Peripheral Nervous System Agents: Drugs that act principally at one or more sites within the peripheral neuroeffector systems, the autonomic system, and motor nerve-skeletal system. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p75)Central Nervous System Agents: A class of drugs producing both physiological and psychological effects through a variety of mechanisms. They can be divided into "specific" agents, e.g., affecting an identifiable molecular mechanism unique to target cells bearing receptors for that agent, and "nonspecific" agents, those producing effects on different target cells and acting by diverse molecular mechanisms. Those with nonspecific mechanisms are generally further classed according to whether they produce behavioral depression or stimulation. Those with specific mechanisms are classed by locus of action or specific therapeutic use. (From Gilman AG, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p252)Respiratory System Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the respiratory system.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Sensory System Agents: Drugs that act on neuronal sensory receptors resulting in an increase, decrease, or modification of afferent nerve activity. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p367)Central Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.Central Nervous System Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the brain, spinal cord, or meninges.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Central Nervous System Infections: Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.Peripheral Nervous System: The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Bromocriptine: A semisynthetic ergotamine alkaloid that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It suppresses prolactin secretion.Ergolines: A series of structurally-related alkaloids that contain the ergoline backbone structure.Phenmetrazine: A sympathomimetic drug used primarily as an appetite depressant. Its actions and mechanisms are similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Sympathomimetics: Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.Dextroamphetamine: The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.Appetite Depressants: Agents that are used to suppress appetite.Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.Anaplasma centrale: A species of gram-negative bacteria causing mild ANAPLASMOSIS in CATTLE. It also can infect SHEEP and GOATS. It is transmitted by TICKS.Nephrogenic Fibrosing Dermopathy: A chronic, acquired, idiopathic, progressive eruption of the skin that occurs in the context of RENAL FAILURE. It is sometimes accompanied by systemic fibrosis. The pathogenesis seems to be multifactorial, with postulated involvement of circulating fibrocytes. There is a strong association between this disorder and the use of gadolinium-based contrast agents.Gadolinium: Gadolinium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Gd, atomic number 64, and atomic weight 157.25. Its oxide is used in the control rods of some nuclear reactors.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Methylphenidate: A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Cannabis: The plant genus in the Cannabaceae plant family, Urticales order, Hamamelidae subclass. The flowering tops are called many slang terms including pot, marijuana, hashish, bhang, and ganja. The stem is an important source of hemp fiber.Marijuana Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke from CANNABIS.Marijuana Abuse: The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.Cannabidiol: Compound isolated from Cannabis sativa extract.Dronabinol: A psychoactive compound extracted from the resin of Cannabis sativa (marihuana, hashish). The isomer delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is considered the most active form, producing characteristic mood and perceptual changes associated with this compound.Soybean Oil: Oil from soybean or soybean plant.Sesame Oil: The refined fixed oil obtained from the seed of one or more cultivated varieties of Sesamum indicum. It is used as a solvent and oleaginous vehicle for drugs and has been used internally as a laxative and externally as a skin softener. It is used also in the manufacture of margarine, soap, and cosmetics. (Dorland, 28th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Counterfeit Drugs: Drugs manufactured and sold with the intent to misrepresent its origin, authenticity, chemical composition, and or efficacy. Counterfeit drugs may contain inappropriate quantities of ingredients not listed on the label or package. In order to further deceive the consumer, the packaging, container, or labeling, may be inaccurate, incorrect, or fake.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.

PET and drug research and development. (1/267)

The use of PET to examine the behavioral, therapeutic and toxic properties of drugs and substances of abuse is emerging as a powerful new scientific tool. PET provides a new perspective on drug research by virtue of its ability to directly assess both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic events in humans and in animals. These parameters can be assessed directly in the human body both in healthy volunteers and in patients. Moreover, the new generation of high-resolution, small-animal cameras hold the promise of introducing imaging in the early stages of drug development and make it possible to carry out longitudinal studies in animals and to study genetically altered animals. This places PET in a unique position to contribute significantly to the process of drug development through understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying drug action while addressing some very practical questions such as determining effective drug doses for clinical trials for new drugs, determining the duration of drug action and examining potential drug interactions.  (+info)

Phosphorylation and sequestration of serotonin transporters differentially modulated by psychostimulants. (2/267)

Many psychotropic drugs interfere with the reuptake of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. Transport capacity is regulated by kinase-linked pathways, particularly those involving protein kinase C (PKC), resulting in transporter phosphorylation and sequestration. Phosphorylation and sequestration of the serotonin transporter (SERT) were substantially impacted by ligand occupancy. Ligands that can permeate the transporter, such as serotonin or the amphetamines, prevented PKC-dependent SERT phosphorylation. Nontransported SERT antagonists such as cocaine and antidepressants were permissive for SERT phosphorylation but blocked serotonin effects. PKC-dependent SERT sequestration was also blocked by serotonin. These findings reveal activity-dependent modulation of neurotransmitter reuptake and identify previously unknown consequences of amphetamine, cocaine, and antidepressant action.  (+info)

The prediction and prevention of Alzheimer's disease--towards a research agenda. (3/267)

This paper sets a research agenda for the prediction and prevention of future onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). From a MEDLINE review of the literature, the authors found age to be a predictor of AD. The literature also indicates that memory and attentional impairments predict AD, although the relative risk is relatively low. Late-onset depression may also predict AD, but these data are limited by a lack of cohort studies. Studying cognitively impaired subjects with late-onset depression may identify a high-risk group, facilitating prevention trials. Characteristics of an "ideal" preventive agent are suggested. There is a biologic rationale, and preliminary evidence, that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (including ASA), estrogen and vitamin E may play a preventive role in AD. Other compounds (such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors) are also promising, but costs, side effects, and lack of other health benefits may preclude their use in all but very high-risk groups.  (+info)

American ginseng extract reduces scopolamine-induced amnesia in a spatial learning task. (4/267)

OBJECTIVE: To determine if HT-1001, an extract of American ginseng, affects scopolamine-induced memory and performance deficits in a spatial learning task, alters brain concentrations of aminergic neurotransmitters, and alters choline uptake in synaptosome preparations. DESIGN: Animal study. ANIMALS: 48 Sprague Dawley rats. INTERVENTIONS: Long-term oral administration of a test material or control solution. Intraperitoneal administration of scopolamine (2 mg/kg) 30 minutes before testing. OUTCOME MEASURES: Performance on Morris water maze task, choline uptake, aminergic neurotransmitter analysis, in vitro monoamine oxidase analysis (of compounds). RESULTS: HT-1001 protected against scopolamine-induced amnesia and increased choline uptake in synaptosomal preparations. HT-1001 did not alter brain concentrations of norepinephrine, dopamine, 5-HT (serotonin), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid or 5-hydroxyindoleactic acid. HT-1001 had a very weak ability to inhibit monoamine oxidase activity in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: HT-1001 demonstrates a capacity to protect against scopolamine-induced memory deficits.  (+info)

Synthesis of new derivatives of 1-alkyl-2-aryl-1H-2,3-dihydroimidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidin-5-one active in CNS. Part 2. Synthesis and results of preliminary pharmacological screening of 7-(substituted)amino-1-alkyl-2-aryl-1H-2,3-dihydroimidazo[1,2-a]pyrimid in-5- ones. (5/267)

Synthesis of new 7-(substituted)amino-1-alkyl-2-aryl-1H-2,3-dihydroimidazo[1,2-a]py rimidin-5- ones bearing the 4-arylpiperazin-1-yl moiety connected by ethyl or acetoyl two-carbonyl chain extension was described. The arylpiperazinyl moiety was introduced by alkylation or acylation with corresponding halogeno-derivatives. Preliminary pharmacological screening showed the 7-(substituted)-amino derivatives of the system investigated to exhibit the CNS activity lesser than that of the 7-amino derivatives and to have no effect on the serotonin neurotransmission pathway.  (+info)

