Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)
One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.
The upper part of the tooth, which joins the lower part of the tooth (TOOTH ROOT) at the cervix (TOOTH CERVIX) at a line called the cementoenamel junction. The entire surface of the crown is covered with enamel which is thicker at the extremity and becomes progressively thinner toward the cervix. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p216)
Orthodontic techniques used to correct the malposition of a single tooth.
Break or rupture of a tooth or tooth root.
The third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw, situated between the second INCISOR and the premolar teeth (BICUSPID). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p817)
Partial or complete displacement of a tooth from its alveolar support. It is commonly the result of trauma. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p312)
The emergence of a tooth from within its follicle in the ALVEOLAR PROCESS of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE into the ORAL CAVITY. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)
Measurement of tooth characteristics.
The tip or terminal end of the root of a tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p62)
Orthodontic movement in the coronal direction achieved by outward tension on the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT. It does not include the operative procedure that CROWN LENGTHENING involves.
An extra tooth, erupted or unerupted, resembling or unlike the other teeth in the group to which it belongs. Its presence may cause malposition of adjacent teeth or prevent their eruption.
A treatment modality in endodontics concerned with the therapy of diseases of the dental pulp. For preparatory procedures, ROOT CANAL PREPARATION is available.
A tooth that is prevented from erupting by a physical barrier, usually other teeth. Impaction may also result from orientation of the tooth in an other than vertical position in the periodontal structures.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
Congenital absence of the teeth; it may involve all (total anodontia) or only some of the teeth (partial anodontia, hypodontia), and both the deciduous and the permanent dentition, or only teeth of the permanent dentition. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A normal developing tooth which has not yet perforated the oral mucosa or one that fails to erupt in the normal sequence or time interval expected for the type of tooth in a given gender, age, or population group.
Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.
Resorption in which cementum or dentin is lost from the root of a tooth owing to cementoclastic or osteoclastic activity in conditions such as trauma of occlusion or neoplasms. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Use of a metal casting, usually with a post in the pulp or root canal, designed to support and retain an artificial crown.
Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the teeth.
The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)
Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.
A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)
Traumatic or other damage to teeth including fractures (TOOTH FRACTURES) or displacements (TOOTH LUXATION).
A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.
A tooth from which the dental pulp has been removed or is necrotic. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.
The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.
The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Two teeth united during development by the union of their tooth germs; the teeth may be joined by the enamel of their crowns, by their root dentin, or by both.
An abnormality in the direction of a TOOTH ERUPTION.
Wires of various dimensions and grades made of stainless steel or precious metal. They are used in orthodontic treatment.
Reinsertion of a tooth into the alveolus from which it was removed or otherwise lost.
A fabricated tooth substituting for a natural tooth in a prosthesis. It is usually made of porcelain or plastic.
Skills, techniques, standards, and principles used to improve the art and symmetry of the teeth and face to improve the appearance as well as the function of the teeth, mouth, and face. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p108)
The plan and delineation of dental prostheses in general or a specific dental prosthesis. It does not include DENTURE DESIGN. The framework usually consists of metal.
Cylindrical epithelial cells in the innermost layer of the ENAMEL ORGAN. Their functions include contribution to the development of the dentinoenamel junction by the deposition of a layer of the matrix, thus producing the foundation for the prisms (the structural units of the DENTAL ENAMEL), and production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Death of pulp tissue with or without bacterial invasion. When the necrosis is due to ischemia with superimposed bacterial infection, it is referred to as pulp gangrene. When the necrosis is non-bacterial in origin, it is called pulp mummification.
Such malposition and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth as to interfere with the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
Endodontic procedure performed to induce TOOTH APEX barrier development. ROOT CANAL FILLING MATERIALS are used to repair open apex or DENTAL PULP NECROSIS in an immature tooth. CALCIUM HYDROXIDE and mineral trioxide aggregate are commonly used as the filling materials.
The space in a tooth bounded by the dentin and containing the dental pulp. The portion of the cavity within the crown of the tooth is the pulp chamber; the portion within the root is the pulp canal or root canal.
Extraoral body-section radiography depicting an entire maxilla, or both maxilla and mandible, on a single film.
The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.
The 32 teeth of adulthood that either replace or are added to the complement of deciduous teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
The phase of orthodontics concerned with the correction of malocclusion with proper appliances and prevention of its sequelae (Jablonski's Illus. Dictionary of Dentistry).
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.
