The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the brain, spinal cord, or meninges.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.
The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.
Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Inflammation of blood vessels within the central nervous system. Primary vasculitis is usually caused by autoimmune or idiopathic factors, while secondary vasculitis is caused by existing disease process. Clinical manifestations are highly variable but include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; behavioral alterations; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; and BRAIN INFARCTION. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp856-61)
A class of drugs producing both physiological and psychological effects through a variety of mechanisms. They can be divided into "specific" agents, e.g., affecting an identifiable molecular mechanism unique to target cells bearing receptors for that agent, and "nonspecific" agents, those producing effects on different target cells and acting by diverse molecular mechanisms. Those with nonspecific mechanisms are generally further classed according to whether they produce behavioral depression or stimulation. Those with specific mechanisms are classed by locus of action or specific therapeutic use. (From Gilman AG, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p252)
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
MYCOSES of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges which may result in ENCEPHALITIS; MENINGITIS, FUNGAL; MYELITIS; BRAIN ABSCESS; and EPIDURAL ABSCESS. Certain types of fungi may produce disease in immunologically normal hosts, while others are classified as opportunistic pathogens, causing illness primarily in immunocompromised individuals (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME).
Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)
Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Bacterial infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges, including infections involving the perimeningeal spaces.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
Tuberculosis of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges (TUBERCULOSIS, MENINGEAL), most often caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and rarely by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The infection may be limited to the nervous system or coexist in other organs (e.g., TUBERCULOSIS, PULMONARY). The organism tends to seed the meninges causing a diffuse meningitis and leads to the formation of TUBERCULOMA, which may occur within the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal spaces. Tuberculous involvement of the vertebral column (TUBERCULOSIS, SPINAL) may result in nerve root or spinal cord compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-20)
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes arising from or involving components of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, cranial nerves, and meninges. Included in this category are primary and metastatic nervous system neoplasms.
Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.
An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.
The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Traumatic injuries to the brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, autonomic nervous system, or neuromuscular system, including iatrogenic injuries induced by surgical procedures.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
MYELIN-specific proteins that play a structural or regulatory role in the genesis and maintenance of the lamellar MYELIN SHEATH structure.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.
An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Central nervous system vasculitis that is associated with SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Clinical manifestations may include DEMENTIA; SEIZURES; CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; HEMIPARESIS; BLINDNESS; DYSPHASIA; and other neurological disorders.
An abundant cytosolic protein that plays a critical role in the structure of multilamellar myelin. Myelin basic protein binds to the cytosolic sides of myelin cell membranes and causes a tight adhesion between opposing cell membranes.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Benign and malignant neoplasms which occur within the substance of the spinal cord (intramedullary neoplasms) or in the space between the dura and spinal cord (intradural extramedullary neoplasms). The majority of intramedullary spinal tumors are primary CNS neoplasms including ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; and LIPOMA. Intramedullary neoplasms are often associated with SYRINGOMYELIA. The most frequent histologic types of intradural-extramedullary tumors are MENINGIOMA and NEUROFIBROMA.
Viral infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space. TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RUBELLA; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORBIVIRUS infections; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RHABDOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; JC VIRUS infections; and RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS may cause this form of meningitis. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, neck pain, vomiting, PHOTOPHOBIA, and signs of meningeal irritation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Infections of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges by single celled organisms of the former subkingdom known as protozoa. The central nervous system may be the primary or secondary site of protozoal infection. These diseases may occur as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS or arise in immunocompetent hosts.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A myelin protein found in the periaxonal membrane of both the central and peripheral nervous systems myelin sheaths. It binds to cells surface receptors found on AXONS and may regulate cellular interactions between MYELIN and AXONS.
A transmembrane protein present in the MYELIN SHEATH of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is one of the main autoantigens implicated in the pathogenesis of MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
A species of CARDIOVIRUS which contains three strains: Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus, Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus, and Rat encephalomyelitis virus.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)
Diseases of the parasympathetic or sympathetic divisions of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; which has components located in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Autonomic dysfunction may be associated with HYPOTHALAMIC DISEASES; BRAIN STEM disorders; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. Manifestations include impairments of vegetative functions including the maintenance of BLOOD PRESSURE; HEART RATE; pupil function; SWEATING; REPRODUCTIVE AND URINARY PHYSIOLOGY; and DIGESTION.
Conditions characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin (see MYELIN SHEATH) in the brain, spinal cord, or optic nerves secondary to autoimmune mediated processes. This may take the form of a humoral or cellular immune response directed toward myelin or OLIGODENDROGLIA associated autoantigens.
Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Infections of the nervous system caused by fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS, most commonly ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS. Aspergillus infections may occur in immunocompetent hosts, but are more prevalent in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES. The organism may spread to the nervous system from focal infections in the lung, mastoid region, sinuses, inner ear, bones, eyes, gastrointestinal tract, and heart. Sinus infections may be locally invasive and enter the intracranial compartment, producing MENINGITIS, FUNGAL; cranial neuropathies; and abscesses in the frontal lobes of the brain. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch 27, pp62-3)
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.
Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The biochemical and electrophysiological interactions between the NERVOUS SYSTEM and IMMUNE SYSTEM.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)
A thin membrane that lines the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES and the central canal of the SPINAL CORD.
The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Disorders caused by cellular or humoral immune responses primarily directed towards nervous system autoantigens. The immune response may be directed towards specific tissue components (e.g., myelin) and may be limited to the central nervous system (e.g., MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS) or the peripheral nervous system (e.g., GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME).
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
A myelin protein that is the major component of the organic solvent extractable lipoprotein complexes of whole brain. It has been the subject of much study because of its unusual physical properties. It remains soluble in chloroform even after essentially all of its bound lipids have been removed. (From Siegel et al., Basic Neurochemistry, 4th ed, p122)
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A villous structure of tangled masses of BLOOD VESSELS contained within the third, lateral, and fourth ventricles of the BRAIN. It regulates part of the production and composition of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Structural abnormalities of the central or peripheral nervous system resulting primarily from defects of embryogenesis.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Infections of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; or MENINGES caused by HELMINTHS (parasitic worms).
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid, normally albumin and globulin present in the ratio of 8 to 1. Increases in protein levels are of diagnostic value in neurological diseases. (Brain and Bannister's Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p221)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.
A monocot plant family of the Liliopsida class. It is classified by some in the Liliales order and some in the Asparagales order.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
The posterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of an embryonic brain. It consists of myelencephalon, metencephalon, and isthmus rhombencephali from which develop the major BRAIN STEM components, such as MEDULLA OBLONGATA from the myelencephalon, CEREBELLUM and PONS from the metencephalon, with the expanded cavity forming the FOURTH VENTRICLE.
Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)
Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.
Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).
Infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges caused by parasites.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)
Pathologic conditions which feature SPINAL CORD damage or dysfunction, including disorders involving the meninges and perimeningeal spaces surrounding the spinal cord. Traumatic injuries, vascular diseases, infections, and inflammatory/autoimmune processes may affect the spinal cord.
A malignant neoplasm that may be classified either as a glioma or as a primitive neuroectodermal tumor of childhood (see NEUROECTODERMAL TUMOR, PRIMITIVE). The tumor occurs most frequently in the first decade of life with the most typical location being the cerebellar vermis. Histologic features include a high degree of cellularity, frequent mitotic figures, and a tendency for the cells to organize into sheets or form rosettes. Medulloblastoma have a high propensity to spread throughout the craniospinal intradural axis. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2060-1)
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Copper chelator that inhibits monoamine oxidase and causes liver and brain damage.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
A benign tumor of the nervous system that may occur sporadically or in association with VON HIPPEL-LINDAU DISEASE. It accounts for approximately 2% of intracranial tumors, arising most frequently in the cerebellar hemispheres and vermis. Histologically, the tumors are composed of multiple capillary and sinusoidal channels lined with endothelial cells and clusters of lipid-laden pseudoxanthoma cells. Usually solitary, these tumors can be multiple and may also occur in the brain stem, spinal cord, retina, and supratentorial compartment. Cerebellar hemangioblastomas usually present in the third decade with INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION, and ataxia. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2071-2)
A strain of ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS, a species of CARDIOVIRUS, usually causing an inapparent intestinal infection in mice. A small number of mice may show signs of flaccid paralysis.
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)
The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.
Infections caused by viruses of the genus CARDIOVIRUS, family PICORNAVIRIDAE.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A rare but highly lethal childhood tumor found almost exclusively in infants. Histopathologically, it resembles RHABDOMYOSARCOMA but the tumor cells are not of myogenic origin. Although it arises primarily in the kidney, it may be found in other parts of the body. The rhabdoid cytomorphology is believed to be the expression of a very primitive malignant cell. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2210)
A genus of dextrally coiled freshwater snails that includes some species of importance as intermediate hosts of parasitic flukes.
Inherited conditions characterized by a loss of MYELIN in the central nervous system.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
The paired caudal parts of the PROSENCEPHALON from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
A group of malignant tumors of the nervous system that feature primitive cells with elements of neuronal and/or glial differentiation. Use of this term is limited by some authors to central nervous system tumors and others include neoplasms of similar origin which arise extracranially (i.e., NEUROECTODERMAL TUMORS, PRIMITIVE, PERIPHERAL). This term is also occasionally used as a synonym for MEDULLOBLASTOMA. In general, these tumors arise in the first decade of life and tend to be highly malignant. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2059)
Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
Primary or metastatic neoplasms of the CEREBELLUM. Tumors in this location frequently present with ATAXIA or signs of INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION due to obstruction of the fourth ventricle. Common primary cerebellar tumors include fibrillary ASTROCYTOMA and cerebellar HEMANGIOBLASTOMA. The cerebellum is a relatively common site for tumor metastases from the lung, breast, and other distant organs. (From Okazaki & Scheithauer, Atlas of Neuropathology, 1988, p86 and p141)
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The exposure of the head to roentgen rays or other forms of radioactivity for therapeutic or preventive purposes.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.

Central peptidergic neurons are hyperactive during collateral sprouting and inhibition of activity suppresses sprouting. (1/6116)

Little is known regarding the effect of chronic changes in neuronal activity on the extent of collateral sprouting by identified CNS neurons. We have investigated the relationship between activity and sprouting in oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) neurons of the hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory system (MNS). Uninjured MNS neurons undergo a robust collateral-sprouting response that restores the axon population of the neural lobe (NL) after a lesion of the contralateral MNS (). Simultaneously, lesioned rats develop chronic urinary hyperosmolality indicative of heightened neurosecretory activity. We therefore tested the hypothesis that sprouting MNS neurons are hyperactive by measuring changes in cell and nuclear diameters, OT and VP mRNA pools, and axonal cytochrome oxidase activity (COX). Each of these measures was significantly elevated during the period of most rapid axonal growth between 1 and 4 weeks after the lesion, confirming that both OT and VP neurons are hyperactive while undergoing collateral sprouting. In a second study the hypothesis that chronic inhibition of neuronal activity would interfere with the sprouting response was tested. Chronic hyponatremia (CH) was induced 3 d before the hypothalamic lesion and sustained for 4 weeks to suppress neurosecretory activity. CH abolished the lesion-induced increases in OT and VP mRNA pools and virtually eliminated measurable COX activity in MNS terminals. Counts of the total number of axon profiles in the NL revealed that CH also prevented axonal sprouting from occurring. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that increased neuronal activity is required for denervation-induced collateral sprouting to occur in the MNS.  (+info)

Selective expression of purinoceptor cP2Y1 suggests a role for nucleotide signalling in development of the chick embryo. (2/6116)

Responses to extracellular nucleotides (e.g., ATP, ADP, etc.) have been demonstrated in a number of embryonic cell types suggesting they may be important signalling molecules during embryonic development. Here the authors describe for the first time the expression of a G-protein-coupled receptor for extracellular ATP, chick P2Y1 (cP2Y1), during embryonic development of the chick. During the first 10 days of embryonic development, cP2Y1 is expressed in a developmentally regulated manner in the limb buds, mesonephros, brain, somites, and facial primordia, suggesting that this receptor may have a role in the development of each of these systems.  (+info)

Actions of a pair of identified cerebral-buccal interneurons (CBI-8/9) in Aplysia that contain the peptide myomodulin. (3/6116)

A combination of biocytin back-fills of the cerebral-buccal connectives and immunocytochemistry of the cerebral ganglion demonstrated that of the 13 bilateral pairs of cerebral-buccal interneurons in the cerebral ganglion, a subpopulation of 3 are immunopositive for the peptide myomodulin. The present paper describes the properties of two of these cells, which we have termed CBI-8 and CBI-9. CBI-8 and CBI-9 were found to be dye coupled and electrically coupled. The cells have virtually identical properties, and consequently we consider them to be "twin" pairs and refer to them as CBI-8/9. CBI-8/9 were identified by electrophysiological criteria and then labeled with dye. Labeled cells were found to be immunopositive for myomodulin, and, using high pressure liquid chromatography, the cells were shown to contain authentic myomodulin. CBI-8/9 were found to receive synaptic input after mechanical stimulation of the tentacles. They also received excitatory input from C-PR, a neuron involved in neck lengthening, and received a slow inhibitory input from CC5, a cell involved in neck shortening, suggesting that CBI-8/9 may be active during forward movements of the head or buccal mass. Firing of CBI-8 or CBI-9 resulted in the activation of a relatively small number of buccal neurons as evidenced by extracellular recordings from buccal nerves. Firing also produced local movements of the buccal mass, in particular a strong contraction of the I7 muscle, which mediates radula opening. CBI-8/9 were found to produce a slow depolarization and rhythmic activity of B48, the motor neuron for the I7 muscle. The data provide continuing evidence that the small population of cerebral buccal interneurons is composed of neurons that are highly diverse in their functional roles. CBI-8/9 may function as a type of premotor neuron, or perhaps as a peptidergic modulatory neuron, the functions of which are dependent on the coactivity of other neurons.  (+info)

C-PR neuron of Aplysia has differential effects on "Feeding" cerebral interneurons, including myomodulin-positive CBI-12. (4/6116)

Head lifting and other aspects of the appetitive central motive state that precedes consummatory feeding movements in Aplysia is promoted by excitation of the C-PR neuron. Food stimuli activate C-PR as well as a small population of cerebral-buccal interneurons (CBIs). We wished to determine if firing of C-PR produced differential effects on the various CBIs or perhaps affected all the CBIs uniformly as might be expected for a neuron involved in producing a broad undifferentiated arousal state. We found that when C-PR was fired, it produced a wide variety of effects on various CBIs. Firing of C-PR evoked excitatory input to a newly identified CBI (CBI-12) the soma of which is located in the M cluster near the previously identified CBI-2. CBI-12 shares certain properties with CBI-2, including a similar morphology and a capacity to drive rhythmic activity of the buccal-ganglion. Unlike CBI-2, CBI-12 exhibits myomodulin immunoreactivity. Furthermore when C-PR is fired, CBI-12 receives a polysynaptic voltage-dependent slow excitation, whereas, CBI-2 receives relatively little input. C-PR also polysynaptically excites other CBIs including CBI-1 and CBI-8/9 but produces inhibition in CBI-3. In addition, firing of C-PR inhibits plateau potentials in CBI-5/6. The data suggest that activity of C-PR may promote the activity of one subset of cerebral-buccal interneurons, perhaps those involved in ingestive behaviors that occur during the head-up posture. C-PR also inhibits some cerebral-buccal interneurons that may be involved in behaviors in which C-PR activity is not required or may even interfere with other feeding behaviors such as rejection or grazing, that occur with the head down.  (+info)

