Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Central Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.Central Nervous System Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the brain, spinal cord, or meninges.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Central Nervous System Infections: Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.Peripheral Nervous System: The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.Central Nervous System Viral Diseases: Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Vasculitis, Central Nervous System: Inflammation of blood vessels within the central nervous system. Primary vasculitis is usually caused by autoimmune or idiopathic factors, while secondary vasculitis is caused by existing disease process. Clinical manifestations are highly variable but include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; behavioral alterations; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; and BRAIN INFARCTION. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp856-61)Central Nervous System Agents: A class of drugs producing both physiological and psychological effects through a variety of mechanisms. They can be divided into "specific" agents, e.g., affecting an identifiable molecular mechanism unique to target cells bearing receptors for that agent, and "nonspecific" agents, those producing effects on different target cells and acting by diverse molecular mechanisms. Those with nonspecific mechanisms are generally further classed according to whether they produce behavioral depression or stimulation. Those with specific mechanisms are classed by locus of action or specific therapeutic use. (From Gilman AG, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p252)Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Central Nervous System Fungal Infections: MYCOSES of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges which may result in ENCEPHALITIS; MENINGITIS, FUNGAL; MYELITIS; BRAIN ABSCESS; and EPIDURAL ABSCESS. Certain types of fungi may produce disease in immunologically normal hosts, while others are classified as opportunistic pathogens, causing illness primarily in immunocompromised individuals (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME).Enteric Nervous System: Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)Nervous System Physiological Phenomena: Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Central Nervous System Bacterial Infections: Bacterial infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges, including infections involving the perimeningeal spaces.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Myelin Sheath: The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Tuberculosis, Central Nervous System: Tuberculosis of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges (TUBERCULOSIS, MENINGEAL), most often caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and rarely by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The infection may be limited to the nervous system or coexist in other organs (e.g., TUBERCULOSIS, PULMONARY). The organism tends to seed the meninges causing a diffuse meningitis and leads to the formation of TUBERCULOMA, which may occur within the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal spaces. Tuberculous involvement of the vertebral column (TUBERCULOSIS, SPINAL) may result in nerve root or spinal cord compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-20)Nervous System Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes arising from or involving components of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, cranial nerves, and meninges. Included in this category are primary and metastatic nervous system neoplasms.Nerve Tissue ProteinsDemyelinating Diseases: Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental: An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Oligodendroglia: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Multiple Sclerosis: An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Mice, Inbred C57BLEncephalomyelitis: A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.Microglia: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Encephalitis, Viral: Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Meningoencephalitis: An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Trauma, Nervous System: Traumatic injuries to the brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, autonomic nervous system, or neuromuscular system, including iatrogenic injuries induced by surgical procedures.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Myelin Proteins: MYELIN-specific proteins that play a structural or regulatory role in the genesis and maintenance of the lamellar MYELIN SHEATH structure.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Meninges: The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Leeches: Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Lupus Vasculitis, Central Nervous System: Central nervous system vasculitis that is associated with SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Clinical manifestations may include DEMENTIA; SEIZURES; CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; HEMIPARESIS; BLINDNESS; DYSPHASIA; and other neurological disorders.Myelin Basic Protein: An abundant cytosolic protein that plays a critical role in the structure of multilamellar myelin. Myelin basic protein binds to the cytosolic sides of myelin cell membranes and causes a tight adhesion between opposing cell membranes.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Ganglia: Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Spinal Cord Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms which occur within the substance of the spinal cord (intramedullary neoplasms) or in the space between the dura and spinal cord (intradural extramedullary neoplasms). The majority of intramedullary spinal tumors are primary CNS neoplasms including ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; and LIPOMA. Intramedullary neoplasms are often associated with SYRINGOMYELIA. The most frequent histologic types of intradural-extramedullary tumors are MENINGIOMA and NEUROFIBROMA.Meningitis, Viral: Viral infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space. TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RUBELLA; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORBIVIRUS infections; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RHABDOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; JC VIRUS infections; and RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS may cause this form of meningitis. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, neck pain, vomiting, PHOTOPHOBIA, and signs of meningeal irritation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Central Nervous System Protozoal Infections: Infections of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges by single celled organisms of the former subkingdom known as protozoa. The central nervous system may be the primary or secondary site of protozoal infection. These diseases may occur as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS or arise in immunocompetent hosts.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Meningeal Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein: A myelin protein found in the periaxonal membrane of both the central and peripheral nervous systems myelin sheaths. It binds to cells surface receptors found on AXONS and may regulate cellular interactions between MYELIN and AXONS.Myelin-Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein: A transmembrane protein present in the MYELIN SHEATH of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is one of the main autoantigens implicated in the pathogenesis of MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Theilovirus: A species of CARDIOVIRUS which contains three strains: Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus, Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus, and Rat encephalomyelitis virus.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Peripheral Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.AIDS Dementia Complex: A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)Autonomic Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the parasympathetic or sympathetic divisions of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; which has components located in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Autonomic dysfunction may be associated with HYPOTHALAMIC DISEASES; BRAIN STEM disorders; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. Manifestations include impairments of vegetative functions including the maintenance of BLOOD PRESSURE; HEART RATE; pupil function; SWEATING; REPRODUCTIVE AND URINARY PHYSIOLOGY; and DIGESTION.Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS: Conditions characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin (see MYELIN SHEATH) in the brain, spinal cord, or optic nerves secondary to autoimmune mediated processes. This may take the form of a humoral or cellular immune response directed toward myelin or OLIGODENDROGLIA associated autoantigens.Meningitis: Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Neuroaspergillosis: Infections of the nervous system caused by fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS, most commonly ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS. Aspergillus infections may occur in immunocompetent hosts, but are more prevalent in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES. The organism may spread to the nervous system from focal infections in the lung, mastoid region, sinuses, inner ear, bones, eyes, gastrointestinal tract, and heart. Sinus infections may be locally invasive and enter the intracranial compartment, producing MENINGITIS, FUNGAL; cranial neuropathies; and abscesses in the frontal lobes of the brain. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch 27, pp62-3)Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Neurodegenerative Diseases: Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.Coronavirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Neuroimmunomodulation: The biochemical and electrophysiological interactions between the NERVOUS SYSTEM and IMMUNE SYSTEM.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Ependyma: A thin membrane that lines the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES and the central canal of the SPINAL CORD.Parasympathetic Nervous System: The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System: Disorders caused by cellular or humoral immune responses primarily directed towards nervous system autoantigens. The immune response may be directed towards specific tissue components (e.g., myelin) and may be limited to the central nervous system (e.g., MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS) or the peripheral nervous system (e.g., GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME).Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Neurites: In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.Murine hepatitis virus: A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Neural Stem Cells: Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Myelin Proteolipid Protein: A myelin protein that is the major component of the organic solvent extractable lipoprotein complexes of whole brain. It has been the subject of much study because of its unusual physical properties. It remains soluble in chloroform even after essentially all of its bound lipids have been removed. (From Siegel et al., Basic Neurochemistry, 4th ed, p122)Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Choroid Plexus: A villous structure of tangled masses of BLOOD VESSELS contained within the third, lateral, and fourth ventricles of the BRAIN. It regulates part of the production and composition of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Nervous System Malformations: Structural abnormalities of the central or peripheral nervous system resulting primarily from defects of embryogenesis.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Central Nervous System Helminthiasis: Infections of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; or MENINGES caused by HELMINTHS (parasitic worms).Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins: Proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid, normally albumin and globulin present in the ratio of 8 to 1. Increases in protein levels are of diagnostic value in neurological diseases. (Brain and Bannister's Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p221)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Ganglia, Invertebrate: Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Enterovirus InfectionsEmbryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Rhombencephalon: The posterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of an embryonic brain. It consists of myelencephalon, metencephalon, and isthmus rhombencephali from which develop the major BRAIN STEM components, such as MEDULLA OBLONGATA from the myelencephalon, CEREBELLUM and PONS from the metencephalon, with the expanded cavity forming the FOURTH VENTRICLE.Astrocytoma: Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)Schwann Cells: Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Telencephalon: The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.Nerve Tissue: Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Rats, Inbred LewCerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Central Nervous System Parasitic Infections: Infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges caused by parasites.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Meningioma: A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)Spinal Cord Diseases: Pathologic conditions which feature SPINAL CORD damage or dysfunction, including disorders involving the meninges and perimeningeal spaces surrounding the spinal cord. Traumatic injuries, vascular diseases, infections, and inflammatory/autoimmune processes may affect the spinal cord.Medulloblastoma: A malignant neoplasm that may be classified either as a glioma or as a primitive neuroectodermal tumor of childhood (see NEUROECTODERMAL TUMOR, PRIMITIVE). The tumor occurs most frequently in the first decade of life with the most typical location being the cerebellar vermis. Histologic features include a high degree of cellularity, frequent mitotic figures, and a tendency for the cells to organize into sheets or form rosettes. Medulloblastoma have a high propensity to spread throughout the craniospinal intradural axis. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2060-1)Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Cuprizone: Copper chelator that inhibits monoamine oxidase and causes liver and brain damage.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Hemangioblastoma: A benign tumor of the nervous system that may occur sporadically or in association with VON HIPPEL-LINDAU DISEASE. It accounts for approximately 2% of intracranial tumors, arising most frequently in the cerebellar hemispheres and vermis. Histologically, the tumors are composed of multiple capillary and sinusoidal channels lined with endothelial cells and clusters of lipid-laden pseudoxanthoma cells. Usually solitary, these tumors can be multiple and may also occur in the brain stem, spinal cord, retina, and supratentorial compartment. Cerebellar hemangioblastomas usually present in the third decade with INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION, and ataxia. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2071-2)Maus Elberfeld virus: A strain of ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS, a species of CARDIOVIRUS, usually causing an inapparent intestinal infection in mice. A small number of mice may show signs of flaccid paralysis.Cranial Nerves: Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Mesencephalon: The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.Cardiovirus Infections: Infections caused by viruses of the genus CARDIOVIRUS, family PICORNAVIRIDAE.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Rhabdoid Tumor: A rare but highly lethal childhood tumor found almost exclusively in infants. Histopathologically, it resembles RHABDOMYOSARCOMA but the tumor cells are not of myogenic origin. Although it arises primarily in the kidney, it may be found in other parts of the body. The rhabdoid cytomorphology is believed to be the expression of a very primitive malignant cell. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2210)Lymnaea: A genus of dextrally coiled freshwater snails that includes some species of importance as intermediate hosts of parasitic flukes.Hereditary Central Nervous System Demyelinating Diseases: Inherited conditions characterized by a loss of MYELIN in the central nervous system.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Diencephalon: The paired caudal parts of the PROSENCEPHALON from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive: A group of malignant tumors of the nervous system that feature primitive cells with elements of neuronal and/or glial differentiation. Use of this term is limited by some authors to central nervous system tumors and others include neoplasms of similar origin which arise extracranially (i.e., NEUROECTODERMAL TUMORS, PRIMITIVE, PERIPHERAL). This term is also occasionally used as a synonym for MEDULLOBLASTOMA. In general, these tumors arise in the first decade of life and tend to be highly malignant. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2059)Grasshoppers: Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.Neural Crest: The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Cerebellar Neoplasms: Primary or metastatic neoplasms of the CEREBELLUM. Tumors in this location frequently present with ATAXIA or signs of INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION due to obstruction of the fourth ventricle. Common primary cerebellar tumors include fibrillary ASTROCYTOMA and cerebellar HEMANGIOBLASTOMA. The cerebellum is a relatively common site for tumor metastases from the lung, breast, and other distant organs. (From Okazaki & Scheithauer, Atlas of Neuropathology, 1988, p86 and p141)Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cranial Irradiation: The exposure of the head to roentgen rays or other forms of radioactivity for therapeutic or preventive purposes.

