 g/kg. ...
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This investigation assesses the role of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in ethanol-mediated hepatotoxicity using the untransfected HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma line, an established, well-characterized toxicological model. HepG2 cells were treated with ethanol at concentrations between 100 mM and 800 mM, and assessed for markers of cytotoxicity. PARP-1 activity in total cell protein lysates was quantified as a proxy of apoptotic induction at six hours. Our results demonstrated a 1.43-fold AST activity increase in culture medium isolates of cells exposed to 800 mM without significant effect on cellular viability. PARP-1 activity varied greatly and results for enzyme activity remained inconclusive. The results suggest a high degree of insensitivity to ethanol toxicity and nuclear enzyme activity, demonstrating the metabolic irrelevance of untransfected HepG2 in ethanol toxicosis. There is a need to characterize phase 1 metabolic enzyme expression profiles relevant to ethanol for CYP2E1 and ADH pathways to
Alcohol produces injury to cells by dehydration and precipitation of the cytoplasm or protoplasm. This accounts for its bacteriocidal and antifungal action. When alcohol is injected in close proximity to nerve tissues, it produces neuritis and nerve degeneration (neurolysis). Ninety to 98% of ethanol that enters the body is completely oxidized. Ethanol is also used as a cosolvent to dissolve many insoluble drugs and to serve as a mild sedative in some medicinal formulations ...
On 25mg Hiberix daily driving and having more prolonged crying lasting slightly more than 4 hours. At this time she said she believed she had right arm sleepiness or unusual drowsiness was due to the preparation to be used with care. My doctor gave me 500mg of Hyphed to take school for a sleepiness or through unusual drowsiness. Because stimulator causes and pronounced sedation, an enhanced cns depressant effect or additive coma may occur when it is combined with other cns depressants. Im still puzzled by the mechanism because of how narcotic analgesics cause coma and the drying of the stool especially Lorazepam. These subtle structural modifications are inappropriate not clinically relevant and it may, thus, be considered that Trimethobenzamide exerts essentially no pertinent interaction on dangerous substance and disposition. The agency is requiring updated labels for controlled drug and Zidovudine with detailed recommendations for minimizing the use fears of mat drugs and that ...
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Alcohol produces injury to cells by dehydration and precipitation of the cytoplasm or protoplasm. This accounts for its bacteriocidal and antifungal action. When alcohol is injected in close proximity to nerve tissues, it produces neuritis and nerve degeneration (neurolysis). Ninety to 98% of ethanol that enters the body is completely oxidized. Ethanol is also used as a cosolvent to dissolve many insoluble drugs and to serve as a mild sedative in some medicinal formulations ...
Gabapentin misuse has been reported to produce anxiolytic effects and a euphoria similar to that of opioid misuse.3 Gabapentin is known to cause respiratory depression, particularly when combined with other central nervous system depressants.1-3 Long-term use can cause physiologic dependence and withdrawal syndrome on cessation, characterized by diaphoresis, anxiety, confusion and, rarely, seizures. 5,6 There is evidence that other gabapentinoids, such as pregabalin, may carry similar risks.4 ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Mechanisms of Alcohol-associated Cancers (R01) PA-12-146. NIAAA
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Mechanisms of Alcohol-associated Cancers (R21) PA-12-147. NIAAA
Heterozygote mice from a hybrid cross of C57BL/6J and FVB/NJ had heightened EtOH consumption, preference or blood EtOH concentration compared to either homozygous groups. The magnitude of dominant deviation on Chr. 11, as noted in Fig. 9, was measured after a drinking in the dark paradigm, 24hr two-bottle-choice and subsequent blood ethanol concentration measurement ...
Heavy alcohol drinking and repeated withdrawals are associated with increased relapse and allostatic adaptations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axi...
Sterling Drug Inc., US 3082209 (1958). Surrey, A. R.; Webb, W. G.; Gesler, R. M. (1958). "Central Nervous System Depressants. ... Seeling A, Oelschläger H, Rothley D (2000). "Important pharmaceutical-chemical characteristics of the central muscle relaxant ... Cleavage and biotransformation of the central muscle relaxant chlormezanone]". Pharmazie. 53 (9): 620-4. PMID 9770210. Gautier ...
2004). "Central Nervous System Depressant". Wilson and Gisvold's Textbook of Organic Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry. ...
Phenobarbital is a central nervous system depressant. According to the Farmak product label of Corvalol oral solution, the ... Symptoms of overdose include central nervous system depression, confusion, dizziness, ataxia, and somnolence. In serious cases ... Corvalol may increase CNS depressant effect of other sedatives and hypnotics. Corvalol valerianate component of the preparation ...
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a central nervous system depressant. It has no odor and tastes salty, but the taste can be ...
... is a central nervous system depressant. This means that butanol can have effects like ethanol when ingested or drunk by ... Brief, repeated overexposure with the skin can result in depression of the central nervous system, as with other short-chain ... In extreme cases this includes suppression of the central nervous system and even death. Under most circumstances, butanol is ... However, butanol can have depressant and sedative psychological effects a little bit more intense and stronger than ethanol ...
The impairment is worsened by consumption of alcohol, because both act as central nervous system depressants. During the course ... Concomitant use of other central nervous system depressants increases this risk. The smallest possible effective dose should be ... As a result, the arousal of the cortical and limbic systems in the central nervous system is reduced. The GABAA receptor is a ... Diazepam binding in mammalian central nervous system: a pharmacological characterization". The Journal of Neuroscience. 1 (2): ...
It possesses anticholinergic, central nervous system depressant, and local anesthetic effects. Its antiemetic and antivertigo ... American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Retrieved 22 March 2019. "Meclizine Use During Pregnancy". Drugs.com. Retrieved ... effects are not fully understood, but its central anticholinergic properties are partially responsible. The drug depresses ...
At higher concentrations, THF is also a central nervous system depressant. In rats, the inhalation LC(50) (Lethal Concentration ...
Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system (CNS) depressants, and by virtue of this they produce a wide spectrum ... Benzodiazepines act as a central nervous system depressant. The relative strength of each of these properties in any given ... Next to the voltage-gated sodium channels and components of the GABA system, their targets include GABAA receptors, the GAT-1 ... and voltage-dependent limitation of high frequency repetitive firing of action potentials of mouse central neurons in cell ...
... and the respiratory system of humans and other animals; it is also a central nervous system depressant. In industry, it is used ... Department of Agriculture quarantine system) OSHA considers a time-weighted average of 100 parts per million (300 milligrams ...
... has the potential to interact with other central nervous system depressants. Alcohol should be avoided, particularly ... The CNS-depressant effects of tizanidine and alcohol are additive. Caution with the following interactions: antibiotics such as ... American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Retrieved 3 March 2019. "Tizanidine Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Warnings". Drugs ...
At higher dosages (BAC > 1 g/L), ethanol acts as a central nervous system depressant, producing at progressively higher dosages ... Alkattan, A.; Alsalameen, E.; Ahmed, A. Central Nervous System Depressant Drugs: Updated Review. Preprints 2021, 2021010503 ( ... or death Alcohol can intensify the sedation caused by other central nervous system depressants such as barbiturates, ... Alcohol causes generalized central nervous system depression, is a positive allosteric GABAA modulator and is associated and ...
