Drugs that act principally at one or more sites within the peripheral neuroeffector systems, the autonomic system, and motor nerve-skeletal system. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p75)
A class of drugs producing both physiological and psychological effects through a variety of mechanisms. They can be divided into "specific" agents, e.g., affecting an identifiable molecular mechanism unique to target cells bearing receptors for that agent, and "nonspecific" agents, those producing effects on different target cells and acting by diverse molecular mechanisms. Those with nonspecific mechanisms are generally further classed according to whether they produce behavioral depression or stimulation. Those with specific mechanisms are classed by locus of action or specific therapeutic use. (From Gilman AG, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p252)
Drugs used for their effects on the respiratory system.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Drugs that act on neuronal sensory receptors resulting in an increase, decrease, or modification of afferent nerve activity. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p367)
Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the brain, spinal cord, or meninges.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.
The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.

PET and drug research and development. (1/267)

The use of PET to examine the behavioral, therapeutic and toxic properties of drugs and substances of abuse is emerging as a powerful new scientific tool. PET provides a new perspective on drug research by virtue of its ability to directly assess both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic events in humans and in animals. These parameters can be assessed directly in the human body both in healthy volunteers and in patients. Moreover, the new generation of high-resolution, small-animal cameras hold the promise of introducing imaging in the early stages of drug development and make it possible to carry out longitudinal studies in animals and to study genetically altered animals. This places PET in a unique position to contribute significantly to the process of drug development through understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying drug action while addressing some very practical questions such as determining effective drug doses for clinical trials for new drugs, determining the duration of drug action and examining potential drug interactions.  (+info)

Phosphorylation and sequestration of serotonin transporters differentially modulated by psychostimulants. (2/267)

Many psychotropic drugs interfere with the reuptake of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. Transport capacity is regulated by kinase-linked pathways, particularly those involving protein kinase C (PKC), resulting in transporter phosphorylation and sequestration. Phosphorylation and sequestration of the serotonin transporter (SERT) were substantially impacted by ligand occupancy. Ligands that can permeate the transporter, such as serotonin or the amphetamines, prevented PKC-dependent SERT phosphorylation. Nontransported SERT antagonists such as cocaine and antidepressants were permissive for SERT phosphorylation but blocked serotonin effects. PKC-dependent SERT sequestration was also blocked by serotonin. These findings reveal activity-dependent modulation of neurotransmitter reuptake and identify previously unknown consequences of amphetamine, cocaine, and antidepressant action.  (+info)

The prediction and prevention of Alzheimer's disease--towards a research agenda. (3/267)

This paper sets a research agenda for the prediction and prevention of future onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). From a MEDLINE review of the literature, the authors found age to be a predictor of AD. The literature also indicates that memory and attentional impairments predict AD, although the relative risk is relatively low. Late-onset depression may also predict AD, but these data are limited by a lack of cohort studies. Studying cognitively impaired subjects with late-onset depression may identify a high-risk group, facilitating prevention trials. Characteristics of an "ideal" preventive agent are suggested. There is a biologic rationale, and preliminary evidence, that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (including ASA), estrogen and vitamin E may play a preventive role in AD. Other compounds (such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors) are also promising, but costs, side effects, and lack of other health benefits may preclude their use in all but very high-risk groups.  (+info)

American ginseng extract reduces scopolamine-induced amnesia in a spatial learning task. (4/267)

OBJECTIVE: To determine if HT-1001, an extract of American ginseng, affects scopolamine-induced memory and performance deficits in a spatial learning task, alters brain concentrations of aminergic neurotransmitters, and alters choline uptake in synaptosome preparations. DESIGN: Animal study. ANIMALS: 48 Sprague Dawley rats. INTERVENTIONS: Long-term oral administration of a test material or control solution. Intraperitoneal administration of scopolamine (2 mg/kg) 30 minutes before testing. OUTCOME MEASURES: Performance on Morris water maze task, choline uptake, aminergic neurotransmitter analysis, in vitro monoamine oxidase analysis (of compounds). RESULTS: HT-1001 protected against scopolamine-induced amnesia and increased choline uptake in synaptosomal preparations. HT-1001 did not alter brain concentrations of norepinephrine, dopamine, 5-HT (serotonin), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid or 5-hydroxyindoleactic acid. HT-1001 had a very weak ability to inhibit monoamine oxidase activity in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: HT-1001 demonstrates a capacity to protect against scopolamine-induced memory deficits.  (+info)

Synthesis of new derivatives of 1-alkyl-2-aryl-1H-2,3-dihydroimidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidin-5-one active in CNS. Part 2. Synthesis and results of preliminary pharmacological screening of 7-(substituted)amino-1-alkyl-2-aryl-1H-2,3-dihydroimidazo[1,2-a]pyrimid in-5- ones. (5/267)

Synthesis of new 7-(substituted)amino-1-alkyl-2-aryl-1H-2,3-dihydroimidazo[1,2-a]py rimidin-5- ones bearing the 4-arylpiperazin-1-yl moiety connected by ethyl or acetoyl two-carbonyl chain extension was described. The arylpiperazinyl moiety was introduced by alkylation or acylation with corresponding halogeno-derivatives. Preliminary pharmacological screening showed the 7-(substituted)-amino derivatives of the system investigated to exhibit the CNS activity lesser than that of the 7-amino derivatives and to have no effect on the serotonin neurotransmission pathway.  (+info)

Synthesis and biological activity of BIS-1,2,4-triazole and BIS-1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives. (6/267)

Synthesis of some new 1,2,4-triazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives via the condensation of N'-substituted amidrazones and p-phenylenediisothiocyanate (PPD) is presented. The reaction conditions are discussed. Results of a preliminary pharmacological screening are presented.  (+info)

A novel activation of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel in Xenopus oocytes by Ginseng saponins: evidence for the involvement of phospholipase C and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. (7/267)

1. The signal transduction mechanism of ginsenosides, the active ingredients of ginseng, was studied in Xenopus oocytes using two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. Ginseng total saponin (GTS), i.e., an unfractionated mixture of ginsenosides produced a large outward current at membrane potentials more positive than -20 mV when it was applied to the exterior of oocytes, but not when injected intracellularly. The effect of GTS was concentration-dependent (EC(50): 4.4 microg ml(-1)) and reversible. 2. Certain fractionated ginsenosides (Rb(1), Rb(2), Rc, Rf, Rg(2) and Ro) also produced an outward current in a concentration-dependent manner with the order of potency of Rf>Ro>Rb(1)=Rb(2)>Rg(2)>Rc. Other ginsenosides (Rd, Re and Rg(1)) had little or no effect. 3. The GTS effect was completely blocked by bath application of the Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel blocker niflumic acid and by intracellular injection of the calcium chelator BAPTA or the IP(3) receptor antagonist heparin. Also, the effect was partially blocked by bath-applied U-73122, a phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor and by intracellularly injected GTP gamma S, a non-hydrolyzable GTP analogue. Whereas, it was not altered by pertussin toxin (PTX) pretreatment. 4. These results indicate that: (1) interaction of ginsenosides with membrane component(s) at the extracellular side leads to Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel opening in Xenopus oocyte membrane; and (2) this process involves PLC activation, the release of Ca(2+) from the IP(3)-sensitive intracellular store and PTX-insensitive G protein activation.  (+info)