Central peptidergic neurons are hyperactive during collateral sprouting and inhibition of activity suppresses sprouting. (1/6116)

Little is known regarding the effect of chronic changes in neuronal activity on the extent of collateral sprouting by identified CNS neurons. We have investigated the relationship between activity and sprouting in oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) neurons of the hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory system (MNS). Uninjured MNS neurons undergo a robust collateral-sprouting response that restores the axon population of the neural lobe (NL) after a lesion of the contralateral MNS (). Simultaneously, lesioned rats develop chronic urinary hyperosmolality indicative of heightened neurosecretory activity. We therefore tested the hypothesis that sprouting MNS neurons are hyperactive by measuring changes in cell and nuclear diameters, OT and VP mRNA pools, and axonal cytochrome oxidase activity (COX). Each of these measures was significantly elevated during the period of most rapid axonal growth between 1 and 4 weeks after the lesion, confirming that both OT and VP neurons are hyperactive while undergoing collateral sprouting. In a second study the hypothesis that chronic inhibition of neuronal activity would interfere with the sprouting response was tested. Chronic hyponatremia (CH) was induced 3 d before the hypothalamic lesion and sustained for 4 weeks to suppress neurosecretory activity. CH abolished the lesion-induced increases in OT and VP mRNA pools and virtually eliminated measurable COX activity in MNS terminals. Counts of the total number of axon profiles in the NL revealed that CH also prevented axonal sprouting from occurring. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that increased neuronal activity is required for denervation-induced collateral sprouting to occur in the MNS.  (+info)

Selective expression of purinoceptor cP2Y1 suggests a role for nucleotide signalling in development of the chick embryo. (2/6116)

Responses to extracellular nucleotides (e.g., ATP, ADP, etc.) have been demonstrated in a number of embryonic cell types suggesting they may be important signalling molecules during embryonic development. Here the authors describe for the first time the expression of a G-protein-coupled receptor for extracellular ATP, chick P2Y1 (cP2Y1), during embryonic development of the chick. During the first 10 days of embryonic development, cP2Y1 is expressed in a developmentally regulated manner in the limb buds, mesonephros, brain, somites, and facial primordia, suggesting that this receptor may have a role in the development of each of these systems.  (+info)

Actions of a pair of identified cerebral-buccal interneurons (CBI-8/9) in Aplysia that contain the peptide myomodulin. (3/6116)

A combination of biocytin back-fills of the cerebral-buccal connectives and immunocytochemistry of the cerebral ganglion demonstrated that of the 13 bilateral pairs of cerebral-buccal interneurons in the cerebral ganglion, a subpopulation of 3 are immunopositive for the peptide myomodulin. The present paper describes the properties of two of these cells, which we have termed CBI-8 and CBI-9. CBI-8 and CBI-9 were found to be dye coupled and electrically coupled. The cells have virtually identical properties, and consequently we consider them to be "twin" pairs and refer to them as CBI-8/9. CBI-8/9 were identified by electrophysiological criteria and then labeled with dye. Labeled cells were found to be immunopositive for myomodulin, and, using high pressure liquid chromatography, the cells were shown to contain authentic myomodulin. CBI-8/9 were found to receive synaptic input after mechanical stimulation of the tentacles. They also received excitatory input from C-PR, a neuron involved in neck lengthening, and received a slow inhibitory input from CC5, a cell involved in neck shortening, suggesting that CBI-8/9 may be active during forward movements of the head or buccal mass. Firing of CBI-8 or CBI-9 resulted in the activation of a relatively small number of buccal neurons as evidenced by extracellular recordings from buccal nerves. Firing also produced local movements of the buccal mass, in particular a strong contraction of the I7 muscle, which mediates radula opening. CBI-8/9 were found to produce a slow depolarization and rhythmic activity of B48, the motor neuron for the I7 muscle. The data provide continuing evidence that the small population of cerebral buccal interneurons is composed of neurons that are highly diverse in their functional roles. CBI-8/9 may function as a type of premotor neuron, or perhaps as a peptidergic modulatory neuron, the functions of which are dependent on the coactivity of other neurons.  (+info)

C-PR neuron of Aplysia has differential effects on "Feeding" cerebral interneurons, including myomodulin-positive CBI-12. (4/6116)

Head lifting and other aspects of the appetitive central motive state that precedes consummatory feeding movements in Aplysia is promoted by excitation of the C-PR neuron. Food stimuli activate C-PR as well as a small population of cerebral-buccal interneurons (CBIs). We wished to determine if firing of C-PR produced differential effects on the various CBIs or perhaps affected all the CBIs uniformly as might be expected for a neuron involved in producing a broad undifferentiated arousal state. We found that when C-PR was fired, it produced a wide variety of effects on various CBIs. Firing of C-PR evoked excitatory input to a newly identified CBI (CBI-12) the soma of which is located in the M cluster near the previously identified CBI-2. CBI-12 shares certain properties with CBI-2, including a similar morphology and a capacity to drive rhythmic activity of the buccal-ganglion. Unlike CBI-2, CBI-12 exhibits myomodulin immunoreactivity. Furthermore when C-PR is fired, CBI-12 receives a polysynaptic voltage-dependent slow excitation, whereas, CBI-2 receives relatively little input. C-PR also polysynaptically excites other CBIs including CBI-1 and CBI-8/9 but produces inhibition in CBI-3. In addition, firing of C-PR inhibits plateau potentials in CBI-5/6. The data suggest that activity of C-PR may promote the activity of one subset of cerebral-buccal interneurons, perhaps those involved in ingestive behaviors that occur during the head-up posture. C-PR also inhibits some cerebral-buccal interneurons that may be involved in behaviors in which C-PR activity is not required or may even interfere with other feeding behaviors such as rejection or grazing, that occur with the head down.  (+info)

Central autonomic activation by intracisternal TRH analogue excites gastric splanchnic afferent neurons. (5/6116)

Intracisternal (ic) injection of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) or its stable analogue RX 77368 influences gastric function via stimulation of vagal muscarinic pathways. In rats, the increase in gastric mucosal blood flow evoked by a low ic dose of RX 77368 occurs via release of calcitonin gene-related peptide from capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurons, most probably of spinal origin. In this study, the effect of low ic doses of RX 77368 on afferent impulse activity in splanchnic single fibers was investigated. The cisterna magna of overnight-fasted, urethan-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats was acutely cannulated, and fine splanchnic nerve twigs containing at least one fiber responsive to mechanical probing of the stomach were isolated at a site immediately distal to the left suprarenal ganglion. Unit mechanoreceptive fields were encountered in all portions of the stomach, both superficially and in deeper layers. Splanchnic afferent unit impulse activity was recorded continuously during basal conditions and in response to consecutive ic injections of saline and RX 77368 (15-30 min later; 1.5 or 3 ng). Basal discharge rates ranged from 0 to 154 impulses/min (median = 10.2 impulses/min). A majority of splanchnic single units with ongoing activity increased their mean discharge rate by >/=20% after ic injection of RX 77368 at either 1.5 ng (6/10 units; median increase 63%) or 3 ng (19/24 units; median increase 175%). Five units lacking impulse activity in the 5-min before ic RX 77368 (3 ng) were also excited, with the onset of discharge occurring within 1.0-5.0 min postinjection. In units excited by ic RX 77368, peak discharge occurred 15.6 +/- 1.3 min after injection and was followed by a decline to stable activity levels +info)