Central autonomic activation by intracisternal TRH analogue excites gastric splanchnic afferent neurons. (5/6116)

Intracisternal (ic) injection of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) or its stable analogue RX 77368 influences gastric function via stimulation of vagal muscarinic pathways. In rats, the increase in gastric mucosal blood flow evoked by a low ic dose of RX 77368 occurs via release of calcitonin gene-related peptide from capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurons, most probably of spinal origin. In this study, the effect of low ic doses of RX 77368 on afferent impulse activity in splanchnic single fibers was investigated. The cisterna magna of overnight-fasted, urethan-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats was acutely cannulated, and fine splanchnic nerve twigs containing at least one fiber responsive to mechanical probing of the stomach were isolated at a site immediately distal to the left suprarenal ganglion. Unit mechanoreceptive fields were encountered in all portions of the stomach, both superficially and in deeper layers. Splanchnic afferent unit impulse activity was recorded continuously during basal conditions and in response to consecutive ic injections of saline and RX 77368 (15-30 min later; 1.5 or 3 ng). Basal discharge rates ranged from 0 to 154 impulses/min (median = 10.2 impulses/min). A majority of splanchnic single units with ongoing activity increased their mean discharge rate by >/=20% after ic injection of RX 77368 at either 1.5 ng (6/10 units; median increase 63%) or 3 ng (19/24 units; median increase 175%). Five units lacking impulse activity in the 5-min before ic RX 77368 (3 ng) were also excited, with the onset of discharge occurring within 1.0-5.0 min postinjection. In units excited by ic RX 77368, peak discharge occurred 15.6 +/- 1.3 min after injection and was followed by a decline to stable activity levels +info)

Cloning and functional studies of a novel gene aberrantly expressed in RB-deficient embryos. (6/6116)

The tumor suppressor RB regulates diverse cellular processes such as G1/S transition, cell differentiation, and cell survival. Indeed, Rb-knockout mice exhibit phenotypes including ectopic mitosis, defective differentiation, and extensive apoptosis in the neurons. Using differential display, a novel gene, Rig-1, was isolated based on its elevated expression in the hindbrain and spinal cord of Rb-knockout embryos. The longest open reading frame of Rig-1 encoded a polypeptide that consists of a putative extracellular segment with five immunoglobulin-like domains and three fibronectin III-like domains, a putative transmembrane domain, and a distinct intracellular segment. The Rig-1 sequence was 40% identical to the recently identified roundabout protein. Consistent with the predicted transmembrane nature of the protein, Rig-1 protein was present in the membranous fraction. Antisera raised against the putative extracellular and intracellular segments of Rig-1 reacted with an approximately 210-kDa protein in mouse embryonic CNS. Rig-1 mRNA was transiently expressed in the embryonic hindbrain and spinal cord. Elevated levels of Rig-1 mRNA and protein were found in Rb-/- embryos. Ectopic expression of a transmembrane form of Rig-1, but not the secreted form, promoted neuronal cell entrance to S phase and repressed the expression of a marker of differentiated neuron, Talpha1 tubulin. Thus Rig-1, a possible distant relative of roundabout, may mediate some of the pleiotropic roles of RB in the developing neurons.  (+info)

Neuronal differentiation and patterning in Xenopus: the role of cdk5 and a novel activator xp35.2. (7/6116)

Cdk5, a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family, has been shown to play an important role in development of the central nervous system in mammals when partnered by its activator p35. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of a novel activator of cdk5 in Xenopus, Xp35.2. Xp35.2 is expressed during development initially in the earliest differentiating primary neurons in the neural plate and then later in differentiating neural tissue of the brain. This is in contrast to the previously described Xenopus cdk5 activator Xp35.1 which is expressed over the entire expanse of the neural plate in both proliferating and differentiating cells. Expression of both Xp35.1 and Xp35.2 and activation of cdk5 kinase occur when terminal neural differentiation is induced by neurogenin and neuro D overexpression but not when only early stages of neural differentiation are induced by noggin. Moreover, blocking cdk5 kinase activity specifically results in disruption and reduction of the embryonic eye where cdk5 and its Xp35 activators are expressed. Thus, cdk5/p35 complexes function in aspects of neural differentiation and patterning in the early embryo and particularly in formation of the eye.  (+info)

Induction of Sarcophaga central nervous system remodeling by 20-hydroxyecdysone in vitro. (8/6116)

Proliferation and apoptosis of neural cells were found to be induced simultaneously when larval brains of Sarcophaga peregrina were cultured in the presence of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE) for 24 h. The locations of proliferating cells and apoptotic cells in the brain hemispheres were different. The morphology of brains exposed to 20-HE for a short period proceeded to change sequentially when culture was continued for 2 days even in the absence of 20-HE. These changes mainly consisted of enlargement of the brain hemispheres and extension of the interval between two hemispheres, which closely paralleled the morphological changes of brains that occur in the early pupal stage, suggesting that ecdysteroid alone is sufficient to induce the remodeling of the central nervous system of holometabolous insects. Synthesis of a protein with a molecular mass of 66 kDa was shown to be selectively repressed when brains were cultured in the presence of 20-HE.  (+info)

Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online The Human Brain During the Third Trimester: Volume 3 (Atlas of Human Central Nervous System Development) file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with The Human Brain During the Third Trimester: Volume 3 (Atlas of Human Central Nervous System Development) book. Happy reading The Human Brain During the Third Trimester: Volume 3 (Atlas of Human Central Nervous System Development) Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF The Human Brain During the Third Trimester: Volume 3 (Atlas of Human Central Nervous System Development) at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. Its free to register here to get Book file PDF The Human Brain During the Third Trimester: Volume 3 (Atlas of Human Central Nervous System ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Detection of HHV-6B in post-mortem central nervous system tissue of a post-bone marrow transplant recipient: a multi-virus array analysis.. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Atlas of human central nervous system development , Atlas of human central nervous system development , کتابخانه دیجیتالی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی و خدمات درمانی شهید بهشتی
Central nervous system toxicity was first described by Paul Bert in 1878.[105][106] He showed that oxygen was toxic to insects, arachnids, myriapods, molluscs, earthworms, fungi, germinating seeds, birds, and other animals. Central nervous system toxicity may be referred to as the Paul Bert effect.[14]. Pulmonary oxygen toxicity was first described by J. Lorrain Smith in 1899 when he noted central nervous system toxicity and discovered in experiments in mice and birds that 0.43 bar (43 kPa) had no effect but 0.75 bar (75 kPa) of oxygen was a pulmonary irritant.[29] Pulmonary toxicity may be referred to as the Lorrain Smith effect.[14] The first recorded human exposure was undertaken in 1910 by Bornstein when two men breathed oxygen at 2.8 bar (280 kPa) for 30 minutes while he went on to 48 minutes with no symptoms. In 1912, Bornstein developed cramps in his hands and legs while breathing oxygen at 2.8 bar (280 kPa) for 51 minutes.[3] Smith then went on to show that intermittent exposure to a ...
Long-Term Expression of Tissue-Inhibitor of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 in the Murine Central Nervous System Does Not Alter the Morphological and Behavioral Phenotype but Alleviates the Course of Experimental Allergic ...
Non-viral vectors based on cationic niosomes as efficient gene delivery vehicles to central nervous system cells into the brain Academic Article 2018 ...
Two aspects of cytokine therapy of intracerebral tumors are considered in this study: modulation of tumor growth in vivo and central nervous system toxicity. Coimplantation of RG-2 glioma cells and retroviral vector producer cell lines was performed to provide a local source of interleukin-2 (IL-2) or IFN-γ within the tumor and coinitiate an antitumor immune response. We demonstrated that local intratumoral production of IL-2 and IFN-γ generates a cell-mediated antitumor response in vivo. This response was manifest as a diffuse infiltration of monocytes/macrophages, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and activation of microglial OX42+ cells in intracerebral RG2 tumors. The cell-mediated antitumor immune response resulted in the early suppression of intracranial and subcutaneous tumor growth, but the effect was not sustained and there were no tumor regressions. The absence of increased survival of animals with intracranial tumors is explained in part by the severe central nervous system toxicity caused by ...
This work concerns the roles of neuron glia interactions in the control of neuronal survival during Central Nervous System (CNS) development in Drosophila. The question of whether glia are required to maintain neuronal survival in insects was addressed. Firstly, the GAL4 system was used to achieve in vivo targeted genetic ablation of glia. Secondly, plasmid rescue and P-element excision were exploited to locate and mutate genes which might participate in neuron glia interactions. Targeted glial ablation did not affect pioneer neuron survival. However, increased apoptosis was observed among the FasII and 22C10 expressing subsets of the follower neurons. Targeted ablation only of the interface glia was sufficient to induce follower neuron apoptosis. This difference in the survival requirements of pioneer and follower neurons may be instructive in patterning of the CNS. Neuronal apoptosis was rescued by ablating glia in an apoptosis deficient genetic background, and by expressing the p35 apoptosis ...
The first step in generating cellular diversity in the Drosophila central nervous system is the formation of a segmentally reiterated array of neural precursor cells, called neuroblasts. Subsequently, each neuroblast goes through an invariant cell lineage to generate neurons and/or glia. Using molecular lineage markers, I show that (1) each neuroblast forms at a stereotyped time and position; (2) the neuroblast pattern is indistinguishable between thoracic and abdominal segments; (3) the development of individual neuroblasts can be followed throughout early neurogenesis; (4) gene expression in a neuroblast can be reproducibly modulated during its cell lineage; (5) identified ganglion mother cells form at stereotyped times and positions; and (6) the cell lineage of four well-characterized neurons can be traced back to two identified neuroblasts. These results set the stage for investigating neuroblast specification and the mechanisms controlling neuroblast cell lineages. ...
Figure 2: Body Response to Chronic Pain.The central nervous system tissue might respond by undergoing any number of adaptive changes. Thickening and inflammation of the membrane layers surrounding the spinal cord and brain might occur, leading to irritation and lack of normal motion of central nervous system tissue, imbalance and restricted mobility of the spinal column, or adverse strain on the peripheral nervous system.. Spinal cord neurons receiving chronic pain signals from the periphery also can undergo long-term change due to the activation of microglial cells (central nervous system immune cells), because abnormally increased sensitivity (sensitization) of the nerve cells might occur. This can maintain a state of overwhelming activity of the pain pathways, thus causing constant pain sensation.. Normally, there is a balance of inhibitory and excitatory stimulation where the pain cell synapses (communicates) with the spinal cord neuron. However, decrease of inhibition at the synapse might ...
Ectopic lymphoid follicles are hallmarks of chronic autoimmune inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögrens syndrome, and myasthenia gravis. However, the effector cells and mechanisms that induce their development are unknown. Here we showed that in experime …
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Interaction of HIV Infection and Alcohol Abuse on Central Nervous System Morbidity Limited Competition (U01 Clinical Trial Not Allowed) RFA-AA-18-008. NIAAA
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The vertebrate central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. These lie in the midline of the body and are protected by the skull and vertebrae respectively. This collection of billions of neurons is arguably the most complex object known. The central nervous system along with the peripheral nervous system comprise a primary division of controls that command all physical activities of a vertebrate. Neurons of the central nervous system affect consciousness and mental activity while spinal extensions of central nervous system neuron pathways affect skeletal muscles and organs in the body. The peripheral system is composed of the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system, the latter being further divided as the sympathetic nervous system, the parasympathetic nervous system and the enteric nervous system. Each of these interact with various organs, glands or muscles, providing information to and from the central nervous system. ...
The invention relates generally to methods of influencing central nervous system cells to produce progeny useful in the treatment of CNS disorders. More specifically, the invention includes methods of exposing a patient suffering from such a disorder to a reagent that modulates the proliferation, migration, differentiation and survival of central nervous system cells. These methods are useful for reducing at least one symptom of the disorder.
In spite of the progress in medicine post operative cognitive deficiency (POCD) remains an important clinical problem. Since the introduction of cardiac surgery there have been frequent reports of its adverse neurological outcomes. Recent technological advances have contributed to a lesser occurrence of clinically evident complications such as coma, stroke, epilepsy or blindness. This brought to attention a more common yet occult disorder - POCD. The above malady mostly concerns memory and executive functions. POCD has a negative impact on the quality of life and labor market attachment, however its relation to mortality seems to be most disturbing. Prevalence of POCD is mainly associated with microembolisms, hipoperfusion and inflammatory reaction of the central nervous system following cardiac surgery. In addition many studies have shown the importance of biochemical disorders, cerebral oedema and the influence of comorbidities in the development of POCD. In the light of available evidence, ...
The CNS is a favored anatomical site for persistent infections due to its unique cellular environment and interactions with cells of the immune system (14, 15). This study examined the regulation CD8+ T cells during acute and persistent CNS infection with the natural rodent pathogen JHMV. During the peak of inflammation, up to 50% of CNS-infiltrating CD8+ T cells are virus-specific by class I tetramer staining. A vigorous immune response at the site of virus replication is also functionally evident by ex vivo cytolytic activity of CNS-derived lymphocytes. Potent cytolytic activity of CNS-derived, but not peripheral T cells, has been demonstrated for other viral CNS infections (45, 47, 48, 49). However, the tetramer-staining technique allowed a direct correlation between cytolysis and the quantity of virus-specific CD8+ T cells. Thus, virus-specific CTL from the CNS are cytolytic at E:T ratios of 0.5:1, and their apparent low frequency in lymphoid tissues is consistent with the absence of ...
General: The safety and effectiveness of lidocaine depend on proper dosage, correct technique, adequate precautions, and readiness for emergencies. Standard textbooks should be consulted for specific techniques and precautions for various regional anesthetic procedures.. Resuscitative equipment, oxygen, and other resuscitative drugs should be available for immediate use. (See WARNINGS and ADVERSE REACTIONS). The lowest dosage that results in effective anesthesia should be used to avoid high plasma levels and serious adverse effects. Syringe aspirations should also be performed before and during each supplemental injection when using indwelling catheter techniques. During the administration of epidural anesthesia, it is recommended that a test dose be administered initially and that the patient be monitored for central nervous system toxicity and cardiovascular toxicity, as well as for signs of unintended intrathecal administration before proceeding. When clinical conditions permit, consideration ...
General:. The safety and effectiveness of lidocaine depend on proper dosage, correct technique, adequate precautions, and readiness for emergencies. Standard textbooks should be consulted for specific techniques and precautions for various regional anesthetic procedures.. Resuscitative equipment, oxygen, and other resuscitative drugs should be available for immediate use. (See WARNINGS and ADVERSE REACTIONS). The lowest dosage that results in effective anesthesia should be used to avoid high plasma levels and serious adverse effects. Syringe aspirations should also be performed before and during each supplemental injection when using indwelling catheter techniques. During the administration of epidural anesthesia, it is recommended that a test dose be administered initially and that the patient be monitored for central nervous system toxicity and cardiovascular toxicity, as well as for signs of unintended intrathecal administration before proceeding. When clinical conditions permit, ...
About 7 months ago, I posted my concerns that he might be suffering from DM as he was dragging his hind legs and the rear center nails had worn down a lot. Bubbabooboo helped me by researching the interaction of the drugs Atopica (which my dog needs for severe environmental allergies) and Sentinel. There is a documented concern that the heartworm preventative in Sentinel combined with Atopica can cause central nervous system toxicity in the dog. And he was right, although my vet disagreed with me when I asked my vet about this. Nonetheless, I stopped the Sentinel 6 months ago, and my dog started to improve since August as that drug cleared his system. My dog will turn 7 years old this month. He looks beautiful and young again, and moves with energy and enthusiasm. I am confident now that he will live out a normal lifespan with us ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Localization of neurotrophin-3-like immunoreactivity in the rat central nervous system. AU - Zhou, Xin Fu. AU - Rush, Robert A.. PY - 1994/4/18. Y1 - 1994/4/18. N2 - Neurotrophin-3 (NT3) is a nerve growth factor (NGF) homologue whose function is presently unknown. The factor promotes the survival of a subpopulation of sensory and sympathetic neurons in vitro. NT3 mRNA is widely distributed in both the peripheral and central nervous system but the distribution of NT3 has not yet been examined. In the present study we have determined the regional distribution and cellular localization of NT3-like immunoreactivity (-IR) in the central nervous system by immunohistochemistry. Both glia and neurons were stained. NT3-IR glia were distributed in corpus callosum, substantia nigra, fimbria of hippocampus, subependymal areas of the ventricles and cerebellum. In the forebrain, NT3-IR was detected in a number of neuronal cells, including pyramidal cells in the fifth layer of the cerebral ...
Main description: The present edition of The Human Central Nervous System differs considerably from its predecessors. In previous editions, the text was essentially confined to a section dealing with the various functional systems of the brain. This section, which has been rewritten and updated, is now preceded by 15 newly written chapters, which introduce the pictorial material of the gross anatomy, the blood vessels and meninges and the microstructure of its various parts and deal with the development, topography and functional anatomy of the spinal cord, the brain stem and the cerebellum, the diencephalon and the telencephalon. Great pains have been taken to cover the most recent concepts and data. As suggested by the front cover, there is a focus on the evolutionary development of the human brain. Throughout the text numerous correlations with neuropathology and clinical n- rology have been made. After much thought, we decided to replace the full Latin terminology, cherished in all previous ...
In order to test these newly synthesized fibers, Gilbert and his team applied nervous system cells like neurons and astrocytes to the polymerized estrogen. Through this cellular lab testing, the researchers found that estrogen wasnt only neuroprotective, but also might promote regeneration.. This was the first time polyestrogen was processed into fibers that showed the ability to enhance the outgrowth of neural cells along the fiber direction without adding growth factors, Palermo said.. The teams new approach is now being patented and will enable the researchers to push their exploration even further toward preclinical research, where they can see how their polymerized fibers would work in a living system. Their eventual goal is to vastly improve the lives of people with spinal cord injuries.. Their findings will also help advance research in the area of drug delivery, which is increasingly focused on personalization and precision.. Precision medicine is a research priority within CBIS, ...
At the Redenti Lab, we are exploring cellular communication involved in the development and regeneration of retinal and other central nervous system tissue. We are particularly interested in how cells respond to morphogenetic fields of discrete, localized biochemical and electrical signals leading to the development of organized neural tissue. Read More ...
We have shown previously that neurons in the mouse spinal cord express Gb3. We show in this article that distribution of anti-Gb3-Ab reactivity occurs in many different types of neurons of different areas of the central nervous system (CNS). The immunoreactive neurons are in olfactory bulbs, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum, amygdala, thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata. In several different circumventricular organs where vessels do not have the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) structure, anti-Gb3-Ab is not positive for vessel structures, while neurons at these regions are positive. Also, within the ventricular area, ependymal cells in the third ventricle express Gb3, as revealed by anti-Gb3-Ab staining and intensity analysis.
The Gene Ontology (GO) project is a collaborative effort to address the need for consistent descriptions of gene products across databases. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated gene data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
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COMMENT iterator for traversing all the daughters of the currently accessed section section subtree_traverse(statement) executes statement for every daughter of section. Just before the statement is executed the currently accessed section is set. ENDCOMMENT NEURON { SUFFIX nothing } VERBATIM static subtree(sec, sym) Section* sec; Symbol* sym; { Section* child; for (child = sec-,child; child; child = child-,sibling) { nrn_pushsec(child); /* move these three (sec becomes child) */ hoc_run_stmt(sym); /* into the loop to do only the first level */ nrn_popsec(); } } ENDVERBATIM PROCEDURE subtree_traverse() { VERBATIM { Section* chk_access(); Symbol* hoc_parse_stmt(); Symlist* symlist = (Symlist*)0; subtree(chk_access(), hoc_parse_stmt(gargstr(1), &symlist)); /* if following not executed (ie hoc error in statement), some memory will leak */ hoc_free_list(&symlist); } ENDVERBATIM ...
Dynamically explore this term by selecting additional relationships to display (checkboxes on the right). Expand nodes by double-clicking on it . Single-click on a node to display the definition below the graph ...
The blood and urine of the Commonweal Employees group contained 134-150 of 214 industrial compounds, pollutants and other chemicals tested, including chemicals linked to immune system toxicity, brain and nervous system toxicity, and birth defects and developmental delays. ...
The blood and urine of the Mountain View group contained 53-57 of 84 industrial compounds, pollutants and other chemicals tested, including chemicals linked to brain and nervous system toxicity, reproductive toxicity and fertility problems, and immune system toxicity. ...
Health,... COSTA MESA Calif. March 31 /- CNS Respons...George Carpenter CNSO President specified Although we worked out th... Importantly this is not a pilot program. Our client concluded that...Daniel Hoffman MD Chief Medical Officer for CNS Response explained...,CNS,Response,,Inc.,Enters,Agreement,to,Introduce,rEEG(R),Platform,to,Managed,Behavioral,Health,Organization,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
BC: THE END. FC: THE NERVOUS SYSTEM , BY: Preston Manni. 1: The Nervous system is a network of specialized cells that coordinate the actions of an animal, and send signals from one part of its body to another... , these cells send signals either as electrochemical waves on the axon, or as chemicals released onto other cells.... 2: The Nervous System is composed of neurons and other specialized cells called glial cells. It consist of 2 parts the central and the peripheral.. 3: The central nervous system consist of the brain and the spinal cord. The neurons of the central nervous system are interconnected in complex arrangements to transmit electrochemical signals from one to another.... 4: The peripheral nervous system consist of sensory neurons, cluster of neurons called ganglia, and nerves connecting them to each other and to the central nervous system.... , sensory neurons are activated by inputs impinging on them from outside or inside the body, and send signals that inform the central ...