G alpha(q/11) coupled to mammalian phospholipase C beta 3-like enzyme mediates the ginsenoside effect on Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current in the Xenopus oocyte. (8/267)

Recently we demonstrated that ginsenosides, the active ingredients of Panax ginseng, enhanced Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current in the Xenopus oocyte through a signal transduction mechanism involving the activation of pertussis toxin-insensitive G protein and phospholipase C (PLC). However, it has not yet been determined precisely which G protein subunit(s) and which PLC isoform(s) participate in the ginsenoside signaling. To provide answers to these questions, we investigated the changes in ginsenoside effect on the Cl(-) current after intraoocyte injections of the cRNAs coding various G protein subunits, a regulator of G protein signaling (RGS2), and G beta gamma-binding proteins. In addition, we examined which of mammalian PLC beta 1-3 antibodies injected into the oocyte inhibited the action of ginsenosides on the Cl(-) current. Injection of G alpha(q) or G alpha(11) cRNA increased the basal Cl(-) current recorded 48 h after, and it further prevented ginsenosides from enhancing the Cl(-) current, whereas G alpha(i2) and G alpha(oA) cRNA injection had no significant effect. The changes following G alpha(q) cRNA injection were prevented when G beta(1)gamma(2) and G alpha(q) subunits were co-expressed by simultaneous injection of the cRNAs coding these subunits. Injection of cRNA coding G alpha(q)Q209L, a constitutively active mutant that does not bind to G beta gamma, produced effects similar to those of G alpha(q) cRNA injection. The effects of G alpha(q)Q209L cRNA injection, however, were not prevented by co-injection of G beta(1)gamma(2) cRNA. Injection of the cRNA coding RGS2, which interacts most selectively with G alpha(q/11) among various identified RGS isoforms and stimulates the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP in active GTP-bound G alpha subunit, resulted in a severe attenuation of ginsenoside effect on the Cl(-) current. Finally, antibodies against PLC beta 3, but not -beta 1 and -beta 2, markedly attenuated the ginsenoside effect examined at 3-h postinjection. These results suggest that G alpha(q/11) coupled to mammalian PLC beta 3-like enzyme mediates ginsenoside effect on Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current in the Xenopus oocyte.  (+info)

Peripheral nervous system (PNS) agents are a category of pharmaceutical drugs that act on the peripheral nervous system, which includes all the nerves outside the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord). These agents can be further classified into various subgroups based on their specific mechanisms of action and therapeutic effects. Here are some examples:

1. Local anesthetics: These drugs block nerve impulses by inhibiting the sodium channels in the neuronal membrane, thereby preventing the generation and transmission of nerve impulses. They are commonly used to provide local or regional anesthesia during surgical procedures or to manage pain. Examples include lidocaine, bupivacaine, and prilocaine.
2. Neuropathic pain agents: These drugs are used to treat neuropathic pain, which is caused by damage or dysfunction of the peripheral nerves. They can act on various targets, including sodium channels, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, and voltage-gated calcium channels. Examples include gabapentin, pregabalin, duloxetine, and amitriptyline.
3. Muscle relaxants: These drugs act on the skeletal muscle to reduce muscle tone and spasticity. They can be classified into two main categories: centrally acting muscle relaxants (e.g., baclofen, tizanidine) and peripherally acting muscle relaxants (e.g., cyclobenzaprine, carisoprodol).
4. Cholinergic agents: These drugs act on the cholinergic receptors in the PNS to modulate nerve impulse transmission. They can be further classified into muscarinic and nicotinic agonists or antagonists, depending on their specific mechanism of action. Examples include neostigmine, pyridostigmine, and physostigmine.
5. Sympathomimetic agents: These drugs stimulate the sympathetic nervous system, which is part of the PNS that regulates the "fight or flight" response. They can be used to treat various conditions, such as hypotension, bronchospasm, and nasal congestion. Examples include epinephrine, norepinephrine, phenylephrine, and pseudoephedrine.
6. Sympatholytic agents: These drugs block the sympathetic nervous system to reduce its activity. They can be used to treat various conditions, such as hypertension, tachycardia, and anxiety. Examples include beta-blockers (e.g., propranolol, metoprolol), alpha-blockers (e.g., prazosin, doxazosin), and combined alpha-beta blockers (e.g., labetalol, carvedilol).
7. Neuropathic pain agents: These drugs are used to treat neuropathic pain, which is caused by damage or dysfunction of the nervous system. They can act on various targets in the PNS, such as sodium channels, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, and opioid receptors. Examples include lidocaine, capsaicin, tramadol, and tapentadol.
8. Antiepileptic drugs: These drugs are used to treat epilepsy, which is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures. They can act on various targets in the PNS, such as sodium channels, calcium channels, and GABA receptors. Examples include phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproate, lamotrigine, topiramate, and levetiracetam.
9. Antidepressant drugs: These drugs are used to treat depression, which is a mental disorder characterized by persistent low mood and loss of interest in activities. They can act on various targets in the PNS, such as serotonin receptors, norepinephrine receptors, and dopamine receptors. Examples include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (e.g., fluoxetine, sertraline), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) (e.g., venlafaxine, duloxetine), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) (e.g., amitriptyline, imipramine), and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) (e.g., phenelzine, selegiline).
10. Antipsychotic drugs: These drugs are used to treat psychosis, which is a mental disorder characterized by hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thought processes. They can act on various targets in the PNS, such as dopamine receptors, serotonin receptors, and histamine receptors. Examples include typical antipsychotics (e.g., haloperidol, chlorpromazine) and atypical antipsychotics (e.g., clozapine, risperidone).
11. Anxiolytic drugs: These drugs are used to treat anxiety disorders, which are mental disorders characterized by excessive fear, worry, or nervousness. They can act on various targets in the PNS, such as GABA receptors and benzodiazepine receptors. Examples include benzodiazepines (e.g., diazepam, alprazolam), buspirone, and hydroxyzine.
12. Sedative drugs: These drugs are used to induce sleep or reduce excitement. They can act on various targets in the PNS, such as GABA receptors and histamine receptors. Examples include barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital, secobarbital), benzodiazepines (e.g., diazepam, temazepam), and antihistamines (e.g., diphenhydramine, doxylamine).
13. Hypnotic drugs: These drugs are used to induce sleep. They can act on various targets in the PNS, such as GABA receptors and benzodiazepine receptors. Examples include benzodiazepines (e.g., triazolam, flunitrazepam) and non-benzodiazepine hypnotics (e.g., zolpidem, eszopiclone).
14. Antidepressant drugs: These drugs are used to treat depression, which is a mental disorder characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, or worthlessness. They can act on various targets in the PNS, such as serotonin receptors and norepinephrine transporters. Examples include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (e.g., fluoxetine, sertraline), tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline, imipramine), and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (e.g., phenelzine, selegiline).
15. Anxiolytic drugs: These drugs are used to reduce anxiety, which is a feeling of fear, worry, or unease. They can act on various targets in the PNS, such as GABA receptors and benzodiazepine receptors. Examples include benzodiazepines (e.g., alprazolam, lorazepam), buspirone, and hydroxyzine.
16. Antipsychotic drugs: These drugs are used to treat psychosis, which is a mental disorder characterized by hallucinations, delusions, or disordered thinking. They can act on various targets in the PNS, such as dopamine receptors and serotonin receptors. Examples include typical antipsychotics (e.g., haloperidol, chlorpromazine) and atypical antipsychotics (e.g., risperidone, olanzapine).
17. Mood stabilizers: These drugs are used to treat mood disorders, such as bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder. They can act on various targets in the PNS, such as sodium channels and GABA receptors. Examples include lithium, valproic acid, and carbamazepine.
18. Stimulants: These drugs are used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or narcolepsy. They can act on various targets in the PNS, such as dopamine transporters and norepinephrine transporters. Examples include amphetamine, methylphenidate, and modafinil.
19. Antihistamines: These drugs are used to treat allergies or symptoms of the common cold. They can act on various targets in the PNS, such as histamine receptors and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Examples include diphenhydramine, loratadine, and cetirizine.
20. Antiemetics: These