Synthesis and biological activity of BIS-1,2,4-triazole and BIS-1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives. (6/267)

Synthesis of some new 1,2,4-triazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives via the condensation of N'-substituted amidrazones and p-phenylenediisothiocyanate (PPD) is presented. The reaction conditions are discussed. Results of a preliminary pharmacological screening are presented.  (+info)

A novel activation of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel in Xenopus oocytes by Ginseng saponins: evidence for the involvement of phospholipase C and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. (7/267)

1. The signal transduction mechanism of ginsenosides, the active ingredients of ginseng, was studied in Xenopus oocytes using two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. Ginseng total saponin (GTS), i.e., an unfractionated mixture of ginsenosides produced a large outward current at membrane potentials more positive than -20 mV when it was applied to the exterior of oocytes, but not when injected intracellularly. The effect of GTS was concentration-dependent (EC(50): 4.4 microg ml(-1)) and reversible. 2. Certain fractionated ginsenosides (Rb(1), Rb(2), Rc, Rf, Rg(2) and Ro) also produced an outward current in a concentration-dependent manner with the order of potency of Rf>Ro>Rb(1)=Rb(2)>Rg(2)>Rc. Other ginsenosides (Rd, Re and Rg(1)) had little or no effect. 3. The GTS effect was completely blocked by bath application of the Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel blocker niflumic acid and by intracellular injection of the calcium chelator BAPTA or the IP(3) receptor antagonist heparin. Also, the effect was partially blocked by bath-applied U-73122, a phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor and by intracellularly injected GTP gamma S, a non-hydrolyzable GTP analogue. Whereas, it was not altered by pertussin toxin (PTX) pretreatment. 4. These results indicate that: (1) interaction of ginsenosides with membrane component(s) at the extracellular side leads to Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel opening in Xenopus oocyte membrane; and (2) this process involves PLC activation, the release of Ca(2+) from the IP(3)-sensitive intracellular store and PTX-insensitive G protein activation.  (+info)

G alpha(q/11) coupled to mammalian phospholipase C beta 3-like enzyme mediates the ginsenoside effect on Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current in the Xenopus oocyte. (8/267)

Recently we demonstrated that ginsenosides, the active ingredients of Panax ginseng, enhanced Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current in the Xenopus oocyte through a signal transduction mechanism involving the activation of pertussis toxin-insensitive G protein and phospholipase C (PLC). However, it has not yet been determined precisely which G protein subunit(s) and which PLC isoform(s) participate in the ginsenoside signaling. To provide answers to these questions, we investigated the changes in ginsenoside effect on the Cl(-) current after intraoocyte injections of the cRNAs coding various G protein subunits, a regulator of G protein signaling (RGS2), and G beta gamma-binding proteins. In addition, we examined which of mammalian PLC beta 1-3 antibodies injected into the oocyte inhibited the action of ginsenosides on the Cl(-) current. Injection of G alpha(q) or G alpha(11) cRNA increased the basal Cl(-) current recorded 48 h after, and it further prevented ginsenosides from enhancing the Cl(-) current, whereas G alpha(i2) and G alpha(oA) cRNA injection had no significant effect. The changes following G alpha(q) cRNA injection were prevented when G beta(1)gamma(2) and G alpha(q) subunits were co-expressed by simultaneous injection of the cRNAs coding these subunits. Injection of cRNA coding G alpha(q)Q209L, a constitutively active mutant that does not bind to G beta gamma, produced effects similar to those of G alpha(q) cRNA injection. The effects of G alpha(q)Q209L cRNA injection, however, were not prevented by co-injection of G beta(1)gamma(2) cRNA. Injection of the cRNA coding RGS2, which interacts most selectively with G alpha(q/11) among various identified RGS isoforms and stimulates the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP in active GTP-bound G alpha subunit, resulted in a severe attenuation of ginsenoside effect on the Cl(-) current. Finally, antibodies against PLC beta 3, but not -beta 1 and -beta 2, markedly attenuated the ginsenoside effect examined at 3-h postinjection. These results suggest that G alpha(q/11) coupled to mammalian PLC beta 3-like enzyme mediates ginsenoside effect on Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current in the Xenopus oocyte.  (+info)

*Retrometabolic drug design

Central Nervous System Agents. 2: 175-186. Betz, A.L.; Goldstein, G.W. "Brain capillaries: structure and function". In Lajtha, ... Begley, D.J. (1996). "The blood-brain barrier: principles for targeting peptides and drugs to the central nervous system". J. ... A. Structural Elements of the Nervous System; Handbook of Neurochemistry, Vol. 7. Plenum Press, New York. pp. 465-484. ... One approach is the design of soft drugs (SDs), new, active therapeutic agents, often isosteric or isolelectronic analogs of a ...

*TIK-301

... actions and metabolism in the central nervous system". Central nervous system agents in medicinal chemistry. 12 (3): 189-216. ... It is also seen as a potential therapeutic agent for spinal cord injury (SCI); in low doses (10 mg/kg) it was seen to be ... In a test of phase shifted circadian cycle, TIK-301 showed efficacy in readjusting phase shifts in all physiological systems. ... Doghramji, K (15 August 2007). "Melatonin and its receptors: a new class of sleep-promoting agents". Journal of Clinical Sleep ...

*Sertraline

Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 9 (Sept): 197-204. doi:10.2174/1871524910909030197. PMID 20021354. ... A Class of Compounds with a Novel Profile of Central Nervous System Activity". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 16 (9): 1003- ... McMahon CG, Porst H (October 2011). "Oral agents for the treatment of premature ejaculation: review of efficacy and safety in ... While imprecise, comparison of the results of trials of sertraline with separate trials of other anti-panic agents ( ...

*Acetylcholinesterase

Current Medicinal Chemistry Central Nervous System Agents. 1 (2): 155-170. doi:10.2174/1568015013358536. Harel M, Schalk I, ... In the central nervous system it is associated with PRiMA which stands for Proline Rich Membrane anchor to form symmetric form ... Koelle GB (1954). "The histochemical localization of cholinesterases in the central nervous system of the rat". Journal of ... and are used to treat of a range of central nervous system diseases. Tetrahydroaminoacridine (THA) and donepezil are FDA- ...

*Catechol-O-methyl transferase

Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 13 (3): 166-94. doi:10.2174/1871524913666140109113341. PMID 24450388. Two ... Brodal P (2016). "Chapter 5: Neurotransmitters and their receptors". The Central Nervous System. Oxford University Press. p. 75 ... Trendelenburg U (1991). "The interaction of transport mechanisms and intracellular enzymes in metabolizing systems". Journal of ...

*Convulsant

Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 2010 Dec 1;10(4):298-309. PMID 20868357. ... Nerve agents such as sarin which were developed as chemical weapons, produce convulsions as a major part of their toxidrome, ... PMID 23425285 de Araujo Furtado M, Rossetti F, Chanda S, Yourick D. Exposure to nerve agents: from status epilepticus to ...

*O-1602

... and the central nervous system". Central nervous system agents in medicinal chemistry. 12 (3): 233-239. doi:10.2174/ ... "A GPR18-based signaling system regulates IOP in murine eye". British Journal of Pharmacology. 169 (4): 834-43. doi:10.1111/bph. ...

*Snake venom

Osipov, A; Utkin, Y (2012). "Effects of snake venom polypeptides on central nervous system". Central nervous system agents in ... Hemotoxic venoms act on the heart and cardiovascular system. Neurotoxic venom acts on the nervous system and brain. Cytotoxic ... its action on the nervous system is not great, no individual group of nerve-cells appears to be picked out, and the effect upon ... is mainly on the nervous system, respiratory paralysis being quickly produced by bringing the venom into contact with the ...

