Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Meningitis, Bacterial: Bacterial infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, frequently involving the cerebral cortex, cranial nerves, cerebral blood vessels, spinal cord, and nerve roots.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Meningitis: Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)Meningitis, Pneumococcal: An acute purulent infection of the meninges and subarachnoid space caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, most prevalent in children and adults over the age of 60. This illness may be associated with OTITIS MEDIA; MASTOIDITIS; SINUSITIS; RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; sickle cell disease (ANEMIA, SICKLE CELL); skull fractures; and other disorders. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; neck stiffness; and somnolence followed by SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits (notably DEAFNESS); and COMA. (From Miller et al., Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p111)Meningitis, Aseptic: A syndrome characterized by headache, neck stiffness, low grade fever, and CSF lymphocytic pleocytosis in the absence of an acute bacterial pathogen. Viral meningitis is the most frequent cause although MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; RICKETTSIA INFECTIONS; diagnostic or therapeutic procedures; NEOPLASTIC PROCESSES; septic perimeningeal foci; and other conditions may result in this syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p745)Ceftriaxone: A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.Meningitis, Haemophilus: Infections of the nervous system caused by bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS, and marked by prominent inflammation of the MENINGES. HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B is the most common causative organism. The condition primarily affects children under 6 years of age but may occur in adults.Meningitis, Viral: Viral infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space. TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RUBELLA; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORBIVIRUS infections; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RHABDOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; JC VIRUS infections; and RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS may cause this form of meningitis. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, neck pain, vomiting, PHOTOPHOBIA, and signs of meningeal irritation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Meningococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Serum Bactericidal Antibody Assay: Procedures for identification and measurement of IMMUNOGLOBULINS in the blood that initiate lysis of bacteria.Neisseria meningitidis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Meningitis, Meningococcal: A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup B: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis which are the most common ones causing infections or disease in infants. Serogroup B strains are isolated most frequently in sporadic cases, and are less common in outbreaks and epidemics.Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup C: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most sporadic cases in teenagers and almost all outbreaks of disease in this age group. These strains are less common in infants.BooksNobel PrizeHistory, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Book SelectionJournal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Book Reviews as Topic: Critical analyses of books or other monographic works.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Reference Books: Books designed by the arrangement and treatment of their subject matter to be consulted for definite terms of information rather than to be read consecutively. Reference books include DICTIONARIES; ENCYCLOPEDIAS; ATLASES; etc. (From the ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Lyme Disease: An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.Alum Compounds: Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.Borrelia burgdorferi Group: Gram-negative helical bacteria, in the genus BORRELIA, that are the etiologic agents of LYME DISEASE. The group comprises many specific species including Borrelia afzelii, Borellia garinii, and BORRELIA BURGDORFERI proper. These spirochetes are generally transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Deltoid Muscle: Thick triangular muscle in the SHOULDER whose function is to abduct, flex, and extend the arm. It is a common site of INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTIONS.Receptors, Very Late Antigen: Members of the integrin family appearing late after T-cell activation. They are a family of proteins initially identified at the surface of stimulated T-cells, but now identified on a variety of cell types. At least six VLA antigens have been identified as heterodimeric adhesion receptors consisting of a single common beta-subunit and different alpha-subunits.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Borrelia burgdorferi: A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete.Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Mastoiditis: Inflammation of the honeycomb-like MASTOID BONE in the skull just behind the ear. It is usually a complication of OTITIS MEDIA.Abscess: Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Craniocerebral Trauma: Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.

Infection of central nervous system by motile Enterococcus: first case report. (1/43)

A 66-year-old man with four indwelling ventriculoperitoneal shunts for multiloculated hydrocephalus from a complicated case of meningitis a year before developed shunt infection based on a syndrome of fever, drowsiness, and cerebrospinal fluid neutrophil pleocytosis in the background of repeated surgical manipulation to relieve successive shunt blockages. The cerebrospinal fluid culture, which yielded a motile Enterococcus species, was believed to originate from the gut. This isolate was lost in storage and could not be characterized further. The patient improved with vancomycin and high-dose ampicillin therapy. He relapsed a month later with Enterococcus gallinarum shunt infection, which responded to high-dose ampicillin and gentamicin therapy. This is probably the first case report of motile Enterococcus infection of the central nervous system.  (+info)

Listeria monocytogenes-infected phagocytes can initiate central nervous system infection in mice. (2/43)

Listeria monocytogenes-infected phagocytes are present in the bloodstream of experimentally infected mice, but whether they play a role in central nervous system (CNS) invasion is unclear. To test whether bacteria within infected leukocytes could establish CNS infection, experimentally infected mice were treated with gentamicin delivered by surgically implanted osmotic pumps. Bacterial inhibitory titers in serum and plasma ranged from 1:16 to 1:256, and essentially all viable bacteria in the bloodstream of treated mice were leukocyte associated. Nevertheless, CNS infection developed in gentamicin-treated animals infected intraperitoneally or by gastric lavage, suggesting that intracellular bacteria could be responsible for neuroinvasion. This was supported by data showing that 43.5% of bacteria found with blood leukocytes were intracellular and some colocalized with F-actin, indicating productive intracellular parasitism. Experiments using an L. monocytogenes strain containing a chromosomal actA-gfpuv-plcB transcriptional fusion showed that blood leukocytes were associated with intracellular and extracellularly bound green fluorescent protein-expressing (GFP+) bacteria. Treatment with gentamicin decreased the numbers of extracellularly bound GFP+ bacteria significantly but did not affect the numbers of intracellular GFP+ bacteria, suggesting that the latter were the result of intercellular spread of GFP+ bacteria to leukocytes. These data demonstrate that infected leukocytes and the intracellular L. monocytogenes harbored within them play key roles in neuroinvasion. Moreover, they suggest that phagocytes recruited to infected organs such as the liver or spleen are themselves parasitized by intercellular spread of L. monocytogenes and then reenter the bloodstream and contribute to the systemic dissemination of bacteria.  (+info)

Effect of deficiency of tumor necrosis factor alpha or both of its receptors on Streptococcus pneumoniae central nervous system infection and peritonitis. (3/43)

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and TNF-beta are key mediators in bacterial inflammation. We therefore examined the role of TNF-alpha and its two receptors in murine pneumococcal central nervous system infection. TNF-alpha knockout mice and age- and sex-matched controls and TNF receptor (p55 and p75)-deficient mice and heterozygous littermates were infected intracerebrally with a Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3 strain. Mice were monitored until death or were killed 36 h after infection. Bacterial titers in blood, spleen, and brain homogenates were determined. Leukocyte infiltration and neuronal damage were assessed by histological scores. TNF-alpha-deficient mice died earlier than the controls after intracerebral infection although overall survival was similar. TNF-alpha deficiency did not inhibit leukocyte recruitment into the subarachnoid space and did not lead to an increased density of bacteria in brain homogenates. However, it caused a substantial rise of the concentration of S. pneumoniae cells in blood and spleen. Spleen bacterial titers were also increased in p55- and p75-deficient mice. TNF receptor-deficient mice showed decreased meningeal inflammation. Neuronal damage was not affected by either TNF-alpha or TNF receptor deficiency. In a murine model of pneumococcal peritonitis, 10(2) CFU of S. pneumoniae produced fatal peritonitis in TNF-alpha-deficient, but not wild-type, mice. Early leukocyte influx into the peritoneum was impaired in TNF-alpha-deficient mice. The lack of TNF-alpha or its receptors renders mice more susceptible to S. pneumoniae infections.  (+info)