Central nervous system (CNS) agents are drugs or substances that act on the central nervous system, which includes the brain and spinal cord. These agents can affect the CNS in various ways, depending on their specific mechanism of action. They may be used for therapeutic purposes, such as to treat medical conditions like pain, anxiety, seizures, or sleep disorders, or they may be abused for their psychoactive effects.

CNS agents can be broadly classified into several categories based on their primary site of action and the nature of their effects. Some common categories of CNS agents include:

1. Depressants: These drugs slow down the activity of the CNS, leading to sedative, hypnotic, or anxiolytic effects. Examples include benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and sleep aids like zolpidem.
2. Stimulants: These drugs increase the activity of the CNS, leading to alertness, energy, and improved concentration. Examples include amphetamines, methylphenidate, and caffeine.
3. Analgesics: These drugs are used to treat pain and can act on various parts of the nervous system, including the peripheral nerves, spinal cord, and brain. Examples include opioids (such as morphine and oxycodone), non-opioid analgesics (such as acetaminophen and ibuprofen), and adjuvant analgesics (such as antidepressants and anticonvulsants).
4. Antiepileptics: These drugs are used to treat seizure disorders and work by modulating the electrical activity of neurons in the brain. Examples include phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproic acid, and lamotrigine.
5. Antipsychotics: These drugs are used to treat psychosis, schizophrenia, and other mental health disorders by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain. Examples include haloperidol, risperidone, and clozapine.
6. Antidepressants: These drugs are used to treat depression and anxiety disorders by modulating neurotransmitter activity in the brain. Examples include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) like fluoxetine and sertraline, tricyclic antidepressants like amitriptyline, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) like phenelzine.
7. Anxiolytics: These drugs are used to treat anxiety disorders and work by modulating the activity of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain. Examples include benzodiazepines like diazepam and alprazolam, and non-benzodiazepine anxiolytics like buspirone.
8. Stimulants: These drugs are used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy by increasing the activity of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain. Examples include methylphenidate, amphetamine salts, and modafinil.
9. Sedative-hypnotics: These drugs are used to treat insomnia and other sleep disorders by depressing the activity of the central nervous system. Examples include benzodiazepines like triazolam and zolpidem, and non-benzodiazepine sedative-hypnotics like eszopiclone and ramelteon.
10. Antipsychotics: These drugs are used to treat psychotic disorders like schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder by blocking the activity of dopamine in the brain. Examples include typical antipsychotics like haloperidol and chlorpromazine, and atypical antipsychotics like risperidone and aripiprazole.
11. Antidepressants: These drugs are used to treat depression and anxiety disorders by increasing the activity of serotonin, norepinephrine, or dopamine in the brain. Examples include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) like fluoxetine and sertraline, tricyclic antidepressants like amitriptyline, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) like phenelzine.
12. Anticonvulsants: These drugs are used to treat seizure disorders like epilepsy, as well as chronic pain and bipolar disorder. They work by stabilizing the electrical activity of the brain. Examples include valproic acid, lamotrigine, and carbamazepine.
13. Anxiolytics: These drugs are used to treat anxiety disorders by reducing anxiety and promoting relaxation. Examples include benzodiazepines like diazepam and alprazolam, and non-benzodiazepine anxiolytics like buspirone.
14. Hypnotics: These drugs are used to treat insomnia and other sleep disorders by promoting sleep. Examples include benzodiazepines like triazolam and temazepam, and non-benzodiazepine hypnotics like zolpidem and eszopiclone.
15. Stimulants: These drugs are used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy by increasing alertness and focus. Examples include amphetamine salts, methylphenidate, and modafinil.
16. Antihistamines: These drugs are used to treat allergies and allergic reactions by blocking the activity of histamine, a chemical that is released during an allergic response. Examples include diphenhydramine, loratadine, and cetirizine.
17. Antipsychotics: These drugs are used to treat psychosis, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other mental health conditions by reducing the symptoms of these conditions. Examples include risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine.
18. Antidepressants: These drugs are used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, and some chronic pain conditions by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain. Examples include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) like fluoxetine and sertraline, and tricyclic antidepressants like amitriptyline and imipramine.
19. Anticonvulsants: These drugs are used to treat seizure disorders and some chronic pain conditions by stabilizing the electrical activity of the brain. Examples include valproic acid, lamotrigine, and carbamazepine.
20. Muscle relaxants: These drugs are used to treat muscle spasms and pain by reducing muscle tension. Examples include cyclobenzaprine, methocarbamol, and baclofen.

Respiratory system agents are substances that affect the respiratory system, which includes the nose, throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, and lungs. These agents can be classified into different categories based on their effects:

1. Respiratory Stimulants: Agents that increase respiratory rate or depth by acting on the respiratory center in the brainstem.
2. Respiratory Depressants: Agents that decrease respiratory rate or depth, often as a side effect of their sedative or analgesic effects. Examples include opioids, benzodiazepines, and barbiturates.
3. Bronchodilators: Agents that widen the airways (bronchioles) in the lungs by relaxing the smooth muscle around them. They are used to treat asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other respiratory conditions. Examples include albuterol, ipratropium, and theophylline.
4. Anti-inflammatory Agents: Agents that reduce inflammation in the airways, which can help relieve symptoms of asthma, COPD, and other respiratory conditions. Examples include corticosteroids, leukotriene modifiers, and mast cell stabilizers.
5. Antitussives: Agents that suppress coughing, often by numbing the throat or acting on the cough center in the brainstem. Examples include dextromethorphan and codeine.
6. Expectorants: Agents that help thin and loosen mucus in the airways, making it easier to cough up and clear. Examples include guaifenesin and iodinated glycerol.
7. Decongestants: Agents that narrow blood vessels in the nose and throat, which can help relieve nasal congestion and sinus pressure. Examples include pseudoephedrine and phenylephrine.
8. Antimicrobial Agents: Agents that kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi that can cause respiratory infections. Examples include antibiotics, antiviral drugs, and antifungal agents.

The Central Nervous System (CNS) is the part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord. It is called the "central" system because it receives information from, and sends information to, the rest of the body through peripheral nerves, which make up the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS).