*NAGly receptor

... and the central nervous system". Central nervous system agents in medicinal chemistry. 12 (3): 233-239. doi:10.2174/ ...

*Flucindole

"3-Aminotetrahydrocarbazoles as a new series of central nervous system agents". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 20 (4): 487-492. ...

*Sepiapterin reductase deficiency

Levodopa is in a class of medications called central nervous system agents where its main function is to become dopamine in the ...

*Fish acute toxicity syndrome

Central Nervous System seizure agents are associated with effects such as partial or whole body seizures and coughing. Dioxin ... 4. Central Nervous System Seizure Agent". Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 10 (1): 115-131. doi:10.1002/etc.5620100113. ... In the last experiment, central nervous system seizure agents were analyzed. These included an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, ... central nervous system seizure agents, and uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. Acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme which ...

*Suzuki reaction

... benzene that formed an intermediate that was used in the synthesis of a potential central nervous system agent. The coupling ... a number of compounds that did not work or worked worse for the palladium catalyzed system than the nickel-catalyzed system. ...

*Modes of toxic action

Central nervous system (CNS) seizure agents. CNS seizure agents inhibit cellular signaling by acting as receptor antagonists. ... This results in continued nerve impulses across the synapses, which eventually cause nerve system damage. Examples of AChE ... Examples of CNS seizure agents are organochlorine pesticides. Respiratory blockers. These are toxicants that affect respiration ...

*Prion

Novel Infectious Agents and the Central Nervous System. Ciba Foundation Symposium. 135. pp. 63-83. doi:10.1002/9780470513613. ... Prions cause neurodegenerative disease by aggregating extracellularly within the central nervous system to form plaques known ... in affected tissues such as the central nervous system (CNS) and lymphoid tissues. Oesch B, Westaway D, Wälchli M, McKinley MP ... "Sequential appearance and accumulation of pathognomonic markers in the central nervous system of hamsters orally infected with ...

*Pathoclisis

CIBA Foundation Symposium (30 April 2008). Novel Infectious Agents and the Central Nervous System. John Wiley & Sons. p. 61. ...

*Gadobutrol

"FDA approves imaging agent for central nervous system scans" (Press release). U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). March 15 ... In the central nervous system, Gadobutrol works by highlighting any areas with disrupted blood brain barrier (BBB) and/or ... Gadobutrol was first approved for use in MRIs of the central nervous system in the United States in 2011. It is currently ... "Safety and Efficacy of Gadobutrol 1.0 Molar (Gadavist) in Patients for Central Nervous System (CNS) Imaging - Full Text View - ...

*Chemorepulsion

During the development of the Central Nervous System, chemokinetic agents influence the localization of neuronal cells by ... Known immunologically privileged sites include the: Brain and central nervous system Eyes Placenta and fetus Testicles ... the development of the Central Nervous System, the establishment of immune-privileged sites, and thymic emigration. ... Infect Agents Dis. 3 (2): 137-164. PMID 7812652. Kotwal, GJ (2000). "Poxviral mimicry of complement and chemokine system ...

*Avindra Nath

Nath researches the effects of HIV and other infectious agents on the central nervous system. In 2012, Nath was presented with ... At NINDS, Nath also leads the Section of Infections of the Nervous System and plans to institute a translational research ...

*2-Fluoroamphetamine

... as is desirable in central nervous system pharmaceutical agents, is a common practice due to the corresponding increase in ...

*Pramiracetam

... is a central nervous system stimulant and nootropic agent belonging to the racetam family of drugs. It is marketed ...

*New England Compounding Center meningitis outbreak

Despite the availability of antifungal agents, aspergillosis in the central nervous system carries a poor prognosis. Though ... However, in patients with suppressed immune systems, or if introduced directly into the spinal column, the fungus can be deadly ...

*Leteprinim

"AIT-082 as a potential neuroprotective and regenerative agent in stroke and central nervous system injury". Expert Opinion on ...

*Anticholinergic

... agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system. These ... Possible effects in the central nervous system resemble those associated with delirium, and may include: Confusion ... are divided into three categories in accordance with their specific targets in the central and peripheral nervous system: ... Several are depolarizing agents. Examples of common anticholinergics: Antimuscarinic agents Atropine Benztropine (Cogentin) ...

*Post viral cerebellar ataxia

... when Weiss and Guberman proposed that ACA could be due to direct invasion of the central nervous system by infectious agents. ... This can show that the virus has attacked the nervous system of the patient and resulted in the ataxia symptoms.[citation ... still commonly used as a reference in clinical practice for other inflammatory and autoimmune disorders of the nervous system. ...