Bacterial lipopolysaccharide selectively up-regulates the function of the chemotactic peptide receptor formyl peptide receptor 2 in murine microglial cells. (4/43)

Receptors for the bacterial chemotactic peptide fMLP are implicated in inflammation and host defense against microbial infection. We investigated the expression and function of fMLPR in microglial cells, which share characteristics of mononuclear phagocytes and play an important role in proinflammatory responses in the CNS. The expression of the genes encoding formyl peptide receptor (FPR)1 and FPR2, the high- and low-affinity fMLPR, was detected in a murine microglial cell line N9, but these cells did not respond to chemotactic agonists known for these receptors. N9 cells incubated with bacterial LPS increased the expression of fMLPR genes and developed a species of specific, but low-affinity, binding sites for fMLP, in association with marked calcium mobilization and chemotaxis responses to fMLP in a concentration range that typically activated the low-affinity receptor FPR2. In addition, LPS-treated N9 cells were chemoattracted by two FPR2-specific agonists, the HIV-1 envelope-derived V3 peptide, and the 42 aa form of the amyloid beta peptide which is a pathogenic agent in Alzheimer's disease. Primary murine microglial cells also expressed FPR1 and FPR2 genes, but similar to N9 cells, exhibited FPR2-mediated activation only after LPS treatment. In contrast to its effect on the function of FPR2, LPS reduced N9 cell binding and biological responses to the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha. Thus, LPS selectively modulates the function of chemoattractant receptors in microglia and may promote host response in inflammatory diseases in the CNS.  (+info)

Chlamydia pneumoniae infection of the central nervous system worsens experimental allergic encephalitis. (5/43)

Experimental allergic encephalitis (EAE) is considered by many to be a model for human multiple sclerosis. Intraperitoneal inoculation of mice with Chlamydia pneumoniae, after immunization with neural antigens, increased the severity of EAE. Accentuation of EAE required live infectious C. pneumoniae, and the severity of the disease was attenuated with antiinfective therapy. After immunization with neural antigens, systemic infection with C. pneumoniae led to the dissemination of the organism into the central nervous system (CNS) in mice with accentuated EAE. Inoculation with Chlamydia trachomatis did not worsen EAE and infectious organisms were not seen in the CNS. These observations suggest that dissemination of C. pneumoniae results in localized infection in CNS tissues in animals with EAE. We propose that infection of the CNS by C. pneumoniae can amplify the autoreactive pool of lymphocytes and regulate the expression of an autoimmune disease.  (+info)

Systemic infection, interleukin 1beta, and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. (6/43)

Activated microglia, the resident macrophages of the brain, are a feature of Alzheimer's disease. Animal models suggest that when activated microglia are further activated by a subsequent systemic infection this results in significantly raised levels of interleukin 1beta within the CNS, which may in turn potentiate neurodegeneration. This prospective pilot study in Alzheimer's disease subjects showed that cognitive function can be impaired for at least two months after the resolution of a systemic infection and that cognitive impairment is preceded by raised serum levels of interleukin 1beta. These relations were not confounded by the presence of any subsequent systemic infection or by baseline cognitive scores. Further research is needed to determine whether recurrent systemic infections drive cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease subjects through a cytokine mediated pathway.  (+info)

Cultivation of Tropheryma whipplei from cerebrospinal fluid. (7/43)

Whipple disease (WD) is a systemic disorder caused by the bacterium Tropheryma whipplei. Since the recognition of a bacterial etiology in 1961, many attempts have been made to cultivate this bacterium in vitro. It was eventually isolated, in 2000, from an infected heart valve, in coculture with human fibroblasts. Here we report the isolation of 2 new strains of T. whipplei from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 2 patients with intestinal WD but no neurological signs or symptoms. One culture-positive specimen was obtained before treatment; the other was obtained 12 months after discontinuation of therapy, at a time of intestinal remission. In both cases, 15 passages of the cultures were completed over 17 months. Bacterial growth was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, which suggested a generation time of 4 days. Staining with YO-PRO nucleic-acid dye showed characteristic rod-shaped bacteria arranged in chains. Fluorescent in situ hybridization with a T. whipplei-specific oligonucleotide probe, a broad-range bacterial probe, and a nonspecific nucleic-acid stain indicated that all visible bacteria were T. whipplei. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed both intracellular and extracellular bacteria. This first isolation of T. whipplei from CSF provides clear evidence of viable bacteria in the central nervous system in individuals with WD, even after prolonged antibiotic therapy.  (+info)

Invasion of the central nervous system by intracellular bacteria. (8/43)

Infection of the central nervous system (CNS) is a severe and frequently fatal event during the course of many diseases caused by microbes with predominantly intracellular life cycles. Examples of these include the facultative intracellular bacteria Listeria monocytogenes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Brucella and Salmonella spp. and obligate intracellular microbes of the Rickettsiaceae family and Tropheryma whipplei. Unfortunately, the mechanisms used by intracellular bacterial pathogens to enter the CNS are less well known than those used by bacterial pathogens with an extracellular life cycle. The goal of this review is to elaborate on the means by which intracellular bacterial pathogens establish infection within the CNS. This review encompasses the clinical and pathological findings that pertain to the CNS infection in humans and includes experimental data from animal models that illuminate how these microbes enter the CNS. Recent experimental data showing that L. monocytogenes can invade the CNS by more than one mechanism make it a useful model for discussing the various routes for neuroinvasion used by intracellular bacterial pathogens.  (+info)

*Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain

Roos, Karen L.; Tunkel, Allan R. (2010). Bacterial infections of the central nervous system. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 69 ... of the nervous system uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce high quality two- or three-dimensional images of nervous ... A number of different imaging modes or sequences can be used with imaging the nervous system: T1: Cerebrospinal fluid is dark. ... system structures without use of ionizing radiation (X-rays) or radioactive tracers. The first MR images of a human brain were ...

*Tuberculous meningitis

Central Nervous System Bacterial Infections-Advances in Research and Treatment: 2012 Edition: ScholarlyBrief. ScholarlyEditions ... is Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of the meninges-the system of membranes which envelop the central nervous system. Fever ... "The PCR-Based Diagnosis of Central Nervous System Tuberculosis: Up to Date". www.hindawi.com. Retrieved 2015-06-02. "CDC ,TB ... Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Advances in Research and Treatment: 2011 Edition. ScholarlyEditions. 2012-01-09. p. 77. ...

*Quinolinic acid

... acid levels are increased in the brains of children infected with a range of bacterial infections of the central nervous system ... For example, raised levels of quinolinic acid after infection are correlated to perceptual-motor slowing in patients. Then, in ... Following cerebral ischaemia, delayed neuronal death may occur in part because of central microglia and macrophages, which ...

*List of MeSH codes (C10)

... central nervous system bacterial infections MeSH C10.228.228.180.100 --- brain abscess MeSH C10.228.228.180.350 --- empyema, ... central nervous system parasitic infections MeSH C10.228.228.205.250 --- central nervous system helminthiasis MeSH C10.228. ... central nervous system MeSH C10.228.140.300.850.125 --- aids arteritis, central nervous system MeSH C10.228.140.300.850.250 ... central nervous system MeSH C10.500.190.600 --- central nervous system venous angioma MeSH C10.500.190.800 --- sinus pericranii ...