The CNS is responsible for processing sensory information, controlling motor functions, and regulating various autonomic processes like heart rate, respiration, and digestion. The brain, as the command center of the CNS, interprets sensory stimuli, formulates thoughts, and initiates actions. The spinal cord serves as a conduit for nerve impulses traveling to and from the brain and the rest of the body.

The CNS is protected by several structures, including the skull (which houses the brain) and the vertebral column (which surrounds and protects the spinal cord). Despite these protective measures, the CNS remains vulnerable to injury and disease, which can have severe consequences due to its crucial role in controlling essential bodily functions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sensory System Agents" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. Sensory systems refer to the parts of the nervous system that process and transmit information about the world around us, including the senses of sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell. However, there are no specific "agents" that are generally recognized as being solely dedicated to affecting these systems in a medical context.

If you're referring to specific pharmaceutical agents or drugs that affect sensory systems, these would be more accurately described using terms related to the specific system (like "ophthalmic agents" for vision, or "anesthetics" for touch/pain) and the specific drug class or mechanism of action.

If you have a more specific context in mind, I'd be happy to try to provide a more targeted answer!

Central nervous system (CNS) diseases refer to medical conditions that primarily affect the brain and spinal cord. The CNS is responsible for controlling various functions in the body, including movement, sensation, cognition, and behavior. Therefore, diseases of the CNS can have significant impacts on a person's quality of life and overall health.

There are many different types of CNS diseases, including:

1. Infectious diseases: These are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites that infect the brain or spinal cord. Examples include meningitis, encephalitis, and polio.
2. Neurodegenerative diseases: These are characterized by progressive loss of nerve cells in the brain or spinal cord. Examples include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease.
3. Structural diseases: These involve damage to the physical structure of the brain or spinal cord, such as from trauma, tumors, or stroke.
4. Functional diseases: These affect the function of the nervous system without obvious structural damage, such as multiple sclerosis and epilepsy.
5. Genetic disorders: Some CNS diseases are caused by genetic mutations, such as spinal muscular atrophy and Friedreich's ataxia.

Symptoms of CNS diseases can vary widely depending on the specific condition and the area of the brain or spinal cord that is affected. They may include muscle weakness, paralysis, seizures, loss of sensation, difficulty with coordination and balance, confusion, memory loss, changes in behavior or mood, and pain. Treatment for CNS diseases depends on the specific condition and may involve medications, surgery, rehabilitation therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms refer to a group of abnormal growths or tumors that develop within the brain or spinal cord. These tumors can be benign or malignant, and their growth can compress or disrupt the normal functioning of surrounding brain or spinal cord tissue.

Benign CNS neoplasms are slow-growing and rarely spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause significant problems if they grow large enough to put pressure on vital structures within the brain or spinal cord. Malignant CNS neoplasms, on the other hand, are aggressive tumors that can invade and destroy surrounding tissue. They may also spread to other parts of the CNS or, rarely, to other organs in the body.

CNS neoplasms can arise from various types of cells within the brain or spinal cord, including nerve cells, glial cells (which provide support and insulation for nerve cells), and supportive tissues such as blood vessels. The specific type of CNS neoplasm is often used to help guide treatment decisions and determine prognosis.

Symptoms of CNS neoplasms can vary widely depending on the location and size of the tumor, but may include headaches, seizures, weakness or paralysis, vision or hearing changes, balance problems, memory loss, and changes in behavior or personality. Treatment options for CNS neoplasms may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

The nervous system is a complex, highly organized network of specialized cells called neurons and glial cells that communicate with each other via electrical and chemical signals to coordinate various functions and activities in the body. It consists of two main parts: the central nervous system (CNS), including the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which includes all the nerves and ganglia outside the CNS.

The primary function of the nervous system is to receive, process, and integrate information from both internal and external environments and then respond by generating appropriate motor outputs or behaviors. This involves sensing various stimuli through specialized receptors, transmitting this information through afferent neurons to the CNS for processing, integrating this information with other inputs and memories, making decisions based on this processed information, and finally executing responses through efferent neurons that control effector organs such as muscles and glands.

The nervous system can be further divided into subsystems based on their functions, including the somatic nervous system, which controls voluntary movements and reflexes; the autonomic nervous system, which regulates involuntary physiological processes like heart rate, digestion, and respiration; and the enteric nervous system, which is a specialized subset of the autonomic nervous system that controls gut functions. Overall, the nervous system plays a critical role in maintaining homeostasis, regulating behavior, and enabling cognition and consciousness.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Central nervous system (CNS) infections refer to infectious processes that affect the brain, spinal cord, and their surrounding membranes, known as meninges. These infections can be caused by various microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Examples of CNS infections are:

1. Meningitis: Inflammation of the meninges, usually caused by bacterial or viral infections. Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment.
2. Encephalitis: Inflammation of the brain parenchyma, often caused by viral infections. Some viruses associated with encephalitis include herpes simplex virus, enteroviruses, and arboviruses.
3. Meningoencephalitis: A combined inflammation of both the brain and meninges, commonly seen in certain viral infections or when bacterial pathogens directly invade the brain.
4. Brain abscess: A localized collection of pus within the brain caused by a bacterial or fungal infection.
5. Spinal epidural abscess: An infection in the space surrounding the spinal cord, usually caused by bacteria.
6. Myelitis: Inflammation of the spinal cord, which can result from viral, bacterial, or fungal infections.
7. Rarely, parasitic infections like toxoplasmosis and cysticercosis can also affect the CNS.

Symptoms of CNS infections may include fever, headache, stiff neck, altered mental status, seizures, focal neurological deficits, or meningeal signs (e.g., Brudzinski's and Kernig's signs). The specific symptoms depend on the location and extent of the infection, as well as the causative organism. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term neurological complications or death.

The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) is that part of the nervous system which lies outside of the brain and spinal cord. It includes all the nerves and ganglia ( clusters of neurons) outside of the central nervous system (CNS). The PNS is divided into two components: the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.

The somatic nervous system is responsible for transmitting sensory information from the skin, muscles, and joints to the CNS, and for controlling voluntary movements of the skeletal muscles.

The autonomic nervous system, on the other hand, controls involuntary actions, such as heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, salivation, perspiration, pupillary dilation, and sexual arousal. It is further divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, which generally have opposing effects and maintain homeostasis in the body.

Damage to the peripheral nervous system can result in various medical conditions such as neuropathies, neuritis, plexopathies, and radiculopathies, leading to symptoms like numbness, tingling, pain, weakness, or loss of reflexes in the affected area.