*Pauline Cafferkey

... the central nervous system and, in men, the testes and semen. Cafferkey went to a 24-hour GP clinic in New Victoria Hospital in ... and explained that she has been treated using a highly experimental anti-viral agent called GS5734, but he stressed that the ... the virus had remained in her cerebrospinal fluid and feared that it might be in her central nervous system. Personnel in ... it can linger on in parts of the body not protected by the immune system, including fluid in the eye, ...
...NEW YORK July 23 2012 /- Reportlinker.com announce...http://www.reportlinker.com/p0936080/Global-Central-Nervous-System-Dru...TechNavios analysts forecast the Global Central Nervous System Drugs ...TechNavios report the Global Central Nervous System Drugs Market 201...,Global,Central,Nervous,System,Drugs,Market,2011-2015,medicine,advanced medical technology,medical laboratory technology,medical device technology,latest medical technology,Health
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adverse drug reactions reported by consumers for nervous system medications in Europe 2007 to 2011. AU - Aagaard, Lise. AU - Hansen, Ebba Holme. PY - 2013/6. Y1 - 2013/6. U2 - 10.1186/2050-6511-14-30. DO - 10.1186/2050-6511-14-30. M3 - Journal article. VL - 14. SP - 30. JO - BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology. JF - BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology. SN - 1472-6904. ER - ...
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Frontiers in CNS Drug Discovery" is an eBook series devoted to publishing the latest and the most important advances in Central Nervous System (CNS) drug design and discovery. Eminent scientists write contributions on all areas of rational drug design and drug discovery including medicinal chemistry, in-silico drug design, combinatorial chemistry, high-throughput screening, drug targets, recent important patents, and structure-activity relationships. The eBook series should prove to be of interest to all pharmaceutical scientists involved in research in CNS drug design and discovery. Each volume is devoted to the major advances in CNS drug design and discovery. The eBook series is essential reading to all scientists involved in drug design and discovery who wish to keep abreast of rapid and important developments in the field.. ...
Frontiers in CNS Drug Discovery" is an eBook series devoted to publishing the latest and the most important advances in Central Nervous System (CNS) drug design and discovery. Eminent scientists write contributions on all areas of rational drug design and drug discovery including medicinal chemistry, in-silico drug design, combinatorial chemistry, high-throughput screening, drug targets, recent important patents, and structure-activity relationships. The eBook series should prove to be of interest to all pharmaceutical scientists involved in research in CNS drug design and discovery. Each volume is devoted to the major advances in CNS drug design and discovery. The eBook series is essential reading to all scientists involved in drug design and discovery who wish to keep abreast of rapid and important developments in the field.. ...
J. T. Hanlon, R. M. Boudreau, Y. F. Roumani, A. B. Newman, C. M. Ruby, R. M. Wright, S. N. Hilmer, R. I. Shorr, D. C. Bauer, E. M. Simonsick, S. A. Studenski, Number and Dosage of Central Nervous System Medications on Recurrent Falls in Community Elders: The Health, Aging and Body Composition Study, The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 2009, 64A, 4, ...
In hospitals, the nursing staff is often confronted with the problem of the preparation and administration of drugs for their pediatric patients because of the lack of indication, pediatric dosage, and appropriate galenic form. The goal of this study was to give an overview of the nurses preparation habits in pediatric units and highlight their daily problems. This single-center prospective study was conducted through an observation of the nursing staff during the drug preparation process in medicine, surgery and intensive care units. We included 91 patients (55 boys and 36 girls), with an average age of 6.3 years (youngest child, 10 days old; oldest child, 18 years old). We observed a mean 2.16 drug preparations per patient [1-5]. We collected 197 observation reports regarding 66 injectable drugs and 131 oral drugs (71 liquid forms and 60 solid forms). The majority of these reports concerned central nervous system drugs (63/197), metabolism and digestive system drugs (50/197), and ...
Respiratory system drugs is a term used to describe a wide variety of medicines used to relieve, treat, or prevent respiratory diseases such as asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or pneumonia. Today, Ddu, the leading global pharmaceutical & medical device B2B online platform, will share Chinas Import and Export Market Report of Respiratory System Drugs with you.
[101 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Endocrine System Drug Market Professional Survey Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. This report studies Endocrine System Drug in Global market, especially...
Causation is unknown and treatments are limited for most of the 600 diseases in the CNS...CNS drug development is badly in need of innovative approaches.
Carbazole is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound. It has a tricyclic structure, consisting of two six-membered benzene rings fused on either side of a five-membered nitrogen-containing ring. The compounds structure is based on the indole structure, but in which a second benzene ring is fused onto the five-membered ring at the 2-3 position of indole (equivalent to the 9a-4a double bond in carbazole, respectively ...
This template is within the scope of WikiProject Pharmacology, a collaborative effort to improve the coverage of Pharmacology on Wikipedia. If you would like to participate, please visit the project page, where you can join the discussion and see a list of open tasks ...
Overactivity of the multidrug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is believed to play an important role in resistance to central nervous system drug treatment. (R)-[11C]verapamil (VPM) PET can be used to measure the function of P-gp at the BBB, but low brain uptake of VPM hampers the mapping of regional differences in cerebral P-gp function and expression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose-response relationship of two potent P-gp inhibitors and to investigate if increased brain uptake of VPM mediated by P-gp inhibition can be used to assess regional differences in P-gp activity. Two groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 12) underwent single VPM PET scans at 120 min after administration of different doses of the P-gp inhibitors tariquidar and elacridar. In an additional six rats, paired VPM PET scans were performed before and after administration of 3 mg/kg tariquidar. Inhibitor administration resulted in an up to 11-fold increase in VPM brain distribution
Last week on January 20, 2011, the FDAs Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee decided not to recommend approval of Lillys Amyvid™ (florbetapir) in a 13:3 vote. Florbetapir is an imaging agent used with Positron Emission Tomography (PET) to show accumulation of beta-amyloid plaque in the brain. I previously wrote about Lillys acquisition of Avid Radiopharmaceuticals for florbetapir on this blog.. This imaging approach aids in the early detection of Alzheimers disease, as a negative scan, not showing any beta-amyloid plaque, would rule out Alzheimers disease. Given that it is currently, hard to distinguish age related memory less and different types of dementia, diagnostic imaging tools have an important role to play.. The FDA advisory committees decision would probably have come as a surprise to Lilly, since the clinical trial data showed clear efficacy and no safety concerns. While the committee rejected immediate approval, they did recommend approval (16:0), ...
All medications a patient is taking, including complementary and non-prescription drugs, must be accurately ascertained. Limited evidence suggests the brown paper bag method of asking patients (or carers) to physically bring all medicines with them to the clinical encounter is the best way to reconcile medications. Asking specific questions to detect non-adherence also helps identify drugs which may be ceased.. Patients at highest risk of ADRs are those prescribed the greatest number of drugs (up to 82% risk with seven drugs or more11) or which include high-risk drugs (antithrombotic agents, insulin, oral hypoglycaemic agents, cardiovascular and central nervous system drugs). Clinicians need to look for pre-existing drug toxicity presenting as falls, confusion and lethargy, effects too often inappropriately attributed to ageing.. Estimating a patients life expectancy is important in determining the goals of care and potential long-term value of many preventive medications. Patients with a ...
Todays action follows a March 8, 2006 unanimous recommendation by the FDAs Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee to allow the reintroduction of Natalizumab. TOUCH (TYSABRI [Natalizumab] Outreach: Unified Commitment to Health) Prescribing Program was developed in conjunction with the FDA to facilitate the appropriate use of Natalizumab and to assess, on an ongoing basis, the incidence and risk factors for PML and other serious opportunistic infections associated with Natalizumab treatment. This program represents Biogen Idec and Elans commitment to making the unique benefits of Natalizumab available in a responsible manner. Elements of the TOUCH Prescribing Program include revised labeling with a prominent boxed warning of the risk of PML; and warnings against concurrent use of Natalizumab with chronic immunosuppressant or immunomodulatory therapies, and patients who are immunocompromised due to HIV, hematological malignancies, organ transplants or immunosuppressive ...
Johnson Chemical Pharmaceutical Works Co Ltd operates in the Pharmaceutical Preparations sector. Johnson Chemical Pharmaceutical Works Co., Ltd. is principally engaged in the manufacturing and distribution of western medicines and the related raw materials. The Companys medicine products mainly include solid dosage forms and liquor dosage forms. Its solid dosage forms include soft and hard capsules, sugar coated tablets, film-coated tablets, suppositories, powder, granules and tablets, among others. The Companys products portfolio includes central nervous system drugs, hormones and hormone function medicines, respiratory medicines, gastrointestinal drugs, vitamins and others.
PDF Deerfield, Ill. - April 20, 2017 Baxter International Inc. (NYSE: BAX), a leader in innovative technology for medication delivery, today announced a new, comprehensive guide to building a smart infusion system drug library. The guide is available now on the website of the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP)-the leading medication safety organization-at www.ISMP.org.. Drug libraries help clinicians identify potential infusion errors before they harm patients by checking the pumps programming against a curated list of medications and fluids and their medically appropriate dose ranges. If programming exceeds drug library limits, smart pumps will alert clinicians.. "A carefully built drug library is critical for the safe and effective use of any smart infusion system. This publication guides comprehensive drug library development and integration with an electronic health record, and is designed to advance infusion safety in all hospitals regardless of infusion system," said guide ...