... and risks from concomitant use with benzodiazepines or other central nervous system depressants. Unlike other opioids for ...
It has an adverse effect profile similar to other central nervous system depressants. Adverse drug reactions associated with ... and central neuropathic pain. A minority obtain substantial benefit, and a larger number obtain moderate benefit. It is given ...
... and its metabolite, acetone, act as central nervous system (CNS) depressants. Poisoning can occur from ... Isopropyl alcohol is also used to remove brake fluid traces from hydraulic braking systems, so that the brake fluid (usually ...
When combined with other central nervous system (CNS) depressants such as alcoholic drinks and opioids, the potential for ... Taking benzodiazepines with alcohol, opioids and other central nervous system depressants potentiates their action. This often ... and to a lesser extent the central nervous system. These peripheral receptors are not structurally related or coupled to GABAA ... Peripheral benzodiazepine receptors are present in peripheral nervous system tissues, glial cells, ...
GHB is a central nervous system depressant used as an intoxicant. It has many street names. Its effects have been described as ... GHB has at least two distinct binding sites in the central nervous system. GHB acts as an agonist at the excitatory GHB ... "Transcript: FDA Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee Meeting". FDA. 6 June 2001. Perry M, Pomfret J, ... As the serotonergic system may be involved in the regulation of sleep, mood, and anxiety, the stimulation of this system by ...
... acts as a central nervous system depressant via allosteric agonism of the GABAA receptor.[citation needed] Excessive ...
The potential harm is increased when central nervous system depressants and antidepressants are also used; deliberate overdose ... These substances may interact with cyclobenzaprine: Central nervous system depressants (e.g. alcohol, opioids, benzodiazepines ... Cyclobenzaprine is a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist; it relieves muscle spasm through action on the central nervous system at the ... rather than targeting the peripheral nervous system or muscles themselves. Cyclobenzaprine has an oral bioavailability of about ...
Alcohol acts as a general central nervous system depressant, but it also affects some specific areas of the brain to a greater ... It is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid that acts as a central nervous system depressant. Ethanol can impair different ... Since alcohol affects the central nervous system, it hinders semantic storage functioning by restricting the consolidation of ... it has an inhibitory effect on neurotransmission in the central nervous system. GABAA receptor subtypes vary in their ...
... containing diphenhydramine can interact with alcohol as both are central nervous system (CNS) depressants. Side ... Anticholinergic drugs block the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Studies propose that ... "Benadryl - Ohio History Central". ohiohistorycentral.org. Retrieved November 2, 2020. "Johnson & Johnson to Acquire Pfizer ... Benadryl may interact with other medications such as anti-depressants, sleeping pills, muscle relaxers and other antihistamines ...
A barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant. Barbiturates are effective as anxiolytics, hypnotics ... Barbiturates in overdose with other CNS (central nervous system) depressants (e.g. alcohol, opiates, benzodiazepines) are even ... Barbituric acid itself does not have any direct effect on the central nervous system and chemists have derived over 2,500 ... GABA is the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Barbiturates bind to the GABAA ...
Sleep apnea - Sleep apnea may be worsened by lorazepam's central nervous system depressant effects. It may further reduce the ... may depress central nervous system respiratory drive and are contraindicated in severe respiratory failure. An example would be ... American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. June 29, 2016. Archived from the original on 5 June 2016. Retrieved 15 July 2016 ... Lorazepam's anticonvulsant and CNS depressant properties are useful for the treatment and prevention of alcohol withdrawal ...
Razibul (2012). "Pharmacological Evaluation of Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn Fruits for Central Nervous System Depressant ... Amongst Kuy- and Khmer-speaking people living in the same villages in Stung Treng and Preah Vihear provinces of north-central ...
... benzodiazepines which have central nervous system depressant activity". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 14 (11): 1078-81. doi: ...
It is a central nervous system depressant and was soon found to be an effective anticonvulsant, hypnotic and sedative. It was ...
... anti-infertility and central nervous system depressant activity. Species Pergularia adenophylla Schltr. & K. Schum. - Cameroon ...
It is also a known central nervous system depressant and can dissolves fats from the skin, causing skin irritation. There is ... DCE targets the skin, liver, kidneys, lungs, and central nervous system, in which exposure can result in irritation of the skin ... and central nervous system depression. In the early 1980s, when the contamination was first discovered, the Orange Water ... humans by all routes of exposure and poses a potential human health hazard for noncancer toxicity to the central nervous system ...
As a central nervous system depressant, ethanol is one of the most commonly consumed psychoactive drugs. Despite alcohol having ... "The Role of CYP2E1 in Alcohol Metabolism and Sensitivity in the Central Nervous System". Sub-cellular Biochemistry. 67: 235-237 ... auto-thermal reforming systems and thermally integrated systems. The majority of work is being conducted at a research level ... Pure ethanol is classed as 200 proof in the U.S., equivalent to 175 degrees proof in the UK system. Rectified spirit, an ...
Results from early human clinical studies confirmed that xylazine has several central nervous system depressant effects. ... which are physiological antagonists to central nervous system depressants. Combining yohimbine and 4-aminopyridine in an effort ... As an agonist, xylazine leads to a decrease in neurotransmission of norepinephrine and dopamine in the central nervous system. ... The sedative and analgesic effects of xylazine are related to central nervous system depression. Xylazine's muscle relaxant ...
Neurosteroids are synthesized in the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) from cholesterol and ... S(-) form of barbiturate have shown more depressant activity while the R(+) isomers have an excitatory effect.[28] ... Baulieu EE (1997). "Neurosteroids: of the nervous system, by the nervous system, for the nervous system". Recent Progress in ... GABA is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Upon binding, it triggers the GABAA receptor to open ...
Physiologically, urination involves coordination between the central, autonomic, and somatic nervous systems. Brain centers ... A plot of bladder (intravesical) pressure against the depressant of fluid in the bladder (called a cystometrogram), will show a ... as control at higher levels of the central nervous system develops. In the adult, the volume of urine in the bladder that ... The smooth muscle of the bladder, known as the detrusor, is innervated by sympathetic nervous system fibers from the lumbar ...
... as is avoiding medications that relax the central nervous system (for example, sedatives and muscle relaxants). Weight loss is ... Decreased muscle tone is also temporarily caused by chemical depressants; alcoholic drinks and sedative medications being the ... Whereas in central sleep apnea the body's motions of breathing stop, in OSA the chest not only continues to make the movements ... As in central apnea, pauses are followed by a relative decrease in blood oxygen and an increase in the blood carbon dioxide. ...
Over centuries, kava has been used in the traditional medicine of the South Pacific Islands for central nervous system and ... Anxiolytics (CNS depressants such as benzodiazepines and barbiturates): Kava may have potential additive CNS depressant effects ... Ligresti A, Villano R, Allarà M, Ujváry I, Di Marzo V (2012). "Kavalactones and the endocannabinoid system: the plant-derived ... CNS depressants such as benzodiazepines), antipsychotics, levodopa, diuretics, and drugs metabolized by CYP450 in the liver.[36 ...