Cloning and functional studies of a novel gene aberrantly expressed in RB-deficient embryos. (6/6116)

The tumor suppressor RB regulates diverse cellular processes such as G1/S transition, cell differentiation, and cell survival. Indeed, Rb-knockout mice exhibit phenotypes including ectopic mitosis, defective differentiation, and extensive apoptosis in the neurons. Using differential display, a novel gene, Rig-1, was isolated based on its elevated expression in the hindbrain and spinal cord of Rb-knockout embryos. The longest open reading frame of Rig-1 encoded a polypeptide that consists of a putative extracellular segment with five immunoglobulin-like domains and three fibronectin III-like domains, a putative transmembrane domain, and a distinct intracellular segment. The Rig-1 sequence was 40% identical to the recently identified roundabout protein. Consistent with the predicted transmembrane nature of the protein, Rig-1 protein was present in the membranous fraction. Antisera raised against the putative extracellular and intracellular segments of Rig-1 reacted with an approximately 210-kDa protein in mouse embryonic CNS. Rig-1 mRNA was transiently expressed in the embryonic hindbrain and spinal cord. Elevated levels of Rig-1 mRNA and protein were found in Rb-/- embryos. Ectopic expression of a transmembrane form of Rig-1, but not the secreted form, promoted neuronal cell entrance to S phase and repressed the expression of a marker of differentiated neuron, Talpha1 tubulin. Thus Rig-1, a possible distant relative of roundabout, may mediate some of the pleiotropic roles of RB in the developing neurons.  (+info)

Neuronal differentiation and patterning in Xenopus: the role of cdk5 and a novel activator xp35.2. (7/6116)

Cdk5, a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family, has been shown to play an important role in development of the central nervous system in mammals when partnered by its activator p35. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of a novel activator of cdk5 in Xenopus, Xp35.2. Xp35.2 is expressed during development initially in the earliest differentiating primary neurons in the neural plate and then later in differentiating neural tissue of the brain. This is in contrast to the previously described Xenopus cdk5 activator Xp35.1 which is expressed over the entire expanse of the neural plate in both proliferating and differentiating cells. Expression of both Xp35.1 and Xp35.2 and activation of cdk5 kinase occur when terminal neural differentiation is induced by neurogenin and neuro D overexpression but not when only early stages of neural differentiation are induced by noggin. Moreover, blocking cdk5 kinase activity specifically results in disruption and reduction of the embryonic eye where cdk5 and its Xp35 activators are expressed. Thus, cdk5/p35 complexes function in aspects of neural differentiation and patterning in the early embryo and particularly in formation of the eye.  (+info)

Induction of Sarcophaga central nervous system remodeling by 20-hydroxyecdysone in vitro. (8/6116)

Proliferation and apoptosis of neural cells were found to be induced simultaneously when larval brains of Sarcophaga peregrina were cultured in the presence of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE) for 24 h. The locations of proliferating cells and apoptotic cells in the brain hemispheres were different. The morphology of brains exposed to 20-HE for a short period proceeded to change sequentially when culture was continued for 2 days even in the absence of 20-HE. These changes mainly consisted of enlargement of the brain hemispheres and extension of the interval between two hemispheres, which closely paralleled the morphological changes of brains that occur in the early pupal stage, suggesting that ecdysteroid alone is sufficient to induce the remodeling of the central nervous system of holometabolous insects. Synthesis of a protein with a molecular mass of 66 kDa was shown to be selectively repressed when brains were cultured in the presence of 20-HE.  (+info)

Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online The Human Brain During the Third Trimester: Volume 3 (Atlas of Human Central Nervous System Development) file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with The Human Brain During the Third Trimester: Volume 3 (Atlas of Human Central Nervous System Development) book. Happy reading The Human Brain During the Third Trimester: Volume 3 (Atlas of Human Central Nervous System Development) Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF The Human Brain During the Third Trimester: Volume 3 (Atlas of Human Central Nervous System Development) at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. Its free to register here to get Book file PDF The Human Brain During the Third Trimester: Volume 3 (Atlas of Human Central Nervous System ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Detection of HHV-6B in post-mortem central nervous system tissue of a post-bone marrow transplant recipient: a multi-virus array analysis.. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Atlas of human central nervous system development , Atlas of human central nervous system development , کتابخانه دیجیتالی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی و خدمات درمانی شهید بهشتی
Central nervous system toxicity was first described by Paul Bert in 1878.[105][106] He showed that oxygen was toxic to insects, arachnids, myriapods, molluscs, earthworms, fungi, germinating seeds, birds, and other animals. Central nervous system toxicity may be referred to as the "Paul Bert effect".[14]. Pulmonary oxygen toxicity was first described by J. Lorrain Smith in 1899 when he noted central nervous system toxicity and discovered in experiments in mice and birds that 0.43 bar (43 kPa) had no effect but 0.75 bar (75 kPa) of oxygen was a pulmonary irritant.[29] Pulmonary toxicity may be referred to as the "Lorrain Smith effect".[14] The first recorded human exposure was undertaken in 1910 by Bornstein when two men breathed oxygen at 2.8 bar (280 kPa) for 30 minutes while he went on to 48 minutes with no symptoms. In 1912, Bornstein developed cramps in his hands and legs while breathing oxygen at 2.8 bar (280 kPa) for 51 minutes.[3] Smith then went on to show that intermittent exposure to a ...
Two aspects of cytokine therapy of intracerebral tumors are considered in this study: modulation of tumor growth in vivo and central nervous system toxicity. Coimplantation of RG-2 glioma cells and retroviral vector producer cell lines was performed to provide a local source of interleukin-2 (IL-2) or IFN-γ within the tumor and coinitiate an antitumor immune response. We demonstrated that local intratumoral production of IL-2 and IFN-γ generates a cell-mediated antitumor response in vivo. This response was manifest as a diffuse infiltration of monocytes/macrophages, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and activation of microglial OX42+ cells in intracerebral RG2 tumors. The cell-mediated antitumor immune response resulted in the early suppression of intracranial and subcutaneous tumor growth, but the effect was not sustained and there were no tumor regressions. The absence of increased survival of animals with intracranial tumors is explained in part by the severe central nervous system toxicity caused by ...
This work concerns the roles of neuron glia interactions in the control of neuronal survival during Central Nervous System (CNS) development in Drosophila. The question of whether glia are required to maintain neuronal survival in insects was addressed. Firstly, the GAL4 system was used to achieve in vivo targeted genetic ablation of glia. Secondly, plasmid rescue and P-element excision were exploited to locate and mutate genes which might participate in neuron glia interactions. Targeted glial ablation did not affect pioneer neuron survival. However, increased apoptosis was observed among the FasII and 22C10 expressing subsets of the follower neurons. Targeted ablation only of the interface glia was sufficient to induce follower neuron apoptosis. This difference in the survival requirements of pioneer and follower neurons may be instructive in patterning of the CNS. Neuronal apoptosis was rescued by ablating glia in an apoptosis deficient genetic background, and by expressing the p35 apoptosis ...
The first step in generating cellular diversity in the Drosophila central nervous system is the formation of a segmentally reiterated array of neural precursor cells, called neuroblasts. Subsequently, each neuroblast goes through an invariant cell lineage to generate neurons and/or glia. Using molecular lineage markers, I show that (1) each neuroblast forms at a stereotyped time and position; (2) the neuroblast pattern is indistinguishable between thoracic and abdominal segments; (3) the development of individual neuroblasts can be followed throughout early neurogenesis; (4) gene expression in a neuroblast can be reproducibly modulated during its cell lineage; (5) identified ganglion mother cells form at stereotyped times and positions; and (6) the cell lineage of four well-characterized neurons can be traced back to two identified neuroblasts. These results set the stage for investigating neuroblast specification and the mechanisms controlling neuroblast cell lineages. ...
Figure 2: Body Response to Chronic Pain.The central nervous system tissue might respond by undergoing any number of adaptive changes. Thickening and inflammation of the membrane layers surrounding the spinal cord and brain might occur, leading to irritation and lack of normal motion of central nervous system tissue, imbalance and restricted mobility of the spinal column, or adverse strain on the peripheral nervous system.. Spinal cord neurons receiving chronic pain signals from the periphery also can undergo long-term change due to the activation of microglial cells (central nervous system immune cells), because abnormally increased sensitivity (sensitization) of the nerve cells might occur. This can maintain a state of overwhelming activity of the pain pathways, thus causing constant pain sensation.. Normally, there is a balance of inhibitory and excitatory stimulation where the pain cell synapses (communicates) with the spinal cord neuron. However, decrease of inhibition at the synapse might ...
Read & Download 1000+ FREE Essays on Central Nervous System. Only A+ Essays in our Database. Get inspiration and ideas for your custom paper!
The vertebrate central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. These lie in the midline of the body and are protected by the skull and vertebrae respectively. This collection of billions of neurons is arguably the most complex object known. The central nervous system along with the peripheral nervous system comprise a primary division of controls that command all physical activities of a vertebrate. Neurons of the central nervous system affect consciousness and mental activity while spinal extensions of central nervous system neuron pathways affect skeletal muscles and organs in the body. The peripheral system is composed of the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system, the latter being further divided as the sympathetic nervous system, the parasympathetic nervous system and the enteric nervous system. Each of these interact with various organs, glands or muscles, providing information to and from the central nervous system. ...
The invention relates generally to methods of influencing central nervous system cells to produce progeny useful in the treatment of CNS disorders. More specifically, the invention includes methods of exposing a patient suffering from such a disorder to a reagent that modulates the proliferation, migration, differentiation and survival of central nervous system cells. These methods are useful for reducing at least one symptom of the disorder.
General: The safety and effectiveness of lidocaine depend on proper dosage, correct technique, adequate precautions, and readiness for emergencies. Standard textbooks should be consulted for specific techniques and precautions for various regional anesthetic procedures.. Resuscitative equipment, oxygen, and other resuscitative drugs should be available for immediate use. (See WARNINGS and ADVERSE REACTIONS). The lowest dosage that results in effective anesthesia should be used to avoid high plasma levels and serious adverse effects. Syringe aspirations should also be performed before and during each supplemental injection when using indwelling catheter techniques. During the administration of epidural anesthesia, it is recommended that a test dose be administered initially and that the patient be monitored for central nervous system toxicity and cardiovascular toxicity, as well as for signs of unintended intrathecal administration before proceeding. When clinical conditions permit, consideration ...
General:. The safety and effectiveness of lidocaine depend on proper dosage, correct technique, adequate precautions, and readiness for emergencies. Standard textbooks should be consulted for specific techniques and precautions for various regional anesthetic procedures.. Resuscitative equipment, oxygen, and other resuscitative drugs should be available for immediate use. (See WARNINGS and ADVERSE REACTIONS). The lowest dosage that results in effective anesthesia should be used to avoid high plasma levels and serious adverse effects. Syringe aspirations should also be performed before and during each supplemental injection when using indwelling catheter techniques. During the administration of epidural anesthesia, it is recommended that a test dose be administered initially and that the patient be monitored for central nervous system toxicity and cardiovascular toxicity, as well as for signs of unintended intrathecal administration before proceeding. When clinical conditions permit, ...
About 7 months ago, I posted my concerns that he might be suffering from DM as he was dragging his hind legs and the rear center nails had worn down a lot. Bubbabooboo helped me by researching the interaction of the drugs Atopica (which my dog needs for severe environmental allergies) and Sentinel. There is a documented concern that the heartworm preventative in Sentinel combined with Atopica can cause central nervous system toxicity in the dog. And he was right, although my vet disagreed with me when I asked my vet about this. Nonetheless, I stopped the Sentinel 6 months ago, and my dog started to improve since August as that drug cleared his system. My dog will turn 7 years old this month. He looks beautiful and young again, and moves with energy and enthusiasm. I am confident now that he will live out a normal lifespan with us ...
Gray LR, Cowley D, Welsh C, Lu HK, Brew BJ, Lewin SR, Wesselingh SL, Gorry PR, Churchill MJ
Main description: The present edition of The Human Central Nervous System differs considerably from its predecessors. In previous editions, the text was essentially confined to a section dealing with the various functional systems of the brain. This section, which has been rewritten and updated, is now preceded by 15 newly written chapters, which introduce the pictorial material of the gross anatomy, the blood vessels and meninges and the microstructure of its various parts and deal with the development, topography and functional anatomy of the spinal cord, the brain stem and the cerebellum, the diencephalon and the telencephalon. Great pains have been taken to cover the most recent concepts and data. As suggested by the front cover, there is a focus on the evolutionary development of the human brain. Throughout the text numerous correlations with neuropathology and clinical n- rology have been made. After much thought, we decided to replace the full Latin terminology, cherished in all previous ...
In order to test these newly synthesized fibers, Gilbert and his team applied nervous system cells like neurons and astrocytes to the polymerized estrogen. Through this cellular lab testing, the researchers found that estrogen wasnt only neuroprotective, but also might promote regeneration.. "This was the first time polyestrogen was processed into fibers that showed the ability to enhance the outgrowth of neural cells along the fiber direction without adding growth factors," Palermo said.. The teams new approach is now being patented and will enable the researchers to push their exploration even further toward preclinical research, where they can see how their polymerized fibers would work in a living system. Their eventual goal is to vastly improve the lives of people with spinal cord injuries.. Their findings will also help advance research in the area of drug delivery, which is increasingly focused on personalization and precision.. "Precision medicine is a research priority within CBIS," ...
At the Redenti Lab, we are exploring cellular communication involved in the development and regeneration of retinal and other central nervous system tissue. We are particularly interested in how cells respond to morphogenetic fields of discrete, localized biochemical and electrical signals leading to the development of organized neural tissue. Read More ...