This web site allows you to explore the covariation of gene expression levels and cellular abundance in the human CNS in two ways: 1) search by CNS region / cell type to retrieve the top 50 genes ranked by genome-wide expression fidelity, and 2) search by CNS region / gene to retrieve information about the associations of individual genes with major cell types, as well as top gene expression correlates ...
Results of research of functional characteristics of the central neural system and features of cognitive processes of children with borderline mental disorder of residual organic genesis are presented. 78 children, 56 boys (8-12 years old) and 22 girls (8-11 years old), with different borderline mental disorder are examined. It is shown that all patients have similar disorders in memory, attention and cognitive function with differences in central nervous system functionality characteristics depending on clinical particularities. The disorders consist in arousal and inhibition mobility. Based on the results obtained, the recommendations on psycho-correctional work with children are formulated in the dependence on central nervous system functionality characteristics and clinical manifestations.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immune lesions of noradrenergic neurones in rat central nervous system produced by antibodies to dopamine-β-hydroxylase. AU - Blessing, W. W.. AU - Costa, M.. AU - Geffen, L. B.. AU - Rush, R. A.. AU - Fink, G.. PY - 1977/5/26. Y1 - 1977/5/26. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0017723249&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1038/267368a0. DO - 10.1038/267368a0. M3 - Letter. C2 - 865635. AN - SCOPUS:0017723249. VL - 267. SP - 368. EP - 369. JO - Nature. JF - Nature. SN - 0028-0836. IS - 5609. ER - ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Reduction of central nervous system ischemic injury in rabbits using leukocyte adhesion antibody treatment. AU - Clark, Wayne. AU - Madden, Ken P.. AU - Rothlein, Robert. AU - Zivin, Justin A.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - Activated leukocytes appear to be directly involved in ischemic central nervous system injury. A surface glycoprotein (CD18) on the leukocyte is required for endothelial adherence and subsequent function and can be blocked with leukocyte adhesion antibody treatment. We used two animal models to determine the efficacy of anti-CD18 antibody treatment in preserving neurologic function after central nervous system ischemia. We gave a dose of 1 mg/kg anti-CD18 to treatment rabbits 30 minutes before inducing irreversible ischemia in the brain with intraarterial microspheres or in the spinal cord using reversible aortic occlusion. Treatment with anti-CD18 produced a significant reduction in neurologic deficits in the reversible spinal cord model, but not in the ...
Axel Montagne, Angeliki M Nikolakopoulou, Zhen Zhao, Abhay P Sagare, Gabriel Si, Divna Lazic, Samuel R Barnes, Madelaine Daianu, Anita Ramanathan, Ariel Go, Erica J Lawson, Yaoming Wang, William J Mack, Paul M Thompson, Julie A Schneider, Jobin Varkey, Ralf Langen, Eric Mullins, Russell E Jacobs, Berislav V Zlokovic. Nature 10.1038. (5 February 2018): 4482. Diffuse white-matter disease associated with small-vessel disease and dementia is prevalent in the elderly. The biological mechanisms, however, remain elusive. Using pericyte-deficient mice, magnetic resonance imaging, viral-based tract-tracing, and behavior and tissue analysis, we found that pericyte degeneration disrupted white-matter microcirculation, resulting in an accumulation of toxic blood-derived fibrin(ogen) deposits and blood-flow reductions, which triggered a loss of myelin, axons and oligodendrocytes. This disrupted brain circuits, leading to white-matter functional deficits before neuronal loss occurs. Fibrinogen and fibrin ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The peripheral nervous system is part of the nervous system. Its main function is to relay information between the central nervous system and the extremities and organs. There are two main parts of the peripheral nervous system. These are the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system is associated with involuntary muscle movements whereas the peripheral nervous system is associated with voluntary muscle movements. The somatic nervous system has two main types of nerves: afferent nerves and efferent nerves. In humans, the somatic nervous system is comprised of three parts: (1) spinal nerves, (2) cranial nerves, and (3) association nerves. The spinal nerves are nerves carrying impulses from the spinal cord. The cranial nerves are nerve fibers carrying sensory information into and from the brain stem. The association nerves are nerves that integrate sensory input and motor output. In vertebrates, the response of skeletal muscle cells to neurotransmitters ...
Pull out from a human brain to reveal the entire nervous system; highlight the central nervous system, then the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system has not only the brain but the spinal cord, an approximately eighteen inches long, three-quarter inch thick bundle of nerve tissue extending from the lower part of the brain down through the spine. The spinal cord serves as the main communications throughway of the nervous system. Together, the brain and spinal cord comprise what ?s called the central nervous system, or CNS. The other major component of the nervous system is the peripheral nervous system, or PNS, with its elaborate network of nerves that relay messages back and forth to and from the brain and every organ in the body without this two-way transmission of information, homeostasis would not be possible, nor would the activation of muscles and glands, or even sensory input. Consider this scenario: you accidentally touch a hot skillet on the stove. In a fraction of a second, the
Free Online Library: Viral infections of the central nervous system: viral infections of the CNS are caused by a broad range of viruses. by CME: Your SA Journal of CPD; Health, general Central nervous system Health aspects Encephalitis Meningitis
The majority of individuals who commence treatment for HIV in the UK start with a regimen that includes EFV in combination with other antiretrovirals. These regimens are convenient (once daily dosing) and highly efficacious. However EFV has several potential drawbacks including continued CNS toxicity, the potential for teratogenesis and a low barrier to the development of virological resistance. In the past the only alternative NNRTI available was nevirapine which appears to have a lower rate of virological success and is associated with potentially life threatening toxicities including hepatotoxicity and cutaneous toxicity including the Stevens-Johnson syndrome.. Clinically controlled trials frequently reported undesirable nervous system side effects in patients receiving 600 mg EFV with other antiretroviral agents, including dizziness,insomnia, somnolence, impaired concentration and abnormal dreaming. CNS symptoms of moderate to severe intensity were experienced by 19.4% of patients compared ...
The majority of individuals who commence treatment for HIV in the UK start with a regimen that includes EFV in combination with other antiretrovirals. These regimens are convenient (once daily dosing) and highly efficacious. However EFV has several potential drawbacks including continued CNS toxicity, the potential for teratogenesis and a low barrier to the development of virological resistance. In the past the only alternative NNRTI available was nevirapine which appears to have a lower rate of virological success and is associated with potentially life threatening toxicities including hepatotoxicity and cutaneous toxicity including the Stevens-Johnson syndrome.. Clinically controlled trials frequently reported undesirable nervous system side effects in patients receiving 600 mg EFV with other antiretroviral agents, including dizziness,insomnia, somnolence, impaired concentration and abnormal dreaming. CNS symptoms of moderate to severe intensity were experienced by 19.4% of patients compared ...
Group A streptococcus (GAS) infection causes a strong inflammatory response associated with cytokine storms, leading to multiorgan failure, which is characterized as streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. However, little is known about GAS subcutaneous infection-mediated brain inflammation. Therefore, we used a bioluminescent GAS strain and reporter mice carrying firefly luciferase under transcriptional control of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) promoter to concurrently monitor the host immune response and bacterial burden in a single mouse. Notably, in addition to the subcutaneous inoculation locus at the back of mice, we detected strong luminescence signals from NF-κB activation and increased inflammatory cytokine production in the brain, implying the existence of central nervous system inflammation after GAS subcutaneous infection. The inflamed brain exhibited an increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase components and greater
Mechanisms of cell interaction with fibronectin have been studied with proteolytic fibronectin fragments that have well-defined ligand binding properties. Results of a previous study (Rogers, S. L., J. B. McCarthy, S. L. Palm, L. T. Furcht, and P. C. Letourneau, 1985, J. Neurosci., 5:369-378) demonstrated that (a) central (CNS) and peripheral (PNS) nervous system neurons adhere to, and extend neurites on a 33-kD carboxyl terminal fibronectin fragment that also binds heparin, and (b) neurons from the PNS, but not the CNS, have stable interactions with a 75-kD cell-binding fragment and with intact fibronectin. In the present study domain-specific reagents were used in inhibition assays to further differentiate cell surface interactions with the two fibronectin domains, and to define the significance of these domains to cell interactions with the intact fibronectin molecule. These reagents are (a) a soluble synthetic tetrapeptide Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGDS; Pierschbacher, M. D., and E. Ruoslahti, 1984, ...
Global Central Nervous System Partnering 2010 to 2017 provides the full collection of Central Nervous System disease deals signed between the worlds pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies since 2010.. Trends in Central Nervous System partnering deals. Financial deal terms for headline, upfront and royalty by stage of development. Central Nervous System partnering agreement structure. Central Nervous System partnering contract documents. Top Central Nervous System deals by value. Most active Central Nervous System dealmakers. Most of the deals included within the report occur when a licensee obtains a right or an option right to license a licensors product or technology. More often these days these deals tend to be multi-component including both a collaborative R&D and a commercialization of outcomes element.. The report takes readers through the comprehensive Central Nervous System disease deal trends, key players and top deal values allowing the understanding of how, why and under what ...
Tinnitus, defined as the perception of sound when no corresponding external sound is present, affects 50 million people in the United States with 2 million reporting decreased quality of life. Although the etiology of tinnitus is heterogeneous, exposure to a damaging auditory stimulus is the most common cause of the perceptual disorder. In addition to the better known auditory component of tinnitus there is an affective component. Anxiety and depression can occur concomitantly with tinnitus and is often of unknown etiology. Exposure to damaging sound leads to complex changes throughout the central nervous system (CNS) impacting both auditory and non-auditory brain areas. The absence of a complete picture of how tinnitus is manifested and maintained in the CNS continues to hinder the development of effective treatments. The goal of this project is to elucidate the underlying mechanisms that produce neuroplastic changes over time in the central nervous system following sound damage that may or may ...
Neither excitotoxic neurodegeneration nor lipopolysaccharide induces an acute myelomonocytic exudate in the murine central nervous system (CNS) parenchyma (Andersson, P.-B., V. H. Perry, and S. Gordon. 1991. Neuroscience, 42:201; Andersson, P.-B., V. H. Perry, and S. Gordon. 1992. Neuroscience 48:169). In this study formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, platelet-activating factor, interleukin 8 (IL-8), IL-1, or tumor necrosis factor alpha were injected into the hippocampus to assess whether these leukocyte chemotaxins and known mediators of recruitment could bypass this block. They induced morphologic activation of microglia and widespread leukocyte margination but little or no cell exudation into the CNS parenchyma. By contrast, there was acute myelomonocytic cell recruitment to the choroid plexus, meninges, and ventricular system, comparable to that in the skin after subcutaneous injection. The normal CNS parenchyma appears to be a tissue unique in its resistance to leukocyte diapedesis, ...
Objectives Excitotoxicity plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of perinatal brain injuries. Among the consequences of excessive activation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate are oxidative stress caused by free radical release from damaged mitochondria, neuronal death and subsequent loss of connectivity. Drugs that could protect nervous tissue and support regeneration are attractive therapeutic options. The hepatocarcinoma intestine pancreas protein/pancreatitis-associated protein I (HIP/PAP) or Reg3α, which is approved for clinical testing for the protection and regeneration of the liver, is upregulated in the central nervous system following injury or disease. Here, we examined the neuroprotective/neuroregenerative potential of HIP/PAP following excitotoxic brain injury. Methods We studied the expression of HIP/PAP and two of its putative effectors, cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein 19 (ARPP19) and growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43), in the neonatal brain, and the ...
proviron dampening effect on the central nervous system following medicines: antipsychotics, sedatives and hypnotics, anticonvulsants, analgesics, anesthetics, alcohol; exhibits synergism when interacting with other antidepressants. In a joint
Lesson 5, Central Nervous System Trauma. Introduction to Central Nervous System Midbrain Located btwn the diencephalon and the pons. ... ppt, 2 MB. Introduction to Neuroscience & Behavior: The Nervous System and Neurotransmitter Processes Overview of This Section: - How Does We have a lot to get through in a very short space of time so it is quite a lot within a … Radiation toxicity in the central nervous system: mechanisms and. The Nervous System By, Dr. Shamanthakamani Narendran, MD 2. The central nervous system introduction youtube. Presented by : Transmits information to the processing areas of the brain and spine 3. The central nervous system is so named because it i… Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Autonomic System • Consists of neurons that go to and from various internal organs. Includes information on CNS and PNS, voluntary and involuntary responses, the reflex arc and neurons. Now customize the name ...
The CNS serves as a central regulator of whole body energy balance coordinating metabolic homeostasis in multiple peripheral tissues (Minokoshi et al., 2002; Nogueiras et al., 2007; Shiuchi et al., 2009). Under normal physiological conditions, anabolism and catabolism are regulated such that energy needs are met. During acute infection, skeletal muscle is mobilized to provide substrates to fuel the necessary increases in immune function. However, in cases of chronic disease where inflammation persists, muscle protein is excessively mobilized, leading to profound muscle atrophy. The regulation of protein mobilization by inflammation occurs at numerous levels. The direct action of inflammatory signaling molecules on skeletal muscle has been extensively examined, as has the contribution of IGF-1 signaling (Bodine et al., 2001b; Rommel et al., 2001; Acharyya et al., 2004; Stitt et al., 2004; Li et al., 2005, 2009; Doyle et al., 2011). The data we present in this paper demonstrate that CNS ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intrauterine growth retardation: Biochemical changes in human central nervous system. AU - Gonzalez-Sastre, F.. AU - Rodes, M.. AU - Sabater, J.. AU - Segura, E.. PY - 1978/1/1. Y1 - 1978/1/1. M3 - Article. VL - 11. SP - 13. EP - 22. IS - 1. ER - ...
Ankyrin-binding proteins related to nervous system cell adhesion molecules: candidates to provide transmembrane and intercellular connections in adult brain.
Clinilabs is a global, full-service CRO dedicated to providing a full range of CNS drug development services to pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, from first-in-human to Phase 3 trials. ...
Having the ability to modulate lymphocyte entry into the central nervous system (CNS) would benefit patients with neuroinflammatory diseases. We have previously shown that extracellular adenosine regulates CNS entry of lymphocytes during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model for the CNS inflammatory disease multiple sclerosis. For instance, while extracellular adenosine levels are vastly increased following inflammatory cellular damage (from the hydrolysis of released cytoplasimic ATP by CD39 and CD73), mice lacking CD73 or given adenosine receptor (AR) antagonists have significantly reduced CNS lymphocyte entry during EAE. We now show through detailed genetic studies that AR signaling regulates lymphocyte migration into the CNS though induction of CX3CL1, a specialized chemokine that acts as both an adhesion molecule and chemoattractant for lymphocytes, monocytes, and NK cells. We show that AR signaling is necessary and sufficient to induce CNS expression of CX3CL1 ...
METHOD FOR REDUCING NEURONAL DEGENERATION BY ADMINISTERING CNS-DERIVED PEPTIDES OR ACTIVATED T CELLS - Compositions are provided for promoting nerve regeneration or reducing or inhibiting degeneration in the CNS or PNS to ameliorate the effects of injury or disease. The composition includes an active ingredient selected from:(a) a peptide obtained by modification of a self-peptide derived from a CNS-specific antigen, which modification consists in the replacement of one or more amino acid residues of the self-peptide by different amino acid residues, such modified CNS peptide still being capable of recognizing the T-cell receptor recognized by the self-peptide but with less affinity; (b) a nucleotide sequence encoding such a peptide; (c) T cells activated by such peptide; and (d) any combination of (a)-(c). The peptide is preferably obtained by modification of the self-peptide p87-99 of MBP, more preferably, by replacing lysine 91 with glycine (G91) or alanine (A91) or by replacing proline 96 ...
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system that integrates the information that it receives from, and coordinates the activity of, all parts of the bodies of bilaterian animals-that is, all multicellular animals except sponges and radially symmetric animals such as jellyfish. It contains the majority of the nervous system and consists of the brain and the spinal cord. Some classifications also include the retina and the cranial nerves in the CNS. Together with the peripheral nervous system, it has a fundamental role in the control of behavior. The CNS is contained within the dorsal cavity, with the brain in the cranial cavity and the spinal cord in the spinal cavity. In vertebrates, the brain is protected by the skull, while the spinal cord is protected by the vertebrae, and both are enclosed in the meninges....There are many central nervous system diseases, including infections of the central nervous system such as encephalitis and poliomyelitis, neurodegenerative ...