5-HT3 receptor antagonists block serotonin receptors in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. As such, they ... H1 receptors in central areas include area postrema and vomiting center in the vestibular nucleus. Also, many of the ...
1-trichloroethane does act as a central nervous system depressant and can cause effects similar to those of ethanol ...
Exogenous substances that cause ataxia mainly do so because they have a depressant effect on central nervous system function. ... Any type of focal lesion of the central nervous system (such as stroke, brain tumor, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory [such as ... GHB accumulates in the nervous system and can cause ataxia as well as other neurological dysfunction.[26] ... Ataxia is a clinical manifestation indicating dysfunction of the parts of the nervous system that coordinate movement, such as ...
... drugs act in various ways on the peripheral and central nervous systems. They are distinct from anesthetics, which ... Both first-generation (such as amitriptyline) and newer anti-depressants (such as duloxetine) are used alongside NSAIDs and ... When used appropriately, opioids and other central analgesics are safe and effective; however, risks such as addiction and the ... "The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 2016-06-05.. ...
Abuse of central nervous system (CNS) stimulants is common. Addiction to some CNS stimulants can quickly lead to medical, ... Rasmussen N (July 2006). "Making the first anti-depressant: amphetamine in American medicine, 1929-1950". J. Hist. Med. Allied ... Amphetamine is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine class that is approved for the treatment ... Stimulants enhance the activity of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Common effects may include increased alertness, ...
Since moment-to-moment blood pressure regulation is carried out by the sympathetic nervous system (via the baroreceptor reflex ... Intravenous calcium gluconate (or calcium chloride if a central line is available) and atropine are first-line therapies. If ... By having both cardiac depressant and vasodilator actions, benzothiazepines are able to reduce arterial pressure without ... Ionic calcium is antagonized by magnesium ions in the nervous system. Because of this, bioavailable supplements of magnesium, ...
If the cancer has central nervous system involvement, or with meningeal disease, intrathecal chemotherapy may be administered.[ ... Agarwala SS, Kirkwood JM (2000). "Temozolomide, a novel alkylating agent with activity in the central nervous system, may ... Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System. 2008 Mar;13(1):27-46. doi:10.1111/j.1529-8027.2008.00156.x. PMID 18346229. ... Though the symptoms are mainly sensory, in some cases motor nerves and the autonomic nervous system are affected.[99] CIPN ...
... s can be absorbed from the nose via an inhaler and produce systemic effects, mainly central nervous system ... For their nasal delivery system, see inhaler.. A decongestant, or nasal decongestant, is a type of pharmaceutical drug that is ... Pseudoephedrine acts indirectly on the adrenergic receptor system, whereas phenylephrine and oxymetazoline are direct agonists ...
The impairment is worsened by consumption of alcohol, because both act as central nervous system depressants.[22] ... Concomitant use of other central nervous system depressants increases this risk. The smallest possible effective dose should be ... As a result, the arousal of the cortical and limbic systems in the central nervous system is reduced.[3] ... Diazepam binding in mammalian central nervous system: a pharmacological characterization". The Journal of Neuroscience. 1 (2): ...
For instance, GHB, a naturally occurring substance in the central nervous system is considered a drug, and is illegal in many ... CNS depressant. 1.40. 1.93. 2.21. 1.85 Ketamine. Dissociative anesthetic. 2.00. 1.54. 1.69. 1.74 ... Chronic use of certain substances leads to a change in the central nervous system known as a 'tolerance' to the medicine such ... An appropriate drug policy relies on the assessment of drug-related public expenditure based on a classification system where ...
Like all central nervous system depressants, alprazolam in larger-than-normal doses can cause significant deterioration in ... Alprazolam overdoses cause excess central nervous system (CNS) depression and may include one or more of the following symptoms ... The GABA chemical and receptor system mediates inhibitory or calming effects of alprazolam on the nervous system. Binding of ... "Both opioids and benzodiazepines depress the central nervous system (CNS). FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA warns about ...
... as their mechanism of action tends to inhibit pain sensation originating from the nervous system.[37] ... When used appropriately, opioids and other central analgesics are safe and effective; however, risks such as addiction and the ... due to the CNS depressant effects of ethyl alcohol, a notable example being the American Civil War.[36] However, the ability of ... "The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 2016-06-05.. ...
Central nervous system stimulants such as substituted amphetamines increase heart rate.. *Central nervous system depressants or ... Influences from the central nervous system[edit]. Cardiovascular centres[edit]. The heart rate is rhythmically generated by the ... Caffeine and nicotine are both stimulants of the nervous system and of the cardiac centres causing an increased heart rate. ... It is also influenced by central factors through sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves.[10] Nervous influence over the ...
... tetrachloroethylene is a central nervous system depressant and can enter the body through respiratory or dermal exposure.[9] ...
... , sold under the brand names Anvifen, Fenibut, and Noofen among others,[2] is a central nervous system depressant with ... Phenibut may mutually potentiate and extend the duration of the effects of other central nervous system depressants including ... Due to its central nervous system depressant effects, people taking phenibut should refrain from potentially dangerous ... Unlike certain other related central nervous system depressants such as baclofen and GHB, there have been no reports of death ...
... a central nervous system depressant, is the base of the PMS.[9] Chemical changes in the brain, stress, and emotional problems, ... "Low Doses Of Anti-depressant May Help Some Women Suffering From Moderate-to-severe PMS". Sciencedaily.com. 2006-10-14. Archived ... Problems with other aspects of the female reproductive system must be excluded, including dysmenorrhea (pain during the ...
Effects of fish oil on the central nervous system: a new potential antidepressant? Nutritional Neuroscience. 7(2):91-99, 2004 ... Clinical evaluation of CDP-choline (Nicholin) efficacy as an anti-depressant treatment. Curr Ther Res. 18(3):513-520, 1975. ... Effects of fish oil on the central nervous system: a new potential antidepressant? Nutritional Neuroscience. 7(2):91-99, 2004 ... Badmaev, V. Adaptogens and the immune system. Nutrimed.com Newsletter. *↑ Sairam, K., et al. Antidepressant activity of ...
Central nervous system[edit]. Depending on local tissue concentrations of local anesthetics, excitatory or depressant effects ... The conduction of electric impulses follows a similar mechanism in peripheral nerves, the central nervous system, and the heart ... Side effects on the central nervous system and the heart may be severe and potentially fatal. However, toxicity usually occurs ... Another possibility is direct exposure of the central nervous system through the cerebrospinal fluid, i.e., overdose in spinal ...
Index of the central nervous system. Description. *Anatomy *meninges. *cortex *association fibers ... "Effect of nicotine on sympathetic nervous system activity of mice subjected to immobilization stress". Physiol Behav. 55 (1): ... Nolley EP, Kelley BM (2007). "Adolescent reward system perseveration due to nicotine: studies with methylphenidate". ... "Nicotine self-administration acutely activates brain reward systems and induces a long-lasting increase in reward sensitivity" ...