The planning, calculation, and creation of an apparatus for the purpose of correcting the placement or straightening of teeth.
The relationship of all the components of the masticatory system in normal function. It has special reference to the position and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth for the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p556, p472)
The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.
The constricted part of the tooth at the junction of the crown and root or roots. It is often referred to as the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), the line at which the cementum covering the root of a tooth and the enamel of the tooth meet. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p530, p433)
The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Insertion of a tapered rod through the root canal into the periapical osseous structure to lengthen the existing root and provide individual tooth stabilization.
The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.
Dental devices such as RETAINERS, ORTHODONTIC used to improve gaps in teeth and structure of the jaws. These devices can be removed and reinserted at will.
Malocclusion in which the mandible is posterior to the maxilla as reflected by the relationship of the first permanent molar (distoclusion).
Anomaly of the tooth, found chiefly in upper lateral incisors. It is characterized by invagination of the enamel at the incisal edge.
Malocclusion in which the mandible and maxilla are anteroposteriorly normal as reflected by the relationship of the first permanent molar (i.e., in neutroclusion), but in which individual teeth are abnormally related to each other.
A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.
Small cylindrical pieces of metal used to enhance retention.
Either of the two fleshy, full-blooded margins of the mouth.
Horizontal and, to a lesser degree, axial movement of a tooth in response to normal forces, as in occlusion. It refers also to the movability of a tooth resulting from loss of all or a portion of its attachment and supportive apparatus, as seen in periodontitis, occlusal trauma, and periodontosis. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p507 & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p313)
The complement of teeth in the jaws after the eruption of some of the permanent teeth but before all the deciduous teeth are absent. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
The plan, delineation, and location of actual structural elements of dentures. The design can relate to retainers, stress-breakers, occlusal rests, flanges, framework, lingual or palatal bars, reciprocal arms, etc.
Small metal or ceramic attachments used to fasten an arch wire. These attachments are soldered or welded to an orthodontic band or cemented directly onto the teeth. Bowles brackets, edgewise brackets, multiphase brackets, ribbon arch brackets, twin-wire brackets, and universal brackets are all types of orthodontic brackets.
The result of pathological changes in the hard tissue of a tooth caused by carious lesions, mechanical factors, or trauma, which render the pulp susceptible to bacterial invasion from the external environment.
The selected form given to a natural tooth when it is reduced by instrumentation to receive a prosthesis (e.g., artificial crown or a retainer for a fixed or removable prosthesis). The selection of the form is guided by clinical circumstances and physical properties of the materials that make up the prosthesis. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239)
The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).
An abnormal passage in the oral cavity on the gingiva.
Devices, usually alloplastic, surgically inserted into or onto the jawbone, which support a single prosthetic tooth and serve either as abutments or as cosmetic replacements for missing teeth.
The fibrous CONNECTIVE TISSUE surrounding the TOOTH ROOT, separating it from and attaching it to the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).
Surgical reshaping of the gingivae and papillae for correction of deformities (particularly enlargements) and to provide the gingivae with a normal and functional form, the incision creating an external bevel. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The structure that forms the roof of the mouth. It consists of the anterior hard palate (PALATE, HARD) and the posterior soft palate (PALATE, SOFT).
Most common follicular odontogenic cyst. Occurs in relation to a partially erupted or unerupted tooth with at least the crown of the tooth to which the cyst is attached protruding into the cystic cavity. May give rise to an ameloblastoma and, in rare instances, undergo malignant transformation.
The elaboration of dental enamel by ameloblasts, beginning with its participation in the formation of the dentino-enamel junction to the production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992).
Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.
Phase of endodontic treatment in which a root canal system that has been cleaned is filled through use of special materials and techniques in order to prevent reinfection.
Preparatory activities in ROOT CANAL THERAPY by partial or complete extirpation of diseased pulp, cleaning and sterilization of the empty canal, enlarging and shaping the canal to receive the sealing material. The cavity may be prepared by mechanical, sonic, chemical, or other means. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1700)
An abnormal opening or fissure between two adjacent teeth.
Materials placed inside a root canal for the purpose of obturating or sealing it. The materials may be gutta-percha, silver cones, paste mixtures, or other substances. (Dorland, 28th ed, p631 & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p187)
Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.