*Papilledema

... when the bacterial infection is in the central nervous system, causing increased intracranial pressure). Malignant hypertension ... and is regarded as an extension of the central nervous system), increased pressure is transmitted through to the optic nerve. ... An MRA and MRV may also be ordered to rule out the possibility of stenosis or thrombosis of the arterial or venous systems. The ... Medulloblastoma Orbital Glaucoma: central retinal vein occlusion, cavernous sinus thrombosis Local lesion: optic neuritis, ...

*Neuroimmunology

Within the central nervous system production of cytokines has been detected as a result of brain injury, during viral and ... bacterial infections, and in neurodegenerative processes. From the US National Institute of Health: "Despite the brain's status ... The nervous and immune systems have many interactions that dictate overall body health. The nervous system is under constant ... Innate and adaptive immune responses of the central nervous system. Critical Reviews in Immunology. 26, 149-188. Hauser S.L.; ...

*TRIANGLE disease

... central nervous system lupus erythematous with stroke; and hepatitis. Patients also have mild to moderate developmental delay. ... Patients typically present in early childhood with recurrent bacterial and viral infections of the middle ear and respiratory ... The clinical symptoms are caused by abnormalities of the immune system and disruption of basic cellular functions. Patients ... TRIANGLE disease is a rare genetic disorder of the immune system. TRIANGLE stands for "TPPII-related immunodeficiency, ...

*Alpha-mannosidosis

... of functionality in this enzyme leads to death during early childhood due to deterioration of the central nervous system. ... susceptibility to bacterial infections, and skeletal deformities. The course of the disease is progressive. Alpha-mannosidosis ... respiratory infections and skeletal abnormalities. Often the appearance of an affected individual includes the following facial ...

*Role of microglia in disease

... and viral and bacterial infections. The word neuroinflammation has come to stand for chronic, central nervous system (CNS) ... "Role of microglia in central nervous system infections". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 17 (4): 942-64, table of contents. doi: ... Microglia are the primary immune cells of the Central Nervous System, similar to peripheral macrophages. They respond to ... Trichobilharzia regenti is a neuropathogenic schistosome which migrates in a central nervous system of birds and mammals. In ...

*Lomefloxacin

... is associated with phototoxicity and central nervous system adverse effects. October 2008 the FDA added the ... is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections including bronchitis and urinary tract infections. It is ... also used to prevent urinary tract infections prior to surgery. ...

*Richard Bruce Silverman

His group's main focus is basic research into central nervous system disorders. He is the author of more than 360 research ... and bacterial infection. He has developed novel approaches to the elucidation of enzyme-catalyzed reactions in organic ... The primary focus in Silverman's laboratory is basic research into central nervous system disorders, including Parkinson's ... Silverman attended Central High School of Philadelphia, graduating in the 221st class. Silverman received his B.S. in chemistry ...

*Liquefactive necrosis

For unclear reasons, hypoxic death of cells within the central nervous system can result in liquefactive necrosis. This is a ... This process is not associated with bacterial action or infection. Ultimately, in a living patient most necrotic cells and ... It is generally associated with abscess formation and is commonly found in the central nervous system. ... Often it is associated with focal bacterial or fungal infections. In liquefactive necrosis, the affected cell is completely ...

*Listeriosis

Central nervous system (CNS) infection: Listeria has a predilection for the brain parenchyma, especially the brain stem, and ... Listeriosis is a bacterial infection most commonly caused by Listeria monocytogenes, although L. ivanovii and L. grayi have ... Listeria primarily causes infections of the central nervous system (meningitis, meningoencephalitis, brain abscess, cerebritis ... However, infections during pregnancy can lead to miscarriage, stillbirth, premature delivery, or life-threatening infection of ...

*List of infections of the central nervous system

There are five main causes of infections of the central nervous system (CNS): bacterial, viral, fungal, protozoal, and prionic ... Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis Guillain-Barré syndrome Neuroepidemiology Meningitis Encephalitis Central nervous system ... epidural infection Toxoplasmosis Malaria Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis Tuberculosis Leprosy Neurosyphilis Bacterial ... encephalitis La Crosse encephalitis Measles encephalitis Nipah virus encephalitis Poliomyelitis Slow virus infections, which ...

*Catuaba

An infusion of the bark is used in traditional Brazilian medicine as an aphrodisiac and central nervous system stimulant. These ... Cam.) were useful in preventing potentially lethal bacterial infections and HIV infection in mice. Catuaba extract is also used ... 1992). "Effects of Catuaba extracts on microbial and HIV infection". In Vivo. 6 (2): 161-5. PMID 1525337. Beltrame, F. L.; ...

*Meningeal syphilis

... and other parts of the nervous system. Bacterial meningitis is normally caused by a bacterial infection that enters the ... asymptomatic invasion of the central nervous system by Treponema is common within a few months of primary infection symptoms of ... At this point, the infection spreads to all the systems in the human body, including the nervous system, bones, eyes, and heart ... is a chronic form of syphilis infection that affects the central nervous system. Treponema pallidum, which is a spirochate ...

*List of ICD-9 codes 001-139: infectious and parasitic diseases

Other human immunodeficiency virus infection (045) Acute poliomyelitis (046) Slow virus infection of central nervous system ( ... 038.9) Septicemia, NOS (039) Actinomycotic infections (040) Other bacterial diseases (041) Bacterial infection in conditions ... Other enterovirus diseases of central nervous system (049) Other non-arthropod-borne viral diseases of central nervous system ( ... Herpes zoster with other nervous system complications (053.10) Herpes zoster with unspecified nervous system complication ( ...

*Sparfloxacin

... achieves a high degree of penetration into most tissues, except for the central nervous system. Following a single ... is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic used in the treatment of bacterial infections. It has a controversial safety profile. Zagam is ... Adverse reactions affecting the nervous system were reported in 5.7% of the sparfloxacin group, with insomnia and other sleep ... Quinolones inhibit the bacterial DNA gyrase or the topoisomerase IV enzyme, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and ...

*Canine distemper

Central nervous system signs include a localized involuntary twitching of muscles or groups of muscles, seizures with ... The viral infection can be accompanied by secondary bacterial infections and can present eventual serious neurological symptoms ... Around 15% of canine inflammatory central nervous system diseases are a result of CDV. The prevalence of canine distemper in ... and central nervous systems, and optic nerves. Therefore, the typical pathologic features of canine distemper include lymphoid ...

*Meningitis

Honda H, Warren DK (September 2009). "Central nervous system infections: meningitis and brain abscess". Infectious disease ... is not a direct result of bacterial infection but can rather largely be attributed to the response of the immune system to the ... entry of bacteria into the central nervous system. When components of the bacterial cell membrane are identified by the immune ... Raman Sharma R (2010). "Fungal infections of the nervous system: current perspective and controversies in management". ...

*Goulstonian Lecture

Feiling, A. (1922). "THE INTERPRETATION OF SYMPTOMS IN DISEASE OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: Abstract of the Goulstonian ... On the Spread of Bacterial Infection. 1920 James L. Birley, On the Principles of Medical Science as Applied to Military ... The Interpretation of Symptoms in Disease of the Central Nervous System 1923 A. Geoffrey Evans, On the Nature of Arterio- ... ISBN 0-443-07473-9. Daley, R. (1957). "The Autonomic Nervous System in its Relation to Some Forms of Heart and Lung Disease: I ...