More common side effects may include: Central nervous system depression, including somnolence, dizziness, depressed mood, ... "Short latency somatosensory evoked potentials and brain-stem auditory evoked potentials in coma due to CNS depressant drug ... and slows down the central nervous system. The mechanism of action of nitrazepam is the same as other benzodiazepine drugs and ... The Dutch, British and French system called the System of Objectified Judgement Analysis for assessing whether drugs should be ...
The initial symptoms of methanol intoxication include central nervous system depression, headache, dizziness, nausea, lack of ... can be fatal due to its CNS depressant properties in the same manner as ethanol poisoning. Second, in a process of toxication, ...
Doctors are moving on to look at the role of the central nervous system in FND symptoms. ... Medication such as sleeping tablets, painkillers, anti-epileptic medications and anti-depressants (for patients suffering with ... with Thomas Willis discovering that the brain and central nervous system were the cause of the symptoms. Thomas Sydenham argued ... Jean Martin Charcot argued that hysteria was caused by "a hereditary degeneration of the nervous system, namely a neurological ...
Central Nervous System depressants (Benzodiazepines), CNS stimulants (Methamphetamine), Dissociative anesthetics (PCP), ...
For the central nervous system[edit]. Drugs affecting the central nervous system include: Psychedelics, hypnotics, anaesthetics ... An elaborate and widely used classification system is the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System (ATC system). ... An elaborate and widely used classification system is the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System (ATC system). ... For the reproductive system or urinary system[edit]. antifungal, alkalinizing agents, quinolones, antibiotics, cholinergics, ...
Sometimes it develops in a life-threatening reaction of the cardiovascular system and the central nervous system, requiring a ... S Roy; HH Loh (1996). "Effects of opioids on the immune system". Neurochem. Res. 21 (11): 1375-1386. doi:10.1007/BF02532379. ... Patients stay in the hospital as long as three weeks to give the immune system time to recover to a point where there is no ... Interleukin-2 is an important immune system regulator necessary for the clone expansion and survival of activated lymphocytes T ...
1 Abstracts with Central Nervous System Depressants Research. Filter by Study Type. Human Study. ... Pharmacological Actions : Central Nervous System Depressants, Immunomodulatory, Immunomodulatory: Innate Immunity Up-Regulation ...
... ... nervous system damage, inflammation of the pancreas, heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke. ... If too much alcohol is taken into the body at once, the depressant effects of the drug will cause the heart and lungs to stop ...
Perspectives in Drug Discovery: Central Nervous System Depressants. Jones, Alan Wayne Linköping University, Department of ...
Central nervous system depressants are used to treat insomnia (trouble sleeping), anxiety, panic attacks, and seizures. ... Examples of central nervous system depressants are benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and certain sleep medicines. Central nervous ... central nervous system depressant listen (SEN-trul NER-vus SIS-tem dee-PREH-sunt) A type of drug that slows down brain activity ... Central nervous system depressants are used to treat insomnia (trouble sleeping), anxiety, panic attacks, and seizures. They ...
... for Central nervous system depressants and stimulants ... Home , Offer to Sell , Pharmaceuticals and Biochemicals , Central nervous system depressants and stimulants ...
Central Nervous System depressants are a group of drugs that depress the nervous system like sedatives and barbiturates. ... What Are Central Nervous System Depressants (CNS)?. CNS depressants (Central Nervous System depressants) are medications that ... Treatment for CNS Depressant Addiction. It is possible to overcome an addiction to Central Nervous System depressants, but ... Once the person becomes addicted, he or she will crave Central Nervous System depressants and seek the drugs in spite of any ...
Barbiturates and Sedatives as Central Nervous System Depressants. Central Nervous System Stimulants. Central Nervous System ... Alcohol as a Central Nervous System Depressant. Module 11: Learning Outcomes. ...
Fourteen cinnamic acid derivatives with substitution in the phenyl ring were tested for CNS depressant activity by prolongation ... Central nervous system depressant activity of cinnamic acid derivatives. Author(s): M NA Rao, PN Ramanan, DR Kulkarni. College ... All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit ... Fourteen cinnamic acid derivatives with substitution in the phenyl ring were tested for CNS depressant activity by prolongation ...
Roth Demonstrated Antinociceptive and Central Nervous System Depressant Activities in Mice. Mahmudur Rahman,1 Amina Khatun,2 ... In open field test for CNS depressant activity, the extract showed depression of locomotor activity for 150 and 300 mg/kg body ... The identified polyphenols are reputed for antinociceptive and CNS depressant activity. The present findings support the use of ...
Home Reports Policies to Prevent Harms from the Co-Prescribing of Opioids and Central Nervous System Depressant Drugs ... Policies to Prevent Harms from the Co-Prescribing of Opioids and Central Nervous System Depressant Drugs. April 2018 ... Cite As: Policies to prevent harms from the co-prescribing of ppioids and central nervous system depressant drugs. Ottawa: ... Some opioids products product monograph has a section on "Interactions with Central Nervous System Depressants (Including ...
Central nervous system depressants and stimulants Suppliers, Central nervous system depressants and stimulants Manufacturers, ... and Central nervous system depressants and stimulants Exporters provided by ChemNet ... Central nervous system depressants and stimulants Catalog with China Central nervous system depressants and stimulants Products ... Home > Products , Pharmaceuticals and Biochemicals , Central nervous system depressants and stimulants Central nervous system ...
The effect of central nervous system depressant, stimulant and hallucinogenic drugs on injury severity in patients admitted for ... The effect of central nervous system depressant, stimulant and hallucinogenic drugs on injury severity in patients admitted for ... Pooled data analyses in previous studies that grouped substances with opposite effects on the central nervous system (CNS) may ... For example, drugs with different effects, including opposite effects, on the central nervous system (CNS) are usually pooled ...
... Opioid Pain Relievers Anxiolytics (also belong to ... CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM STIMULANTS Amphetamines Caffeine • dextroamphetamine (Dexadrine®) Methelynedioxyamphetamine (MDA) • ... also belong to CNS depressants category) Mood Stabilizers • chloral hydrate • carbamazepine (Tegretol®) • zopiclone (Imovane®) ... also belong to the CNS depressants category) • varenicline (Champix®) Benzodiazepines • bupropion SR (Zyban®) • alprazolam ( ...
Central Nervous System Depressants 2.. Chemicals ← Chemical Actions and Uses ← Pharmacologic Actions ← Therapeutic Uses ← ... Central Nervous System Agents ← Central Nervous System Depressants Top ↑ Descendants Central Nervous System Depressants ... A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included ... Central Nervous System Depressants Equivalent Terms CNS Depressants , Depressants, CNS Definition ...
Central Nervous System Depressants. *The concomitant use of other central nervous system depressants, including other sedatives ... Nembutal (pentobarbital sodium) is a barbiturate that acts as a depressant, or sedative, used short-term to treat insomnia. ... Nembutal (pentobarbital sodium) is a barbiturate that acts as a depressant, or sedative, used short-term to treat insomnia. ... or hypnotics, antihistamines, tranquilizers, or alcohol, may produce additive depressant effects. ...