Anterior midline brain, cranial, and facial malformations resulting from the failure of the embryonic prosencephalon to undergo segmentation and cleavage. Alobar prosencephaly is the most severe form and features anophthalmia; cyclopia; severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY; CLEFT LIP; CLEFT PALATE; SEIZURES; and microcephaly. Semilobar holoprosencepaly is characterized by hypotelorism, microphthalmia, coloboma, nasal malformations, and variable degrees of INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Lobar holoprosencephaly is associated with mild (or absent) facial malformations and intellectual abilities that range from mild INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY to normal. Holoprosencephaly is associated with CHROMOSOME ABNORMALITIES.
Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.
The fusion of ceramics (porcelain) to an alloy of two or more metals for use in restorative and prosthodontic dentistry. Examples of metal alloys employed include cobalt-chromium, gold-palladium, gold-platinum-palladium, and nickel-based alloys.
A hollow part of the alveolar process of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE where each tooth fits and is attached via the periodontal ligament.
A denture replacing all natural teeth and associated structures in both the maxilla and mandible.
Coloring, shading, or tinting of prosthetic components, devices, and materials.
Diseases of the PERIAPICAL TISSUE surrounding the root of the tooth, which is distinguished from DENTAL PULP DISEASES inside the TOOTH ROOT.
A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.
Devices used for influencing tooth position. Orthodontic appliances may be classified as fixed or removable, active or retaining, and intraoral or extraoral. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p19)
Inability or inadequacy of a dental restoration or prosthesis to perform as expected.
An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.
Investigations conducted on the physical health of teeth involving use of a tool that transmits hot or cold electric currents on a tooth's surface that can determine problems with that tooth based on reactions to the currents.
Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.
Physiologic loss of the primary dentition. (Zwemer, Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Therapeutic closure of spaces caused by the extraction of teeth, the congenital absence of teeth, or the excessive space between teeth.
Total lack of teeth through disease or extraction.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.
Epithelial cells surrounding the dental papilla and differentiated into three layers: the inner enamel epithelium, consisting of ameloblasts which eventually form the enamel, and the enamel pulp and external enamel epithelium, both of which atrophy and disappear before and upon eruption of the tooth, respectively.
The length of the face determined by the distance of separation of jaws. Occlusal vertical dimension (OVD or VDO) or contact vertical dimension is the lower face height with the teeth in centric occlusion. Rest vertical dimension (VDR) is the lower face height measured from a chin point to a point just below the nose, with the mandible in rest position. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p250)
The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)
A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.
A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
A prosthesis or restoration placed for a limited period, from several days to several months, which is designed to seal the tooth and maintain its position until a permanent restoration (DENTAL RESTORATION, PERMANENT) will replace it. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
An acquired or hereditary condition due to deficiency in the formation of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS). It is usually characterized by defective, thin, or malformed DENTAL ENAMEL. Risk factors for enamel hypoplasia include gene mutations, nutritional deficiencies, diseases, and environmental factors.
The process whereby calcium salts are deposited in the dental enamel. The process is normal in the development of bones and teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p43)
The collective tissues from which an entire tooth is formed, including the DENTAL SAC; ENAMEL ORGAN; and DENTAL PAPILLA. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.
Alloys that contain a high percentage of gold. They are used in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.
A registration of any positional relationship of the mandible in reference to the maxillae. These records may be any of the many vertical, horizontal, or orientation relations. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry)
A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.
The selective extraction of deciduous teeth during the stage of mixed dentition in accordance with the shedding and eruption of the teeth. It is done over an extended period to allow autonomous adjustment to relieve crowding of the dental arches during the eruption of the lateral incisors, canines, and premolars, eventually involving the extraction of the first premolar teeth. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.
The anatomical frontal portion of the mandible, also known as the mentum, that contains the line of fusion of the two separate halves of the mandible (symphysis menti). This line of fusion divides inferiorly to enclose a triangular area called the mental protuberance. On each side, inferior to the second premolar tooth, is the mental foramen for the passage of blood vessels and a nerve.
Dental procedure in which part of the pulp chamber is removed from the crown of a tooth.
The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.
A malocclusion in which maxillary incisor and canine teeth project over the mandiblar teeth excessively. The overlap is measured perpendicular to the occlusal plane and is also called vertical overlap. When the overlap is measured parallel to the occlusal plane it is referred to as overjet.
The force applied by the masticatory muscles in dental occlusion.
The use of a layer of tooth-colored material, usually porcelain or acrylic resin, applied to the surface of natural teeth, crowns, or pontics by fusion, cementation, or mechanical retention.