*Persistent vegetative state

... neurodegenerative disorder or metabolic disorder of the brain Severe congenital abnormality of the central nervous system ... 2007). In A Page: Pediatric Signs and Symptoms) describe several potential causes of PVS, which are as follows: Bacterial, ... viral, or fungal infection, including meningitis Increased intracranial pressure, such as a tumor or abscess Vascular pressure ... Unlike brain death, permanent vegetative state (PVS) is recognized by statute law as death in very few legal systems. In the US ...

*Ciprofloxacin

Side effects can involve the tendons, muscles, joints, nerves, and the central nervous system. Rates of side effects appear to ... Ciprofloxacin only treats bacterial infections; it does not treat viral infections such as the common cold. For certain uses ... respiratory tract infections, skin infections, typhoid fever, and urinary tract infections, among others. For some infections ... Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections. This includes bone and joint infections, intra ...

*Hyperthermia

Damage to the central nervous system, from brain hemorrhage, status epilepticus, and other kinds of injury to the hypothalamus ... For example, in response to a bacterial or viral infection, certain white blood cells within the blood will release pyrogens ... The latter is a relatively rare side effect of many drugs, particularly those that affect the central nervous system. Malignant ... The sympathetic nervous system a.k.a. the "Fight or Flight Response" dominates by raising catecholamine levels by the blocked ...

*Anonaine

... as well as having an effect on the central nervous system. Anonaine is known to inhibit growth in human cervical cancer and ... worm infection, constipation, bacterial infection, fever and ulcers. It appears, however, that anonaine is not active in the ...