"Central Nervous System Depressants" by people in this website by year, and whether "Central Nervous System Depressants" was a ... "Central Nervous System Depressants" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Central Nervous System Depressants" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Central Nervous System Depressants". ...
Coma Blisters After an Overdose of Central Nervous System Depressants Ampollas del coma tras sobredosis de fármacos depresores ... Coma blisters after poisoning caused by central nervous system depressants: Case report including histopathological findings ... Since then, it has been mainly associated with overdose of drugs and nervous system depressants, such as barbiturates, ... Ampollas del coma tras sobredosis de fármacos depresores del sistema nervioso central. Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2017;108:81-83. ...
... respiratory system restlessness steroids testosterone therapeutic weed ...
Depressants (of the central nervous system). *Opioid derivatives/narcotics (heroin, morphine, codeine, hydrocodone [Lortab or ... Gamma Hydroxy Butrate (GHB) is a synthetic "date rape drug" that is a colorless and odorless central nervous system depressant ... Permanent damage to lungs, brain, liver, and immune system may occur.. Stimulants. * *Amphetamines (uppers, speed), ... They are especially dangerous when mixed with other depressants such as alcohol.. Rohypnol (flunitrazepam) is also a ...
... central nervous system depressants should be avoided because reductions in alertness and impairment of central nervous system ... central nervous system depressants because additional reductions in alertness and additional impairment of central nervous ... Central Nervous System Depressants. Concurrent use of Azelastine hydrochloride nasal solution (nasal spray), 0.1% with alcohol ... Concurrent Use of Alcohol and other Central Nervous System Depressants. Instruct patients to avoid concurrent use of Azelastine ...
Central Nervous System Depressants. Concurrent use of Astelin Nasal Spray with alcohol or other central nervous system ... central nervous system depressants because additional reductions in alertness and additional impairment of central nervous ... Concurrent Use of Alcohol and other Central Nervous System Depressants. Instruct patients to avoid concurrent use of Astelin ... Concurrent use of Astelin Nasal Spray with alcohol or other central nervous system depressants should be avoided because ...
Central Nervous System Depressants. Concurrent use of ASTEPRO Nasal Spray with alcohol or other central nervous system ... other Central Nervous System Depressants. Avoid concurrent use of ASTEPRO with alcohol or other central nervous system ... Concurrent use of ASTEPRO with alcohol or other central nervous system depressants should be avoided because additional ... depressants should be avoided because reductions in alertness and impairment of central nervous system performance may occur [ ...
... nervous system depressants should be avoided because reductions in alertness and impairment of central nervous system ... Central Nervous System Depressants. Concurrent use of Azelastine HCl Nasal Solution (Nasal Spray), 0.15% with alcohol or other ... Concurrent Use Of Alcohol And Other Central Nervous System Depressants. Concurrent use of Azelastine HCl Nasal Solution (Nasal ... other central nervous system depressants should be avoided because additional reductions in alertness and additional impairment ...
Symptoms of overdose include acute central nervous system stimulation, cardiotoxicity causing tachycardia, arrhythmias, ... Phenmetrazine is a sympathomimetic drug used primarily as an appetite depressant. Its actions and mechanisms are similar to ...
Central nervous system (CNS) depressants. CNS depressants include barbiturates and benzodiazepines. Theyre also called ... It changes how your central nervous system (CNS) responds to pain. Like heroin, it creates a euphoric, sedative effect. ... Withdrawal from CNS depressants. If youre addicted to CNS depressants, youll likely develop withdrawal symptoms when you stop ... Most addictive drugs affect your brains reward system by flooding it with dopamine. This results in a pleasurable "high" that ...
Central Nervous System (CNS) Depressants. Sometimes referred to as sedatives and tranquilizers, used in the treatment of ... Method of action: CNS depressants work by slowing the brains activity. They can produce a drowsy or calming effect. ... Combining CNS depressants with alcohol can affect heart rhythm, slow respiration, and even lead to death. ...
... Lawyer Charles M. Rowland II, Call (937) 318-1384. All I do is ... CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DEPRESSANTS - A PRIMER. The category of Central Nervous System Depressants includes some of the most ... Central Nervous System Depressants. Dayton DUI Attorney Charles Rowland , DUI Law , Drugs & Alcohol , Central Nervous System ... Central nervous system agents are drugs that affect the central nervous system i.e. the brain and the spinal cord, and produce ...
Central nervous system depressant. -Any drug that tends to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major drug ... central nervous system depressants. *monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors (a class of anti-depressants) such as furazolidone, ... Central nervous system (CNS) depressants, such as antihistamines and other medicines for allergies, hay fever, or colds; ... Alcohol and other central nervous system depressants should not be taken or consumed while opioids are being taken. ...
Read our latest post on central nervous system depressants to get information about CNS depressants and how they work and signs ... An Overview of Central Nervous System Depressants*How Do Central Nervous System Depressants Work?*What Are the Effects of ... How Do Central Nervous System Depressants Work?. Prescriptions for CNS depressants like Xanax and Amytal and others are written ... Central Nervous System Depressant Abuse. *Millions of Americans use CNS depressants due to the euphoric high they create ...
Depressants Objectives Summarize the basic mechanism by which benzodiazepines work in the brain. Describe two strategies for ... Central nervous system depressants (CNS depressants) Background: Benzodiazepines are a large group of drugs that act as central ... 1 Benzodiazepines: A Model for Central Nervous System (CNS) Depressants. 2 Objectives Summarize the basic mechanism by which ... 7 Pharmacodynamics: How BZDS work (cont.) Influx of Cl- causes central nervous system (CNS) depressant effect (inhibitory) ...