A type of porcelain used in dental restorations, either jacket crowns or inlays, artificial teeth, or metal-ceramic crowns. It is essentially a mixture of particles of feldspar and quartz, the feldspar melting first and providing a glass matrix for the quartz. Dental porcelain is produced by mixing ceramic powder (a mixture of quartz, kaolin, pigments, opacifiers, a suitable flux, and other substances) with distilled water. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Attachment of orthodontic devices and materials to the MOUTH area for support and to provide a counterforce to orthodontic forces.
Orthodontic appliances, fixed or removable, used to maintain teeth in corrected positions during the period of functional adaptation following corrective treatment. These appliances are also used to maintain the positions of the teeth and jaws gained by orthodontic procedures. (From Zwemer, Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p263)
Extraoral devices for applying force to the dentition in order to avoid some of the problems in anchorage control met with in intermaxillary traction and to apply force in directions not otherwise possible.
Natural teeth or teeth roots used as anchorage for a fixed or removable denture or other prosthesis (such as an implant) serving the same purpose.
The process of growth and differentiation of the jaws and face.
Inorganic compounds that contain aluminum as an integral part of the molecule.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Usually a written medical and nursing care program designed for a particular patient.
The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.
Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.
The proteins that are part of the dental enamel matrix.
The movement of teeth into altered positions in relationship to the basal bone of the ALVEOLAR PROCESS and to adjoining and opposing teeth as a result of loss of approximating or opposing teeth, occlusal interferences, habits, inflammatory and dystrophic disease of the attaching and supporting structures of the teeth. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)
A condition in which certain opposing teeth fail to establish occlusal contact when the jaws are closed.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Loose-fitting removable orthodontic appliances which redirect the pressures of the facial and masticatory muscles onto the teeth and their supporting structures to produce improvements in tooth arrangements and occlusal relations.
The wearing away of a tooth as a result of tooth-to-tooth contact, as in mastication, occurring only on the occlusal, incisal, and proximal surfaces. It is chiefly associated with aging. It is differentiated from TOOTH ABRASION (the pathologic wearing away of the tooth substance by friction, as brushing, bruxism, clenching, and other mechanical causes) and from TOOTH EROSION (the loss of substance caused by chemical action without bacterial action). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p86)
A bony prominence situated on the upper surface of the body of the sphenoid bone. It houses the PITUITARY GLAND.
Loose, usually removable intra-oral devices which alter the muscle forces against the teeth and craniofacial skeleton. These are dynamic appliances which depend on altered neuromuscular action to effect bony growth and occlusal development. They are usually used in mixed dentition to treat pediatric malocclusions. (ADA, 1992)
Mechanical removal of a small amount of tooth structure (not more than a few tenths of a millimeter in depth) to eliminate superficial enamel discoloration defects not successfully removed by bleaching techniques. A common abrasive is a mixture of pumice and hydrochloric acid.
A facial expression which may denote feelings of pleasure, affection, amusement, etc.
Preparation of TOOTH surfaces, and of materials bonded to teeth or DENTAL IMPLANTS, with agents and methods which roughen the surface to facilitate adhesion. Agents include phosphoric or other acids (ACID ETCHING, DENTAL) and methods include LASERS.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
The formation of dentin. Dentin first appears in the layer between the ameloblasts and odontoblasts and becomes calcified immediately. Formation progresses from the tip of the papilla over its slope to form a calcified cap becoming thicker by the apposition of new layers pulpward. A layer of uncalcified dentin intervenes between the calcified tissue and the odontoblast and its processes. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Recognition and elimination of potential irregularities and malpositions in the developing dentofacial complex.
The teeth collectively in the dental arch. Dentition ordinarily refers to the natural teeth in position in their alveoli. Dentition referring to the deciduous teeth is DENTITION, PRIMARY; to the permanent teeth, DENTITION, PERMANENT. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Fixed or removable devices that join teeth together. They are used to repair teeth that are mobile as a result of PERIODONTITIS.
A major dental enamel-forming protein found in mammals. In humans the protein is encoded by GENES found on both the X CHROMOSOME and the Y CHROMOSOME.
Holding a DENTAL PROSTHESIS in place by its design, or by the use of additional devices or adhesives.
Either one of the two small elongated rectangular bones that together form the bridge of the nose.
Malocclusion in which the mandible is anterior to the maxilla as reflected by the first relationship of the first permanent molar (mesioclusion).