Moffett RB, Pickering TL (November 1971). "Central nervous system agents. 2. Synthesis of diphenyl primary and secondary ...
Central nervous system (CNS) seizure agents. CNS seizure agents inhibit cellular signaling by acting as receptor antagonists. ... This results in continued nerve impulses across the synapses, which eventually cause nerve system damage. Examples of AChE ... Examples of CNS seizure agents are organochlorine pesticides. Respiratory blockers. These are toxicants that affect respiration ...
Central Nervous System seizure agents are associated with effects such as partial or whole body seizures and coughing. Dioxin ... 4. Central Nervous System Seizure Agent". Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 10 (1): 115-131. doi:10.1002/etc.5620100113. ... In the last experiment, central nervous system seizure agents were analyzed. These included an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, ... central nervous system seizure agents, and uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. Acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme which ...
... actions and metabolism in the central nervous system". Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 12 (3): 189-216. ... It is also seen as a potential therapeutic agent for spinal cord injury (SCI); in low doses (10 mg/kg) it was seen to be ... In a test of phase shifted circadian cycle, TIK-301 showed efficacy in readjusting phase shifts in all physiological systems. ... Doghramji K (August 2007). "Melatonin and its receptors: a new class of sleep-promoting agents". Journal of Clinical Sleep ...
Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 9 (3): 197-204. doi:10.2174/1871524910909030197. PMID 20021354. Sprouse J ... A class of compounds with a novel profile of central nervous system activity". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 16 (9): 1003-11 ... it inhibits neuronal reuptake of serotonin and potentiates serotonergic activity in the central nervous system. Over time, this ... The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Retrieved 8 January 2018. Hoskins M, Pearce J, Bethell A, Dankova L, Barbui ...
Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 9 (3): 197-204. doi:10.2174/1871524910909030197. PMID 20021354. Hindmarch ... Journal of Central Nervous System Disease. 3: 51-65. doi:10.4137/JCNSD.S1611. PMC 3663615. PMID 23861638. Anttila AK, Rasanen L ... Paclitaxel (Px) is a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of various types of cancer. Here, fluvoxamine has been ... Silver H (2001). "Fluvoxamine as an adjunctive agent in schizophrenia". CNS Drug Reviews. 7 (3): 283-304. doi:10.1111/j.1527- ...
Central Nervous System Agents. 1 (2): 155-170. doi:10.2174/1568015013358536. Cheng S, Song W, Yuan X, Xu Y (2017). "Gorge ... In the central nervous system it is associated with PRiMA which stands for Proline Rich Membrane anchor to form symmetric form ... Koelle GB (1954). "The histochemical localization of cholinesterases in the central nervous system of the rat". Journal of ... and are used to treat of a range of central nervous system diseases. Tetrahydroaminoacridine (THA) and donepezil are FDA- ...
Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 10 (4): 298-309. doi:10.2174/187152410793429746. PMID 20868357. "Kainic ... Nerve agents such as sarin, which were developed as chemical weapons, produce convulsions as a major part of their toxidrome, ... "Convulsant Agent - an overview , ScienceDirect Topics". www.sciencedirect.com. Retrieved 2022-01-20. Galland, M. C.; Griguer, Y ... "Convulsant Agent - an overview , ScienceDirect Topics". www.sciencedirect.com. Retrieved 2022-01-15. Chen, Hsien-Yi; Albertson ...
Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 10 (3): 218-237. doi:10.2174/1871524911006030218. PMID 20557283.{{cite ... The plant is native to Central and South America, and the Caribbean, a species characteristic of Montane cloud forests (in ... Flora of Central America, Flora of the Caribbean, Flora of northern South America, Flora of Brazil, Flora of the Atlantic ... Forest, Flora of Puerto Rico, Flora of Southeastern Mexico, Bird food plants, Garden plants of Central America, Garden plants ...
Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 10 (3): 218-237. doi:10.2174/1871524911006030218. PMID 20557283 - via www ... central nervous system damage and death in sheep. Arundo donax, 0.0057% DMT in dried rhizome, no stem, 0.026% bufotenine, ... changes in nervous system function that alter perception, mood, consciousness, cognition or behavior. Many of these plants are ... Other opiate receptors, such as kappa- and delta-opiate receptors are part of this system but do not cause the characteristic ...
Amongst analgesics there are a small number of agents which act on the central nervous system but not on the opioid receptor ... Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 9 (3): 172-83. doi:10.2174/1871524910909030172. PMID 20021351. Mitra S ( ... Opioids act by binding to opioid receptors, which are found principally in the central and peripheral nervous system and the ... Vella-Brincat J, Macleod AD (2007). "Adverse effects of opioids on the central nervous systems of palliative care patients". ...
... and the central nervous system". Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 12 (3): 233-9. doi:10.2174/ ... June 2013). "A GPR18-based signalling system regulates IOP in murine eye". British Journal of Pharmacology. 169 (4): 834-43. ...
"Effects of snake venom polypeptides on central nervous system". Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 12 (4): ... Hemotoxic venom acts on the cardiovascular system, including the heart and blood. Neurotoxic venom acts on the nervous system, ... its action on the nervous system is not great, no individual group of nerve-cells appears to be picked out, and the effect upon ... is mainly on the nervous system, respiratory paralysis being quickly produced by bringing the venom into contact with the ...
... and the central nervous system". Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 12 (3): 233-239. doi:10.2174/ ... Caldwell MD, Hu SS, Viswanathan S, Bradshaw H, Kelly ME, Straiker A (June 2013). "A GPR18-based signalling system regulates IOP ...
Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 17 (3). doi:10.2174/1871524917666170717113524. ISSN 1871-5249. Sigstad, ...
Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 13 (3): 166-194. doi:10.2174/1871524913666140109113341. PMID 24450388. ... Brodal P (2016). "Chapter 5: Neurotransmitters and their receptors". The Central Nervous System. Oxford University Press. p. 75 ... Trendelenburg U (1991). "The interaction of transport mechanisms and intracellular enzymes in metabolizing systems". Journal of ...
Central Nervous System Agents. 2 (3): 175-186. doi:10.2174/1568015023357978. Betz, A.L.; Goldstein, G.W. "Brain capillaries: ... Begley, D.J. (1996). "The blood-brain barrier: principles for targeting peptides and drugs to the central nervous system". J. ... structure and function". In Lajtha, A. (ed.). Structural Elements of the Nervous System; Handbook of Neurochemistry, Vol. 7. ... One approach is the design of soft drugs (SDs), new, active therapeutic agents, often isosteric or isolelectronic analogs of a ...
Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 10 (3): 180-206. doi:10.2174/1871524911006030180. hdl:10261/61750. PMID ... a central nervous system stimulant. "Adzenys XR-ODT". United States Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 7 March 2016. " ... but dextroamphetamine is a more potent central nervous system stimulant. Although it is effective in reducing primary ADHD ... While an effective agent for managing the symptoms, the development of liver failure in 14 cases over the next 27 years would ...
CIBA Foundation Symposium (30 April 2008). Novel Infectious Agents and the Central Nervous System. John Wiley & Sons. p. 61. ... or the tendency of particular toxins to target certain organs or systems of organ." Pathoclisis has been postulated to mediate ... administering pharmalogical agents and using electricity to observe electrical and functional disturbances. After also ...
"FDA approves imaging agent for central nervous system scans" (Press release). U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). March 15 ... In the central nervous system, Gadobutrol works by highlighting any areas with disrupted blood brain barrier (BBB) and/or ... Gadobutrol was first approved for use in MRIs of the central nervous system in the United States in 2011. It is currently ... "U.S. FDA Approves Bayer's Gadavist (Gadobutrol) Injection for MRI of the Central Nervous System" (Press release). Bayer ...