Research Report on Asia-Pacific Endocrine System Drug Market Report 2017. The Report includes market price, demand, trends, size, Share, Growth, Forecast, Analysis & Overview.
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A respiratory system drug applicator for a patient is disclosed which may include a number of features to enhance the administration of the aerosolized drug to the patient. For instance, an adjustable flow regulator may be utilized which regulates the air flow during inhalation by the patient (during which the aerosolized drug is also administered to the patients respiratory system), and thus affects the patients breathing pattern. Moreover, a distensible drug reservoir which changes shape during inhalation and exhalation by the patient may be utilized. This may be used to provide biofeedback to the patient regarding the patients breathing pattern.
Following the success of last years event, SMi will be bringing together leading industry experts to explore the current and future opportunities within CNS drug development. Representing the second largest therapeutic segment of the pharmaceutical market it is also one of the fastest growing. This year SMis conference aims to cover preclinical drug discovery activity as well as effective CNS drug development strategies and problems encountered in clinical trials, with in-depth discussions and case study presentations from the key industry players including, Johnson & Johnson, Eli Lilly and Novartis.. As CNS therapies become more complex and difficult to bring to market, the need to consider issues involved in effective trial design is increasingly important. Key issues include discussion on clinical research- the preclinical to clinical interface; clinical trials in disease specific therapeutics (with a focus on Alzheimers, Multiple Sclerosis, Pain, Anxiety, ADHD and Sleep disorders); ...
On behalf of the over 700 Rexall Pharma Plus pharmacists located in communities all across Ontario, we support the Ontario government in its efforts to expand access to essential health services and increase immunization rates across the province, which results in healthier communities and lower overall healthcare costs," Scorpiniti stated.. Pharmacists will now be able to provide additional services to patients, such as renewals and adaptations of existing prescriptions; prescribing medication to help people quit smoking; demonstrating how to use an asthma inhaler or inject insulin; chronic disease monitoring; and the administration of flu shots.. With flu season just around the corner, this announcement is particularly timely, as Ontarians now have the ability to receive flu shots in the pharmacy.. "Rexall is committed to making it easy for Ontarians to feel good about their health. We have invested in training and infrastructure to ensure we are ready to make it easier to receive the flu shot ...
Baxter International Inc. (NYSE: BAX), a leader in innovative technology for medication delivery, today announced a new, comprehensive guide to buildi
There s no evidence to support the notion that people who get the flu vaccine every year somehow weaken their immune system over time, researchers say. In fact,
There are over 200 FDA-approved CNS drugs. It may take a while, but we plan to catalog and describe them as best we can in terms of medicinal chemistry features and any interesting drug discovery aspects we find and can learn from.. Alphabetically speaking, it will begin with Acamprosate, and after a quick look at its sulfonic acid structure, one might not think it even capable of crossing the blood-brain-barrier at all. Its pKa is less than -1, and the sweet spot for brain penetration is a pKa of between 4 and 10. A strong acid (e.g., pKa ,4), or a strong base for that matter (pKa ,10), will be fully ionized at physiological pH, and these compounds rarely penetrate the BBB (to a significant extent).. ​Guidelines limiting the pKa of a compound to between 4 and 10 for a CNS compound have been suggested; see Fischer, H., Gottschlich, R., Seelig, A. (1998). Blood-brain barrier permeation: molecular parameters governing passive diffusion. J. Membrane Biol. 165, 201-211.. ​Furthermore, the ...
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The key therapeutic topic renin-angiotensin system drugs: dual therapy has been retired from the 2017 update of medicines optimisation: key therapeutic topics. The version published in 2016 is available here for information but it has not been updated since February 2016. Like all the other key therapeutic topics it is not formal NICE guidance. ...
Brain p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), a potential therapeutic target for cognitive dysfunction based on the neuroinflammation-synaptic dysfunction cycle of pathophysiology progression, offers an innovative pharmacological strategy via inhibiting the same activated target in both glia and neurons, thereby enhancing the possibility for efficacy. The highly selective, brain-penetrant p38αMAPK inhibitor MW150 attenuates cognitive dysfunction in two distinct Alzheimers disease (AD)-relevant models and avoids the problems encountered with previous mixed-kinase inhibitor drug candidates. Therefore, it is essential that the glial effects of this CNS-active kinase inhibitor be addressed in order to anticipate future use in clinical investigations. We explored the effects of MW150 on glial biology in the AD-relevant APP/PS1 knock-in (KI) mouse model where we previously showed efficacy in suppression of hippocampal-dependent associative and spatial memory deficits. MW150 (2.5 mg/kg/day) was
Synonyms for Central nervous system agents in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Central nervous system agents. 2 synonyms for central nervous system: CNS, systema nervosum centrale. What are synonyms for Central nervous system agents?
Disponible ahora en Iberlibro.com - Gastos de envío gratis - ISBN: 9787030305558 - paperback - Condición del libro: New - Paperback. Pub Date: 2011 04 of Pages: 200 in Publisher: Science Press drug application care (case) care series of secondary vocational education core curriculum textbooks one. Drug application care (Case) 13 chapters are drug application care Introduction. anti-microbial drugs. anticancer drugs. efferent nervous system drugs. local anesthetics. central nervous system drugs. antihistamines. role uterus drugs acting on the digestive system drugs acting on the respiratory system objects. diuret.
Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry aims to cover all the latest and outstanding developments in medicinal chemistry and rational drug design for the discovery of new central nervous system agents.
Largest database of Miscellaneous Central Nervous System Agents listed for your easy reference. Find your preferred Miscellaneous Central Nervous System Agents right here.
Largest database of Miscellaneous Central Nervous System Agents listed for your easy reference. Find your preferred Miscellaneous Central Nervous System Agents right here.
Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning® Introduction (contd.) Drugs that affect function of the autonomic nervous system -Adrenergics -Adrenergic blockers -Cholinergics -Cholinergic blockers 3
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Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry aims to cover all the latest and outstanding developments in medicinal chemistry and rational ...
Product Synopsis 2015 Global Central Nervous System Agents Industry Report is a professional and in-depth research report on the worlds major regional
A breakthrough discovery by scientists at the University of Kentucky could someday lead to new treatments for a variety of diseases of the brain, spinal
On 27 February 2009 Pfizer opened a new manufacturing facility at its Dalian site in Liaoning Province, northeast China. At the same time the company celebrated the 20th year of operations at Dalian, which first opened in 1989.. The 333,731m² plant was constructed for a total investment of $60.4m by China Construction Eighth Engineering Division (CCEED) and was the first GMP site in China, with the status awarded in 1997 by the China Certification Committee for Drugs.. Dalian has a wide-ranging manufacturing capacity and is able to produce and package all of the common dosage forms including capsules, tablets, sachets and aseptic powder injections.. The facility supplies drugs to Europe, Asia and Africa and the categories include anti-infectives, antifungal agents, cardiovascular drugs, nervous system drugs and arthritis drugs. It remains to be seen whether Pfizer will supply drugs produced in China for the US market.. Pfizer is still investing in the Chinese market, although the company seems ...
The hand-wringing about what losing a day of mail services means for patients is overblown because common-sense remedies are available through independent community pharmacies," NCPA acting EVP and CEO Douglas Hoey said. "Evidence suggests that Americans, whether they live in densely or sparsely populated areas, have access to independent community pharmacies that can fill the void, even providing home delivery services.". The organization sent a letter Monday to U.S. Postal Regulatory Commission chairwoman Ruth Goldway to promote independents as an alternative to mail-order medication delivery.. "NCPA believes that other options exist to ensure patient access to needed medications if changes are made to mail delivery," read the letter, signed by NCPA SVP government affairs John Coster. "These include eliminating mandatory mail-order programs that deny patients the opportunity to receive medications from their local community pharmacist, as well as utilizing home-delivery programs where ...
Quinestrol (INN, USAN, BAN) (brand names Agalacto-Quilea, Basaquines, Eston, Estrovis, Estrovister, Plestrovis, Qui-Lea), also known as ethinylestradiol 3-cyclopentyl ether (EE2CPE), is a synthetic, steroidal estrogen which is used in menopausal hormone therapy and occasionally to treat breast cancer and prostate cancer. It is a prodrug of ethinylestradiol (with cyclopentanol also being formed) with no intrinsic estrogenic activity of its own, and has a very long terminal half-life of more than 120 hours due to enhanced lipophilicity. Because of its much longer terminal half-life, quinestrol is two to three times as potent as ethinylestradiol ...
Some gastrointestinal symptoms are easily treated with over-the-counter medicines. Symptoms of IBS can be relieved with mebeverine or hyoscine.
A class of drugs producing both physiological and psychological effects through a variety of mechanisms. They can be divided into "specific" agents, e.g., affecting an identifiable molecular mechanism unique to target cells bearing receptors for that agent, and "nonspecific" agents, those producing effects on different target cells and acting by diverse molecular mechanisms. Those with nonspecific mechanisms are generally further classed according to whether they produce behavioral depression or stimulation. Those with specific mechanisms are classed by locus of action or specific therapeutic use. (From Gilman AG, et al., Goodman and Gilmans The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p252 ...
phdthesis{2056153, abstract = {Several endogenous active peptides exist in the central nervous system (CNS), but the CNS drug development is hampered by the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The evaluation, modeling and understanding of the transport mechanisms at the BBB is very important for the development and optimization of potential CNS peptide drugs. Which techniques are used to quantitatively describe the BBB transport properties? Due to the multi-disciplinary complexity of the BBB research, several methodologies, each resulting in a specific parameter, are reported. Therefore, a coherent overview of the BBB-responses was described and a comprehensive database (Brainpeps{\textregistered}) constructed to collect the dispersed literature data. Chromatographic behavior of peptides on fused-core stationary phases? A representative peptide set was obtained via hierarchic clustering based on their structure properties. The chromatographic peptide interactions on the fused-core systems ...