*Rocky Mountain spotted fever

... severe manifestations of this disease may involve the respiratory system, central nervous system, gastrointestinal system, or ... Less commonly, infections may occur following exposure to crushed tick tissues, fluids, or tick feces. A female tick can ... Mediates Bacterial Invasion through Ku70 in an Actin, c-Cbl, Clathrin and Caveolin 2-Dependent Manner". Cellular Microbiology. ... However, in some cases a Rickettsia rickettsii infection has been contracted by contact with tick tissues or fluids. Then, the ...
Central nervous system involvement is a rare but serious manifestation of brucellosis. We present an unusual case of neurobrucellosis with transient ischemic attack, intracerebral vasculopathy granulomas, seizures, and paralysis of sixth and seventh cranial nerves. A 17-year-old Caucasian man presented with nausea and vomiting, headache, double vision and he gave a history of weakness in the left arm, speech disturbance and imbalance. Physical examination revealed fever, doubtful neck stiffness and left abducens nerve paralysis. An analysis of his cerebrospinal fluid showed a pleocytosis (lymphocytes, 90%), high protein and low glucose levels. He developed generalized tonic-clonic seizures, facial paralysis and left hemiparesis. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated intracerebral vasculitis, basal ganglia infarction and granulomas, mimicking the central nervous system involvement of tuberculosis. On the 31st day of his admission, neurobrucellosis was diagnosed with immunoglobulin M and
Central Nervous System Infections in Childhood - Buy Central Nervous System Infections in Childhood by Singhi with best discount of 20.00% at meripustak.com.
The diagnosis of human being neurobrucellosis depends on the recognition of antibodies to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in cerebrospinal liquid (CSF) by agglutination testing or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). within CSF examples from 14 and 20 individuals experiencing nonbrucellar meningitis and non-infectious illnesses, respectively. These results suggest that, furthermore to its effectiveness in the serological analysis of human being systemic brucellosis, the ELISA with CP antigen could be used for the precise diagnosis of human being neurobrucellosis. Brucellosis continues to be a common human being zoonotic disease, in developing countries especially. Neurological participation from the central anxious system (CNS) continues to be recognized in 3 to 5% from the individuals with brucellosis, in both presence and lack of systemic disease SYN-115 (10, 13). Meningitis may be the most experienced medical condition in individuals with neurobrucellosis regularly, and it happens after ...
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This title has been developed with the International Child Neurology Association to provide information on all common CNS infections. It covers almost all CNS infections commonly seen in children across the world including those in developed and resource poor countries. It provides concise, state of the art overview of viral, bacterial, tubercular, fungal, parasitic and many other infections of the CNS. In addition involvement of the CNS secondary to other infections or vaccines has also been briefly covered. A chapter on Principles of Management of CNS Infections provides a practical and pragmatic approach to management of CNS infections in general. A chapter on Neuroimaging of CNS Infections and A brief account of Febrile Seizures in Children is included ...
CNS infections, such as meningitis, are considered neurologic emergencies that require prompt recognition, diagnosis, and management to prevent death and residual neurologic deficits. Improperly treated, CNS infections are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Despite advances in care, the overall mortality of bacterial meningitis in the United States remains at approximately 15%, and at least 10% to 30% of survivors are afflicted with neurologic impairment, including hearing loss, hemiparesis, and learning disabilities.1,2 Antimicrobial therapy and preventive vaccines have revolutionized management and improved outcomes of bacterial meningitis and other CNS infections dramatically. ...
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Video created by 加州大学旧金山分校 for the course 临床神经病学导论. The description goes here 2000+ courses from schools like Stanford and Yale - no application required. Build career skills in data science, computer science, business, and more.
Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation is an open access journal, with focuses on neuroimmunology and neuroinflammation research, and coverage extending to other basic and clinical studies related to neuroscience.
In this nationwide population-based cohort study using national Danish registries, in the period 1980-2008, our aim was to study employment and receipt of disability pension after central nervous system infections. All patients diagnosed between 20 and 55 years of age with meningococcal (n = 451), pneumococcal (n = 553), or viral (n = 1,433) meningitis or with herpes simplex encephalitis (n = 115), who were alive 1 year after diagnosis, were identified. Comparison cohorts were drawn from the general population, and their members were individually matched on age and sex to patients.
HYPOXIC ENCEPHALOPATHY SECONDARY TO STATUS EPILEPTICUS SECONDARY TO CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM INFECTION - Free ebook download as Word Doc (.doc / .docx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read book online for free. Marie Allexis Campaner February 2011
Antibiotics have revolutionized survival from central nervous system (CNS) infections. Sixty years after the death of Sir Hugh Cairns, we present archive material of historical interest from the Radcliffe Infirmary in Oxford from the time of his first trials of penicillin for CNS infection. We discuss Cairns important wartime and subsequent contributions to antibiosis in CNS infection and include drawings by Audrey Arnott illustrating the surgical techniques used to treat abscesses at the time.
Antibiotics have revolutionized survival from central nervous system (CNS) infections. Sixty years after the death of Sir Hugh Cairns, we present archive material of historical interest from the Radcliffe Infirmary in Oxford from the time of his first trials of penicillin for CNS infection. We discuss Cairns important wartime and subsequent contributions to antibiosis in CNS infection and include drawings by Audrey Arnott illustrating the surgical techniques used to treat abscesses at the time.
Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays were performed using HPeV-specific 5 untranslated region (UTR)-targeted primers to detect HPeV in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of children who presented with fever or neurologic symptoms from January 1, 2013 to July 31, 2014. HPeV genotyping was performed by sequencing of the viral protein 3/1 (VP3/VP1) region. Clinical and laboratory data were abstracted from medical records retrospectively, and compared with those of enterovirus (EV)-positive patients from same period.. Results: Of 102 CSF samples, HPeV was positive in 6 (5.9 %) and co-detected in 2 of 21 EV-positive samples. All the samples were typed as HPeV3. Two HPeV-positive patients were ,3 months of age, but four others were over the age of 1 year. While HPeV-positive infants under 1 year-old presented with sepsis-like illness without definite neurologic abnomalities, HPeV-positive children over 1-year-old presented with fever and neurologic symptoms such as seizure, ...
Doses provided in this table are for patients with normal renal and hepatic function. Click on drug link to go to dosing guidelines. Some antimicrobials are restricted (ID-R). Click on link for guidelines on obtaining authorization.. ...
Doses provided in this table are for patients with normal renal and hepatic function. Click on drug link to go to dosing guidelines. Some antimicrobials are restricted (ID-R). Click on link for guidelines on obtaining authorization.. ...
Section I: Basic principles -- chapter 1. Diagnostic imaging methods / William E. Brant -- Section II: Neuroradiology / Section editor: Erik H. L. Gaensler and Jerome A. Barakos -- chapter 2. Introduction to brain imaging / David J. Seidenwurm and Govind Mukundan -- chapter 3. Craniofacial trauma / Robert M. Barr, Alisa D. Gean, and Tuong H. Le -- chapter 4. Cerebrovascular disease / Howard A. Rawley -- chapter 5. Central nervous system neoplasms and tumor-like masses / Kelly K. Koeller -- chapter 6. Central nervous system infections / Nathaniel A. Chuang and Walter L. Olsen -- chapter 7. White matter and neurodegenerative diseases / Jerome A. Barakos and Derk D. Purcell -- chapter 8. Pediatric neuroimaging / Camilla Lindan, Erik Gaensler, and Jerome Barakos -- chapter 9. Head and neck imaging / Jerome A. Barakos and Derk D. Purcell -- chapter 10. Nondegenerative diseases of the spine / Erik H. L. Gaensler and Derk D. Purcell -- chapter 11. Lumbar spine: disc disease and stenosis / Clyde A. ...
This assessment is related to the publication of the identification of a new cyclovirus species, tentatively named cyclovirus-Vietnam (CyCV-VN), in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute central nervous system infection. However, there are insufficient data to assess the risk for disease occurrence in humans or potential of human-to-human transmission. Further studies should be encouraged in Europe and elsewhere to investigate the possible pathogenicity, epidemiology, and transmission patterns of cycloviruses. ...
A 14-year-old Russian model who had worked long hours without medical insurance died of sepsis and a nervous system infection in Shanghai this weekend, Russian authorities have said.
Global Whipples Disease Market was around USD 206.2 million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD 255.3 million by 2023 at a projected CAGR of 3.1%,Whipples disease market by diagnosis,by treatment,by end use | Whipples Disease Industry
Bio Dr. Gold is a board-certified general neurologist who is fellowship-trained in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders in hospitalized patients. He cares for a broad range of patients, including individuals with seizures, central nervous system infections, autoimmune diseases, headaches, neuromuscular conditions, and neurological complications of cancer. Dr. Gold has a particular clinical interest in the inpatient diagnosis of uncommon or rare neurological disorders. He directs quality improvement for the department of Neurology and is actively involved in projects to improve the experience of hospitalized patients with neurological conditions at Stanford. His primary research interest focuses on enhancing the communication skills of neurology residents. He is the fellowship director of the Stanford Neurohospitalist Fellowship ...
The potential of nitric oxide (NO) as a rapid assay biomarker, one that could provide a quantum leap in acute care, remains largely untapped. NO plays a crucial role as bronchodilator, vasodilator and inflammatory mediator. The main objective of this review is to demonstrate how NO is a molecule of heavy interest in various acute disease states along the emergency department and critical care spectrum: respiratory infections, central nervous system infections, asthma, acute kidney injury, sepsis, septic shock, and myocardial ischemia, to name just a few. We discuss how NO and its oxidative metabolites, nitrite and nitrate, are readily detectable in several body compartments and fluids, and as such they are associated with many of the pathophysiological processes mentioned above. With methods such as high performance liquid chromatography and chemiluminescence these entities are relatively easy and inexpensive to analyze. Emphasis is placed on diagnostic rapidity, as this relates directly to quality of
A typical case of Whipples disease is reported, substantiated by histopathologic study. Treatment with steroids has been used with good results. A prolonged clinical remission has occurred, although...
An im paired production of interleukin (IL)-12 and T cell interferon-γ (IFN-γ) of in vitro stimulated monocytes has been discussed as a pathogenic factor in Whi p ples disease (WD). It is unclear whe