... as potential central nervous system agents. 2. Compounds containing a heteroatom attached to nitrogen". Journal of Medicinal ... "Effect of antidepressant agents on beta-adrenergic receptor and neurotransmitter regulatory systems". Pharmacology, ...
At higher doses, propylhexedrine affects the central nervous system as a norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agent. ... After searching for such an agent, Dr. Glenn E. Ullyot patented propylhexedrine as a decongestant in 1948. This patent was ... Propylhexedrine's medical use as a decongestant evolved from desires to find safer alternatives to previous agents. ... the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems. 4 (10): 627-635. doi:10.1080/00498257409169765. PMID 4428789. US granted ...
Nath researches the effects of HIV and other infectious agents on the central nervous system. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ( ... At NINDS, Nath also leads the Section of Infections of the Nervous System and plans to institute a translational research ...
Despite the availability of antifungal agents, aspergillosis in the central nervous system carries a poor prognosis. Though ... However, in patients with suppressed immune systems, or if introduced directly into the spinal column, the fungus can be deadly ...
August 1999). "AIT-082 as a potential neuroprotective and regenerative agent in stroke and central nervous system injury". ...
Patients on amantadine should avoid combination with other central nervous system (CNS) depressing agents, such as alcohol. ... Due to its effects on the central nervous system, it is only with caution that it should be combined with additional CNS ... Amantadine may affect the central nervous system due to dopaminergic and anticholinergic properties. The mechanisms of action ... Anti-influenza agents, Anti-RNA virus drugs, Antiparkinsonian agents, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder management, ...
Kim EJ, Shin WH (February 2005). "General pharmacology of CKD-732, a new anticancer agent: effects on central nervous, ... cardiovascular, and respiratory system". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 28 (2): 217-23. doi:10.1248/bpb.28.217. PMID ...
"Are North American Bunyamwera serogroup viruses etiologic agents of human congenital defects of the central nervous system?". ... Tensaw virus has been isolated from mosquitoes in southwest Alabama, southeast Georgia, and central and south Florida. Host ...
Parker G, Roberts CJ (September 1983). "Plasma concentrations and central nervous system effects of the new hypnotic agent ... It works by causing a depression or tranquilization of the central nervous system. After prolonged use, the body can become ... Zopiclone combined with alcohol, opiates, or other central nervous system depressants may be even more likely to lead to fatal ... in the central nervous system, via modulating GABAA receptors similarly to the way benzodiazepine drugs do. Zopiclone is a ...
Agarwala SS, Kirkwood JM (2000). "Temozolomide, a novel alkylating agent with activity in the central nervous system, may ... If the cancer has central nervous system involvement, or with meningeal disease, intrathecal chemotherapy may be administered. ... Though the symptoms are mainly sensory, in some cases motor nerves and the autonomic nervous system are affected. CIPN often ... Windebank AJ, Grisold W (March 2008). "Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy". Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System. 13 (1): 27- ...
Central Nervous System Stimulant, Nonamphetamine. Class Summary. Nonamphetamine CNS agents have actions that are similar to ... Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants are used to treat the hypoarousal and poor initiative often seen in patients with brain ... Anti-Parkinson Agents. Class Summary. Anti-Parkinson medications have been useful in patients with brain injuries because these ... In addition to the agents that may enhance thinking skills, aggressive management of specific symptoms is also warranted, ...
Central Nervous System Agents - Anesthetics, Dissociative PubMed MeSh Term *Overview. Overview. subject area of * EVALUATION OF ... Central Nervous System Agents - Anesthetics, Intravenous PubMed MeSh Term ©2024 Regents of the University of Colorado , Terms ...
Moffett RB, Pickering TL (November 1971). "Central nervous system agents. 2. Synthesis of diphenyl primary and secondary ...
No agent is implicated in most central nervous system (CNS) infections. To investigate cerebrospinal fluid samples from ... de Ory F, Avellón A, Echevarría JE, Sánchez-Seco MP, Trallero G, Cabrerizo M, Viral infections of the central nervous system in ... Koskiniemi M, Rantalaiho T, Piiparinen H, von Bonsdorff CH, Färkkilä M, Järvinen A, Infections of the central nervous system of ... Primers for MassTag central nervous system infections panel, RNA pathogens * Table 2. Primers for MassTag CNS infections panel ...
Levodopa is in a class of medications called central nervous system agents. It works by being converted to dopamine in the ... or injury to the nervous system caused by carbon monoxide poisoning or manganese poisoning. Parkinsons symptoms, including ... The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists®, 4500 East-West Highway, Suite 900, Bethesda, Maryland. All Rights Reserved ... American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. Disclaimer. AHFS® Patient Medication Information™. © Copyright, 2024. ...
Categories: Central Nervous System Agents Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Toxicology; Nanotechnology; Laboratory-animals; Exposure-levels; Dose-response; Central-nervous-system; Therapeutic-agents; ... Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) possess unique physicochemical properties that may facilitate entry into the central nervous system ( ... Gold nanoparticles in central nervous system of mice: localization and inflammatory markers. ...
Another thing is the addition of [central nervous system-acting] agents to the OPCW list. Im also referring to the [OPCW] ... Van der Kwast: Thats the central question. My intention is to see how much we can do, and I will do the utmost to have a ... Walker: The American Thoracic Society has great concerns about the rise in the use of riot control agents worldwide and the ... Are you aware of any efforts by states-parties and the review conference to revisit riot control agents as a category, ...
... thereby leading to an accumulation of acetylcholine in the central and peripheral nervous system. Excess acetylcholine produces ... Nerve agentsplus icon *Case Definition: Nerve Agents or Organophosphates. *Toxic Syndrome Description: Nerve Agent and ... Nerve agents are chemical warfare agents that have the same mechanism of action as OP organophosphate pesticides insecticides. ... The amount and route of exposure to the nerve agent or OP pesticide, the type of nerve agent or pesticide, and the premorbid ...
Symptoms are due to direct invasion and replication of the infectious agent in the central nervous system, resulting in ... Other central nervous system infections transmitted by mosquitos, ticks, or midges (Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Cache ... Central nervous system: disorientation or alterations in consciousness without focal neurologic signs when fever and ... A positive direct fluorescent antibody test (preferably performed on central nervous system tissue) ...
Central Nervous System Agent. Metformin HCl ER Tablets 500mg. 1000mg. 60. 68180-337-07. 68180-336-07 ...
... it appears to operate uniquely as an anti-inflammatory agent in the central nervous system, via action on microglial cells. The ... Also, the full naltrexone dose wont work because it blocks the endogenous opioid system. Since doctors are going to try it, we ... and also in the numbers of users of intestinal anti-inflammatory agents, other immunosuppressants, intestinal corticosteroids, ...
... diabetes defined by insulin or oral hypoglycaemic agents; central nervous system drugs included benzodiazepines, major ... The authors thank the Commission daccès à linformation du Québec for allowing access to the data and agents from the Régie de ... Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antidepressive agents and narcotics were considered as separate categories. ... It is unclear whether the risk of pneumonia varies for different inhaled agents, particularly fluticasone and budesonide, and ...