A 2005 assessment in CNS Medications established that "substantial psychiatric signs or symptoms such as aggression and violence, mania, and less usually psychosis and suicide are actually related to steroid abuse. Lengthy-expression steroid abusers may perhaps develop indicators of dependence and withdrawal on discontinuation of AAS".[sixty two] Significant concentrations of AAS, comparable to People likely sustained by quite a few leisure AAS people, develop apoptotic effects on neurons,[citation essential] raising the specter of potentially irreversible neurotoxicity. Recreational AAS use seems to get affiliated with a range of potentially prolonged psychiatric effects, like dependence syndromes, temper Issues, and progression to other forms of compound abuse, although the prevalence and severity of such several results continues to be poorly recognized ...
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Teva Pharmaceuticals provides specialty pharmaceutical products for central nervous system (CNS) disorders including Multiple Sclerosis and Parkinsons disease
The following video is a short overview on the pharmacological basis of SSRIs side effects. Outline: Facts about SSRIs adverse effects. Gastrointestinal adverse effects. 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors in the GI tract. 5-HT3 receptors in the brainstem and hypothalamus. CNS adverse effects. 5-HT2A receptor stimulation at the basal ganglia. 5-HT2A and 2C receptors are hypothetically…. ...
Dose dependant kinetics; Vd 45L/70kg. t1/2 av 24 hours (conc dependant). Therapeutic level 10-20mg/L. Drug interactions via plasma protein binding or via enz induction (CYP2C19 & CYP2C9). Alters TFT results; reduced CL neonates; foetal hydantoin ...
In this work, we describe the computational ("in silico") mode-of-action analysis of CNS-active drugs, which is taking both multiple simultaneous hypotheses as well as sets of protein targets for each mode-of-action into ...
Ignyta, Inc. (Nasdaq: RXDX), a biotechnology company focused on precision medicine in oncology, today announced that updated data on entrectinib - an investigational, CNS-active, potent and se
This is an historical archive of the activities of the MRC Anatomical Neuropharmacology Unit (MRC ANU) that operated at the University of Oxford from 1985 until March 2015. The MRC ANU established a reputation for world-leading research on the brain, for training new generations of scientists, and for engaging the general public in neuroscience. The successes of the MRC ANU are now built upon at the MRC Brain Network Dynamics Unit at the University of Oxford.. ...
This is an historical archive of the activities of the MRC Anatomical Neuropharmacology Unit (MRC ANU) that operated at the University of Oxford from 1985 until March 2015. The MRC ANU established a reputation for world-leading research on the brain, for training new generations of scientists, and for engaging the general public in neuroscience. The successes of the MRC ANU are now built upon at the MRC Brain Network Dynamics Unit at the University of Oxford.. ...
|p|La revue Neuropharmacology consacre son numéro du mois de mai 2013 aux traitements des troubles du neurodéveloppement.|br class=autobr /| 1. Cobb SR, Davies CH. (...)|/p|
Eighty percent of giant dogs with cardiomyopathy.! Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes.! A paper published in the journal CNS Drug Reviews says that the drug appears to improve mood in patients and claims it combats lack of energy, dizziness, and nausea.. If you have any abnormal changes in your weight then you should contact your health care provider and let them know.? Ten minutes later, propitiatorily maxalt cost with insurance Hexamethylphosphorous triamide (HMPT, 97%, Aldrich, 19.50 mL, 104.07 mmol, 4.2 eq.) was added dropwise.! The compounding pharmacists best source for detailed information needed to grow and maintain a compounding practice.! 2~3週間経っても自然流産が始まらなかった場合、子宮収縮の薬(ミソプロストール)を 使用して流産を促す。 や で自然に胎嚢 .! ODS seeks to strengthen knowledge and understanding of dietary supplements by evaluating scientific information, supporting research, sharing ...
The neuropharmacology course will discuss the drug-induced changes in functioning of the nervous system. The specific focus of this course will be to provide a description of the cellular and molecular actions of drugs on synaptic transmission. This course will also refer to specific diseases of the nervous system and their treatment in addition to giving an overview of the techniques used for the study of neuropharmacology. This course is offered during the Independent Activities Period (IAP) ...
Everything relating to CNS Disorders: compilations of facts, news, background knowledge, product information and market trends can be found here in the form of a comprehensive, up-to-date dossier.
The ill effects of nitroglycerin overdose are generally the results of nitroglycerins capacity to induce vasodilatation, venous pooling, reduced cardiac output, and hypotension. These hemodynamic changes may have protean manifestations, including increased intracranial pressure, with any or all of persistent throbbing headache, confusion, and moderate fever; vertigo; palpitations; visual disturbances; nausea and vomiting (possibly with colic and even bloody diarrhea); syncope (especially in the upright posture); air hunger and dyspnea, later followed by reduced ventilatory effort; diaphoresis, with the skin either flushed or cold and clammy; heart block and bradycardia; paralysis; coma; seizures; and death.. Laboratory determinations of serum levels of nitroglycerin and its metabolites are not widely available, and such determinations have, in any event, no established role in the management of nitroglycerin overdose.. No data are available to suggest physiological maneuvers (e.g., maneuvers to ...
It is not known how this drug lowers blood sugar. Bromocriptine has been reported to reduce A1C by 0.6% to 0.7% when taken alone or with other oral di
Prize4Life recently took part in the Translational CNS Summit 2014 organized by Hanson Wade on April 30th, 2014 in Boston, MA. The meeting centered on approaches for derisking CNS drug development improving success rates of clinical trials. The Summit offers a unique forum for brainstorming discussions among top executives and leaders in the neurological disease space on approaches to overcome key challenges to drug development for neurological disease. While many of the session included thought-provoking discussions, here we focus on a few highlights with potential relevance to ALS.. The session on Biomarker and Imaging Technologies opened with Jeffrey David Lewine, Ph.D., Professor of Translational Neuroscience at the Mind Research Network discussing imaging and electrophysiological approaches to identify biomarkers for neurological diseases. Dr. Lewine presented the impressive infrastructure for biomarker screening at the MIND Research Network (MRN), a non-profit organization headquartered in ...
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in Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (2009), 9(1), 2-11. Depositions of proteins in form of amyloid and non-amyloid plaques are common pathogenic signs of more than 20 degenerative diseases affecting the central nervous system or a variety of peripheral tissues ... [more ▼]. Depositions of proteins in form of amyloid and non-amyloid plaques are common pathogenic signs of more than 20 degenerative diseases affecting the central nervous system or a variety of peripheral tissues. Among the neuropathological conditions, Alzheimers, Parkinsons and the prion diseases, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), present ambiguities as regarding their differential diagnosis. At present, their diagnosis must be confirmed by post-mortem examination of the brain. Currently the ante-mortem diagnosis is still based on the integration of multiple data (clinical, paraclinical and biological analyses) because no unique marker exists for such diseases. The detection of specific biomarkers ...
Pharmacological agents are typically grouped according to their target diseases, chemical structures, or molecular mechanisms of action. Categorization of drugs according to their use in the...
Affiliation:首都大学東京,大学院理工学研究科,助教, Research Field:Neurochemistry/Neuropharmacology,Neurochemistry/Neuropharmacology,Functional biochemistry, Keywords:Cdk5,タンパク質,酵素,リン酸化,CIN85,Protein kinase,Proteasome,発生・分化,アルツハイマー,リサイクリング, # of Research Projects:3, # of Research Products:16
Can you pick the MOAs? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by uncsom
Saniona is developing a fixed dose combination product, tesofensine/metoprolol, a biogenic monoamine uptake inhibitor and beta-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist,
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Role of the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system in hypertension and blood pressure control. The primary aim of our research is to understand the role of the renin-angiotensin system in the regulation of blood pressure and tissue perfusion. We previously showed that this kidney-derived system reacts to maintain blood pressure and tissue perfusion when sodium intake is low and reciprocally turns off when sodium intake, perfusion pressure, or blood pressure are elevated. In certain people the system does not suppress appropriately. Such patients develop hypertension, which can be treated with anti-renin system drugs. In both population studies and in animal models we showed that hypertension associated with high renin levels is more likely to result in heart attacks and strokes than other forms of hypertension.. Current research questions address the mechanism whereby the renin system maintains pressure and tissue perfusion. We have recently developed evidence for a specific receptor for renin. ...
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Nanoparticles for drug delivery to the brain is a method for transporting drug molecules across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) using nanoparticles. These drugs cross the BBB and deliver pharmaceuticals to the brain for therapeutic treatment of neurological disorders. These disorders include Parkinsons disease, Alzheimers disease, schizophrenia, depression, and brain tumors. Part of the difficulty in finding cures for these central nervous system (CNS) disorders is that there is yet no truly efficient delivery method for drugs to cross the BBB. Antibiotics, antineoplastic agents, and a variety of CNS-active drugs, especially neuropeptides, are a few examples of molecules that cannot pass the BBB alone. With the aid of nanoparticle delivery systems, however, studies have shown that some drugs can now cross the BBB, and even exhibit lower toxicity and decrease adverse effects throughout the body. Toxicity is an important concept for pharmacology because high toxicity levels in the body could be ...
Elsevier, the leading publisher of scientific, technical and medical information products and services, today announced that the Anxiety and Depression: 21st Neuropharmacology Annual Conference will take place in Virginia, USA on 10-11 November 2011 as a satellite to the 2011 Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience.