We have shown previously that neurons in the mouse spinal cord express Gb3. We show in this article that distribution of anti-Gb3-Ab reactivity occurs in many different types of neurons of different areas of the central nervous system (CNS). The immunoreactive neurons are in olfactory bulbs, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum, amygdala, thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata. In several different circumventricular organs where vessels do not have the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) structure, anti-Gb3-Ab is not positive for vessel structures, while neurons at these regions are positive. Also, within the ventricular area, ependymal cells in the third ventricle express Gb3, as revealed by anti-Gb3-Ab staining and intensity analysis.
The Gene Ontology (GO) project is a collaborative effort to address the need for consistent descriptions of gene products across databases. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated gene data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
COMMENT iterator for traversing all the daughters of the currently accessed section section subtree_traverse(statement) executes statement for every daughter of section. Just before the statement is executed the currently accessed section is set. ENDCOMMENT NEURON { SUFFIX nothing } VERBATIM static subtree(sec, sym) Section* sec; Symbol* sym; { Section* child; for (child = sec-,child; child; child = child-,sibling) { nrn_pushsec(child); /* move these three (sec becomes child) */ hoc_run_stmt(sym); /* into the loop to do only the first level */ nrn_popsec(); } } ENDVERBATIM PROCEDURE subtree_traverse() { VERBATIM { Section* chk_access(); Symbol* hoc_parse_stmt(); Symlist* symlist = (Symlist*)0; subtree(chk_access(), hoc_parse_stmt(gargstr(1), &symlist)); /* if following not executed (ie hoc error in statement), some memory will leak */ hoc_free_list(&symlist); } ENDVERBATIM ...
The blood and urine of the "Mountain View" group contained 53-57 of 84 industrial compounds, pollutants and other chemicals tested, including chemicals linked to brain and nervous system toxicity, reproductive toxicity and fertility problems, and immune system toxicity. ...
Health,... COSTA MESA Calif. March 31 /- CNS Respons...George Carpenter CNSO President specified Although we worked out th... Importantly this is not a pilot program. Our client concluded that...Daniel Hoffman MD Chief Medical Officer for CNS Response explained...,CNS,Response,,Inc.,Enters,Agreement,to,Introduce,rEEG(R),Platform,to,Managed,Behavioral,Health,Organization,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
BC: THE END. FC: THE NERVOUS SYSTEM , BY: Preston Manni. 1: The Nervous system is a network of specialized cells that coordinate the actions of an animal, and send signals from one part of its body to another... , these cells send signals either as electrochemical waves on the axon, or as chemicals released onto other cells.... 2: The Nervous System is composed of neurons and other specialized cells called glial cells. It consist of 2 parts the central and the peripheral.. 3: The central nervous system consist of the brain and the spinal cord. The neurons of the central nervous system are interconnected in complex arrangements to transmit electrochemical signals from one to another.... 4: The peripheral nervous system consist of sensory neurons, cluster of neurons called ganglia, and nerves connecting them to each other and to the central nervous system.... , sensory neurons are activated by inputs impinging on them from outside or inside the body, and send signals that inform the central ...
Results of research of functional characteristics of the central neural system and features of cognitive processes of children with borderline mental disorder of residual organic genesis are presented. 78 children, 56 boys (8-12 years old) and 22 girls (8-11 years old), with different borderline mental disorder are examined. It is shown that all patients have similar disorders in memory, attention and cognitive function with differences in central nervous system functionality characteristics depending on clinical particularities. The disorders consist in arousal and inhibition mobility. Based on the results obtained, the recommendations on psycho-correctional work with children are formulated in the dependence on central nervous system functionality characteristics and clinical manifestations.
Study Flashcards On Central Nervous System at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reduction of central nervous system ischemic injury in rabbits using leukocyte adhesion antibody treatment. AU - Clark, Wayne. AU - Madden, Ken P.. AU - Rothlein, Robert. AU - Zivin, Justin A.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - Activated leukocytes appear to be directly involved in ischemic central nervous system injury. A surface glycoprotein (CD18) on the leukocyte is required for endothelial adherence and subsequent function and can be blocked with leukocyte adhesion antibody treatment. We used two animal models to determine the efficacy of anti-CD18 antibody treatment in preserving neurologic function after central nervous system ischemia. We gave a dose of 1 mg/kg anti-CD18 to treatment rabbits 30 minutes before inducing irreversible ischemia in the brain with intraarterial microspheres or in the spinal cord using reversible aortic occlusion. Treatment with anti-CD18 produced a significant reduction in neurologic deficits in the reversible spinal cord model, but not in the ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The peripheral nervous system is part of the nervous system. Its main function is to relay information between the central nervous system and the extremities and organs. There are two main parts of the peripheral nervous system. These are the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system is associated with involuntary muscle movements whereas the peripheral nervous system is associated with voluntary muscle movements. The somatic nervous system has two main types of nerves: afferent nerves and efferent nerves. In humans, the somatic nervous system is comprised of three parts: (1) spinal nerves, (2) cranial nerves, and (3) association nerves. The spinal nerves are nerves carrying impulses from the spinal cord. The cranial nerves are nerve fibers carrying sensory information into and from the brain stem. The association nerves are nerves that integrate sensory input and motor output. In vertebrates, the response of skeletal muscle cells to neurotransmitters ...
Pull out from a human brain to reveal the entire nervous system; highlight the central nervous system, then the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system has not only the brain but the spinal cord, an approximately eighteen inches long, three-quarter inch thick bundle of nerve tissue extending from the lower part of the brain down through the spine. The spinal cord serves as the main communications throughway of the nervous system. Together, the brain and spinal cord comprise what ?s called the central nervous system, or CNS. The other major component of the nervous system is the peripheral nervous system, or PNS, with its elaborate network of nerves that relay messages back and forth to and from the brain and every organ in the body without this two-way transmission of information, homeostasis would not be possible, nor would the activation of muscles and glands, or even sensory input. Consider this scenario: you accidentally touch a hot skillet on the stove. In a fraction of a second, the
Free Online Library: Viral infections of the central nervous system: viral infections of the CNS are caused by a broad range of viruses. by CME: Your SA Journal of CPD; Health, general Central nervous system Health aspects Encephalitis Meningitis
Total RNA from whole human brain, isolated brain regions, and central nervous system. Expanded collection of human brain regions. The highest quality RNA available.
Total RNA from whole human brain, isolated brain regions, and central nervous system. Expanded collection of human brain regions. The highest quality RNA available.
... We learn the ability to maintain a correct posture from birth. Among the chaotic movements, the Central Nervous System selects the most optimal ones and they are remembered by the CNS in an independent manner without the participation of our consciousness. Thanks to this ability of the Central Nervous System, we begin to walk. In childhood, our attention is directed to our movement. We learn movement.. Unfortunately, once we learn the movement or program our OUN, we move without the participation of our consciousness. Our attention is now focused on the environment, which is why we lose this natural ability to learn the movement at the age of 7-11 and from that moment we start to acquire improper habits leading to poor body posture. How are we doing? When thinking about work, we think about the muscles. Meanwhile, the most important is the proper arrangement of the bones or structural elements of our body.. ...
SPANSULES PHARMATECH PVT. LTD. - Exporter, Manufacturer & Supplier of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Central Nervous System Pellets,Venlafaxine HCL SR Pellets ,Venlafaxine HCL Pellets,Fluoxetine HCL SR Pellets, India
Diseases Of The Central Nervous System - View the ListZe list for Diseases Of The Central Nervous System. Viem and rank the list items for Diseases Of The Central Nervous System
Items where Subject is "WL Nervous System , WL 200-405 Central Nervous System. Disorders. Therapeutics , WL 200-302 Central Nervous System (General ...
Eiraku M, Hirata Y, Takeshima H, Hirano T, Kengaku M. Delta/notch-like epidermal growth factor (EGF)-related receptor, a novel EGF-like repeat-containing protein targeted to dendrites of developing and adult central nervous system neurons ...
Anatomically nervous system is divided into two main systems . 1 Central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord. Brain has three basic functions : 1 Detection and processing of...
Define autonomic (visceral motor) division of nervous system. autonomic (visceral motor) division of nervous system synonyms, autonomic (visceral motor) division of nervous system pronunciation, autonomic (visceral motor) division of nervous system translation, English dictionary definition of autonomic (visceral motor) division of nervous system. n. The part of the vertebrate nervous system that regulates involuntary action, as of the intestines, heart, and glands, and that is divided into the...
The ninth volume in this essential series discusses key advances in our understanding of neoplasms in the human central nervous system. This publication deals with various aspects of nine separate typ
Potential beneficial impact on central nervous system in addition to well established action on immune cells Recruitment complete for two of three pivotal Phase
The Brain and Central Nervous System Channel explains how your brain and nerves work. Read these articles to learn more about your brain and central nervous system.
Central Nervous System: Central Nervous system consists of the Brain and the Spinal Cord. The entire body is organized by these two organs and is called the admins of the physical body. It c…
Gene Information The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family and the TGF-beta superfamily. This group of proteins is characterized by a polybasic proteolytic processing site which is cleaved to produce a mature protein containing seven conserved cysteine residues. The members of this family are regulators of cell growth and differentiation in both embryonic and adult tissues. Studies in rodents suggest that this protein plays a role in the adult liver and in differentiation of cholinergic central nervous system neurons. [provided by RefSeq Jul 2008]. ...
Northfields surgery of the central nervous system , Northfields surgery of the central nervous system , کتابخانه دیجیتال دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اصفهان
The evidence supporting this protocol is provided by two phase III trials, ALEX and J-ALEX.rr. ALEX trial involved 303 patients comparing alectinib with crizotinib in patients with ALK-positive NSCLC.r Between August 2014 and January 2016, 152 patients were randomised to receive alectinib 600mg twice daily until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, death or withdrawal and 151 patients were randomised to receive crizotinib 250mg twice daily until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, death or withdrawal. The primary end point was investigator assessed progression free survival (PFS) and secondary end points were review committee-assessed progression-free survival, time to CNS progression, objective response rate, overall survival, duration of response, rate of CNS response, and duration of CNS response.. The J-ALEX trial involved 207 patients comparing alectinib with crizotinib in patients with ALK-positive NSCLC.r Patients were randomised to receive alectinib 300mg twice daily or ...
Introduction "Those who think they have no time for bodily exercise will sooner or later have to find time for illness." Edward Stanley. The present paper reviews the benefits of exercise in the functions of older adults within the nervous system. It will also discuss the anatomy of the nervous system and how it affects our body with our daily lives. Anatomy & Physiology The nervous system is organized to detect changes in the internal and external environment, evaluate that information, and possibly respond by initiating changes in muscles or glands.1Neurons are the basic unit of the nervous system and are made up of excitable cells that conduct the impulses that make it possible for all... [tags: Nervous system, Peripheral nervous system] Better Essays ...