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two main parts of the bodys nervous system. The central nervous system (CNS) is comprised of the brain and the spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system branches outside of the central nervous system and is comprised of nerves and neurons that transmit information to and from the brain.. The peripheral nervous system consists of 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves.. This allows the brain and spinal cord to both receive and send information to other areas of the body. In this way, it allows us to react to environmental stimuli. In the peripheral nervous system information is transmitted by bundles of nerve fibers or axons.. This diagram with labels depicts and explains the details of Peripheral Nervous System Pictures. ...
T cells provide critical immune surveillance to the central nervous system (CNS), and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is thought to be a main route for their entry. Further characterization of the state of T cells in the CSF in healthy individuals is important for understanding how T cells provide protective immune surveillance without damaging the delicate environment of the CNS and providing tissue-specific context for understanding immune dysfunction in neuroinflammatory disease. Here, we have profiled T cells in the CSF of healthy human donors and have identified signatures related to cytotoxic capacity and tissue adaptation that are further exemplified in clonally expanded CSF T cells. By comparing profiles of clonally expanded T cells obtained from the CSF of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy donors, we report that clonally expanded T cells from the CSF of patients with MS have heightened expression of genes related to T cell activation and cytotoxicity. ...
Johns Hopkins scientists and colleagues say they have evidence from animal studies that a type of central nervous system cell other than motor neurons plays a fundamental role in the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal degenerative disease. The discovery holds promise, they say, for identifying new targets for interrupting the diseases progress. In a study described online on March 31, 2013 in Nature Neuroscience, the researchers found that, in mice bred with a gene mutation that causes human ALS, dramatic changes occurred in oligodendrocytes - cells that create insulation for the nerves of the central nervous system - long before the first physical symptoms of the disease appeared. Oligodendrocytes located near motor neurons - cells that govern movement - died off at very high rates, and new ones regenerated in their place were inferior and unhealthy. The researchers also found, to their surprise, that suppressing an ALS-causing gene in oligodendrocytes of mice bred ...
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The tumor suppressor RNA-binding motif 5 (RBM5) regulates the expression levels and cassette exon-definition (i.e. splicing) of a select set of mRNAs in a tissue-specific manner. Most RBM5-regulated targets were identified in oncological investigations and frequently involve genes which mediate apoptotic cell death. Little is known about the role of RBM5 in the brain. Also, it is unclear if a brain injury may be required to detect RBM5 mediated effects on pro-apoptotic genes due to their low expression levels in the healthy adult CNS at baseline. Conditional/floxed (brain-specific) gene deleter mice were generated to elucidate CNS-specific RBM5 mRNA targets. Male/female mice were subjected to a severe controlled cortical impact (CCI) traumatic brain injury (TBI) in order to increase the background expression of pro-death mRNAs and facilitate testing of the hypothesis that RBM5 inhibition decreases post-injury upregulation of caspases/FAS in the CNS. As expected, a CCI increased caspases/FAS mRNA ...
properties of metal binding and free radical scavenging to the intricate workings of brain. In this compilation of four reports, first delivered at the 11th International Neurotoxicology Association (INA-11) Meeting, June 2007, the authors present the work of their laboratories, each of which gives an important insight into the actions of MT in the brain. What emerges is that MT has the potential to contribute to a variety of processes, including neuroprotection, regeneration, and even cognitive functions. In this article, the properties and CNS expression ofMTare briefly reviewed before Dr Hidalgo describes his pioneering work using transgenic models of MTexpression to demonstrate how this protein plays a major role in the defence of the CNS against neurodegenerative disorders and other CNS injuries. His groups work leads to two further questions, what are the mechanisms at the cellular level by which MTacts, and does this protein influence higher order issues of architecture and cognition. ...
Johns Hopkins scientists say they have evidence from animal studies that a type of central nervous system cell other than motor neurons plays a fundamental role in the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a ...
Do fish have a central nervous system - Does m.S. Only attack the central nervous system? Yes. Multiple sclerosis (ms) is an autoimmune disease (bodys defense system attacking itself) that involves the central nervous system. Central nervous is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Myelin sheaths protect and insulate nerve cells; in ms the myelin sheaths on the axons (longer parts of the nerve cells) are inflamed and damaged, leading to scar development seen in white matter of the brain.
On the surface level, the Pineal gland, shaped like a pinecone, is at the geometric center of our brain and is intimately entwined with our perception of light. The pineal gland modulates circadian rhythms, and thus how we sleep. It remains uniquely isolated from the blood-brain barrier system, yet receives a higher percentage of blood flow than any other organ of the body except the kidneys. The pineal gland is tiny - smaller than a dime - located at the back of the roof of the third ventricle of the brain. (The ventricles are parts of the brain filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which act to maintain the optimum chemical environment for the central nervous system cells). The pineal becomes steadily calcified with age, starting most often before puberty, meaning it shows up clearly on skull X-rays and CT scans to allow identification of the midline.[3] ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Career readiness, developmental work personality and age of onset in young adult central nervous system survivors. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
QY Research recently published a research report titled, Global Central Nervous System Biomarkers Competition Situation 2019. The research report is collated on the basis of historic and forecast data derived by using primary and secondary methodologies by researchers. The global Central Nervous System Biomarkers market is one of the fastest-growing markets and is expected to witness substantial growth in the forecast years. Reader are provided easy access to thorough analysis on the various aspects such as opportunities and restraints affecting the market. The report clearly explains the trajectory this market will take in the forecast years.. Global Central Nervous System Biomarkers Market: Drivers and Restraints. The research report has presented an analysis of various factors influencing the markets current growth. Drivers, restraints, and trends are elaborated to understand their positive or negative effects. This section is aimed at providing readers with a thorough information about the ...
2. 2. ... diseases of the nervous system.ppt; jeopardy review NS.ppt; Study Material for Test: Nervous and Endocrine Systems. Autonomic Nervous System. Please call your childs Doctor with any questions. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. slides and have students slide the part of the nervous system â ¦ Your presentation should include: The main function(s) of the body system The main organs (or cell types) of this system and the function of each part (MS-LS1-3. b. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. It covers the cells of the Nervous System, structural classification of neurons as well as neuroglia or glial cells. In this section of the lesson I explain to students that the nervous system is divided into two main subsystems, CNS (central nervous system) and PNS (peripheral nervous system). Powerpoint presentations on a range of nerve topics. Includes information on CNS and PNS, voluntary and involuntary ...
Central Nervous System Viral Diseases; Viral Diseases, Central Nervous System. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms and diseases is provided.
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By Tess Thompson The nervous system is a network of nerves (neurons) that are interconnected with each other through a complex network. It is comprised of the central nervous system (CNS), which includes the brain and the spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which is a large network of nerves. The nervous system responds to external as well as internal stimuli. To give specific instructions to various parts of the body on how to react to a specific stimulus, the neurons use electrochemical signals. Stress stimulates the CNS and prepares it to meet stressful situations. During the preparation, the body goes through various physiological changes that are initiated to enable fight or flight. This is the function of the autonomic nervous system, which is comprised of the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous systems. Both of these perform entirely opposite functions. The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for stress responses, while the parasymp. ...
As HIV and AIDS battle your immune system, your central nervous system is also affected. HIV and AIDS both cause a number of neurological complications, particularly if HIV goes untreated and is allowed to progress to AIDS.
As HIV and AIDS battle your immune system, your central nervous system is also affected. HIV and AIDS both cause a number of neurological complications, particularly if HIV goes untreated and is allowed to progress to AIDS.
Oct 16, 2020 - Explore Tina Mattars board central nervous system, followed by 1535 people on Pinterest. See more ideas about Nervous system, Central nervous system, Nervous.
Pryor, Jack T. (2017) Chemical, electrical, hormonal and nutrient signaling in the mammalian central nervous system. PhD thesis, University of Warwick. ...
healthy.. The nervous system is the bodys inner communication system and is made up of the bodys many nerve cells.. It is these nerve cells that take information from the bodys five senses: touch, taste, smell, sound and sight! The brain is then able to react to these senses and interact with the environment.. The human nervous system is made up of the central nervous system (CNS) which is the brain and the spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system which is made from nerve cells that carry information to and from the CNS.. When a sensory receptor detects a stimulus, the information is passed along neurones. Neurones are a special type of cell. They are found in groups/bundles of many hundreds of neurones known as nerves.. Looking in a little more detail we can see how the nervous system works: A stimulus is detected by a sensory receptor in the body. The receptor sends this information (via electrical impulses) along sensory neurones to the central nervous system (CNS). It is these ...
Illustration of an oligodendrocyte cell (yellow) forming a myelin sheath around a nerve cell (neuron, blue) axon. - Stock Image F018/4759
Researchers found that when they chemically disrupt specific mechanisms of neural activity in the central nervous system, they can, in effect, open a border wall to allow a critical nerve-repairing cell to migrate into the peripheral nervous system - a region those cells generally dont enter. The cells, a subset of non-neuronal cells called oligodendrocytes, ultimately come to function in their new environment, the muscles, in the same way they operate in their original home in the central nervous system - they make repairs to damaged neuronal cells.. Oligodendrocytes are a type of cell called glia. They are the glue that hold together brain matter, and are key components in the development of the central nervous system. These cells also are important to the regeneration or repair of these systems in response to disease or injury.. They make myelin, a layer of protein and fatty material that acts like electrical tape to insulate axons, a threadlike part of nerve cells on which electrical ...
Opportunistic infections of the central nervous system are classically associated with immunosuppression arising from infection with human immunodeficiency virus and with various hematologic malignancies. However, over the past few years, they are increasingly associated with transplant...read more ...
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Stem cell scientists led by Mick Bhatia from the McMaster University have successfully converted adult human blood cells into neural cells.. The team directly converted adult human blood cells to both central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) neurons as well as neurons in the peripheral nervous system (rest of the body) that are responsible for pain, temperature and itch perception.. This means that how a persons nervous system cells react and respond to stimuli can be determined from his blood.. Now we can take blood samples and make the main cell types of neurological systems - the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system - in a dish that is specialised for each patient. Nobody has ever done this with adult blood. Ever, explained Bhatia, director of the McMaster Stem Cell and Cancer Research Institute.. Bhatias team successfully tested their process using fresh blood as well as frozen blood.. Scientists can actually take a patients blood sample and with it, can ...
Siena has an ongoing partnership with Alkermes, a biopharmaceutical company that focuses on central nervous system diseases. Our team has completed numerous projects at the firms Waltham location, including both office and lab fit outs. (Photos courtesy of DamianosPhotography.). ...
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What does a healthy nervous system mean for you? Hands For Life has 3 main areas of focus, and one of them is to help them financially hard-shipped populations achieve an efficient nervous system.. The reason a healthy nervous system is so important is that its what runs everything in your body. No cell or tissue goes un-touched by your nervous system. Without your nervous system, your heart wouldnt know when or how to beat, your lungs wouldnt be able to expand to allow you to breathe, and your muscles wouldnt be able to contract to help you lift your arm.. When your nervous system is functioning correctly, then your body is able to perform all the things it needs to do. It also should be able to fight off any virus, bacteria, or disease. However, when the nervous system is compromised, or not working efficiently, then our body begins to break down. We believe everyone on planet earth should have their nervous system checked for interference or issues. If that was the case our world would be ...
... complex disorders linked by the degeneration of neurons in either the peripheral nervous system or the central nervous system. ... Neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system[edit]. Alzheimer's Disease (AD)[edit]. Main article: Alzheimer's ... 3 Neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system *3.1 Alzheimer's Disease (AD) *3.1.1 Epigenetic factors ... Muscles depend on connections to motor neurons and the central nervous system to stimulate muscle maintenance and therefore ...
Central nervous system's control[edit]. Though one may think that the stimulus triggering blinking is dry or irritated eyes, it ... For example, excessive blinking may help to indicate the onset of Tourette syndrome, strokes or disorders of the nervous system ...
Central. nervous system. Encephalitis/. meningitis. DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV ... A primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), also known as microglioma and primary brain lymphoma,[1] is a primary ... Fine HA, Mayer RJ (December 1993). "Primary central nervous system lymphoma". Ann. Intern. Med. 119 (11): 1093-104. doi:10.7326 ... Brain magnetic resonance imaging showing primary central nervous system B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the sella turcica and ...
Central nervous system[edit]. See also: Central nervous system effects from radiation exposure during spaceflight ... Hypothetical early and late effects on the central nervous system are of great concern to NASA and an area of active current ... There is limited experimental evidence, especially for central nervous system effects, available to evaluate this alternative ... "Cosmic ray hit frequencies in critical sites in the central nervous system". Adv. Space Res. 22 (2): 197-207. Bibcode:1998AdSpR ...
Central nervous system activity[edit]. GPER and ERα, but not ERβ, have been found to mediate the antidepressant-like effects of ... nervous system development. • positive regulation of neurogenesis. • positive regulation of release of cytochrome c from ... immune system process. • negative regulation of cell cycle process. • positive regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion ... Han G, Li F, Yu X, White RE (May 2013). "GPER: a novel target for non-genomic estrogen action in the cardiovascular system". ...
Central nervous system[edit]. Rare reports have been made of malaise, dizziness, somnolence, insomnia, and vertigo. In severely ... Pelot, Daniel, (M.D.). "Digestive System : New Drug for Heartburn". The New Book of Knowledge : Medicine & Health, Grolier : ... "The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 2017-09-09. Retrieved Dec 1, 2015.. .mw-parser ... the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[6] It is available as a generic medication.[1] The 2015 ...
Central nervous system stimulants such as substituted amphetamines increase heart rate.. *Central nervous system depressants or ... Influences from the central nervous system[edit]. Cardiovascular centres[edit]. The heart rate is rhythmically generated by the ... Caffeine and nicotine are both stimulants of the nervous system and of the cardiac centres causing an increased heart rate. ... It is also influenced by central factors through sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves.[10] Nervous influence over the ...
Central nervous system[edit]. Further information: Neurobiological effects of physical exercise § Neuroplasticity ... Regular aerobic exercise improves symptoms associated with a variety of central nervous system disorders and may be used as an ... The effects of physical exercise on the central nervous system are mediated in part by specific neurotrophic factor hormones ... Immune system[edit]. Although there have been hundreds of studies on physical exercise and the immune system, there is little ...
... oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS), and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), are wrapped ... Differences in the central and peripheral nervous systems[edit]. Although freeze fracture studies have revealed that the nodal ... The nodes of Ranvier in the central and peripheral nervous systems mostly consist of αNaV1.6 and β1 subunits.[4] The extra- ... The creation and conduction of action potentials represents a fundamental means of communication in the nervous system. Action ...
Central nervous system[edit]. Depending on local tissue concentrations of local anesthetics, excitatory or depressant effects ... The conduction of electric impulses follows a similar mechanism in peripheral nerves, the central nervous system, and the heart ... Side effects on the central nervous system and the heart may be severe and potentially fatal. However, toxicity usually occurs ... Another possibility is direct exposure of the central nervous system through the cerebrospinal fluid, i.e., overdose in spinal ...
Central nervous system[edit]. MRSA can infect the central nervous system and form brain abscess, subdural empyema, and spinal ... Incidence of MRSA central line-associated blood-stream infections as reported by hundreds of intensive care units decreased 50- ... People in nursing homes are at risk for all the reasons above, further complicated by their generally weaker immune systems.[12 ... People with weak immune systems (HIV/AIDS, lupus, or cancer sufferers; transplant recipients; severe asthmatics; etc.) ...