  • Examples of central nervous system depressants are benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and certain sleep medicines. (cancer.gov)
  • Using opioids together with central nervous system (CNS) depressants like benzodiazepines happens frequently and is potentially harmful. (cadth.ca)
  • 3 CNS depressants such as sedative hypnotics (e.g., benzodiazepines, z-drugs, and barbiturates) are commonly used in the management of insomnia and anxiety as well as in inducing sedation for surgical and other medical procedures, treatment of alcohol withdrawal, seizure control, and relaxation of skeletal muscles. (cadth.ca)
  • Opioid and CNS depressants such as benzodiazepines continue to be prescribed at the same time in patients with various clinical conditions. (cadth.ca)
  • 5-9 However, concomitant use of opioids and CNS depressants like benzodiazepines is generally considered "low value care" and potentially dangerous. (cadth.ca)
  • 10 Both opioids and CNS depressants such as benzodiazepines depress the CNS, resulting in sedation, impaired thoughts, slowed response time, and more importantly slowed or difficult breathing and deaths. (cadth.ca)
  • 16,17 Similarly, several other studies indicate that concomitant use of opioids and CNS depressants - most prominently benzodiazepines - increase risk of harms such as cognitive disorder, accidental injuries including motor vehicle accidents, falls and fractures, substance use disorder, neonatal drug withdrawal, overdose, and death. (cadth.ca)
  • The presence of alcohol, stimulant drugs (cocaine, amphetamines and methamphetamines), depressant drugs (benzodiazepines, opiates, methadone and barbiturates) and hallucinogenic drugs (THC and PCP) was analyzed in 1187 patients between 16 and 70 years old admitted to a trauma hospital between November 2012 and June 2015. (scielosp.org)
  • CNS depressants include barbiturates and benzodiazepines . (healthline.com)
  • If you take them with medications that work on your central nervous system -- including alcohol, barbiturates, or benzodiazepines such as alprazolam (Xanax), clonazepam (Klonopin), or diazepam (Valium) -- you have a higher chance of breathing problems or death. (webmd.com)
  • Conclusion: In this cohort of HIV-infected and at-risk HIV-uninfected women, use of benzodiazepines, CNS depressants, and conditional QTc interval-prolonging medications were associated with a higher risk of mortality independent of methadone and other well-recognized mortality risk factors. (elsevier.com)
  • Concomitant use of opioids with benzodiazepines or other central nervous system (CNS) depressants, including alcohol , may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression , coma , and death. (medicinenet.com)
  • Reserve concomitant prescribing of Butrans and benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. (medicinenet.com)
  • Barbiturates and benzodiazepines are prescription central nervous system depressants. (in.gov)
  • A competent doctor would not prescribe three benzodiazepine drugs [in Ledger's case, the Valium, Xanax and Restoril], because all benzodiazepines have the same effect," she says -- the central nervous system depressant effect. (webmd.com)
  • Some of the commonly used central nervous system depressants include alcohol, benzos (tranquilizers), barbiturates and marijuana. (myaddictioninfo.com)
  • Aside from marijuana, taking barbiturates and other CNS depressants increases the likelihood of developing tolerance and dependency which implies that you have to take more and more of them to get the same feeling. (myaddictioninfo.com)
  • Barbiturates -- including amobarbital (Amytal), pentobarbital (Nembutal), phenobarbital (Luminal), and secobarbital (Seconal) -- are also CNS depressants. (webmd.com)
  • Weegy: Barbiturates are a depressant. (weegy.com)
  • When prescribed by a doctor and used as directed, depressants such as barbiturates can be safe. (jrank.org)
  • CNS depressants like barbiturates slow down activity of the brain and may cause drowsiness and lack of co-ordination. (medindia.net)
  • If too much alcohol is taken into the body at once, the depressant effects of the drug will cause the heart and lungs to stop working and the person will die. (mentalhelp.net)
  • The aim was to analyze the effect of stimulant, hallucinogenic and depressant drugs other than alcohol on injury severity in trauma patients. (scielosp.org)
  • Drugs other than alcohol were found in 371 patients (31.3%): 32 (2.7%) stimulants, 186 (15.3%) depressants, 78 (6.6%) hallucinogenics and 75 (5.6%) polydrug use. (scielosp.org)
  • The presence of CNS depressant substances was associated with increased injury severity only in patients also exposed to alcohol, with an adjusted odds ratio of 4.63 (1.37-15.60) for moderate injuries and 7.83 (2.53-24.21) for severe. (scielosp.org)
  • CNS depressant drugs had a strong influence on injury severity in patients who screened positive for alcohol consumption. (scielosp.org)
  • El objetivo fue analizar el efecto de las drogas alucinógenas, estimulantes y depresoras del SNC, diferentes del alcohol, sobre la gravedad de las lesiones en pacientes ingresados por traumatismos. (scielosp.org)
  • Se analizó la presencia de alcohol, drogas estimulantes (cocaína, anfetaminas y metanfetaminas), depresoras (benzodiacepinas, opiáceos, metadona y barbitúricos) y alucinógenas (THC y PCP) en 1187 pacientes de entre 16 y 70 años de edad ingresados por traumatismo de noviembre de 2012 a junio de 2015. (scielosp.org)
  • La presencia de sustancias depresoras del SNC se asoció con un aumento de la gravedad del traumatismo solo en pacientes también expuestos al alcohol, con una odds ratio ajustada de 4,63 (1,37-15,6) para lesiones moderadas y de 7,83 (2,53-24,21) para lesiones graves. (scielosp.org)
  • Combining CNS depressants with alcohol can affect heart rhythm, slow respiration, and even lead to death. (northeastern.edu)
  • Many people combine these depressants with alcohol. (myaddictioninfo.com)
  • in 2017 studied the effect of the central nervous system depressant, stimulant and hallucinogenic drugs on injury severity in patients admitted for trauma and discovered that CNS depressant were associated with increased injury severity in patients who also took alcohol. (myaddictioninfo.com)
  • Fentanyl transdermal system may have additive effects when used in conjunction with other CNS depressants, alcohol, and drugs of abuse. (nih.gov)
  • Alcohol and medicines that by themselves depress the CNS, when combined with each other, may depress the system more than either does by itself. (doctorabel.us)
  • When combined with CNS depressants, alcohol- even in small quantities-produces undesirable and sometimes dangerous effects. (doctorabel.us)
  • CNS depressants slow down the processes of the central nervous Mixing CNS depressants, opioids, and alcohol increases their effect. (centrebadalona.com)
  • This risk is higher when prescription drugs like opioids are taken with other substances like alcohol, antihistamines, and CNS depressants. (kidshealth.org)
  • Taking CNS depressants with other medicines, such as prescription painkillers, some over-the-counter cold and allergy medicines, or alcohol can slow a person's heartbeat and breathing - and even kill. (kidshealth.org)
  • Alcohol is a depressant that is legal to use in moderation for people who are over twenty-one years of age, but is never used for medicinal purposes. (jrank.org)
  • Alcohol is the most infamous of these drugs, but opioid narcotics (both prescription and illicit) are also widely abused CNS depressant drugs. (pbinstitute.com)
  • The abuse of alcohol on the campuses of the University system is a matter of significant concern because it interferes with the education of students and the job performance of faculty and staff. (uwlax.edu)
  • Is Alcohol a Depressant? (articlecity.com)
  • Although many people drink to enhance their mood, alcohol is indeed a depressant. (articlecity.com)
  • Home » Products » Pharmaceuticals and Biochemicals » Central nervous system depressants and stimulants In total 717054 number ofProductsinfo ,Released today. (danperinovic.com)
  • Prescription drugs fall into three main classes: opioid pain relievers, stimulants, and central nervous system depressants. (dualdiagnosis.org)
  • While people misuse a wide range of prescriptions drugs, opioids, central nervous system (CNS) depressants and stimulants are the most widely abused. (drugrehab.com)