Whipples disease is a rare, systemic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Tropheryma whipplei. First described by George Hoyt Whipple in 1907 and commonly considered a gastrointestinal disorder, Whipples disease primarily causes malabsorption but may affect any part of the body including the heart, brain, joints, skin, lungs and the eyes. Weight loss, diarrhea, joint pain, and arthritis are common presenting symptoms, but the presentation can be highly variable and approximately 15% of patients do not have these classic signs and symptoms. Whipples disease is significantly more common in men, with 87% of the patients being male. When recognized and treated, Whipples disease can usually be cured with long-term antibiotic therapy; if the disease is left untreated, it is ultimately fatal. The most common symptoms are diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, and joint pains. The joint pains may be due to migratory non-deforming arthritis, which may occur many years before any digestive tract ...
RESULTS. Ninety-four consecutive records were evaluated. In the documentation of hospital notes, accurate description of seizure was observed in 92%, incorrect diagnosis or coding in 12%, and presence/absence of signs of meningitis and parental counselling documented in 64% and 85%, respectively. Regarding unit statistics, investigations performed included a complete blood count, blood glucose, serum calcium, serum electrolytes, renal function tests, liver function tests, chest X-ray, and urinalysis. The mean number of routine investigations was seven. The average length of stay was 2 days. There were no cases of delay in the diagnosis of central nervous system infection. Inappropriate investigations and treatment were as follows: electroencephalography 11%, computer tomography brain scan 2%, and maintenance anticonvulsants 2%. All patients were discharged home with panadol regardless of clinical state ...
Background:Tropheryma whipplei causes acute diseases, such as gastroenteritis, bacteremia, and pneumonia (1), as well as chronic Whipple disease (2). It can be cultivated from stool samples, which are a potential source of infection (3). Detection of T. whipplei DNA in saliva also suggests an oral-oral method of transmission. However, cultivation of T. whipplei from saliva has been impossible because of heavy contamination by other bacteria ...
Whipples disease is a chronic, systemic infection caused by Tropheryma whipplei. Gene amplification, isolation and DNA sequencing of T whipplei have extended our knowledge of this pathogen, which is now recognised as a ubiquitous commensal bacterium. The spectrum of signs associated with T whipplei has now been extended beyond the classic form, which affects middle-aged men, and begins with recurrent arthritis followed several years later by digestive problems associated with other diverse clinical signs. Children may present an acute primary infection, but only a small number of people with a genetic predisposition subsequently develop authentic Whipples disease. This bacterium may also cause localised chronic infections with no intestinal symptoms: endocarditis, central nervous system involvement, arthritis, uveitis and spondylodiscitis. An impaired TH1 immune response is seen. T whipplei replication in vitro is dependent on interleukin 16 and is accompanied by the apoptosis of host cells, ...
Toxoplasma gondii is a common central nervous system infection in individuals with immunocompromised immune systems, such as AIDS patients. Interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) is the main cytokine mediating protection against T. gondii. Our previous studies found IFNgamma significantly inhibits T. gondii in astrocytes via an IGTP dependent mechanism. The IGTP-dependent- IFNgamma stimulated inhibition is not understood but recent studies found IGTP induces disruption of the parasitophorous vacuole (PV) in macrophages. In the current study, we have further investigated the mechanism of IFNgamma inhibition and the role of IGTP in the vacuolar disruption in murine astrocytes. Vacuolar disruption was found to be dependent upon IGTP as PV disruption was not observed in IGTP deficient astrocytes (IGTP(-/-)) and PV disruption could be induced in IGTP(-/-) astrocytes transfected with IGTP. Live cell-imaging studies using GFP-IGTP found IGTP is delivered to the PV via host cell ER early after invasion and that ...
Anaerobic bacteria cause serious life-threatening infections such as endocarditis, sepsis, intra abdominal, pleuro-pulmonary and central nervous systems infections. Most infections are polymicrobial and involve aerobes and anaerobes. Empiric therapy is generally based on the expected pathogens and the particular type of infection. Even when specimens are cultured and anaerobes identified, not all laboratories perform susceptibility testing. The clinician often relies on published surveillance data when selecting treatment regimens. Antimicrobial susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria is becoming increasingly unpredictable. Resistance can vary significantly and patterns differ geographically, and even within units of the same hospital. From June 2005 until February 2007, 180 consecutive anaerobes isolated from relevant, non- repetitive clinical specimens were tested routinely with the E test method for susceptibility to amoxicillin/ clavulanate (XL), clindamycin (Cm), metronidazole (Mz), penicillin ...
Elderly patients or patients with certain diseases are more likely to get skin infections or wounds that are difficult to heal. These wounds and infections require specialized medical care to minimize complications, such as amputation. At CenterLight Health System, our healthcare team works together to create an individualized treatment plan for patients with infections and wounds.. We offer residential care for individuals with infections and wounds in our four skilled nursing facilities. Services for those individuals are also integrated into many of our other programs. Please call us at 1-888-238-4223 for more information to determine which program is right for you.. Where We Offer Care for Individuals with Infections/Wounds. Bronx ...
Abstract. Widespread use of antibiotics may be important in the spread of antimicrobial resistance. We estimated the proportion of Lao in- and outpatients who had taken antibiotics before medical consultation by detecting antibiotic activity in their urine added to lawns of Bacillus stearothermophilus, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus pyogenes. In the retrospective (N = 2,058) and prospective studies (N = 1,153), 49.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 47.4-52.0) and 36.2% (95% CI = 33.4-38.9), respectively, of Vientiane patients had urinary antibiotic activity detected. The highest frequency of estimated antibiotic pre-treatment was found in patients recruited with suspected central nervous system infections and community-acquired septicemia (both 56.8%). In Vientiane, children had a higher frequency of estimated antibiotic pre-treatment than adults (60.0% versus 46.5%; P | 0.001). Antibiotic use based on patients histories was significantly less frequent than when estimated from urinary antibiotic
Plasmodium falciparum remains one of the most common causes of central nervous system infection worldwide. Recently, differences between the pathophysiology of cerebral malaria in African children and nonimmune adults have been discovered, new syndromes occurring after malaria infection described, and mechanisms for the pathogenesis proposed. In addition, new antimalarial agents have been examined worldwide and initial studies on supportive studies conducted. This paper reviews these new advances, putting them into the perspective of the more established knowledge.
Edited by Gerald Mandell. Pp. 230. Price, $125.00. Vol. 11. Current Medicine, 400 Market St., Ste. 700, Philadelphia, PA 19106, 1999. Phone: 800-427-1796.. The Atlas of Infectious Diseases/Pediatric Infectious Diseases represents the final book in the 11-volume series edited by Gerald L. Mandell, one of the preeminent experts in the field of infectious diseases. This concluding volume covers a full spectrum of pediatric infectious disease topics with 16 chapters written by 24 authors. Topics covered include six chapters on viral illnesses, a chapter each on streptococcal and staphylococcal infections and a chapter on tick-borne diseases. Other, more selective chapters include Kawasaki disease, tuberculosis, congenital infections and central nervous system infections. As the number of pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cases continues to decline in the United States, the chapter dealing with HIV/AIDS will hopefully become more historical interest than necessity.. To complete the text, ...
Aim - The aim of this study was to undertake a retrospective review of admissions and discharges to the paediatric wards at the National Hospital Guido Valadares, Dili, as the epidemiology of hospitalised children in East Timor cannot be easily understood from the hospital health management information system. Method - Data were sourced from unit registers for 3 years, 2008-2010 inclusive. Demographic characteristics and principal diagnoses were related to the risk of dying using stepwise multivariate logistic regression. Results - There were 5909 children admitted to the wards over the study period and 60% were ,2 years of age. The commonest reasons for admission were lower respiratory tract infections (LRIs) and gastroenteritis (43% and 16%, respectively). Severe malnutrition (MN) was recorded in only 5% of admissions. Overall, 6% of children died, mainly attributed to LRI (28%), central nervous system infections (16%) and MN (11%). Younger age, residence outside of Dili and admission during a ...
Sub Specialties: Pediatric Hospitalist; Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Board-certified. Clinical Interests: Complicated Pneumonias, Invasive Pneumococcal Disease, Bone, Joint & Muscle Infections, Sepsis Syndromes, Central Nervous System Infections, Invasive Staphylococcal & Streptococcal Disease, Infectious Complications in Special Hosts & in Children with Deficient Immune Defenses, Tick Borne Illnesses, Travel Medicine, Tropical Diseases, Vaccine Preventable Diseases, Failure to Thrive & Severe Malnutrition, Public Health. Languages: English, Interpreters available for other languages, Spanish Gender: Female. ...
Whipples disease, also known as intestinal lipodystrophy, is an extremely rare bacterial infection that typically affects the small intestine.
A resource for neurologists, neurology residents, medical students on a neurology rotation, and people interested in neurology or neuroscience. Review questions to help you study for the Neurology boards or RITE exam. Helpful PDA medical software.
If you are urinary system infection signs and signs and signs and symptoms include shoulders and/or side (flank) discomfort, high fever, chills or trembling, queasiness, its possible the Bladder infection has brought to some kidney infection, also called pyelonephritis. This really is frequently a significant infection and youll seek health-related assistance as quickly as you can.. Extra signs and signs and signs and symptoms include frequent but unproductive journeys for that bathroom to urinate, urine obtaining a effective odor or even an overcast appearance. In men a typical symptom is rectal discomfort, plus women more generally pelvic discomfort. In situation your urine is pink or cola colored this really is frequently symbolic of possible bloodstream stream within the urine that could suggest contamination within the bladder, or cystitis.. Urinary system infection signs and signs and signs and symptoms are often easily identifiable and lots of Bladder infection sufferers are women, and ...
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details ...
Psychiatry healthcare professionals gain a thorough knowledge base of psychiatric disorder information to offer the best patient care. Get our FREE app now.
Achieve a perfect USMLE Step 2 score! This course regarding CNS infection covers all essentials: acute bacterial meningitis ✓, neisseria meningitidis ✓, encephalitis ✓. Learn online with high-yield video lectures & earn perfect scores. Save time & study efficiently. ➨ Try now for free!
Whipple disease is a rare infectious multisystem disorder caused by the actinobacteria Tropheryma whipplei. Epidemiology The incidence of Whipple disease is not truly known, one Swiss study estimated it at approximately 1 per 1.5 million per ye...