Melanin is the central pigment in our skin, but its role in the human body is about so much more than simply determining the ... Arturo S. Herrera et al., "Beyond Mitochondria, What Would Be the Energy Source of the Cell?," Central Nervous System Agents in ... and it can also be found in the mammalian central nervous system. From the ink of the octopus to the protective colorings of ... Melanin, the central pigment within our skin, and distributed throughout our bodies, is one of the most interesting ...
... thereby leading to an accumulation of acetylcholine in the central and peripheral nervous system. Excess acetylcholine produces ... Nerve agentsplus icon *Case Definition: Nerve Agents or Organophosphates. *Toxic Syndrome Description: Nerve Agent and ... Nerve agents are chemical warfare agents that have the same mechanism of action as OP organophosphate pesticides insecticides. ... The amount and route of exposure to the nerve agent or OP pesticide, the type of nerve agent or pesticide, and the premorbid ...
CDC WONDER is a system for disseminating Public Health data and information ... Symptoms are due to direct invasion and replication of the infectious agent in the central nervous system, resulting in ... Other central nervous system infections transmitted by mosquitos, ticks, or midges (Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Cache ... Central nervous system: disorientation or alterations in consciousness without focal neurologic signs when fever and ...
CNS stimulant; analeptic; analeptic agent; analeptic drug; analeptics; central stimulant. xref: Wikipedia:Central_nervous_ ... Any drug that enhances the activity of the central nervous system.. Synonyms:. related_synonym: ... central nervous system stimulant. go back to main search page Accession:. CHEBI:35337 browse the term ... central nervous system drug. 16778. central nervous system stimulant. 8524. (S)-modafinil +. 9. ...
... central nervous system) depressants (hypnotics, sedatives, tranquilizers, anti-anxiety agents, etc) ... Sympathomimetic agents may reduce effects of anti-hypertensive drugs. *Antihistamines have additive effects with alcohol and ...
The agent has displayed clinical activity against various cancers, including central nervous system, ovarian, and other solid ... prior treatment with lomustine or any agents included in the experimental arms, and extensive leptomeningeal disease. ...
ANTI-EPILEPTIC AGENT [EPC],DECREASED CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISORGANIZED ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY [PE] ...
... is a direct intracranial drug infusion technique to deliver chemotherapeutic agents to the central nervous system, ... CED can provide wider distribution of infused agents compared to simple diffusion. We have reported that CED of a polymeric ... micelle carrier system could yield a clinically relevant distribution of encapsulated agents in the rat brain. Our aim was to ... We also used systemic administration of temozolomide, a DNA-alkylating agent, which has been established as the standard of ...
Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews. Current Pediatric Reviews ... Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry Chemistry of Tumour Targeted T1 Based MRI Contrast Agents. Current Topics in ... CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets Graphene and Graphene Oxide as a Docking Station for Modern Drug Delivery System. ... Current Medicinal Chemistry The Renin-angiotensin System as a Target of Novel Anticancer Therapy. Current Pharmaceutical Design ...
Lépidémiologie, tant chez le sujet humain que chez lanimal, y est analysée et les agents étiologiques y sont décrits. Le ... The epidemiology, both in human beings and animals, has been reviewed and the causative agents described. Diagnosis, pathology ... Significant infectivity is likely to be present only in the central nervous system and in certain organs of the lymphoreticular ... It is a disease of the central nervous system manifested by cerebellar ataxia, loss of coordination, shivering, tremors, ...
It is the least volatile nerve agent. Table 1 lists selected physical properties for each of the nerve agents. ... G-type agents are clear,colorless, and tasteless liquids that are miscible in water and most organic solvents. GB is odorless ... and is the most volatile nerve agent; however, it evaporates at about the same rate as water. GA has a slightly fruity odor, ... Nerve agents are the most toxic of the known chemical warfare agents. They are chemically similar to organophosphate pesticides ...
This behavior is more likely to occur when sedativehypnotics are taken with alcohol or other central nervous system depressants ... As in the management of intentional overdose with any drug, the possibility should be considered that multiple agents may have ... If estazolam is given concomitantly with other drugs acting on the central nervous system, careful consideration should be ... Musculoskeletal System- Infrequent: arthritis, muscle spasm, myalgia; Rare: arthralgia.. Nervous System- Frequent: anxiety; ...
Journal: Current Medicinal Chemistry - Central Nervous System Agents. Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Year: 2005 Page: 63-66. Author(s): ...
Central Nervous System Agents/supply & distribution, Social Isolation/psychology, Health Information Management, Computer ... Unified Health System/organization & administration, Local Health Systems/economics, Coronavirus Infections/economics, ... Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology, Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology, Pandemics/statistics & numerical data, Local Health Systems ... Health Systems/economics, Brazil/epidemiology, Access to Essential Medicines and Health Technologies, Ventilators, Mechanical/ ...
Central nervous system agents in medicinal chemistry 2016 Feb . Alonsoa Verónica Rivas, de Jesús Flores Riveraa José, García ... of T-Cell Responses to Aquaporin-4 and Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein in Inflammatory Demyelinating Central Nervous System ...
Novel infectious agents and the central nervous system. Series: Ciba Foundation symposium ; 135Material type: Text; Format: ... Results of search for ccl=su:{Central nervous system.} Refine your search. *. Availability. * Limit to currently available ... Pharmacokinetics of cardiovascular, central nervous system, and antimicrobial drugs / Peter G. Welling, Francis L. S. Tse. by ... Neuroanatomy : development and structure of the central nervous system / P. F. A. Martinez Martinez. by Martinez Martinez, P. F ...
  • Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants are used to treat the hypoarousal and poor initiative often seen in patients with brain injuries. (medscape.com)
  • The first known organic semiconductor, 15 it is a black substance prominent in eyes, skin, hair, scales, and feathers, and it can also be found in the mammalian central nervous system. (wakeup-world.com)
  • We have successfully used high-throughput sequencing to identify causative agents of disease for patients with transplant-associated encephalopathy ( 16 ) and encephalitis associated with agammaglobulinemia ( 17 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The epidemiology, both in human beings and animals, has been reviewed and the causative agents described. (who.int)
  • slightly more effective than anticholinergic agents. (medscape.com)
  • Targeting the glutamatergic system, specifically NMDA receptors, offers a novel approach to treatment in view of the limited efficacy of existing drugs targeting the cholinergic system. (chemconpharma.com)
  • Novel infectious agents and the central nervous system. (who.int)
  • But at much lower doses - typically 1.5 mg to 12 mg - it appears to operate uniquely as an anti-inflammatory agent in the central nervous system, via action on microglial cells. (medscape.com)
  • The blood-brain barrier (BBB) prevents entry of most drugs into the brain and is a major hurdle to the use of drugs for brain tumors and other central nervous system disorders. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Many systemically administered therapeutic agents are not effective in the central nervous system (CNS) because they are blocked by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is a direct intracranial drug infusion technique to deliver chemotherapeutic agents to the central nervous system, circumventing the blood-brain barrier and reducing systemic side effects. (go.jp)
  • Nerve agents are chemical warfare agents that have the same mechanism of action as OP organophosphate pesticides insecticides. (cdc.gov)
  • The agent has displayed clinical activity against various cancers, including central nervous system, ovarian, and other solid tumors. (onclive.com)