Solid fixation of a tooth resulting from fusion of the cementum and alveolar bone, with obliteration of the periodontal ligament. It is uncommon in the deciduous dentition and very rare in permanent teeth. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
A physical misalignment of the upper (maxilla) and lower (mandibular) jaw bones in which either or both recede relative to the frontal plane of the forehead.
A commonly used prosthesis that results in a strong, permanent restoration. It consists of an electrolytically etched cast-metal retainer that is cemented (bonded), using resins, to adjacent teeth whose enamel was previously acid-treated (acid-etched). This type of bridgework is sometimes referred to as a Maryland bridge.
The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.
Preparation of TOOTH surfaces and DENTAL MATERIALS with etching agents, usually phosphoric acid, to roughen the surface to increase adhesion or osteointegration.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
Chemicals used mainly to disinfect root canals after pulpectomy and before obturation. The major ones are camphorated monochlorophenol, EDTA, formocresol, hydrogen peroxide, metacresylacetate, and sodium hypochlorite. Root canal irrigants include also rinsing solutions of distilled water, sodium chloride, etc.
The structures surrounding and supporting the tooth. Periodontium includes the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.
Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.
A complete denture replacing all the natural maxillary teeth and associated maxillary structures. It is completely supported by the oral tissue and underlying maxillary bone.
The bonelike rigid connective tissue covering the root of a tooth from the cementoenamel junction to the apex and lining the apex of the root canal, also assisting in tooth support by serving as attachment structures for the periodontal ligament. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
A tooth's loss of minerals, such as calcium in hydroxyapatite from the tooth matrix, caused by acidic exposure. An example of the occurrence of demineralization is in the formation of dental caries.
The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.
Cements that act through infiltration and polymerization within the dentinal matrix and are used for dental restoration. They can be adhesive resins themselves, adhesion-promoting monomers, or polymerization initiators that act in concert with other agents to form a dentin-bonding system.
Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Exposure of the root surface when the edge of the gum (GINGIVA) moves apically away from the crown of the tooth. This is common with advancing age, vigorous tooth brushing, diseases, or tissue loss of the gingiva, the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT and the supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).
Any of several burrowing rodents of the families MURIDAE and Bathyergidae, found in eastern Europe, Africa, and Asia. They have short limbs, small eyes with permanently closed lids, and no tail. Three genera SPALAX (Muridae), Heterocephalus (Bathyergidae) and Cryptomys (Bathyergidae) are used frequently as experimental animals in biomedical research. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed)
A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes that do not involve bacterial action. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p296)
Computed tomography modalities which use a cone or pyramid-shaped beam of radiation.
Insertion of an implant into the bone of the mandible or maxilla. The implant has an exposed head which protrudes through the mucosa and is a prosthodontic abutment.
A dental specialty concerned with the prevention and correction of dental and oral anomalies (malocclusion).
The seepage of fluids, debris, and micro-organisms between the walls of a prepared dental cavity and the restoration.
The use of a chemical oxidizing agent to whiten TEETH. In some procedures the oxidation process is activated by the use of heat or light.
Polymeric resins derived from OXIRANES and characterized by strength and thermosetting properties. Epoxy resins are often used as dental materials.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks.
Surgical excision of the gingiva at the level of its attachment, thus creating new marginal gingiva. This procedure is used to eliminate gingival or periodontal pockets or to provide an approach for extensive surgical interventions, and to gain access necessary to remove calculus within the pocket. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
Used as a dental cement this is mainly zinc oxide (with strengtheners and accelerators) and eugenol. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p50)
The primary teeth typically erupt in the following order: (1) central incisor, (2) lateral incisor, (3) first molar, (4) canine ... Primary dentition starts on the arrival of the mandibular central incisors, usually at eight months, and lasts until the first ... Throughout the mouth, all teeth undergo this same process; it is still uncertain why teeth form various crown shapes-for ... Mandibular teeth erupt in the following order: (1) first molar (2) central incisor, (3) lateral incisor, (4) canine, (5) first ...
The maxillary central incisors contact each other at the midline of the face. The mandibular central incisors are the only ... The deciduous maxillary central incisor begins to undergo mineralization 14 weeks in utero, and at birth 5/6ths of the enamel ... The other type of teeth is the mandibular central incisors. In usually preferred and healthy states, the central incisors touch ... When the teeth are biting down, the maxillary central incisors occlude with the mandibular central and lateral incisors. The ...