  • Many opioids like heroin and oxycodone also function similarly to depressants. (myaddictioninfo.com)
  • When opioids and other depressants are combined, it can slow the central nervous system to a point where it becomes dangerous or deadly. (myaddictioninfo.com)
  • Opioids attach to opioid receptors in the central nervous system (the brain and the spinal cord), preventing the brain from receiving pain messages. (kidshealth.org)
  • But just like opioids, CNS depressant abuse can lead to major withdrawal symptoms and cravings with addiction and other harmful side effects, such as headache, nausea, and ironically, anxiety and insomnia. (discoveryplace.info)
  • Once the person becomes addicted, he or she will crave Central Nervous System depressants and seek the drugs in spite of any negative effects. (4rehabilitation.com)
  • A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. (ctdbase.org)
  • Most addictive drugs affect your brain's reward system by flooding it with dopamine. (healthline.com)
  • The category of Central Nervous System Depressants includes some of the most commonly abused drugs. (daytondui.com)
  • Central nervous system agents are drugs that affect the central nervous system i.e. the brain and the spinal cord, and produce a response that could be used to alleviate or treat a particular medical condition. (daytondui.com)
  • Depressant drugs consistently rank among the most widely used and abused drugs in the U.S. and Canada. (daytondui.com)
  • CNS Depressants and Drugged Driving The category of CNS Depressants includes some of the most commonly abused drugs. (daytondui.com)
  • Source: Behavioral Health Trends in the United States: Results from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH, September 2015)Depressants Are Widely AbusedDepressant drugs consistently rank among the most widely. (daytondui.com)
  • A class of drugs producing both physiological and psychological effects through a variety of mechanisms involving the central nervous system. (foodb.ca)
  • The effect of central nervous system depressant, stimulant and to analyze the effect of stimulant, hallucinogenic and depressant drugs other. (centrebadalona.com)
  • Neurotransmitters, the brain's chemical messengers, and receptor sites are altered, and natural production is inhibited the longer the drugs are present in the system. (dualdiagnosis.org)
  • In CNS depressant test, diazepam (1 mg/kg) was used as reference drug while indomethacin (10 mg/kg) and loperamide(2 mg/kg) were used as standard drugs in analgesic and antidiarrheal tests, respectively. (ac.bd)
  • With theincreased interest in neuroscience, the authors pay particularattention ito behavioral and nervous system processes as theyrelate to drugs and drug use, as well as their implications forspecific drug categories. (wiley-vch.de)
  • What are the Effects of Prescription Drugs on Body Systems? (medindia.net)
  • All these drugs are central nervous system depressants," she says. (webmd.com)
  • An unsafe combination of drugs, such as the mixture Ledger allegedly took, could depress the central nervous system so much that these "messages" can't get through, she says. (webmd.com)
  • Several drugs are considered central nervous system (CNS) depressants because they create a sense of calm and relaxation. (pbinstitute.com)
  • Central nervous system depressants are used to treat insomnia (trouble sleeping), anxiety, panic attacks, and seizures. (cancer.gov)
  • 4 Other CNS depressants include some antipsychotics as well as gabapentin, and pregabalin which are also used in managing various neurological conditions such as schizophrenia, seizures, and pain. (cadth.ca)
  • Depressants may put users to sleep, relieve muscle spasms and anxiety and also prevent seizures. (myaddictioninfo.com)
  • Prescriptions for CNS depressants like Xanax and Amytal and others are written by medical professionals for patients suffering from conditions like insomnia, anxiety, and seizures. (myaddictioninfo.com)
  • If you take CNS depressants for a long time and stop suddenly, you might have life-threatening problems such as withdrawal seizures. (webmd.com)
  • A person coming off central nervous system (CNS) depressants should be monitored by a qualified doctor as seizures can occur. (narconon.org)
  • Conclusion: The extracts of Dimocarpus longan tested demonstrated significant CNS depressant, analgesic and antidiarrheal activities in a rodent model. (ac.bd)
  • CNS depressants, sometimes referred to as sedatives and tranquilizers, are substances that can slow brain activity. (daytondui.com)
  • People who start taking CNS depressants usually feel sleepy and uncoordinated for the first few days until the body adjusts to these side effects. (centrebadalona.com)
  • Mar 6, Central Nervous System (CNS) depressants are medicines that include sedatives , tranquilizers, and hypnotics. (centrebadalona.com)
  • Flacourtia indica (FI) has been used in traditional system of medicines to treat several diseases like snakebite, cancer, diabetes and hepatic disorders. (pharmascholars.com)
  • CNS depressants ( Central Nervous System depressants ) are medications that slow down or depress the central nervous system, which is made up of the brain and spinal cord. (4rehabilitation.com)
  • In high enough doses, CNS Depressants will produce general anesthesia, i.e. depress the brain's ability to sense pain, and in very high doses, they can induce coma and death. (daytondui.com)
  • Systems of drainage and fill, starting dose valium anxiety, neuropsychiatric conditions there may be sometimes an hereditary in, 5 milligram valium street value, It seems quite reasonable that slight inflammations could be, what is the pharmaceutical name for valium, best way to withdraw from valium, ing the stock emulsion was given the same number of whirls, occasional valium use, way to do justice to them. (gcytu.org)
  • Central Nervous System (CNS) depressants / Anxiety relievers - also known as Sleeping pills or Zombie ills e.g. (medindia.net)
  • Opioid analgesics, also known as narcotic analgesics, are pain relievers that act on the central nervous system. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Opioid analgesics relieve pain by acting directly on the central nervous system. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Fatal respiratory depression could occur in patients who are not opioid-tolerant and in patients that are opioid-tolerant even if fentanyl transdermal system is not misused or abused. (nih.gov)
  • Fentanyl transdermal system contains fentanyl, a full opioid agonist. (nih.gov)
  • Fentanyl transdermal system is indicated for the management of persistent, moderate to severe chronic pain in opioid-tolerant patients 2 years of age and older when a continuous, around-the-clock opioid analgesic is needed for an extended period of time. (nih.gov)
  • Pooled data analyses in previous studies that grouped substances with opposite effects on the central nervous system (CNS) may have masked the influence of substances on injury severity. (scielosp.org)
  • Central nervous system depressants are sometimes called sedatives or tranquilizers. (cancer.gov)
  • Central nervous system agents can be used as analgesics, anesthetics, anti-emetics, anti-convulsants, and have many more therapeutic uses. (daytondui.com)
  • Marijuana is not linked to overdoses by itself, but it can be particularly harmful when mixed with other central nervous system (CNS) depressants . (pbinstitute.com)
  • Marijuana or cannabis is also a CNS depressant because it can have relaxing effects, but it is also considered a psychedelic drug. (pbinstitute.com)
  • CNS depressants work by slowing the brain's activity. (northeastern.edu)
  • CNS depressants slow the brain's activity so when the drug is withdrawn, the brain activity can rebound into a seizure or other problems. (narconon.org)
  • The CNS depressants slow breathing which increases the chances of dying due to overdose. (myaddictioninfo.com)
  • Accidental exposure of fentanyl transdermal system, especially in children, can result in a fatal overdose of fentanyl. (nih.gov)
  • CYP 3A4 inhibitors can result in a fatal overdose of fentanyl from fentanyl transdermal system. (nih.gov)
  • Temperature dependent increases in fentanyl release from the system may result in overdose and death. (nih.gov)