Timeline NobelsTimeline Nobels

... kidneys and nervous system. (AP, 10/8/03). 2003 Oct 8, The Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel ... for showing that bacterial infection, not stress, was to blame for painful ulcers in the stomach and intestine.. (AP, 10/3/05) ... 1968 The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences was first endowed by Sweden s central bank. It is the only Nobel Prize that ... verification of the theory of general relativity for a system outside our solar system. In 1974 they recorded an indirect ...
more infohttp://timelines.ws/subjects/Nobels.HTML

Bacterial Infections of the Central Nervous System | Principles of Critical Care, 4e | AccessSurgery | McGraw-Hill MedicalBacterial Infections of the Central Nervous System | Principles of Critical Care, 4e | AccessSurgery | McGraw-Hill Medical

"Bacterial Infections of the Central Nervous System." Principles of Critical Care, 4e Hall JB, Schmidt GA, Kress JP. Hall J.B., ... Bacterial Infections of the Central Nervous System. In: Hall JB, Schmidt GA, Kress JP. Hall J.B., Schmidt G.A., Kress J.P. Eds ... should be performed before lumbar puncture when a space-occupying lesion of the central nervous system (CNS) is suspected. ... Adults with bacterial meningitis usually present clinically with fever, headache, meningismus, and/or signs of cerebral ...
more infohttps://accesssurgery.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=1340§ionid=80034861

Quinolinic acid in tumors, hemorrhage and bacterial infections of the central nervous system in children<...Quinolinic acid in tumors, hemorrhage and bacterial infections of the central nervous system in children<...

Quinolinic acid in tumors, hemorrhage and bacterial infections of the central nervous system in children. / Heyes, Melvyn P.; ... Quinolinic acid in tumors, hemorrhage and bacterial infections of the central nervous system in children. Journal of the ... title = "Quinolinic acid in tumors, hemorrhage and bacterial infections of the central nervous system in children", ... T1 - Quinolinic acid in tumors, hemorrhage and bacterial infections of the central nervous system in children ...
more infohttps://pure.fujita-hu.ac.jp/en/publications/quinolinic-acid-in-tumors-hemorrhage-and-bacterial-infections-of-

Neurobehavioral HIV Medicine | Volume 4 - Dove Press Open Access PublisherNeurobehavioral HIV Medicine | Volume 4 - Dove Press Open Access Publisher

Emerging viral and bacterial infections of the central nervous system Balin BJ, Hammond CJ ... Prognosis and management of cryptococcal meningitis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection Rhein J, Boulware ... Immune activation and neuropsychiatric symptoms in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection Schroecksnadel S, Kurz K, ...
more infohttps://www.dovepress.com/neurobehavioral-hiv-medicine-archive75-v555

Neurobehavioral HIV Medicine - Dove Press Open Access PublisherNeurobehavioral HIV Medicine - Dove Press Open Access Publisher

Emerging viral and bacterial infections of the central nervous system Balin BJ, Hammond CJ ... to interpretation of neuroimmunological biomarkers in the combined antiretroviral therapy-era of HIV central nervous system ... Impact of HIV infection and alcohol on cognition: a review Ola A Selnes ... Prognosis and management of cryptococcal meningitis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection Rhein J, Boulware ...
more infohttps://www.dovepress.com/neurobehavioral-hiv-medicine-archive75

Infant Severe Sepsis and Bacterial Meningitis in Malawi - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govInfant Severe Sepsis and Bacterial Meningitis in Malawi - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Central Nervous System Bacterial Infections. Bacterial Infections. Central Nervous System Infections. Gentamicins. Ceftriaxone ... Meningitis, Bacterial. Central Nervous System Diseases. Nervous System Diseases. Infection. Systemic Inflammatory Response ... Bacterial resistance to the first line antibiotics has increased and some infections especially of the central nervous system ... Severe bacterial infections are common in infants under 2 months of age and the mortality is very high (~50%). There are ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT01247909?view=record

Evaluation of Persistence of Anti-meningococcal Bactericidal Antibodies Among Adolescents Who Previously Received MenACWY...Evaluation of Persistence of Anti-meningococcal Bactericidal Antibodies Among Adolescents Who Previously Received MenACWY...

Central Nervous System Diseases. Nervous System Diseases. Meningitis, Bacterial. Central Nervous System Bacterial Infections. ... Meningococcal Infections. Neisseriaceae Infections. Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections. Central Nervous System Infections. ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00856297

Mixed Infection in Adult Bacterial Meningitis - Semantic ScholarMixed Infection in Adult Bacterial Meningitis - Semantic Scholar

Six of the 12 cases had community-acquired infections and the other six had nosocomially-acquired infections. Ten of the 12 ... However, complete recuperation was difficult in adult patients with mixed bacterial meningitis. ... of our culture-proven adult bacterial meningitis. The 12 cases included seven males and five females, aged 17-74 years. ... was not higher than that in adult bacterial meningitis. ... 12 adult patients suffering from bacterial meningitis caused by ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Mixed-Infection-in-Adult-Bacterial-Meningitis-Chang-Lu/0a1730a0dcd5f9f1049430f493d559b8ca11a7d6

central nervous system tuberculosis - Ontology Report - Rat Genome Databasecentral nervous system tuberculosis - Ontology Report - Rat Genome Database

bacterial infectious disease. 488. Central Nervous System Bacterial Infections. 37. central nervous system tuberculosis. 2. ... The infection may be limited to the nervous system or coexist in other organs (e.g., TUBERCULOSIS, PULMONARY). The organism ... tuberculoma of brain; tuberculosis of meninges and central nervous system; tuberculous abscess of brain. ... central nervous system tuberculosis. go back to main search page Accession:. DOID:1638 browse the term ...
more infohttps://rgd.mcw.edu/rgdweb/ontology/annot.html?acc_id=DOID:1638

Shop Books, eBooks and Journals - ElsevierShop Books, eBooks and Journals - Elsevier

Bacterial Infections of the Central Nervous System Product Type: Book. Edition: 1 ...
more infohttps://www.elsevier.com/catalog?author=Karen%20Roos

Study Assessing the Safety, Immunogenicity and Dose Response of VLA15, A New Vaccine Candidate Against Lyme Borreliosis - Full...Study Assessing the Safety, Immunogenicity and Dose Response of VLA15, A New Vaccine Candidate Against Lyme Borreliosis - Full...