Your nervous system consists of several kinds of electrical systems that effect your body and all organs. Within you, there lies specially designed cells (neurons) that work in tandem with the nerves to cause the body to perform functions and actions. When it is out of balance, due to stress or illness, for instance, your nervous system is incapable of functioning at its optimal best. Left unchecked, you stop being healthy and you lose the ability to function on almost any level.. The two major nervous systems are the central (comprised of the brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral (mostly made up of nerves that carry signals through your body) systems. In this article, we will discuss two systems which are part of the autonomic nervous system, which is within the peripheral system.. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) stimulates the fight, flight, or freeze response your body has in a stressful or frightening situation. The fight and flight responses activate if you feel that there is some ...
Clarinex ... to perform your daily tasks normally. You can stay fully awake during a meeting, instead of dozing off and missing important details. Being less drowsy also means that your senses and your Central Nervous System are not affected. It is a relatively safe drug, so you can buy Clarinex online, as long as you are not allergic to it. Ease of Use It is taken only once a day so the chances that you ...
Fungal infections of the central nervous system are not particularly common, but when such infections occur, the results can be devastating.
The mammalian CNS contains a diverse group of glial cells that support neurons, modulate neuronal activity, and enable repair following injury. In addition to a...
Explains how HIV can cause damage to both the central nervous system, the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system, all the nerves leading to and from the central nervous system.
... NEURONS The majority of neurons has only one axon (or axis-cylinder). Have short extensions called dendrites. At the end of the
Diagnosis and conservative treatment of disease of the central nervous system (CNS) of unknown etiology (costs for program #135221) ✔ University Hospital Tubingen ✔ Department of Pediatrics ✔ BookingHealth.com
Disease of the Central Nervous System (CNS) of Unknown Etiology Diagnosis (costs for program #277651) ✔ University Hospital Jena ✔ Department of Neurology ✔ BookingHealth.com
Learn Central Nervous System (CNS) facts using a simple interactive process (flashcard, matching, or multiple choice). Finally a format that helps you memorize and understand. Browse or search in thousands of pages or create your own page using a simple wizard. No signup required!
NERVOUS SYSTEM. Two major divisions 1. Central Nervous System (CNS) 2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Three specific functions 1. Receives sensory input 2. Performs integration of all input 3. Generates motor output . Nervous Tissue. Contains two types of cells Slideshow 70593 by mike_john
Drinking causes short & long term effects on the central nervous system, especially the brain. If you are struggling with alcoholism, call Futures today.
Learn some fun nervous system facts for kids. The nervous system of humans and other animals is a vital part of how the body functions.. Components of the nervous system including neurons, glial cells and axon all help send nerve signals around the body. Read on to find out about the two main parts of our bodys nervous system and many other interesting facts.. ...
Today Hank talks about your central nervous system. In this episode well explore how your brain develops and how important location is for each of yo...
A variety of colorectal dysfunction can be attributed to lesions of the central nervous system. Those disorders that are seen most commonly in clinical
Buy LOW PRICE - $1 - Smart Electromechanical Systems The Central Nervous System Studies in Systems Decision and Control by Andrey E. Gorodetskiy PDF eBook
21 sample sentences using the word CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The most descriptive sample is first. There are also links to find additional samples from sources of interest.
Central nervous system processing information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues.
... : Physical Principles, Clinical Applications and Emerging Techniques by Joana Ramalho
Joana Ramalho, Mauricio Castillo, Vascular Imaging of the Central Nervous System: Physical Principles, Clinical Applications and Emerging Techniques English |
Central Nervous System (CNS) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS ). The Nervous System. Functions. Sensory input : monitors internal and external environments Integration: processes & interprets sensory information Slideshow 2356946 by stasia
Study Flashcards On pathophysiology nervous system at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
System in humans is the brain and spinal column. The nerves that connect the CNS to the limbs, organs and the outside world is the peripheral nervous system.
5 Answers - Posted in: lexapro, depression, obesity, anxiety - Answer: i would just take the twenty milligrams cause its time released you want ...
With a detailed anatomical chart of the nervous system, students and patients will be better able to examine and understand the central nervous system and its parts. Anatomy Warehouse offers a wide range of anatomical study aids, all at the best prices and many with free shipping.
Video created by Университет Дьюка for the course Медицинская неврология. We now begin in earnest our lessons on neuroanatomy with the surface of the human brain, including a brief run through the cranial nerves and the blood supply to the CNS. ...
You have to register before you can post on our forums or use our advanced features. Register Now! Its Free and Fast!. Already registered? Login now below.. ...
NERVE cells in a rats central nervous system have been persuaded to regrow through scar tissue. The discovery could remove one of the obstacles to repairi
Brain and Nervous System ,医学网站,医学考试中心,医药网,医学论坛,三甲医院,医学数据库,医学考研,药厂,医学会,临床医学,医药学大词典,临床用药参考,国外医学网站,丁香园,医学招聘,医学人才,疾病大全,医学图片,医药学专业网址大全导航就到meddir.cn!
... of nervous system. Simple and complex reflex arches. Formation of a cortex of a brain.
rcb1 at LEX.LCCC.EDU (Ron Blue) writes: ,On 12 Dec 1996, Kevin Younge wrote: ,, I`m looking for information on the affects on the nervous system with ,, age. ,, ,, Any information would be greatly appreciated. ,, kevincy at millcomm.com ,Right now I am a blank for the name of the article or the source. ,But it was a general journal in psychology that you would not ,normally jump to for a reference. ,But the article discussed the following which is very relevant to ,your question: ,It appears that ALMOST all of the problems associated with aging ,on the nervous system may be linked to a critical limit on ,information overwrite during a time cycle. Are you refering to Timothy Salthouses Psych Review article? (It sounds like it, although Im not sure why you wouldnt normally jump to [Psychology Review] for a reference.) This really is a very well done article, Salthouse is well respected and is the editor of Psych and Aging, but Id like to point out that this particular article is addressing ...
Mechanisms of drug action on the nervous system , Mechanisms of drug action on the nervous system , کتابخانه الکترونیک و دیجیتال - آذرسا
Choose from a wide range of products for Nervous System Support at great prices! Shop for Nervous System Support products at Naturalwellbeing.com
The Nervous System, Part I.Unlecture Review basic nervous system anatomy before you begin this lecture. The lecture touches on a few of the major characteristics, but you are expected to have already been
Download Development of the nervous system sanes pdf for free, Development of the nervous system 2nd ed d sanes t reh w harris pdf. Download free Ebooks.
Stress and the nervous system are connected because the first triggers a series of reactions in the second. Once a person feels...
Frontiers Events is a rapidly growing calendar management system dedicated to the scheduling of academic events. This includes announcements and invitations, participant listings and search functionality, abstract handling and publication, related events and post-event exchanges. Whether an organizer or participant, make your event a Frontiers Event!
Our work currently falls into three major but related areas. The first area is focused on the study in mice of central determinants of psychosocial stress-induc...
Tumors may also directly damage CNS function resulting in both short and long-term sequelae. Since then there has been considerable interest in the disease and its management.
This course will focus on cellular and molecular mechanisms of the organogenesis of the central nervous system. A goal of the course will be to understand the form, function and pathology of the adult nervous system in terms of antecedent developmental processes ...
A protein that enables nerve cells to communicate with each other plays a key role in controlling the developing nervous system. Research into how that protein helps precise connections to form among nerve cells may provide ...
Buy Genetic Manipulation of the Nervous System by D. S. Latchman at TextbookX.com. ISBN/UPC: 9780124371651. Save an average of 50% on the marketplace.
If the brain is a central computer that controls all the functions of the body, then the nervous system is like a network that relays messages back and forth to different parts of the body. Find out how they work in this Body Basics article.
Enjoy entertaining video lessons designed to help you understand the aging brain and nervous system. Topics covered in this chapter include...
no blood, brain or nervous system is a body of work that comprises individual temporal sculptural installations/performances made between June 2008 and December 2010. The installations were recorded as videos and photographs and, when appropriate, those records form part of the work, too. The concept required each piece be a site-specific response and also that…
Learn Pathology of the nervous system, II facts using a simple interactive process (flashcard, matching, or multiple choice). Finally a format that helps you memorize and understand. Browse or search in thousands of pages or create your own page using a simple wizard. No signup required!
Nervous System MCQ with detailed explanation for interview, entrance and competitive exams. Explanation are given for understanding.
You are here:Home>Care Of Oiled Otters>Veterinary Care>Pathologies Associated With Oiling>Displaying items by tag: nervous system - The Inner ...
The following products may be useful for nervous system health. If you require further information on how BioCeuticals® products may be useful for your specific condition please speak with a qualified healthcare practitioner.
The nervous system is an integral part of the human body as it controls all our movements and functioning. This article looks at this system more indepth.
Nervous system is een ontwerp bureau dat werkt en ontwerpt op het snijvlak van wetenschap, technologie en kunst. De realiteit bootsen ze na in een computerprogramma. Geïnspireerd door natuurlijke fenomenen, schrijven we computerprogrammas. Op basis van processen en patronen gevonden in de natuur en het gebruik van deze programmas ontwerpen ze om unieke en betaalbare…
Eating a balanced diet, drinking plenty of water and exercising regularly are a few recommended ways to take care of the nervous system, according to WebMD. It also helps to avoid smoking and...
The effects of nervous system discomfort experienced on a daily basis - whether from stress, overwork, or exercise - sometimes makes it more difficult for the body to get through what the day brings.
... complex disorders linked by the degeneration of neurons in either the peripheral nervous system or the central nervous system. ... Neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system[edit]. Alzheimer's Disease (AD)[edit]. Main article: Alzheimer's ... 3 Neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system *3.1 Alzheimer's Disease (AD) *3.1.1 Epigenetic factors ... Muscles depend on connections to motor neurons and the central nervous system to stimulate muscle maintenance and therefore ...
Central nervous system's control[edit]. Though one may think that the stimulus triggering blinking is dry or irritated eyes, it ... For example, excessive blinking may help to indicate the onset of Tourette syndrome, strokes or disorders of the nervous system ...
Central. nervous system. Encephalitis/. meningitis. DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV ... A primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), also known as microglioma and primary brain lymphoma,[1] is a primary ... Fine HA, Mayer RJ (December 1993). "Primary central nervous system lymphoma". Ann. Intern. Med. 119 (11): 1093-104. doi:10.7326 ... Brain magnetic resonance imaging showing primary central nervous system B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the sella turcica and ...