Role in the central nervous system[edit]. Further information: Neurotransmitter § Brain neurotransmitter systems ... Dopamine receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are prominent in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS ... Cardio-pulmonary system[edit]. In humans, the pulmonary artery expresses D1, D2, D4, and D5 and receptor subtypes, which may ... Renal system[edit]. Dopamine receptors are present along the nephron in the kidney, with proximal tubule epithelial cells ...
Central nervous system disease[edit]. Central nervous system lesions occur occasionally. Cerebral granulomatous disease may be ... the central nervous system is affected. Individuals with chronic active schistosomiasis may not complain of typical symptoms. ... Eggs are thought to travel to the central nervous system via embolization.[19] ... S. mekongi and S. intercalatum are found locally in Southeast Asia and central West Africa, respectively. ...
Central nervous system[edit]. See also: Alcohol withdrawal syndrome § Kindling, and Kindling (substance withdrawal) ... a neurotoxic effect that damages the central nervous system develops, leading to persisting impairments in verbal and nonverbal ... an imbalance between inhibitory and excitatory amino acids and changes in monoamines release in the central nervous system, ... Urinary system[edit]. The bladder may rupture if overfilled and not emptied.[42] This can occur in the case of binge drinkers ...
Central nervous system[edit]. Similar to other inhalational anesthetics, the exact mechanism of action is not clearly defined ... The effects of methoxyflurane on the circulatory system resemble those of diethyl ether.[27] In dogs, methoxyflurane anesthesia ...
Central nervous system[edit]. *Abnormal thinking, impaired judgment. *Nonspecific dysphoria, moodiness, depression, crying, ... on a continual supply of glucose diffusing from the blood into the interstitial tissue within the central nervous system and ... Serious illness may result in low blood sugar.[1] Severe disease of nearly all major organ systems can cause hypoglycemia as a ... The importance of an adequate supply of glucose to the brain is apparent from the number of nervous, hormonal, and metabolic ...
Central nervous system[edit]. Vasopressin released within the brain may have several actions: *Vasopressin is released into the ... Second messenger system Locations. Actions Agonists Antagonists AVPR1A. Phosphatidylinositol/calcium. Liver, kidney, peripheral ... "Central Diabetes Insipidus".. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) *^ Boron WR, Boulpaep EL. Medical Physiology ( ... from which it travels through the hypophyseal portal system to the anterior pituitary, where it stimulates corticotropic cells ...
Central nervous system[edit]. The central nervous system of vertebrates is based on a hollow nerve cord running along the ... The resulting anatomy of the central nervous system, with a single hollow nerve cord topped by a series of (often paired) ... A peripheral nervous system branches out from the nerve cord to innervate the various systems. The front end of the nerve tube ... Reproductive systems[edit]. Nearly all vertebrates undergo sexual reproduction. They produce haploid gametes by meiosis. The ...
For the central nervous system[edit]. Drugs affecting the central nervous system include: Psychedelics, hypnotics, anaesthetics ... An elaborate and widely used classification system is the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System (ATC system). ... An elaborate and widely used classification system is the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System (ATC system). ... For the reproductive system or urinary system[edit]. antifungal, alkalinizing agents, quinolones, antibiotics, cholinergics, ...
Central nervous system[edit]. Radiosurgery is performed by a multidisciplinary team of neurosurgeons, radiation oncologists and ... when used outside the central nervous system (CNS).[3] ... Systems designed to complement conventional Linacs with beam- ... Many such CyberKnife systems are available worldwide. Cyberknife may be compared to Gamma Knife therapy (see above), but it ... In stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), the word "stereotactic" refers to a three-dimensional coordinate system that enables ...
Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma. Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), a rare central nervous system tumor, ... 1.1 Primary tumors of the central nervous system. *1.2 Metastatic tumors of the central nervous system *1.2.1 Intracranial ... Metastatic tumors of the central nervous system[edit]. Cancer spreads to the nervous system by direct invasion, compression, or ... Primary tumors of the central nervous system[edit]. Primary brain tumors can occur at any age, from infancy to late in life. ...
Suitable nervous system[edit]. Central nervous system[edit]. Brain size does not necessarily equate to complexity of function.[ ... Griffin also considers leaf-cutter ants, with central nervous systems "less than a millimeter in diameter," and asks: "Can the ... Although these neurons in invertebrates may have different pathways and relationships to the central nervous system than ... Internal anatomy of a spider, showing the central nervous system in blue ...
Central nervous system. *Intracerebral. *Intrathecal. *Epidural. Circulatory,. musculoskeletal. *Intravenous. *Intracardiac. * ...
Central nervous system. *Intracerebral. *Intrathecal. *Epidural. Circulatory, musculoskeletal. *Intravenous. *Intracardiac. * ...
Central nervous system. *Intracerebral. *Intrathecal. *Epidural. Circulatory, musculoskeletal. *Intravenous. *Intracardiac. * ... Main article: Central venous catheter. Central IV lines have their catheters that are advanced through a vein and empty into a ... While some central lines have their catheter pass through the skin and then directly into the vein, other central lines called ... An infected central IV poses a higher risk of sepsis, as it can deliver bacteria directly into the central circulation. ...
Central nervous system. *Intracerebral. *Intrathecal. *Epidural. Circulatory,. musculoskeletal. *Intravenous. *Intracardiac. * ... These systems are generally only used above 7,000 metres (23,000 ft). In recent years oxygen mask systems for high-altitude ... Aviation passenger masks and emergency oxygen systems[edit]. Main article: Emergency oxygen system ... Mask retention systems[edit]. Medical oxygen masks are held in place by medical personnel or the user by hand, or they may be ...
Central nervous system. *Intracerebral. *Intrathecal. *Epidural. Circulatory,. musculoskeletal. *Intravenous. *Intracardiac. * ... "Needle Free Jet Injection System - Needle Free Injection System". Needle Free Injection System. Retrieved 2018-05-25.. ... or other components to reduce the size and weight of the hand-held part of the system and to allow faster and less-tiring ...
Central nervous system. *Intracerebral. *Intrathecal. *Epidural. Circulatory,. musculoskeletal. *Intravenous. *Intracardiac. * ... "The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Retrieved Sep 4, 2015.. *^ a b Wolverton, SE. Comprehensive Dermatologic ... Loyd Allen; Howard C. Ansel (23 December 2013). Ansel's Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery Systems (Tenth ed.). ... Singh Malik, D; Mital, N; Kaur, G (2016). "Topical drug delivery systems: a patent review". Expert Opinion on Therapeutic ...
Central nervous system. *Intracerebral. *Intrathecal. *Epidural. Circulatory,. musculoskeletal. *Intravenous. *Intracardiac. * ... a maker of injection systems; Pfizer and King sued them for infringing US Patent 7,449,012 that was due to expire in 2025;[33] ...
Central Nervous System: Seizures, tremors, muscular twitching, confusion, agitation, ataxia, and hallucinations. ... "The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.. ... the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[3] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 111.87 ...
... physiology and cognitive abilities of the nervous system.[1][2][3][4] ... How do neurons migrate to the proper position in the central and peripheral systems? How do synapses form? We know from ... GENESIS, a general neural simulation system.. Conferences[edit]. *Computational and Systems Neuroscience (COSYNE) - a ... Abbott, L. F.; Dayan, Peter (2001). Theoretical neuroscience: computational and mathematical modeling of neural systems. ...
... central nervous system or the respiratory tract,[12] you may speak of a syndromic form of craniosynostosis. More than 180 ... Blount JP, Louis RG, Tubbs RS, Grant JH (October 2007). "Pansynostosis: a review". Child's Nervous System. 23 (10): 1103-9. doi ... Renier D, Lajeunie E, Arnaud E, Marchac D (November 2000). "Management of craniosynostoses". Child's Nervous System. 16 (10-11 ... Collmann H, Sörensen N, Krauss J (October 2005). "Hydrocephalus in craniosynostosis: a review". Child's Nervous System. 21 (10 ...
... so it affects the central nervous system, although its effects are qualitatively distinct relative to those of ... Central side effects may include anxiety, insomnia, and anorexia (loss of appetite).[citation needed] ...
... and inappropriate regulation of metabolism by the central nervous system.[10] However, not all people with insulin resistance ... nervous system activity, or hormonal factors that may lead to diabetes.[34] ... "In Lee M (ed.). Basic Skills in Interpreting Laboratory Data (5th ed.). Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System ... Diseases of the endocrine system (ICD-10 Chapter IV: Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases - Endocrine diseases, E00- ...
That path is from the outside stimulus to the central nervous system (CNS), then the path from the CNS to the appropriate ...
"Nikolai Mikhailovich Itsenko investigated neural infections, vegetative nervous system diseases and cerebral tumors. In 1926 he ... A basal central:peripheral ratio of over 3:1 when CRH is administered is indicative of Cushing's disease.[7] This test has been ...
central nervous system development. • chloride transport. • ion transmembrane transport. • signal transduction. • chemical ...
Nervous system. *Perinatal asphyxia. *Periventricular leukomalacia. Musculoskeletal. *Gray baby syndrome. *muscle tone * ... Ocular ischemic syndrome / Central retinal vein occlusion. *Central retinal artery occlusion. *Branch retinal artery occlusion ...
Lacalli, Thurston C. (September 2009). "Serial EM analysis of a copepod larval nervous system: Naupliar eye, optic circuitry, ... Leone, Stacy E. (2008). Predator Induced Plasticity in Barnacle Shell Morphology (Master of Arts in Biology thesis). Central ... The blood vascular system is minimal. Similarly, they have no gills, absorbing oxygen from the water through their limbs and ... Intertidal Invertebrates from Central California to Oregon (4th ed.). University of California Press. pp. 475-484. ISBN 978-0- ...
The actions of aprepitant are said to be entirely central, thus requiring passage of the drug into the central nervous system.[ ... non-cholinergic nervous system (branch of the vagal system).. InflammationEdit. SP initiates expression of almost all known ... function of substance P is thought to be related to the transmission of pain information into the central nervous system. ... In line with its role as a first line defense system, SP is released when toxicants or poisons come into contact with a range ...
Moderate baseline fetal heart rate variability reflects the delivery of oxygen to the fetal central nervous system. Its ... "An overview of central fetal monitoring systems in labour". Journal of Perinatal Medicine. 41 (1): 93-9. doi:10.1515/jpm-2012- ... A variety of systems for centralized viewing of CTG have been installed in a large number of maternity hospitals in ... Display of maternal vital signs, ST signals and an electronic partogram are available in the majority of these systems. A few ...
... arms can move and sense largely autonomously without intervention from the animal's central nervous system. In 2015 a ... Nervous system and senses. The octopus (along with cuttlefish) has the highest brain-to-body mass ratios of all invertebrates, ... Octopuses have a complex nervous system and excellent sight, and are among the most intelligent and behaviourally diverse of ... Editing is concentrated in the nervous system and affects proteins involved in neural excitability and neuronal morphology. ...
This seems to occur via immune cells interacting with the peripheral nervous system and releasing pain-producing chemicals ( ... March 2004). "The cyclooxygenase isozyme inhibitors parecoxib and paracetamol reduce central hyperalgesia in humans". Pain. 108 ... Marchand F, Perretti M, McMahon SB (July 2005). "Role of the immune system in chronic pain". Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 6 (7): 521-32 ... December 2004). "Chronic oral Gabapentin reduces elements of central sensitization in human experimental Hyperalgesia". ...
The transcription factor Sox9 can be found in multiple sites in the body (pancreas, central nervous system, intestines) and it ...
... is concerned with testing the physiology or function of the central and peripheral aspects of the nervous system. These kinds ... Neuroscience includes those disciplines of science that are related to the study of the nervous system. A main focus of ... Review of systems (ROS) or systems inquiry: a set of additional questions to ask, which may be missed on HPI: a general enquiry ... Neurology is concerned with diseases of the nervous system. In the UK, neurology is a subspecialty of general medicine. ...
A cultured neuronal network is a cell culture of neurons that is used as a model to study the central nervous system, ... "Axion MEA Systems". Potter, S (2008). "How Should We Think About Bursts?". 6th Int. Meeting on Substrate-Integrated ... One example of this can be seen in the Multielectrode Array Art (MEART) system developed by the Potter Research Group at the ... Erickson J, Tooker A, Tai YC, Pine J (2008). "Caged Neuron MEA: A System for Long-Term Investigation of Cultured Neural Network ...
central nervous system development. • metanephric comma-shaped body morphogenesis. • branching involved in ureteric bud ... urogenital system development. • sulfur compound metabolic process. • metanephric S-shaped body morphogenesis. • metanephros ... Also functions in very early stages of kidney organogenesis, the müllerian system, and the thymus.[7] Additionally, PAX8 is ... PAX8 (and PAX2) is one of the important regulators of urogenital system morphogenesis. They play a role in the specification of ...
... peripheral nervous system, and central nervous system.[61][84] Many of the signs and symptoms of Lyme disease are a consequence ... Tryptophan, a precursor to serotonin, appears to be reduced within the central nervous system in a number of infectious ... they confirm a diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) neuroborreliosis if positive, but do not exclude it if negative.[112] ... "Borrelia burgdorferi central nervous system infection presenting as an organic schizophrenialike disorder". Biological ...
... auditory nerve and/or central nervous system). If an audiologist determines that a hearing loss or vestibular abnormality is ... treating and monitoring disorders of the auditory and vestibular system portions of the ear. Audiologists are trained to ... from pediatric populations to veterans and may perform assessment of tinnitus and the vestibular system. ...
... effect on the central circulation or nervous system, diagnostic impact, or incorporation of a medicinal product. Certified ... "Preparing a Complaints/eMDR System for Upcoming FDA Mandate". Sparta Systems. 18 May 2015.. ... "Embedded Systems Design. Retrieved 2016-04-21.. *^ FDA (2010-09-08). "Infusion Pump Software Safety Research at FDA". FDA. ... EN 868 Packaging materials and systems for medical devices to be sterilized, General requirements and test methods ...
... and poisons the central nervous system,[219] which is dangerous as the required dosage of lithium to treat bipolar disorder is ... In the Solar SystemEdit. Estimated abundances of the chemical elements in the Solar system. Hydrogen and helium are most common ... In both the old IUPAC and the CAS systems for group numbering, this group is known as group IA (pronounced as "group one A", as ... I. A New Periodic System Which Shows a Relation Between the Abundance of the Elements and the Structure of the Nuclei of Atoms" ...
... including the nervous system. In the central nervous system, the three outer membranes (the meninges) that envelop the brain ... Mixed connective tissue disease - a disease of the autoimmune system, also undifferentiated connective tissue disease. ... and nervous tissue. It develops from the mesoderm. Connective tissue is found in between other tissues everywhere in the body, ... 158 Cells of the immune system, such as macrophages, mast cells, plasma cells and eosinophils are found scattered in loose ...
... renal and central nervous system involvement) in Caucasian patients.[31] Two-point haplotype analysis between TNFB(B*01 allele ... One possibility is that peoples from central Asia or the Middle East migrated into Iberia as peoples from Africa crossed into ... Arnett FC, Hirsch TJ, Bias WB, Nishikai M, Reichlin M (1981). "The Jo-1 antibody system in myositis: relationships to clinical ... Also a dozen inflammatory diseases of the immune system can attribute some risk to the haplotype. Some disease like coeliac ...
Of numerous grading systems in use for the classification of tumor of the central nervous system, the World Health Organization ... WHO classification of the tumors of the central nervous system. Anaplastic astrocytoma, Astrocytoma, Central neurocytoma, ... The central nervous system cancer survival rate in children is approximately 60%. The rate varies with the type of cancer and ... Blood vessels enter the central nervous system through the perivascular space above the pia mater. The cells in the blood ...
In a loss-of-function (also called "necessity") experiment, a part of the nervous system is diminished or removed in an attempt ... ISBN 978-0-7914-2217-5, p. 64; "Central to Buddhist soteriology is the doctrine of not-self (Pali: anattā, Sanskrit: anātman, ... an aspect of the nervous system is increased relative to normal.[107] Manipulations of brain activity can be performed with ... Plato also compares the three parts of the soul or psyche to a societal caste system. According to Plato's theory, the three- ...
Nervous system *Encephalitis. *Meningitis. *Unilateral or bilateral hearing loss, observed in up to one third of adults, which ... central and eastern parts of the African continent.[11] Once the rat has become a carrier, it will excrete the virus throughout ... It is less common in the Central African Republic, Mali, Senegal and other nearby countries, and less common yet in Ghana and ...
... that affects multiple systems, such as the nervous and integumentary system.[2] Other examples of pleiotropy are albinism, ... This idea is central to the antagonistic pleiotropy hypothesis, which was first developed by G. C. Williams in 1957. Williams ... Unconverted phenylalanine builds up in the bloodstream and can lead to levels that are toxic to the developing nervous system ... and nervous system, as well as the eyes and lungs.[36] Without medical intervention, prognosis of Marfan syndrome can range ...
Neurosteroids are synthesized in the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) from cholesterol and ... Baulieu EE (1997). "Neurosteroids: of the nervous system, by the nervous system, for the nervous system". Recent Progress in ... GABA is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Upon binding, it triggers the GABAA receptor to open ... molecules that increase the activity of the GABAA receptor protein in the vertebrate central nervous system. ...
Sihung Lung and Ah Lei Gua played central elderly figures dealing with the transition from tradition to modernity in The ... She suspects Jia-Jen of disapproving of her moral system. Dariotis and Fung wrote that the film's main focus is on the ... Women on the Verge of a Nervous Breakdown (1988). *Story of Women (1989) ... She suspects Jia-Chien of disapproving of her moral system.[8] Dariotis and Fung wrote that after Jia-Chien states that she ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Central nervous system.. *Overview of the Central Nervous System, Neuroscience Online ( ... The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord. The CNS is so named ... Difference from the peripheral nervous system[edit]. A map over the different structures of the nervous systems in the body, ... Huijzen, R. Nieuwenhuys, J. Voogd, C. van (2007). The human central nervous system (4th ed.). Berlin: Springer. p. 3. ISBN 978- ...