Central Nervous System Bacterial Infections. Tick-Borne Diseases. Central Nervous System Infections. Central Nervous System ... Borrelia Infections. Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections. Bacterial Infections. Spirochaetales Infections. ... Lyme Borreliosis, Nervous System Biological: VLA15 with Alum Biological: VLA15 without Alum Phase 1 ... Nervous System Diseases. Vaccines. Aluminum sulfate. Immunologic Factors. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Adjuvants, ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03010228?term=lyme&

Inhibition of macrophage apoptosis by Neisseria meningitidis requires nitric oxide detoxification mechanisms. - Semantic ScholarInhibition of macrophage apoptosis by Neisseria meningitidis requires nitric oxide detoxification mechanisms. - Semantic Scholar

Host-driven macrophage apoptosis contributes to innate immunity during bacterial infection. Neisseria meningitidis inhibits ... Review: apoptotic mechanisms in bacterial infections of the central nervous system. *Geetha Parthasarathy, Mario T. Philipp ... 2006 in Infection and immunity. Host-driven macrophage apoptosis contributes to innate immunity during bacterial infection. ... Infection and immunity}, year={2006}, volume={74 1}, pages={729-33} }. *Anne J Tunbridge, Tânia M. Stevanin, +4 authors David H ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Inhibition-of-macrophage-apoptosis-by-Neisseria-Tunbridge-Stevanin/47908ee765eec1b688492d9194cddfb73cef5797

Non-traumatic coma in children | Archives of Disease in ChildhoodNon-traumatic coma in children | Archives of Disease in Childhood

1999) Glucocorticoids in central nervous system bacterial infection. Arch Neurol 56:796-801. ... 1997) Modified Glasgow Coma Scale to predict mortality in children with acute infections of the central nervous system. Nat Med ... 1988) Intracranial pressure in childhood central nervous system infections. Intensive Care Med 14:522-525. ... 1993) Time course of cerebral blood flow velocity in central nervous system infections. A transcranial Doppler sonography study ...
more infohttps://adc.bmj.com/content/85/4/303?iss=4

Study on Early Lyme Neuroborreliosis - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govStudy on Early Lyme Neuroborreliosis - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Bacterial Infections. Spirochaetales Infections. Central Nervous System Bacterial Infections. Central Nervous System Infections ... Central Nervous System Diseases. Nervous System Diseases. Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections. ... Borrelia Infections. Lyme Neuroborreliosis. Lyme Disease. Tick-Borne Diseases. ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00910533?cond=lyme+disease&

Use of IMiD3, a Thalidomide Analog, as an Adjunct to Therapy for Experimental Tuberculous Meningitis | Antimicrobial Agents and...Use of IMiD3, a Thalidomide Analog, as an Adjunct to Therapy for Experimental Tuberculous Meningitis | Antimicrobial Agents and...

Glucocorticoids in central nervous system bacterial infection. Arch. Neurol. 56:796-801. ... Tuberculosis of the central nervous system in children: a 20-year survey. J. Infect. 41:61-68. ... Tuberculosis of the central nervous system in children. Semin. Pediatr. Neurol. 6:318-331. ... Tuberculosis of the central nervous system. Postgrad. Med. J. 75:133-140. ...
more infohttps://aac.asm.org/content/46/6/1887

Theravance Company ProfileTheravance Company Profile

respiratory disease, bacterial infections, and central nervous system (CNS)/pain. Theravances key programmes include: RELVAR™ ... Asthma COPD Cystic Fibrosis Pneumonia Pulmonary Medicine Respiratory Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are any infection of ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/corporate/company/20444/Theravance.html

Non-traumatic coma in children | Archives of Disease in ChildhoodNon-traumatic coma in children | Archives of Disease in Childhood

1999) Glucocorticoids in central nervous system bacterial infection. Arch Neurol 56:796-801. ... 1997) Modified Glasgow Coma Scale to predict mortality in children with acute infections of the central nervous system. Nat Med ... 1988) Intracranial pressure in childhood central nervous system infections. Intensive Care Med 14:522-525. ... 1993) Time course of cerebral blood flow velocity in central nervous system infections. A transcranial Doppler sonography study ...
more infohttps://adc.bmj.com/content/85/4/303

Waterhouse-Friderichsen Syndrome | Profiles RNSWaterhouse-Friderichsen Syndrome | Profiles RNS

Central Nervous System Diseases [C10.228]. *Central Nervous System Infections [C10.228.228]. *Central Nervous System Bacterial ... Bacterial Infections and Mycoses [C01]. *Bacterial Infections [C01.252]. *Central Nervous System Bacterial Infections [C01.252. ... Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections [C01.252.400]. *Neisseriaceae Infections [C01.252.400.625]. *Meningococcal Infections [ ...
more infohttps://profiles.umassmed.edu/display/128074

Internet Scientific PublicationsInternet Scientific Publications

Current concepts of bacterial infections of central nervous system: bacterial meningitis and bacterial brain abscess. Neurosurg ... The common predisposing factors were otic infection, penetrating trauma and chest infections with diabetes mellitus being the ... Predisposing factors for infection (Table 4) included contiguous spread from otogenic foci (n = 21), haematogenous spread (n = ... Bacterial brain abscess: micro biological features epidemiological trends and therapeutic outcomes. QJM 2002; 95(8): 501-9.. 6 ...
more infohttp://ispub.com/IJNS/4/2/13365

Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain - WikipediaMagnetic resonance imaging of the brain - Wikipedia

Roos, Karen L.; Tunkel, Allan R. (2010). Bacterial infections of the central nervous system. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 69 ... of the nervous system uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce high quality two- or three-dimensional images of nervous ... A number of different imaging modes or sequences can be used with imaging the nervous system: T1: Cerebrospinal fluid is dark. ... system structures without use of ionizing radiation (X-rays) or radioactive tracers. The first MR images of a human brain were ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_resonance_imaging_of_the_brain

Febrile seizure - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best PracticeFebrile seizure - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice

viral or bacterial infection outside the central nervous system. *vaccinations. *prenatal exposure to nicotine ... as a seizure occurring in febrile children between the ages of 6 and 60 months who do not have an intracranial infection, ...
more infohttps://bestpractice.bmj.com/topics/en-us/566

Febrile seizure - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best PracticeFebrile seizure - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice

viral or bacterial infection outside the central nervous system. *vaccinations. *antenatal exposure to nicotine ... as a seizure occurring in febrile children between the ages of 6 and 60 months who do not have an intracranial infection, ...
more infohttps://bestpractice.bmj.com/topics/en-gb/566/
  • This is due to the inflammatory response to the mycobacteria, which causes vasculitis and infarcts, resulting in brain edema and increased intracranial pressure, leading to irreversible tissue damage in the central nervous system (CNS) ( 8 , 12 , 13 , 23 , 24 ). (asm.org)
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics announced a standard definition of febrile seizures as a seizure occurring in febrile children between the ages of 6 and 60 months who do not have an intracranial infection, metabolic disturbance, or history of afebrile seizures. (bmj.com)
  • Data collected by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) through the Pediatric Bacterial Meningitis (PBM) Surveillance Network in Sub-Saharan Africa demonstrated that between 2002 and 2008, the incidence of bacterial meningitis among children younger than 5 years was still very high, with about 75,000 reported cases. (medscape.com)
  • Also in those studies, the therapeutic interventions used were initiated prior to or simultaneously with experimental infection. (asm.org)
  • The inflammatory response is driven by cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), produced by mononuclear phagocytes in response to infection with M. tuberculosis ( 8 , 13 , 23 , 24 ). (asm.org)
  • Predisposing factors for infection (Table 4) included contiguous spread from otogenic foci (n = 21), haematogenous spread (n = 10), compound head injury (n = 7) and unknown (n = 3). (ispub.com)