List of 6 disease causes of Fasciculation due to CNS disorders, patient stories, diagnostic guides. Diagnostic checklist, medical tests, doctor questions, and related signs or symptoms for Fasciculation due to CNS disorders.
5) and 2 5 mg and 6. ambien trip dosage Other drugs will affect ambien? Ambien may be possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Infants born to mothers who received placebo reported hallucinations versus 0% treated with placebo. Ambien cr was administered at oral doses of 4, 18, and complex behaviors instruct patients or caregivers that ambien cr was evaluated in two controlled studies for several cns drugs. Studies of ambien cr will harm your baby while you take ambien cr (12. what category is ambien Ambien cr 12 5 mg decreased wake time after sleep onset). 25 mg once daily immediately before bedtime. S, driving while not being fully awake and doing an activity that you do not drive, precautions should be considered [see dosage and administration and clinical studies]. Rebound effects there have been reported in infants born to mothers who received sedative-hypnotic drugs during pregnancy. Not all the products you use (including ...
The objective of this phase 2a study is to evaluate the effect of tesofensine and metoprolol (Tesomet) in humans in relation to prevention of the increase in
Spread Your Intellectual Insight in Comprehending CNS Disorders at CNS 2018 Conference at Edinburgh, Scotland during November 12-14, 2018
Randomization:. The randomization list is electronically generated through specific software. A block randomization is conducted with varying block sizes at the rate of 1:1. Confidentiality of the randomization list is ensured by the central automated randomization system, through the Internet, available 24 hours a day (ACT Clinic - Sistema de Estudos Clínicos do IEP HCor).. Blinding Scheme:. Because the study involves a surgical procedure, investigators and patients cannot be blind for treatment allocated to patients.. Roux-en-Y Gastroplasty Patients allocated to surgical treatment will be admitted to the hospital to be subjected to a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass with a biliopancreatic loop of 100cm and a alimentary limb of 150cm.. Antihypertensive Treatment:. The treatment of hypertension will be standardized for all study patients. Prescribed drugs will include preferably a renin-angiotensin blocking system drug and a calcium channels blocker, except if these are contraindicated or the patient ...
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The authors note in their introduction that the book is based on a course given to graduate and medical students. And, in fact, it is essentially a compilation of lectures appropriate to the student seeking an introduction to humoral transmitters in the central nervous system. Its scope is confined to what the authors believe to be the current understanding of these neurotransmitters, especially in terms of their biochemistry.. Two thirds of the book is devoted to the putative neurohumors. For each, there is information about methods of assay, localization and metabolic life cycle in the central nervous system, and concise ...
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What is the relationship between acute CNS events and cardiovascular abnormalities? CNS events can induce cardiac abnormalities in EKG morphology and rhythm. Most commonly, these abnormalities involve the T wave (diffuse, deep inversions). Minor ST segment elevation have also been reported in leads with abnormal T waves. T wave asymmetric, characteristic outward bulge in the…
Affiliation:京都府立医科大学,医学(系)研究科(研究院),准教授, Research Field:Developmental biology,Neuroscience in general,Neurochemistry/Neuropharmacology,Nerve anatomy/Neuropathology,Nerve anatomy/Neuropathology, Keywords:大脳皮質,Pax6,終脳,羊膜類,遺伝子導入,転写因子,神経細胞移動,哺乳類,進化,脊椎動物, # of Research Projects:15, # of Research Products:111, Ongoing Project:Exploring the evolutionary origin of mammalian pallial regions by comparative developmental analysis
Pershing, M.L., Bortz, D.M., Pocivavsek, A., Fredericks, P.J., Jorgensen, C.V., Vunck, S.A., Leuner, B., Schwarcz, R. and Bruno, J.P. Elevated levels of kynurenic acid during gestation produce neurochemical, morphological, and cognitive deficits in adulthood: implications for schizophrenia. Neuropharmacology, 2015, 90:33-41. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25446576.. ...
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Minaprine is an amino-phenylpyridazine antidepressant reported to be relatively free of cardiotoxicity, drowsiness, and weight gain. Similar to other antidepressant treatments, minaprine attenuates the beta-adrenergic receptor function. Studies have also shown that minaprine improves memory consolidation and that repeated drug administration leads to potentiation of this effect. Moreover, the effects of minaprine on memory consolidation are related to its dopaminergic action ...
Phenmetrazine is a sympathomimetic drug used primarily as an appetite depressant. Its actions and mechanisms are similar to dextroamphetamine. Amphetamines are non-catecholamine sympathomimetic amines with CNS stimulant activity. Phenmetrazine was originally sold under the tradename Preludin as an anorectic. It has since been removed from the market. It is by some considered to have a greater potential for addiction than the amphetamines, and has been abused in many countries, for example Sweden ...
The constant extrusion of drugs by Pgp means that you may have to increase the dosage of your drugs (or saturate the protein with another drug) to maintain high blood levels, but thats just skimming the surface of the Pgp world of pain. Since its original discovery the protein has turned into a minor nemesis for drug designers and its become a part of a notorious list of proteins called "anti targets" that can lead to side-effects and lack of efficacy (we encountered one of these anti targets before - the hERG channel protein). And thats not only because Pgp is ubiquitously expressed in the intestine and liver where most drugs are metabolized. Nor is it because of its special role in the blood-brain barrier which creates additional problems for CNS drugs. Its because when it comes to Pgp, scientists may not have a clue about how to possibly solve the problem. Usually when you encounter an unwanted protein that binds to your drugs, you try to add a modification to your drug to block this ...
i) LIPOPHILICITY (e.g., LogD and cLogP). Historically, lipophilicity was the first of the structural properties to be recognized as important for CNS penetration. As early as 1897, Overton observed correlations between oil-water partition coefficients and narcotic potencies of a series of compounds in tadpoles [4]. By the 1960s, Hansch introduced the octanol/water system, which became the standard for measuring partition coefficients, and he demonstrated that blood-brain barrier permeation is optimal when the LogP values are in the range of 1.5-2.7, with the mean value of 2.1. In line with Hanschs findings, the mean value for cLogP for 74 marketed CNS drugs has been reported by Leeson to be 2.5. A number of different guidelines for predicting BBB permeation based on structural properties have been proposed, which suggests preferred ranges for LogP of between 1 and 5 (Table 1). In addition to permeability, lipophilicity plays an important role in other pharmacokinetic properties that may affect ...
Results 975 patients were identified of which 684/975 (70%) were male and median 53 (23-89) years old. 608/975 (62%) were HCV GT 1, 50/975 (5%) were GT 2, 237/975 (24%) were GT 3, 65/975 (7%) were GT 4. 564/975 (58%) were cirrhotic.. The HCV regimens chosen based on local policies are listed in table 1.. 3808 co-medicines were identified in 804/975 (82%) of patients (median of 5.5 medicines/patient). Of the co-medications prescribed: 26% were CNS drugs, 19% cardiac drugs, 12% gastric drugs, 5% HIV drugs and 4.5% opioid substitution therapies. There were 702 interactions identified. Of these 678 (96%) were amber DDIs (close monitoring/dosage adjustment required), with 24 (4%) were red (do not co-administer). ...
The Department of Pharmacology, in the UC Irvine School of Medicine, is home to research and teaching in the fields of: molecular pharmacology, cellular regulation, neuropharmacology, cardiovascular pharmacology and drug development.
This is a photograph of the molecular neuropharmacology textbook page where amphetamine is noted to act as a cognitive enhancer in the general population ...
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Ethosuximide, 2-ethyl-2-methylsuccinimide, has been used extensively for "petit mal" seizures and it is a valuable agent in studies of absence epilepsy. In the treatment of epilepsy, ethosuximide has a narrow therapeutic profile. It is the drug of choice in the monotherapy or combination therapy of children with generalized absence (petit mal) epilepsy. Commonly observed side effects of ethosuximide are dose dependent and involve the gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system. Ethosuximide has been associated with a wide variety of idiosyncratic reactions and with hematopoietic adverse effects. Typical absence seizures are generated as a result of complex interactions between the thalamus and the cerebral cortex. This thalamocortical circuitry is under the control of several specific inhibitory and excitatory systems arising from the forebrain and brainstem. Corticothalamic rhythms are believed to be involved in the generation of spike-and-wave discharges that are the characteristic ...
Positron emission tomography (PET) visualization of brain components in vivo is a rapidly growing field. Molecular imaging with PET is also increasingly used in drug development, especially for the determination of drug receptor interaction for CNS-active drugs. This gives the opportunity to relate clinical efficacy to per cent receptor occupancy of a drug on a certain targeted receptor and to relate drug pharmacokinetics in plasma to interaction with target protein. In the present review we will focus on the study of transporters, such as the monoamine transporters, the P-glycoprotein (Pgp) transporter, the vesicular monoamine transporter type 2, and the glucose transporter using PET radioligands. Neurotransmitter transporters are presynaptically located and in vivo imaging using PET can therefore be used for the determination of the density of afferent neurons. Several promising PET ligands for the noradrenaline transporter (NET) have been labeled and evaluated in vivo including in man, but a ...
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0006] [1] Gilron, I.; Coderre, T. J., Emerging drugs in neuropathic pain. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 2007, 12, (1), 113-26. [0007] [2] Loscher, W., Basic pharmacology of valproate: a review after 35 years of clinical use for the treatment of epilepsy. CNS Drugs 2002, 16, (10), 669-94. [0008] [3] Perucca, E., Birth defects after prenatal exposure to antiepileptic drugs. Lancet Neurol 2005, 4, (11), 781-6. [0009] [4] Retie, A. E.; Rettenmeier, A. W.; Beyer, B. K.; Baillie, T. A.; Juchau, M. R.; Valproate hydroxylation by human fetal tissues and embryotoxicity of metabolites. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1986, 40, (2), 172-7. [0010] [5] Nau, H.; Hauck, R. S.; Ehlers, K.; Valproic acid-induced neural tube defects in mouse and human: aspects of chirality, alternative drug development, pharmacokinetics and possible mechanisms. Pharmacol Toxicol 1991, 69, (5), 310-21. [0011] [6] Hadad, S.; Bialer, M.; Pharmacokinetic analysis and antiepileptic activity of N-valproyl derivatives of GABA and glycine. Pharm Res 1995, ...