Central. nervous system. Encephalitis/. meningitis. DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV ... A primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), also known as microglioma and primary brain lymphoma,[1] is a primary ... Fine HA, Mayer RJ (December 1993). "Primary central nervous system lymphoma". Ann. Intern. Med. 119 (11): 1093-104. doi:10.7326 ... Brain magnetic resonance imaging showing primary central nervous system B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the sella turcica and ...
... human nervous system: The central nervous system: The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord, both ... Other articles where Central nervous system is discussed: ... The central nervous system. The central nervous system consists ... central nervous system: humanThe brain and the spinal cord constitute the central nervous system.. Created and produced by QA ... In nervous system: The vertebrate system. … has two main divisions: the central nervous system, consisting of the brain and ...
The Human Central Ner- vous System, a Synopsis and Atlas has made a second edition necessary, hardly more than two years after ... The particularly good reception enjoyed by our "The Human Central Ner- vous System, a Synopsis and Atlas" has made a second ... The pictures are so to speak a snapshot of the current knowledge of a particular functional system within the central nervous ... As a matter of fact the spatial representations of the fibre systems are no more than a visualization of the most salient ...
Inhibition in the Central Nervous System. In muscular action some muscles must be stimulated to contract and others must be ...
Central nervous system control of food intake.. Schwartz MW1, Woods SC, Porte D Jr, Seeley RJ, Baskin DG. ... Department of Medicine, Harborview Medical Center and VA Puget Sound Health Care System, University of Washington, Seattle ... from mutation of key signalling molecules involved in this regulatory system highlights its importance to human health. ...
Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. ... Adult neurogenesis in the mammalian central nervous system.. Ming GL1, Song H. ... that active neurogenesis from neural progenitors continues throughout life in discrete regions of the central nervous systems ( ...
A textbook of neuropsychopharmacology focused on the mechanisms of drug action in the central nervous system, this volume ... Central_Nervous_Syste.html?id=a_psAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareDrug Action in the Central Nervous System. ... books.google.com - A textbook of neuropsychopharmacology focused on the mechanisms of drug action in the central nervous system ... 0 ReviewsWrite reviewhttps://books.google.com/books/about/Drug_Action_in_the_Central_Nervous_Syste.html?id=a_psAAAAMAAJ ...
Becker R.O. (1969) The Effect of Magnetic Fields upon the Central Nervous System. In: Barnothy M.F. (eds) Biological Effects of ... A. Kholodov, "Effects on the central nervous system," in: Biological Effects of Magnetic Fields (M. F. Barnothy, ed.) Vol. 1, ... Magnetic Field Critical Flicker Fusion Frequency Neural Functioning Vectorial Relationship Central Nervous System Functioning ... and at this writing there would appear to be little doubt that some interaction exists between central nervous system (CNS) ...
M1 Central Nervous System/ Head & Neck- Lecture Handout: Hypothalamus and Limbic System ... M1 Central Nervous System/ Head & Neck- Lecture Handout: Hypothalamus and Limbic System ... central nervous system, CNS, medicine, brain, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, nerves, diencephalon, brain stem, spinal cord, basal ... M1 Central Nervous System/ Head & Neck- Hypothalamus Pituitary Development The neuroscience sequence is foundational in nature ...
... which connects the central nervous system to the rest of the body. An image depicting the central nervous system can be seen ... the central nervous system, which consists of the brain and the spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system, ... The nervous system is organized into two parts: ... Central Nervous System Anatomy) and Central Nervous System ... Nervous system, full body, anterior view. In the central nervous system, the brain and spinal cord are the main centers where ...
289 Results for Central Nervous System. View 1 - 10 results for central nervous system comic strips. Discover the best "Central ... My central nervous system is starting to atrophy. The Boss: Im kind of busy. Asok: Punch me in the head so I can feel ... Tags #hardening, #given more work, #central nervous system, #suddenly stiff, #ripening asok, #apathy cream, #air hole ... A hardening is when an employee is given more work than his central nervous system can handle. The Boss holds his arms out ...
encoded search term (Central Nervous System Complications in HIV) and Central Nervous System Complications in HIV What to Read ... Central Nervous System Complications in HIV. Updated: Apr 12, 2018 * Author: Regina Krel, MD; Chief Editor: Niranjan N Singh, ... Central nervous system viral invasion and inflammation during acute HIV infection. J Infect Dis. 2012 Jul 15. 206 (2):275-82. [ ... HIV-associated central nervous system diseases in the recent combination antiretroviral therapy era. Eur J Neurol. 2011 Mar. 18 ...
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In the vertebrate central nervous system, multipotential cells have been identified in vitro and in vivo. Defined mitogens ... Definition of the processes that shape the cellular makeup of the central nervous system (CNS) has relied heavily on three ... Instructive mechanisms also occur in both the peripheral (PNS) and central nervous systems. Glial growth factor, a member of ... and multipotential cells with similar signaling logic can be cultured from the adult central nervous system. Transplanting ...
Purchase New Perspectives of Central Nervous System Injury and Neuroprotection, Volume 102 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ... New Perspectives of Central Nervous System Injury and Neuroprotection, Volume 102 1st Edition. 0.0 star rating Write a review ... Central nervous system (CNS) diseases such as Alzheimers disease, Parkinsons disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ... Chapter 7 Central Nervous Tissue Damage after Hypoxia and Reperfusion in Conjunction with Cardiac Arrest and Cardiopulmonary ...
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The nervous and immune systems have, therefore, coevolved to permit effective immune surveillance while limiting immune ... The immune system is involved in the pathogenesis of many of these, either by causing tissue damage or alternatively by ... It is clearly vital that cells of the immune system patrol the CNS and protect against infection. However, in contrast to other ... The adaptive immune system in diseases of the central nervous system. David C. Wraith, Lindsay B. Nicholson David C. Wraith, ...
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Involvement of the central nervous system in Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium infection: a review. Brain 108: 1023-1038. ... Key words: schistosomiasis - neuroschistosomiasis - central nervous system/parasitology - Schistosoma mansoni - Schistosama ... Estimation of the local synthesis of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the central nervous system of patients with spinal cord ... The involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) by schistosomes may or may not determine clinical manifestations. When ...
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  • Figure 2: Organization of the autonomic nervous system. (britannica.com)
  • Differences in heart rate variability (HRV) and EEG power suggested greater involvement of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in the IBMT group during and after training. (pnas.org)
  • The physiological measures included heart rate, skin conductance response (SCR), and respiratory amplitude and rate, to monitor autonomic nervous system activity. (pnas.org)
  • This design allowed us to apply random assignment using participants without any previous meditation or relaxation experience, given the same amount of training to detect the relationship between the brain networks and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) during training (see Materials and Methods ). (pnas.org)
  • Under conditions of hypoglycemia, when the autonomic nervous system is activated, elevated insulin levels have been shown to inhibit ( 9 ), augment ( 10 - 14 ), or not significantly effect ( 15 - 18 ) the sympathoadrenal response. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Although the site of insulin action was not identified in these studies, it has been suggested that circulating insulin crosses the blood-brain barrier to directly activate the autonomic nervous system. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The relic of those primitive mechanisms is our autonomic nervous system, which controls bodily functions such as heartbeat and digestion, and of which we are largely unconscious. (dailygalaxy.com)
  • The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a division of the peripheral nervous system that influences the function of internal organs.The autonomic nervous system is a control system that acts largely unconsciously and regulates bodily functions such as the heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, pupillary response, urination, and sexual arousal. (glogster.com)
  • The central nervous system ( CNS ) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord . (wikipedia.org)
  • From and to the spinal cord are projections of the peripheral nervous system in the form of spinal nerves (sometimes segmental nerves [7] ). (wikipedia.org)
  • The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord, both derived from the embryonic neural tube. (britannica.com)
  • has two main divisions: the central nervous system, consisting of the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system, which in humans includes 12 pairs of cranial nerves, 31 pairs of spinal nerves, and the autonomic, or involuntary, nervous system. (britannica.com)
  • progressive disease of the central nervous system characterized by destruction of the myelin sheath surrounding the nerve fibres of the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves. (britannica.com)
  • The nervous system is organized into two parts: the central nervous system, which consists of the brain and the spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system , which connects the central nervous system to the rest of the body. (medscape.com)
  • In the central nervous system, the brain and spinal cord are the main centers where correlation and integration of nervous information occur. (medscape.com)
  • It is believed that in symptomatic NS the eggs reach the CNS through retrograde venous flow into the Batson vertebral epidural venous plexus, which connects the portal venous system and venae cavae to the spinal cord and cerebral veins. (scielo.br)
  • Hello, I am interested in researching the potential role IGF-1 can play in the repair of central nervous system myelin lesions/inflammation, specifically in the cervical spinal cord. (anabolicminds.com)
  • A central nervous system tumor (CNS tumor) is an abnormal growth of cells from the tissues of the brain or spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • The part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord, to which sensory impulses are transmitted and from which motor impulses pass out, and that supervises and coordinates the activity of the entire nervous system. (xenbase.org)
  • The peripheral nervous system is made up of the nerves that leave the spinal cord and innervate the rest of the body. (healthtap.com)
  • Generally, the central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord. (healthtap.com)
  • Central nervous system disorders are a group of diseases and conditions that affect the health and functioning of the spinal cord and brain. (medicalmarijuanainc.com)
  • Central nervous system disorders are a broad category of conditions or diseases that affect the spinal cord or brain. (medicalmarijuanainc.com)
  • Studies have shown that cannabis has neuroprotective effects, and in turn supports the health of the brain and spinal cord and helps in the treatment of a variety of central nervous system disorders. (medicalmarijuanainc.com)
  • The Central Nervous System (CNS) consists of the brain and the spinal cord and is protected by the meninges, a protective three-layer covering formed of the dura mater, the arachnoid mater and the pia mater. (univ-mrs.fr)
  • The brain and spinal cord form the control center known as the central nervous system (CNS), where information is evaluated and decisions made. (glogster.com)
  • The nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, sensory organs, and all of the nerves that connect these organs with the rest of the body. (glogster.com)
  • The brain and spinal cord together form the central nervous system, or CNS. (glogster.com)
  • The CNS acts as the control center of the body by providing its processing, memory, and regulation systems.The central nervous system (CNS) is made up of the brain, brain stem, and spinal cord which process data and provide output to the body. (glogster.com)
  • The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is the part of the nervous system that consists of the nerves and ganglia outside of the brain and spinal cord.The main function of the PNS is to connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the limbs and organs. (glogster.com)
  • The other is the peripheral nervous system (PNS) which is outside the brain and spinal cord. (labroots.com)
  • Inside the central nervous system (CNS), a region that includes the brain and spinal cord, it is the job of certain cells, called microglia, to clean up that cellular debris. (healthcanal.com)
  • Brachial plexus injuries take place at the intersection of the central and peripheral nervous systems, affecting nerves that connect the brain and spinal cord to the shoulders, arms and hands. (healthcanal.com)
  • Microscopically, there are differences between the neurons and tissue of the CNS and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). (wikipedia.org)
  • The central nervous system is composed of large numbers of excitable nerve cells and their processes, called neurons, which are supported by specialized tissue called neuroglia. (medscape.com)
  • Factors that control the differentiation of fetal stem cells to neurons and glia have been defined in vitro, and multipotential cells with similar signaling logic can be cultured from the adult central nervous system. (sciencemag.org)
  • The adult nervous system also contains multipotential precursors for neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes ( 13 , 16 , 18-20 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Enkephalinergic neurons and fibers were present in the midbrain central gray. (umich.edu)
  • This proposal uses a compartmentalised microfluidic system to allow the culturing of primary neurons isolated from rat embryos whilst retaining the morphological development seen in vivo . (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • Once thought to merely shield the CNS parenchyma containing mostly neurons and glial cells, the meninges have been proven to harbor a large network of functions, owing to the presence of newly identified cells including cells of the immune system, particularly novel innate immune sentinel cells. (univ-mrs.fr)
  • GPEE in the System of Propriospinal Neurons. (akademika.no)
  • Nowhere is this process more important than in the central nervous system, where the asymmetric division of neural stem cells called neuroblasts contributes to the profusion of neurons and glial cells. (phys.org)
  • Hemangioblastomas (HBs) are benign vascular tumors of the central nervous system and histologically contain abundant microvessels. (bioportfolio.com)
  • As such, the olfactory epithelium is the only central nervous tissue in direct contact with the environment, which opens up for therapeutic treatments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different forms of glial cells have different functions, some acting almost as scaffolding for neuroblasts to climb during neurogenesis such as bergmann glia , while others such as microglia are a specialized form of macrophage , involved in the immune system of the brain as well as the clearance of various metabolites from the brain tissue . (wikipedia.org)
  • Acquaintance and histology of nervous tissue has been taken for with the basic cytology granted. (springer.com)
  • Definition of the processes that shape the cellular makeup of the central nervous system (CNS) has relied heavily on three distinct procedures: fate mapping, tissue culture, and transplantation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Tissue culture and transplant techniques, developed in vertebrate systems ( 2 ), have generated important data on the potential of neural cells ( 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The immune system is involved in the pathogenesis of many of these, either by causing tissue damage or alternatively by responding to disease and contributing to repair. (jci.org)
  • Available evidence suggests that NS depends basically on the presence of parasite eggs in the nervous tissue and on the host immune response. (scielo.br)
  • The diagnosis of cerebral NS is established by biopsy of the nervous tissue and SMR is usually diagnosed according to a clinical criterion. (scielo.br)
  • Several aspects of the pathogenesis of NS are unknown, although available evidence suggests that the lesions seen in the CNS depend basically on the presence of parasite eggs in the nervous tissue and on the host immune response. (scielo.br)
  • Around the same time, Cohen advanced the idea of the "immunological homunculus" ( 22 ), assigning the immune system physiological roles in tissue maintenance and homeostasis. (sciencemag.org)
  • The olfactory epithelium is the only central nervous tissue outside the meninges in direct contact with the environment, which opens up a pathway for therapeutic agents which cannot otherwise cross the meninges barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • do they all effect the same tissues equally, or are some more aimed at muscle tissue, nervous tissue, or anything like that? (anabolicminds.com)
  • Veins in a venous angioma are surrounded by normal nervous tissue, unlike a CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM CAVERNOUS HEMANGIOMA that lacks intervening nervous tissue. (curehunter.com)
  • ICD-9 code 200.50 for Primary central nervous system lymphoma, unspecified site, extranodal and solid organ sites is a medical classification as listed by WHO under the range -MALIGNANT NEOPLASM OF LYMPHATIC AND HEMATOPOIETIC TISSUE (200-208). (aapc.com)
  • Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are a group of neoplasms that originate from various cells in the CNS. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The presence of these findings in diverse central nervous system neoplasms and manipulation of the observation for therapeutic benefit have yet to be explored. (umsystem.edu)
  • Central Nervous System Disorders - can yellow fever effect the central nervous system? (drugs.com)
  • Central Nervous System Disorders - When I use the patch to stop smoking, I have a great deal of? (drugs.com)
  • Central Nervous System Disorders - Any members out there with Spina Bifida or family members? (drugs.com)
  • The Global EEG/EMG Equipment market has also been witnessing the trend of novel molecules, launched to treat central nervous system disorders effectively. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Definition of neurology: a science involved in the study of the nervous systems, especially of the diseases and disorders affecting them. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • This is a multidisciplinary study which involves a team of infectious disease experts in the field of HIV, neuroradiologists with expertise in fMRI and MRS techniques to study various central nervous system and psychiatric disorders and a psychiatrist with experience and expertise in research on abnormalities of affective and motivational processing in the context of neuropsychiatric disorders. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Studies have shown cannabis can limit the progression of many central nervous system disorders and help manage symptoms like pain, seizures and spasms. (medicalmarijuanainc.com)