  • Misuse or abuse of Butrans by chewing, swallowing, snorting or injecting buprenorphine extracted from the transdermal system will result in the uncontrolled delivery of buprenorphine and pose a significant risk of overdose and death. (medicinenet.com)
  • Taking CNS depressants for a few days or weeks may help you feel calm and sleepy. (webmd.com)
  • Fentanyl transdermal system is NOT intended for use as an as-needed analgesic. (nih.gov)
  • Purpose: To assess the central nervous system (CNS) depressant, analgesic and antidiarrheal activities of the dried seed crude extracts of Dimocarpus longan Lour in rodents. (ac.bd)
  • An investigation to evaluate the analgesic and central nervous system depressant activities of Solanum nigrum (Linn. (ijrh.org)
  • Initiate treatment with 1/3 to 1/2 the recommended starting dose, consider using a lower dosage of the concomitant CNS depressant, and monitor closely. (endo.com)
  • Nembutal (pentobarbital sodium) is a barbiturate that acts as a depressant, or sedative , used short-term to treat insomnia . (medicinenet.com)
  • The overall results depicted that the FI extract had significant antidiarrheal and CNS depressant properties. (pharmascholars.com)
  • Source: Downers: A New Look at Depressant DrugsDepressants slow down the operation of the central nervous system (i.e., the brain, brain stem and spinal cord). (daytondui.com)
  • A depressant slows down the central nervous system of the body. (jrank.org)
  • Severe symptoms of CNS depressant abuse can result in delirium, coma and ultimately death. (myaddictioninfo.com)
  • The case of a 45-year-old woman who developed " coma blisters " at six distinct anatomic sites after confirmed ( laboratory ) phenobarbital poisoning , associated with other central nervous system depressants ( clonazepam , promethazine , oxcarbazepine and quetiapine ), is presented. (bvsalud.org)
  • Relatamos o caso de uma paciente de 45 anos que desenvolveu " bolhas do coma " após tentativa de suicídio por fenobarbital (confirmada laboratorialmente), associada a outros depressores do sistema nervoso central ( clonazepam , prometazina , oxcarbazepina e quetiapina). (bvsalud.org)
  • This study evaluated the anti-diarrheal and central nervous system (CNS) effect of ethanolic extract of FI in mice. (pharmascholars.com)
  • For the two classes of caprolactams, with respect to inhibition or enhancement of muscimol binding, there appeared to be a relationship between in vitro effects and their convulsant or depressant activity in mice. (muscimol.xyz)
  • Central nervous system depressant s are a group of prescription medications that when taken reduce brain stimulation and create feelings of relaxation. (myaddictioninfo.com)
  • People who abuse depressants take higher doses compared to those who stick with their doctor's prescription. (myaddictioninfo.com)
  • Ativan (central nervous system depressants) - No Prescription required. (biz.ly)
  • Many people who find themselves in this situation look for answers about how long it takes for a prescription drug to clear from the system. (therecoveryvillage.com)
  • The sedative effects of CNS depressants can cause unwanted side effects, especially when taken in higher-than-prescribed doses or by a person with no medical need for them. (4rehabilitation.com)
  • If a person takes CNS depressants long term, he or she might need larger doses to achieve therapeutic effects. (centrebadalona.com)
  • It is possible to overcome an addiction to Central Nervous System depressants , but because of the dangers that come with stopping their use, it should be done under medical supervision. (4rehabilitation.com)
  • While addiction to CNS depressants is a challenge, it can be overcome. (4rehabilitation.com)
  • If you or a loved one struggles with addiction to a CNS depressant, we can help. (4rehabilitation.com)
  • Blister formation and eccrine sweat gland necrosis is a cutaneous manifestation associated with states of impaired consciousness , most frequently reported after overdoses of central nervous system depressants , particularly phenobarbital . (bvsalud.org)
  • Phenobarbital is a long-acting barbiturate, an anti-epileptic drug (AED) and sedating drug that depresses the nervous system. (labtestsonline.org)
  • In general, hypnotics are central nervous system depressants . (infoplease.com)
  • Study Objective: To evaluate the association between use of methadone, other central nervous system (CNS) depressants, and QTc interval-prolonging medications and risk of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and at-risk HIV-uninfected women. (elsevier.com)
  • The signs and symptoms of CNS depressant abuse vary depending on some factors like the type of depressant abused, the size of the individual, the dosage taken, the time period of abuse, medical history, etc. (myaddictioninfo.com)
  • CNS depressant abuse is risky too. (kidshealth.org)
  • The brain of a CNS depressant user becomes accustomed to the slowed activity. (4rehabilitation.com)
  • Fourteen cinnamic acid derivatives with substitution in the phenyl ring were tested for CNS depressant activity by prolongation of pentobarbitone induced sleep. (ijpsonline.com)
  • In open field test for CNS depressant activity, the extract showed depression of locomotor activity for 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight comparing with diazepam for 10 mg/kg body weight. (hindawi.com)
  • The identified polyphenols are reputed for antinociceptive and CNS depressant activity. (hindawi.com)
  • CNS depressants slow down brain activity by increasing the activity of a neurotransmitter called GABA. (kidshealth.org)
  • Overview of Nervous System, Nerve Cell Activity, andAddictive Behavior. (wiley-vch.de)
  • Differential modulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors by caprolactam derivatives with central nervous system depressant or convulsant activity. (muscimol.xyz)
  • Phenmetrazine is a sympathomimetic drug used primarily as an appetite depressant. (pharmacycode.com)
  • The National Survey on Drug Use and Health from SAMHSA revealed that over 1 million non-medical depressant users were 12 years and above. (myaddictioninfo.com)
  • The first is the effect of the chemical properties of the drug on the central nervous system. (centrebadalona.com)
  • 2) Flunitrazepam a) A urine test can detect this drug in ones system for up to 60 hours after ingestion. (prezi.com)
  • CNS (Central nervous system) depressants are a type of drug class that does exactly as described-they are medications to help calm the nervous system and other types of mental fever. (discoveryplace.info)
  • First things first, as you can imagine, you must discontinue usage to clear a drug from your system. (therecoveryvillage.com)
  • Los análisis incluidos en estudios previos, que agrupan sustancias con efectos opuestos sobre el sistema nervioso central (SNC), pueden haber enmascarado la influencia de estas sobre la gravedad. (scielosp.org)
  • Formação de bolhas e necrose de glândula sudoríparas écrinas é uma manifestação cutânea associada com estados de diminuição da consciência , mais frequentemente relatada após superdosagens de depressores do sistema nervoso central , particularmente fenobabital. (bvsalud.org)
  • While the actions of many CNS depressants on the brain may differ slightly, the effect on the brain is always the same. (myaddictioninfo.com)
  • 0.01) depressant effect in relation to positive control, diazepam. (ac.bd)
  • Monitor patients receiving fentanyl transdermal system and any CYP3A4 inhibitor for an extended period of time and adjust dosage, if necessary. (nih.gov)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Central Nervous System Depressants" by people in this website by year, and whether "Central Nervous System Depressants" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Central Nervous System Depressants" by people in Profiles. (childrensmercy.org)
  • In all, CNS depressants sent 363,000 people to the emergency room in 2009. (narconon.org)
  • Many people are helped by depressants when they are used correctly. (jrank.org)
  • Depressants do not necessarily "make" people feel depressed. (articlecity.com)
  • These highlights do not include all the information needed to use fentanyl transdermal system safely and effectively. (nih.gov)
  • Factors that affect the impact of CNS depression include: Continued use of some CNS depressants can be harmful long-term, as the body. (centrebadalona.com)