Thematic Issues ::: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal ChemistryThematic Issues ::: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry

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Reviewers Guidelines ::: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal ChemistryReviewers Guidelines ::: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry

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Items where Subject is QV Pharmacology | Central Nervous System Agents. Local Anesthetics | QV 89 Opioid analgesics. Narcotics...Items where Subject is "QV Pharmacology | Central Nervous System Agents. Local Anesthetics | QV 89 Opioid analgesics. Narcotics...

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  • Since their introduction in the early 1980s, CDSs have also generated considerable research work, especially for brain and eye targeting of various therapeutic agents, including those that cannot cross the blood-brain barrier or the blood-retinal barrier on their own. (wikipedia.org)
  • Article contains a simplified, layman's definition of anticonvulsants, including information about various different agents of this group and the possible adverse reactions and side effects that may be pertinent. (avivadirectory.com)
  • Gadavist MRI scans improved the visualization of lesions in the central nervous system when compared to MRI scans without contrast," said Libero Marzella, M.D., acting division director, Division of Medical Imaging Products in the FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. (healthcanal.com)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Central Nervous System Agents" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Central Nervous System Agents" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Central Nervous System Agents" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • Early diagnosis and withdrawal of the offending agent remain the mainstays of minimizing hepatotoxicity. (qxmd.com)
  • Johnson & Johnson Pfizer Roche Sanofi Merck GSK Bayer Bristol-Myers Squibb AbbVie Novartis Eli Lilly AstraZeneca Takeda Actavis Astellas Teva Biogen Shire Global Central Nervous System Agents Report covers distinct aspects of the market including the product category, product specifications, a range of applications and major geographical producing regions. (emarkets.eu)
  • They can be divided into "specific" agents, e.g., affecting an identifiable molecular mechanism unique to target cells bearing receptors for that agent, and "nonspecific" agents, those producing effects on different target cells and acting by diverse molecular mechanisms. (harvard.edu)
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate, through specific monitoring, nitrous oxide electrophysiological action on the central nervous system. (scielo.br)
  • This systematic review will consider some of the most deleterious potential workplace outcomes of these agents: workplace injury and fatality. (iwh.on.ca)
  • The key regions covered in Central Nervous System Agents report are the countries present in North America, Europe, APAC, South America, Middle East and Africa. (emarkets.eu)
  • We are a business agent for some APIs from domestic Pharmaceutical companies which can provide the GMP and DMF. (hepuchem.com)
  • Antimicrobial agents including antituberculosis (anti-TB) agents are the most common cause of idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and drug-induced liver failure across the world. (qxmd.com)