  • While central nervous system disorders can vary greatly from each other, all the disorders cause a loss of sufficient, intact nervous system circuits that orchestrate particular functions. (medicalmarijuanainc.com)
  • The damage that leads to or causes central nervous system disorders can include trauma, infections, degeneration, congenital problems, structural defects, tumors, blood flow disruption and autoimmune disorders. (medicalmarijuanainc.com)
  • Most central nervous system disorders cannot be cured, but medications, therapy, surgery and other treatment options can help limit their progression and manage associated symptoms. (medicalmarijuanainc.com)
  • The upregulation of the endocannabinoid system has shown to reduce the severity of symptoms like neuropathic pain and muscle spasms and slow the progression of central nervous system disorders like multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and others (Di Marzo, Bifulco & De Petrocellis, 2004). (medicalmarijuanainc.com)
  • Unlike other cancers of the nervous system, such as brain tumors, CNS lymphoma often responds to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. (mskcc.org)
  • Brain magnetic resonance imaging showing primary central nervous system B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the sella turcica and hypothalamus , continuing to the tectum (intensely white areas in the middle). (wikipedia.org)
  • A primary central nervous system lymphoma ( PCNSL ), also known as microglioma and primary brain lymphoma , [1] is a primary intracranial tumor appearing mostly in patients with severe immunodeficiency (typically patients with AIDS ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma is a form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma , a cancer that starts in white blood cells. (mskcc.org)
  • Primary CNS lymphoma is usually confined to areas of the nervous system. (mskcc.org)
  • Secondary CNS lymphoma forms in other parts of the body and later spreads to the nervous system. (mskcc.org)
  • Unusual relapse of primary central nervous system lymphoma both inside and outside central nervous system in a patient with ventriculoperitoneal shunt: a case report. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Relapse of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) occurs primarily at the initial site, relapse outside central nervous system is very rare. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Lyme disease mimicking central nervous system lymphoma. (prohealth.com)
  • Primary central nervous system lymphoma in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus mimicking high-grade glioma: A case report and review of literature. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare disease. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The initial intent of this study was to examine the origins of Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma (PCNSL), a neoplasm whose oncogenesisin immunocompetentpatients is incompletely understood. (umsystem.edu)
  • Re-induction chemotherapy regimens in patients with recurrent central nervous system mixed malignant germ cell tumors. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The lack of a standard treatment approach has contributed to poor outcomes of patients with recurrent central nervous system (CNS) mixed malignant germ cell tumors (MMGCT). (bioportfolio.com)
  • Infection with HIV can affect both the peripheral and central nervous systems (CNS) in their entirety as well as muscles. (medscape.com)
  • Are you sure you want to remove Histopathology of the peripheral and central nervous systems from your list? (openlibrary.org)
  • Several Phase II and III clinical trials have demonstrated that immunotherapy can induce objective responses in otherwise refractory malignancies in tumors outside the central nervous system. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In the vertebrate central nervous system, multipotential cells have been identified in vitro and in vivo. (sciencemag.org)
  • The rest of this article exclusively discusses the vertebrate central nervous system, which is radically distinct from all other animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The microsurgical anatomy of the central nervous system and skull base is an area of expertise where art and technique meet. (frontiersin.org)
  • Regarding the central nervous system, studies of the anatomy and approaches to the mesial temporal region, cerebral ventricles, insular lobe, central core, white brain fibers, as well as the correlation of anatomical findings with brain mapping are also of interest. (frontiersin.org)
  • The patient reached hematological remission after one cycle of chemotherapy and we proceeded to central nervous system prophylaxis with cranial radiotherapy and intrathecal methotrexate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This presentation explores the role of radiotherapy in the management of central nervous system (CNS) tumors and the possible neurological complications of radiotherapy. (uctv.tv)
  • Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a human autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) cha. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Multiple sclerosis (ms) is an autoimmune disease (body's defense system attacking itself) that involves the central nervous system . (healthtap.com)
  • conspicuous in relation to the central nervous system, although it is equally important for the heart and lungs and some other organs. (britannica.com)
  • The infection may be limited to the nervous system or coexist in other organs (e.g. (mcw.edu)
  • The nerves that connect the CNS to the limbs, organs and the outside world is the peripheral nervous system. (healthtap.com)
  • The sensory nerves and sense organs of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) monitorconditions inside and outside of the body and send this information to the CNS. (glogster.com)
  • A 529-base region of the se- of 8 (14%) of 58 children with suspected central nervous quence was aligned with other CHIKV E1 gene sequences system infection in Bellary, India. (cdc.gov)
  • CNS complications tend to progress more rapidly in children, probably because of the inability of their immune systems to mount an appropriate T-cell, B-cell, or cytokine response to the infection. (medscape.com)
  • For patient education information, see the Dementia Center , Immune System Center , and Sexually Transmitted Diseases Center , as well as Dementia Due to HIV Infection and HIV/AIDS . (medscape.com)
  • Dynamic changes and diagnostic and prognostic significance of serum PCT, hs-CRP and s-100 protein in central nervous system infection. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Anti-NMDAR encephalitis preceded by non-herpetic central nervous system infection: Systematic literature review and first case of tick-borne encephalitis triggering anti-NMDAR encephalitis. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A prospective, open-label study investigated the pharmacokinetic profile of meropenem in patients with post-neurosurgical central nervous system (CNS) infection, especially its BBB penetra. (bioportfolio.com)
  • It is clearly vital that cells of the immune system patrol the CNS and protect against infection. (jci.org)
  • Adult patients with primary central nervous system tumours fulfilling the inclusion criteria according to the study protocol. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The sympathetic nervous system's primary process is to stimulate the body's fight-or-flight response. (glogster.com)
  • This system is the primary mechanism in control of the fight-or-flight response. (glogster.com)
  • So if they're seen outside in the peripheral nervous system - that was surprising to us - that opens up a ton of new questions," said Cody J. Smith , the Elizabeth and Michael Gallagher Assistant Professor of Biological Sciences at Notre Dame and at the University's Center for Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine . (healthcanal.com)
  • books.google.com - A textbook of neuropsychopharmacology focused on the mechanisms of drug action in the central nervous system, this volume covers drugs used in both psychiatry and neurology and gives a clear picture of their behavioral, therapeutic, and toxic effects. (google.com)
  • However, lithium protects and benefits the central nervous system, and there are even indications that lithium can treat other neurodegenerative diseases. (rainbow.coop)
  • Neuroimmunologists seek to understand the interactions between the central nervous system (CNS) and the immune system, both under homeostatic conditions and in diseases. (sciencemag.org)
  • How do diseases attack the central nervous system? (healthtap.com)
  • What are different diseases of the central nervous system? (healthtap.com)
  • Injury or disease in the central nervous system (CNS) such as stroke or Alzheimer's disease is often irreversible, thus patients su_ering from such injuries or diseases have poor prognosis. (bibsys.no)
  • In some neurodegenerative diseases failure in the axonal transport system is the underlying cause of the disease. (bibsys.no)
  • The surprising result could have broad implications in the area of nervous system diseases, while opening the door to a completely new set of questions in the study of both systems. (healthcanal.com)
  • There was little thought these cells could leave the central nervous system, so there are few studies of microglia in the context of diseases and function within both central and peripheral nervous system diseases," Smith said. (healthcanal.com)
  • Market Landscape Global Central Nervous System Drugs Market Market Size Key Market Segments 04.1 Global Antipsychotics Market 04.2 Global Antidepressants Market 04.3 Global Antiepileptic Drugs Market 04.4 Global Anti-Alzheimer's Drugs Market 04.5 Global ADHD Drugs Market 04.6 Global Hypnotics Market 04.7 Global Anti-Parkinson's Drugs Market 04.8 Global Antimigraine Drugs Market Segmentation of Global Central Nervous System Drugs Market Five Forces Analysis 05. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Adult neurogenesis in the mammalian central nervous system. (nih.gov)
  • This route permits either anomalous migration of the adult worms to sites close to the CNS followed by in situ oviposition, or massive embolization of eggs from the portal mesenteric-pelvic system. (scielo.br)
  • The neuroscience sequence is foundational in nature and stresses the organizational principles and structure/function relationships in the central nervous system. (merlot.org)
  • The Fifth edition finds the text of The Central Nervous System thoroughly updated and revised, better equipping students with essential information in the field of clinical neuroscience. (oup.com)
  • Neuroscience is the scientific study of nervous systems. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • The cell biology of the neuron, neurotransmitter systems and neuronal injury and repair are also emphasized. (merlot.org)
  • Epidemiology of stillbirth and fetal central nervous system injury. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The epidemiology of stillbirth and fetal central nervous system (CNS) injury is described with some emphasis on maternal and feto-placental risk factors. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In a new study published in the Public Library of Science (PLoS Biology) , scientists at the University of Notre Dame discovered microglia actually squeeze through the spinal boundary, crossing into the peripheral nervous system in response to injury. (healthcanal.com)
  • Once inside the peripheral nervous system, Smith said, microglia do their job of clearing cellular debris at the point of injury, but they return to the CNS with that debris, and could potentially carry it straight to the brain. (healthcanal.com)
  • The course emphasizes the relationship between the gross organization of the Central Nervous System (CNS), its subdivision into specialized regions and the corresponding perceptions of sensory information and the nervous system control of behavior. (merlot.org)
  • As mentioned earlier, technology is the central nervous system or the backbone of the future organization. (oreilly.com)
  • The nervous and immune systems have, therefore, coevolved to permit effective immune surveillance while limiting immune pathology. (jci.org)
  • This depiction set a clear separation between the nervous and immune systems until quite recently ( 3 , 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Central Nervous System Pathology by Kryzhanovsky, G. N.. 9780306109829. (akademika.no)
  • CHIKV was pected central nervous system (CNS) infections admitted to not detected in 2 CSF samples, and no CSF samples were a hospital in rural southern India, we noticed an unseasonal available for 3 children. (cdc.gov)
  • Nervous system infections caused by tick-borne spirochetes of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This study is the first to provide neuroimaging evidence that RA is a mixed pain state, with many patients' symptoms being related to the central nervous system rather than to classic inflammatory mechanisms," the authors write. (drugs.com)
  • The Central Nervous System (CNS) is protected by the meninges, a three-layer covering that provides a structure onto which a myriad of resident innate immune sentinel cells block threatening pathogens or activate the adaptive immune system in response to inflammatory challenges. (univ-mrs.fr)
  • For a long time, the immune system was commonly viewed solely as the body's defense mechanism against pathogens. (sciencemag.org)
  • In the early 1990s, however, Matzinger proposed the "danger" theory, in which the immune system responds not only to signals from pathogens but also to danger signals released from damaged tissues, even in the case of sterile injuries ( 21 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • the interface between pathogens and immunity influenced the evolution of our almost infinitely complex nervous system. (sciencemag.org)
  • Human Coronaviruses and Other Respiratory Viruses: Underestimated Opportunistic Pathogens of the Central Nervous System? (mdpi.com)
  • brings about atrophy in the central nervous system as elsewhere. (britannica.com)
  • My central nervous system is starting to atrophy. (dilbert.com)
  • While the brain has classically been regarded as insulin insensitive, there has been clinical evidence to implicate that insulin can act in the central nervous system (CNS) to influence sympathetic nervous activity ( 6 - 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cannabinoids interact with the cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) of the endocannabinoid system, which plays a significant regulatory role in health and disease (Di Marzo, Bifulco & De Petrocellis, 2004). (medicalmarijuanainc.com)
  • Central nervous system tumors take advantage of the unique immunology of the CNS and develop exquisitely complex stromal networks that promote growth despite the presence of antigen-presenting cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. (hindawi.com)
  • The present study was carried out to examine if peptides similar to the various opioid peptide products of mammalian proenkephalin are present in the turtle central nervous system and to determine their distribution. (umich.edu)
  • These results indicate that after 5 days of training, the IBMT group shows better regulation of the ANS by a ventral midfrontal brain system than does the relaxation group. (pnas.org)
  • Regulation of lymphocyte trafficking in central nervous system autoimmunity. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This book is based on the Symposium "Metabolic Regulation and Functional Activity in the Central Nervous System" which was held on September 16 and 17, 1972, at Saint- Vincent (Aosta)/Italy, and was sponsored by the Accademia di Medicina di Torino with the scientific cooperation of the Istituto di Farmacologia, Universita di Torino, and the Pharmakologisches Institut der Freien Universitat Berlin. (springer.com)
  • Once developed, this system will be used to determine the role of microRNA (miRNA) regulation in the transition from acute to chronic nociception. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • During the Cambrian explosion, after numerous mutations, certain creatures with nervous systems would have generated not just images of the world around them but also an imagetic counterpart to the busy process of life regulation that was going on underneath. (dailygalaxy.com)
  • Damage to the central nervous system normally leads to a neurologic deficit such as weakness, numbness, loss of speech among other findings. (healthtap.com)
  • Researchers say the findings could alter the way we think about how the brain and immune system inter-relate. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • ICD-9 code 794.09 for Other nonspecific abnormal results of function study of brain and central nervous system is a medical classification as listed by WHO under the range -NONSPECIFIC ABNORMAL FINDINGS (790-796). (aapc.com)
  • Role of endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition in the pathogenesis of central nervous system hemangioblastomas. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS), and is necessary to balance the natural excitatory nature of the CNS. (rainbow.coop)
  • Serotonin (5-HT) is a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. (rainbow.coop)
  • it also covers the Global Central Nervous System Drugs market landscape and its growth prospects in the coming years. (bio-medicine.org)
  • These cellular components of the immune system apparently coexist with the developing tumor, and while antitumor responses are possible within the CNS [ 80 ], they are typically ineffective [ 38 , 81 - 83 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Central nervous system tuberculosis (TB) was identified in 20 cases of unexplained encephalitis referred to the California Encephalitis Project. (cdc.gov)
  • Tuberculosis (TB) of the central nervous system (CNS) is classically described as meningitis. (cdc.gov)
  • The focus of the meeting was on plasticity of the central nervous system, one of the most decisive factors in recovery and readaption after cerebral lesions. (springer.com)
  • Has anyone been prescribed 'central nervous system stimulants' for depression? (drugs.com)
  • Forty years since the initial discovery of neurogenesis in the postnatal rat hippocampus, investigators have now firmly established that active neurogenesis from neural progenitors continues throughout life in discrete regions of the central nervous systems (CNS) of all mammals, including humans. (nih.gov)
  • We are cautious about predicting the potential of Taxol or similar drugs for use in humans", Prof. Fischer emphasizes, "although Taxol or similar drugs might be promising candidates for the treatment of injuries to the central nervous system, be it from stroke or trauma. (innovations-report.com)
  • System in humans is the brain and spinal column. (healthtap.com)
  • Synapse formation, maturation, elimination and plasticity are essential for the function of all nervous systems. (healthcanal.com)
  • Tre1 GPCR signaling orients stem cell divisions in the Drosophila central nervous system. (phys.org)
  • The central nervous system (CNS) is one of the two major divisions of the nervous system. (labroots.com)
  • Using the optic nerve model, medical scientists from Düsseldorf / Ulm, Germany, headed by Prof. Dr. Dietmar Fischer, have demonstrated that paclitaxel, an approved cancer drug known as Taxol for two decades, facilitates the regeneration of nerve fibers, called axons, in the brain and central nervous system. (innovations-report.com)
  • Three paired bundles of myelinated nerve fibers, called cerebellar peduncles, form communication pathways between the cerebellum and other parts of the central nervous system. (cancer.gov)
  • The results indicated that LENK, MENK, and MERF (or highly similar peptides) are present in the turtle central nervous system, and that a peptide showing immunological similarity to BAM22P and PEPE also appeared to be present. (umich.edu)
  • The microfluidic system has the capacity to allow investigation of novel molecular mechanisms in addition to the potential for screening of compounds in pain research. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • Relationship between Peripheral and Central Mechanisms in Causalgia and Neuralgia. (akademika.no)
  • On the Theory of the Generator Mechanisms of Central Pain Syndromes: Evolution of Concepts. (akademika.no)
  • Smith, P.J. , Howes, E.A. and Treherne, J.E. (1987) Mechanisms of glial regeneration in an insect central nervous system. (soton.ac.uk)