  • A major barrier to progress in treatment of glioblastoma is the relative inaccessibility of tumors to chemotherapeutic agents. (go.jp)
  • The Immune System is, together with Central Nervous System, one of the most important and complex unit of our organism. (mit.edu)
  • Despite great advances in recent years that shed light on its understanding and in the unraveling of key mechanisms behind its functions, there are still many areas of the Immune System that remain object of active research. (mit.edu)
  • Finally we report, with the intent of moving towards the virtual lymph note, a cost-benefits comparison among Immune System models presented in this paper. (mit.edu)
  • the immune system attacks one or more central nervous system (CNS) antigens that resemble proteins of the infectious agent. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Nonamphetamine CNS agents have actions that are similar to sympathomimetic agents. (medscape.com)
  • Has wake-promoting actions similar to sympathomimetic agents. (medscape.com)
  • Estazolam, a triazolobenzodiazepine derivative, is an oral hypnotic agent. (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of this document is to enable health care workers and public health officials to recognize an unknown or suspected exposure to a nerve agent or an organophosphate (OP) pesticide. (cdc.gov)
  • Note: The actual clinical manifestations of an exposure to a nerve agent or an organophosphate pesticide may be more variable than the syndrome described in this document. (cdc.gov)
  • Although related organophosphate chemicals are used in medicine, pharmacology, and agriculture, these are not as toxic as the nerve agents. (cdc.gov)
  • The Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) has recommended that state health departments report cases of selected diseases ( Table_1 ) to CDC's National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). (cdc.gov)
  • Pharmacokinetics of cardiovascular, central nervous system, and antimicrobial drugs / Peter G. Welling, Francis L. S. Tse. (who.int)
  • Whereas historically drugs such as heroin and cocaine have been considered the "dangerous" drugs, in recent years, prescription drug abuse has far surpassed "illegal" drugs as agents of lethal drug toxicity. (medscape.com)
  • Transmissible mink encephalopathy is a rare disease of farm-reared mink associated with feeding of animal wastes contaminated with the agent. (who.int)
  • The combination of levodopa and carbidopa is used to treat the symptoms of Parkinson's disease and Parkinson's-like symptoms that may develop after encephalitis (swelling of the brain) or injury to the nervous system caused by carbon monoxide poisoning or manganese poisoning. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Levodopa is in a class of medications called central nervous system agents. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Nerve agents are the most toxic of the known chemical warfare agents. (cdc.gov)
  • Toxic effects to the central nervous system, liver, and kidneys are observed in animals exposed through the skin and inhalation routes. (haz-map.com)
  • The amount and route of exposure to the nerve agent or OP pesticide, the type of nerve agent or pesticide, and the premorbid condition of the person exposed person will contribute to the time of onset and the severity of illness. (cdc.gov)
  • For example, inhalation of a nerve agent or an OP pesticide leads to a quicker onset of poisoning with more severe symptoms when compared to with dermal exposure s, given the same amount of agent. (cdc.gov)
  • The following is a more comprehensive list of signs and symptoms that may be encountered in a person exposed to a nerve agent or OP pesticide. (cdc.gov)
  • Plasma or RBC cholinesterase may be disproportionately inhibited depending on the particular nerve agent, amount of exposure and time interval since exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Persons whose skin or clothing is contaminated with nerve agent can contaminate rescuers by direct contact or through off-gassing vapor. (cdc.gov)
  • It is the least volatile nerve agent. (cdc.gov)
  • Nerve agent vapors are heavier than air. (cdc.gov)
  • Nerve agent liquids are readily absorbed from the skin and eyes. (cdc.gov)
  • Nerve agents are readily absorbed by inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact. (cdc.gov)
  • Gold nanoparticle s in central nervous system of mice: localization and inflammatory markers. (cdc.gov)
  • Central nervous system (CNS) infections pose a diagnostic challenge because clinical manifestations are not typically pathognomonic for specific pathogens, and a wide range of agents can be causative. (cdc.gov)
  • Chronic effects of organic solvents on the central nervous system and diagnostic criteria / report on a Joint WHO/Nordic Council of Ministers Working Group, Copenhagen, 10-14 June 1985. (who.int)
  • We have reported that CED of a polymeric micelle carrier system could yield a clinically relevant distribution of encapsulated agents in the rat brain. (go.jp)
  • G-type agents are clear,colorless, and tasteless liquids that are miscible in water and most organic solvents. (cdc.gov)
  • It is unclear whether the risk of pneumonia varies for different inhaled agents, particularly fluticasone and budesonide, and increases with the dose and long-term duration of use. (bmj.com)
  • Inhaled corticosteroids are known to increase the risk of developing pneumonia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but it is unclear whether this risk varies for different agents, particularly fluticasone and budesonide. (bmj.com)
  • Also, the full naltrexone dose won't work because it blocks the endogenous opioid system. (medscape.com)
  • Most of the nerve agents were originally synthesized in a search for insecticides, but because of their toxicity, they were evaluated for military use. (cdc.gov)
  • Results of search for 'ccl=su:{Central nervous system. (who.int)
  • Another thing is the addition of [central nervous system-acting] agents to the OPCW list. (armscontrol.org)
  • In addition, we conducted repeated BBB disruption to central visual field targets over several weeks in animals trained to conduct complex visual acuity tasks. (aacrjournals.org)
  • No agent is implicated in most central nervous system (CNS) infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Epstein-Barr virus (18 infections) accounted for most of the identified agents in unexplained meningitis cases, followed by Escherichia coli (5), enterovirus (2), human herpesvirus 2 (1), and Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (cdc.gov)
  • Any drug that enhances the activity of the central nervous system. (mcw.edu)
  • Here, we evaluated whether this targeted drug delivery method can be applied safely, reliably, and in a controlled manner on rhesus macaques using a focused ultrasound system. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CED can provide wider distribution of infused agents compared to simple diffusion. (go.jp)
  • The development of in-silico models, bridged with proper biological considerations, have recently improved the understanding of important complex systems [1,2]. (mit.edu)
  • Types histologiques des tumeurs du système nerveux central / K. J. Zülch, avec la collaboration de pathologistes de 14 pays. (who.int)
  • Work in small animals has shown that ultrasound combined with an intravenously circulating microbubble agent can temporarily permeabilize the BBB. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Additionally, state health departments provide CDC information about these and other conditions of public health interest through supplementary surveillance systems that collect more detailed, condition-specific information (3). (cdc.gov)
  • Neuroplasticity and repair in the central nervous system : implications for health care. (who.int)
  • G-type nerve agents (GA, GB, and GD) are clear, colorless liquids that are volatile at ambient temperatures. (cdc.gov)
  • Neuroanatomy : development and structure of the central nervous system / P. F. A. Martinez Martinez. (who.int)
  • We also used systemic administration of temozolomide, a DNA-alkylating agent, which has been established as the standard of care for newly diagnosed malignant glioma. (go.jp)
  • Having said that, I think it is at the same time fairly important not to have this as a sort of anti-Russian discussion, but to have the central question be, How can we strengthen the OPCW with the new challenges? (armscontrol.org)
  • may release dopamine from remaining dopaminergic terminals in patients with Parkinson disease or from other central sites. (medscape.com)