The maxillary central incisors contact each other at the midline of the face. The mandibular central incisors are the only ... The permanent maxillary central incisor begins to undergo mineralization when a child is 3-4 months of age.[1] The crown of the ... The other type of teeth is the mandibular central incisors. In usually preferred and healthy states, the central incisors touch ... When the teeth are biting down, the maxillary central incisors occlude with the mandibular central and lateral incisors. The ...
In males and females, the mean vertical height of the maxillary central incisors averages 10.6mm and 9.8mm respectively. With ... This means that those affected face the possibility of undergoing repeated procedures. A gingivectomy can also be done to ... have been done to confirm the statistically significant sexual dimorphism relative to the height of visible maxillary incisor ... the lip line at rest, the mean maxillary incisors display is 1.91mm for men and 3.40mm for women (nearly double the amount). ...
A possible variety is the hueque or chilihueque that existed in central and south-central Chile in pre-Hispanic and early ... Dentition of adults:-incisors 1/3 canines 1/1, premolars 2/2, molars 3/2; total 32. In the upper jaw is a compressed, sharp, ... pointed laniariform incisor near the hinder edge of the premaxilla, followed in the male at least by a moderate-sized, pointed ... they have undergone further special modifications. Meanwhile, the New World members of the family became restricted to South ...
The lower incisor edges lie posterior to the cingulum plateau of the upper incisors Division 1 - the upper central incisors are ... The mandible underwent a complex shape changes not matched by the teeth, leading to incongruity between the dental and ... Class I: The lower incisor edges occlude with or lie immediately below the cingulum plateau of the upper central incisors Class ... The upper central incisors are retroclined. The overjet is usually minimal or may be increased. Class III: The lower incisor ...
Maxillary lateral incisor 1.7% Maxillary second premolar 1.5% Mandibular central incisor 0.3% Mestrović SR, Rajić Z, Papić JS ( ... It's polymorphic variant may be associated with hypodontia such as missing lower incisors or in a more severe form of agenesis ... Some factors need to be considered when making a decision whether to undergo space closure. These include facial profile, size ... When moving the canine into the space of the lateral incisor, the dimensions of the canine, root position and gingival position ...
The only other mammals with pigmented enamel are the incisors of rodents. Apart from the first pair of incisors, which are long ... Reid F (2009). A Field Guide to the Mammals of Central America and Southeast Mexico. pp. 63-64. Churchfield S (January 1990). ... Shrews have sharp, spike-like teeth, not the familiar gnawing front incisor teeth of rodents. Shrews are distributed almost ... In winter, many species undergo morphological changes that drastically reduce their body weight. Shrews can lose between 30% ...
The upper second incisors grew into tusks, which varied in shape from straight, to curved (either upward or downward), to ... Tusks, which are derived from the incisor teeth, serve both as weapons and as tools for moving objects and digging. The large ... The Mbuti people of central Africa believe that the souls of their dead ancestors resided in elephants. Similar ideas existed ... which caused their teeth to undergo a three-fold increase in teeth height as well as substantial multiplication of lamellae ...
... the lower incisor edges lie posterior to the cingulum plateau of the upper incisors and the upper central incisors are ... All patients who are to undergo orthodontic treatment need to maintain good oral health), (3) function and (4) stability. ... Vertical overbite (measured by portion of lower incisor covered by upper central incisors when in occlusion) ... class II relationship with lingual inclination of upper central incisors (retrocline) and upper lateral incisors overlapping ...
ISBN 978-0-323-01162-4. Casterline AC (June 1999). "Replantation of avulsed central incisor with advanced periodontal disease: ... Typically the maxillary incisors were the teeth most often selected for removal. This practice is still common in parts of ... The bone that surrounds the tooth is continually undergoing physiological remodelling. Over time, the root is gradually ... The results of replanting permanent incisor teeth can be divided into short, medium and long term survival of the tooth. If the ...
The incisor teeth, like those of its predecessors, had a crown (like human incisors); however, the top incisors had a trace of ... Wild horses were known since prehistory from central Asia to Europe, with domestic horses and other equids being distributed ... the teeth of the horse underwent significant changes. The type of the original omnivorous teeth with short, "bumpy" molars, ... It had 44 low-crowned teeth, in the typical arrangement of an omnivorous, browsing mammal: three incisors, one canine, four ...