Central nervous system[edit]. See also: Central nervous system effects from radiation exposure during spaceflight ... Hypothetical early and late effects on the central nervous system are of great concern to NASA and an area of active current ... There is limited experimental evidence, especially for central nervous system effects, available to evaluate this alternative ... "Cosmic ray hit frequencies in critical sites in the central nervous system". Adv. Space Res. 22 (2): 197-207. Bibcode:1998AdSpR ...
Central nervous system activity[edit]. GPER and ERα, but not ERβ, have been found to mediate the antidepressant-like effects of ... nervous system development. • positive regulation of neurogenesis. • positive regulation of release of cytochrome c from ... immune system process. • negative regulation of cell cycle process. • positive regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion ... Han G, Li F, Yu X, White RE (May 2013). "GPER: a novel target for non-genomic estrogen action in the cardiovascular system". ...
Central nervous system[edit]. Rare reports have been made of malaise, dizziness, somnolence, insomnia, and vertigo. In severely ... Pelot, Daniel, (M.D.). "Digestive System : New Drug for Heartburn". The New Book of Knowledge : Medicine & Health, Grolier : ... "The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 2017-09-09. Retrieved Dec 1, 2015.. .mw-parser ... the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[6] It is available as a generic medication.[1] The 2015 ...
Central nervous system stimulants such as substituted amphetamines increase heart rate.. *Central nervous system depressants or ... Influences from the central nervous system[edit]. Cardiovascular centres[edit]. The heart rate is rhythmically generated by the ... Caffeine and nicotine are both stimulants of the nervous system and of the cardiac centres causing an increased heart rate. ... It is also influenced by central factors through sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves.[10] Nervous influence over the ...
Central nervous system[edit]. Further information: Neurobiological effects of physical exercise § Neuroplasticity ... Regular aerobic exercise improves symptoms associated with a variety of central nervous system disorders and may be used as an ... The effects of physical exercise on the central nervous system are mediated in part by specific neurotrophic factor hormones ... Immune system[edit]. Although there have been hundreds of studies on physical exercise and the immune system, there is little ...
Central nervous system[edit]. Depending on local tissue concentrations of local anesthetics, excitatory or depressant effects ... The conduction of electric impulses follows a similar mechanism in peripheral nerves, the central nervous system, and the heart ... Side effects on the central nervous system and the heart may be severe and potentially fatal. However, toxicity usually occurs ... Another possibility is direct exposure of the central nervous system through the cerebrospinal fluid, i.e., overdose in spinal ...
Role in the central nervous system[edit]. Further information: Neurotransmitter § Brain neurotransmitter systems ... Dopamine receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are prominent in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS ... Cardio-pulmonary system[edit]. In humans, the pulmonary artery expresses D1, D2, D4, and D5 and receptor subtypes, which may ... Renal system[edit]. Dopamine receptors are present along the nephron in the kidney, with proximal tubule epithelial cells ...
Central nervous system disease[edit]. Central nervous system lesions occur occasionally. Cerebral granulomatous disease may be ... the central nervous system is affected. Individuals with chronic active schistosomiasis may not complain of typical symptoms. ... Eggs are thought to travel to the central nervous system via embolization.[19] ... S. mekongi and S. intercalatum are found locally in Southeast Asia and central West Africa, respectively. ...
Central nervous system[edit]. See also: Alcohol withdrawal syndrome § Kindling, and Kindling (substance withdrawal) ... a neurotoxic effect that damages the central nervous system develops, leading to persisting impairments in verbal and nonverbal ... an imbalance between inhibitory and excitatory amino acids and changes in monoamines release in the central nervous system, ... Urinary system[edit]. The bladder may rupture if overfilled and not emptied.[42] This can occur in the case of binge drinkers ...
Central nervous system[edit]. Similar to other inhalational anesthetics, the exact mechanism of action is not clearly defined ... The effects of methoxyflurane on the circulatory system resemble those of diethyl ether.[27] In dogs, methoxyflurane anesthesia ...
Central nervous system[edit]. Vasopressin released within the brain may have several actions: *Vasopressin is released into the ... Second messenger system Locations. Actions Agonists Antagonists AVPR1A. Phosphatidylinositol/calcium. Liver, kidney, peripheral ... "Central Diabetes Insipidus".. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) *^ Boron WR, Boulpaep EL. Medical Physiology ( ... from which it travels through the hypophyseal portal system to the anterior pituitary, where it stimulates corticotropic cells ...
For the central nervous system[edit]. Drugs affecting the central nervous system include: Psychedelics, hypnotics, anaesthetics ... An elaborate and widely used classification system is the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System (ATC system). ... An elaborate and widely used classification system is the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System (ATC system). ... For the reproductive system or urinary system[edit]. antifungal, alkalinizing agents, quinolones, antibiotics, cholinergics, ...
Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma. Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), a rare central nervous system tumor, ... 1.1 Primary tumors of the central nervous system. *1.2 Metastatic tumors of the central nervous system *1.2.1 Intracranial ... Metastatic tumors of the central nervous system[edit]. Cancer spreads to the nervous system by direct invasion, compression, or ... Primary tumors of the central nervous system[edit]. Primary brain tumors can occur at any age, from infancy to late in life. ...
Central nervous system. *Intracerebral. *Intrathecal. *Epidural. Circulatory,. musculoskeletal. *Intravenous. *Intracardiac. * ...
Central nervous system. *Intracerebral. *Intrathecal. *Epidural. Circulatory, musculoskeletal. *Intravenous. *Intracardiac. * ...
Central nervous system. *Intracerebral. *Intrathecal. *Epidural. Circulatory, musculoskeletal. *Intravenous. *Intracardiac. * ... Main article: Central venous catheter. Central IV lines have their catheters that are advanced through a vein and empty into a ... While some central lines have their catheter pass through the skin and then directly into the vein, other central lines called ... An infected central IV poses a higher risk of sepsis, as it can deliver bacteria directly into the central circulation. ...
Central nervous system. *Intracerebral. *Intrathecal. *Epidural. Circulatory, musculoskeletal. *Intravenous. *Intracardiac. * ... a maker of injection systems; Pfizer and King sued them for infringing US Patent 7,449,012 that was due to expire in 2025;[29] ...
Central Nervous System: Seizures, tremors, muscular twitching, confusion, agitation, ataxia, and hallucinations. ... "The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.. ... the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[3] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 111.87 ...
Central nervous system. *Intracerebral. *Intrathecal. *Epidural. Circulatory, musculoskeletal. *Intravenous. *Intracardiac. * ...
Central Nervous System. Idiopathic pain syndromes. Local. Complex regional pain syndrome/Reflex sympathetic dystrophy. ... Radiographs in osteoid osteoma typically show a round lucency, containing a dense sclerotic central nidus (the characteristic ...
Central nervous system. *Intracerebral. *Intrathecal. *Epidural. Circulatory, musculoskeletal. *Intravenous. *Intracardiac. * ... What makes sugar different is the way it interacts with the other ingredients and systems within the food as well as how it is ...
Central. nervous system. Encephalitis/. meningitis. DNA virus. Human polyomavirus 2 Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy ... Hepatitis E is endemic in Central Asia, while Central America and the Middle East have reported outbreaks.[81][82] Increasingly ... northern and central Africa, India, and Central America.[5][45] It is spread mainly by the fecal-oral route due to ... Respiratory system/. acute viral nasopharyngitis/. viral pneumonia. DNA virus. *Epstein-Barr virus *EBV infection/Infectious ...
... physiology and cognitive abilities of the nervous system.[1][2][3][4] ... How do neurons migrate to the proper position in the central and peripheral systems? How do synapses form? We know from ... GENESIS, a general neural simulation system.. Conferences[edit]. *Computational and Systems Neuroscience (COSYNE) - a ... Abbott, L. F.; Dayan, Peter (2001). Theoretical neuroscience: computational and mathematical modeling of neural systems. ...
... , Tuberculous Meningitis, Intracranial Tuberculoma, Spinal Tuberculous Arachnoiditis. ... Central Nervous System Tuberculosis. Central Nervous System Tuberculosis Aka: Central Nervous System Tuberculosis, Tuberculous ... central nervous system tuberculosis (diagnosis), central nervous system tuberculosis, CNS tuberculosis, Central Nervous System ... Tuberculosis of central nervous system NOS (disorder), Tuberculosis of central nervous system, Tuberculosis of central nervous ...
TechNavios report the Global Central Nervous System Drugs Market 201...,Global,Central,Nervous,System,Drugs,Market,2011-2015, ... www.reportlinker.com/p0936080/Global-Central-Nervous-System-Dru...TechNavios analysts forecast the Global Central Nervous ... Exhibit 2: Global Central Nervous System Drugs Market Segmentation 2011 Exhibit 3: Global Central Nervous System Drugs Market ... Global Central Nervous System Market by Overall Market Segmentation (US$ billion) Exhibit 13: Global Central Nervous System ...
The Central Nervous System Disorders Therapeutics Industry report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the ... Central Nervous System Disorders Therapeutics Market for 2016-2020. Central Nervous System Disorders Therapeutics Market report ... Central Nervous System Disorders Therapeutics Market Opportunities During 2016-2020:. With a purpose of enlightening new ... The Central Nervous System Disorders Therapeutics Market is divided into the following segments based on geography: ...
... read reviews for Central Nervous System Vasculitis Foundation Inc in Las Vegas, NV plus similar nonprofits and charities ... Mission: The mission of the Central Nervous System Vasculitis Foundation Inc is to bring to the forefront the need for ... A donation of to Central Nervous System Vasculitis Foundation Inc has been added to your Giving Basket!. ...
Calnexin is necessary for T cell transmigration into the central nervous system. Joanna Jung,1 Paul Eggleton,2,3 Alison ... What is the calnexin link between the immune system and the nervous system? To answer this question, we examined the ... Endoplasmic Reticulum Malfunction in the Nervous System. Front Neurosci. 2017;11:220. View this article via: PubMed Google ... Calnexin is highly expressed during the development of the nervous system (17, 18), and in mice, calnexin deficiency causes a ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Central nervous system.. *Overview of the Central Nervous System, Neuroscience Online ( ... The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord. The CNS is so named ... Difference from the peripheral nervous system[edit]. A map over the different structures of the nervous systems in the body, ... Huijzen, R. Nieuwenhuys, J. Voogd, C. van (2007). The human central nervous system (4th ed.). Berlin: Springer. p. 3. ISBN 978- ...
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. *Scalp and skull were normal. *Meninges and cerebral blood vessels were normal. *The brain weighed ...
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. *The brain (1375g) was normal and had a normal external appearance and cut surface. The skull, meninges ...
Central Nervous System Andre Berndt, PhD (Bioengineering). It is crucial to untangle the incredible complexity of the human ... We are interested in the development of the peripheral nervous system using zebrafish as a model. Current research focuses on ... As a Neurogenetics laboratory, we study the cellular mechanisms of multiple central nervous cell types differentiated from stem ... suppressing their immune system using irradiation, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy. And 3) "rescuing" the patients by infusing ...
Central. nervous system. Encephalitis/. meningitis. DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV ... A primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), also known as microglioma and primary brain lymphoma,[1] is a primary ... Fine HA, Mayer RJ (December 1993). "Primary central nervous system lymphoma". Ann. Intern. Med. 119 (11): 1093-104. doi:10.7326 ... Brain magnetic resonance imaging showing primary central nervous system B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the sella turcica and ...
Pages in category "Central nervous system pathways". The following 36 pages are in this category, out of 36 total. This list ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Central_nervous_system_pathways&oldid=547370101" ...
... mind and how drugs affect our nervous system including reflex arc, how synapses work and drugs and synapses. ... Central nervous system. An animals response to a stimulus is coordinated by its central nervous system (CNS). The CNS consists ... The peripheral nervous system. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of motor and sensory neurons that carry impulses ...
... human nervous system: The central nervous system: The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord, both ... Other articles where Central nervous system is discussed: ... The central nervous system. The central nervous system consists ... central nervous system: humanThe brain and the spinal cord constitute the central nervous system.. Created and produced by QA ... In nervous system: The vertebrate system. … has two main divisions: the central nervous system, consisting of the brain and ...
Collaborative Research Area on Central Nervous System Injury. Coordinator: Sandra Juul, M.D., Ph.D.. This CRA fosters the ...
The Human Central Ner- vous System, a Synopsis and Atlas has made a second edition necessary, hardly more than two years after ... The particularly good reception enjoyed by our "The Human Central Ner- vous System, a Synopsis and Atlas" has made a second ... The pictures are so to speak a snapshot of the current knowledge of a particular functional system within the central nervous ... As a matter of fact the spatial representations of the fibre systems are no more than a visualization of the most salient ...
Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main processing center for your entire nervous system. They control all the workings ... The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. ... The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing ... Organization of the nervous system. In: Boron WF, Boulpaep EL, eds. Medical Physiology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...
However, in a person with MS, these cells recognize healthy parts of the central nervous system as foreign and attack them as ... Multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) produce lesions (demyelinated areas in ... "Demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system". Medicine. 11 (77): 4601-4609. doi:10.1016/j.med.2015.04.001. Poser C. M ... The lesions were classified as pattern II in the Lucchinetti system. This case of human EAE also showed Dawson fingers. ...
The focus of the meeting was on plasticity of the central ... Plasticity of the Central Nervous System. Proceedings of the ... The focus of the meeting was on plasticity of the central nervous system, one of the most decisive factors in recovery and ...
... the authors discuss the principles guiding the use of chemotherapy for primary central nervous system lymphomas. ...
The central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord. The brain functions to receive nerve impulses from the ... The central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord. The brain functions to receive nerve impulses from the ...
A single copy of these materials may be reprinted for noncommercial personal use only. "Mayo," "Mayo Clinic," "MayoClinic.org," "Mayo Clinic Healthy Living," and the triple-shield Mayo Clinic logo are trademarks of Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. ...
The human central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. These lie in the midline of the body and are associated ... which pale in significance to the level of taking orders from the central nervous system. Parts of the central nervous system: ... central nervous system (CNS): that part of the nervous system that includes exclusively the bone encased brain and the spinal ... Contrast this with the peripheral nervous system and the autonomic nervous system, ...
... as opposed to the cranial and spinal nerves and the autonomic nervous system, which together form the peripheral nervous system ... The CNS is responsible for the integration of all nervous activities. ... central nervous system n.. in A Dictionary of Psychology (3) Length: 28 words ... central nervous system. in The Oxford Companion to the Body Length: 1476 words ...
Our autonomic nervous system controls the systems of the body that we dont think about, including our heart beat/rate, ... Bert over Open Loops talks about how can our nervous system affects productivity. It is quite interesting to see Bert has taken ... The autonomic nervous system is made up of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. When the parasympathetic ... Central Nervous System and productivity. Leon Ho. Founder of Lifehack Read full profile ...
Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Central Nervous System in minutes with SmartDraw. SmartDraw includes 1000s ... Central Nervous System. Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Central Nervous System in minutes with SmartDraw. ... Central Nervous System. Lateral view of figure showing central nervous system and its associated encasing skeletal structure. ...
  • Cerebral vasculitis or central nervous system vasculitis (sometimes the word angiitis is used instead of "vasculitis") is vasculitis (inflammation of the blood vessel wall) involving the brain and occasionally the spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • books.google.com - A textbook of neuropsychopharmacology focused on the mechanisms of drug action in the central nervous system, this volume covers drugs used in both psychiatry and neurology and gives a clear picture of their behavioral, therapeutic, and toxic effects. (google.com)
  • Written by two world-renowned neuropathologists, the book provides an optimal basis for the understanding of metabolic and degenerative diseases of the central nervous system and presents a synthesis that serves the needs of today's investigators in neuropathology, neurology, neuroradiology, neurosurgery, neuropediatrics, general pathology, and geriatrics. (elsevier.com)
  • Neurology explores the complexities of the Central Nervous System, beginning with the different sections (lobes) of the brain, continuing to the spinal cord and concluding with the structure and function of the neuron. (librarything.com)
  • Evolution of nervous systems Evolution of human intelligence Evolution of the human brain Paleoneurology Neuroscience Neurology Paleoneurology The central nervous system (CNS) is the largest part of the nervous system, and includes the brain and spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolic and Degenerative Diseases of the Central Nervous System is a comprehensive reference work that provides the neuroscience community with valuable, current, and scholarly summaries on every known degenerative disorder. (elsevier.com)
  • The neuroscience sequence is foundational in nature and stresses the organizational principles and structure/function relationships in the central nervous system. (merlot.org)
  • Neuroscience portal The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuroscience is the field of science that focuses on the study of the nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Department is part of the Basic Research Program at Harvard Medical School, with research pertaining to development of the nervous system, sensory neuroscience, neurophysiology, and behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • This report summarizes information about arboviral infection of the central nervous system in the United States during 1996-1997. (cdc.gov)
  • Further investigation showed that he had concurrent TB lymphadenitis and central nervous system (CNS) tuberculoma, as well as HIV infection, with a CD4 cell count of 153 cells/mm 3 . (hindawi.com)
  • A 529-base region of the se- of 8 (14%) of 58 children with suspected central nervous quence was aligned with other CHIKV E1 gene sequences system infection in Bellary, India. (cdc.gov)
  • Infection with HIV can affect both the peripheral and central nervous systems (CNS) in their entirety as well as muscles. (medscape.com)
  • Malfunction of the nervous system can occur as a result of genetic defects, physical damage due to trauma or toxicity, infection or simply of ageing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The focus of the meeting was on plasticity of the central nervous system, one of the most decisive factors in recovery and readaption after cerebral lesions. (springer.com)
  • However, in the brain (part of the central nervous system), the "basal ganglia" is a group of nuclei interconnected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and brainstem, associated with a variety of functions: motor control, cognition, emotions, and learning. (wikipedia.org)
  • A deficit in the level of consciousness suggests that both of the cerebral hemispheres or the reticular activating system have been injured. (wikipedia.org)
  • Braak's further research has focused on the morphology and pathoanatomy of the human central nervous system, in particular of the cerebral cortex (1980). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cerebral vasculitis or central nervous system vasculitis (sometimes the word angiitis is used instead of "vasculitis") is vasculitis (inflammation of the blood vessel wall) involving the brain and occasionally the spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • Central nervous system depression or CNS depression refers to physiological depression of the central nervous system that can result in decreased rate of breathing, decreased heart rate, and loss of consciousness possibly leading to coma or death. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many cases, both of these systems have "opposite" actions where one system activates a physiological response and the other inhibits it. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a test of phase shifted circadian cycle, TIK-301 showed efficacy in readjusting phase shifts in all physiological systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cushing reflex (also referred to as the vasopressor response, the Cushing effect, the Cushing reaction, the Cushing phenomenon, the Cushing response, or Cushing's Law) is a physiological nervous system response to increased intracranial pressure (ICP) that results in Cushing's triad of increased blood pressure, irregular breathing, and bradycardia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Central nervous system regulation is impaired. (scirp.org)
  • In the central nervous system, acetylcholine modulates arousal and temperature regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the proteins in snake venom have very specific effects on various biological functions including blood coagulation, blood pressure regulation, and transmission of the nervous or muscular impulse, and have been developed for use as pharmacological or diagnostic tools, and even useful drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the human nervous system: Human nervous system - the part of the human body that coordinates a person's voluntary and involuntary actions and transmits signals between different parts of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human central nervous system is most complex object in the known universe . (everything2.com)
  • Phenylethylamine functions as a monoaminergic neuromodulator and, to a lesser extent, a neurotransmitter in the human central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Central nervous system (CNS) symptoms such cranial neuropathies due to meningeal infiltration are identified in less than 10% of adults and less than 5% of children, particularly mature B-cell ALL (Burkitt leukemia) at presentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This damage disrupts the ability of parts of the nervous system to communicate, resulting in a range of signs and symptoms, including physical, mental, and sometimes psychiatric problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the parasympathetic nervous system is active, it, among other things, increases blood flow to the digestive organs and slows the heart rate. (lifehack.org)
  • Shell also formulated SeQuester, a "natural nutritional fat sequestrant", which added bile to the fibrous matter, claiming to trap fat and allow it to pass through the digestive system without being absorbed by the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Central Nervous System Therapeutic Market has been analyzed By Region ( North America , Europe , Asia Pacific and Rest of the World) and By Country (US, Canada , UK, Germany , China , Japan , India , and Brazil ) for the historical period of 2014-2018 and the forecast period of 2019-2024. (prnewswire.com)
  • Amongst the regions, Asia Pacific accounts for the largest regional share in the global central nervous system therapeutic market in 2018. (prnewswire.com)
  • A decussation denotes a crossing of bundles of axonal fibres inside the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Central Nervous System Tuberculosis. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Lateral view of figure showing central nervous system and its associated encasing skeletal structure. (smartdraw.com)
  • Its bilateral inhibitory projections to the accessory optic system include connections to the lateral and medial terminal nuclei. (wikipedia.org)