... overlap of the maxillary central incisors over the mandibular central incisors. In class II (division I) malocclusion the ... If the lower incisor is anterior to the upper incisors, the overjet is given a negative value.[11] In the UK, an overjet is ... Detrimental effects were seen in those who had undergone early treatment; more appointments, longer total treatment time and ... the lower incisors occlude posterior to the cingulum plateau of the upper incisors and the upper central incisors are ...
... although some have lost most of their incisors, all retain at least one lower incisor.[71] In most strepsirrhines, the lower ... Large tracts of forest are now rare in Central America.[194][207] This increases the amount of forest vulnerable to edge ... female catarrhine primates appear to undergo a cessation of reproductive function known as menopause; other groups are less ... In Central and South America forest fragmentation and hunting are the two main problems for primates. ...
LAP begins around the age of puberty where there is interproximal loss of attachment of the first molar, and or incisors[26] on ... It is essential that all patients undergo a routine periodontal examination to screen for any form of periodontal disease ... LAP is localised to first molar or incisor interproximal attachment loss, whereas GAP is the interproximal attachment loss ... in northern and in central Europe, 0.5% in southern Europe, and 0.1-0.2% in North America[2]) and 2.6% of black Africans may ...
Apremilast is undergoing investigation as a potential treatment .[86] Notes[edit]. *^ Cutaneous lichen planus affecting the ... This morphology is characterized by the presence of a few well-demarcated, white-bluish papules or plaques with central ... Shovel-shaped incisors. *Supernumerary root. *Taurodontism. *Trauma *Avulsion. *Cracked tooth syndrome. *Vertical root fracture ...
HSV-1 causes primarily mouth, throat, face, eye, and central nervous system infections.[4] ... of days per year in patients not undergoing antiviral treatment, versus 10% of days while on antiviral therapy.[33] ... a shortcut for influenza and other viral diseases into the central nervous system". The Journal of Pathology. 235 (2): 277-287 ... or invades the central nervous system, damaging the brain (herpes encephalitis). People with immature or suppressed immune ...
... although some have lost most of their incisors, all retain at least one lower incisor.[70] In most strepsirrhines, the lower ... Large tracts of forest are now rare in Central America.[194][207] This increases the amount of forest vulnerable to edge ... female catarrhine primates appear to undergo a cessation of reproductive function known as menopause; other groups are less ... In Central and South America forest fragmentation and hunting are the two main problems for primates. ...
... all retain at least one lower incisor. In most strepsirrhines, the lower incisors form a toothcomb, which is used in grooming ... In Central and South America forest fragmentation and hunting are the two main problems for primates. Large tracts of forest ... Late in life, female catarrhine primates appear to undergo a cessation of reproductive function known as menopause; other ... Marmosets, which are gum eaters, have strong incisor teeth, enabling them to open tree bark to get to the gum, and claws rather ...
In most cases, the involved teeth are the permanent maxillary lateral incisors (55%), followed by maxillary central incisors ( ... peg-shaped maxillary incisor, dens invaginatus, cleft lip, bilateral gemination, fusion, and supernumerary teeth. This anomaly ... brush and floss properly and undergo regular topical applications of fluoride gel to prevent caries and to promote enamel ... Ozcelik, Bahar; Atila, Burcu (2011-01-01). "Bilateral Palatal Talon Cusps on Permanent Maxillary Lateral Incisors: A Case ...
The maxillary central incisors contact each other at the midline of the face. The mandibular central incisors are the only ... The permanent maxillary central incisor begins to undergo mineralization when a child is 3-4 months of age.[1] The crown of the ... The other type of teeth is the mandibular central incisors. In usually preferred and healthy states, the central incisors touch ... When the teeth are biting down, the maxillary central incisors occlude with the mandibular central and lateral incisors. The ...
This case report focuses on the conventional and surgical management of mandibular central incisors. A twenty-four-year-old ... After root canal treatment, parendodontic surgery was performed for mandibular central incisors. After one-year recall ... Radiographic examination revealed mandibular central incisors with dumbbell shaped periapical lesion. ... male patient presented with pain in the mandibular central incisors. ...
The maxillary central incisors contact each other at the midline of the face. The mandibular central incisors are the only ... The deciduous maxillary central incisor begins to undergo mineralization 14 weeks in utero, and at birth 5/6ths of the enamel ... The other type of teeth is the mandibular central incisors. In usually preferred and healthy states, the central incisors touch ... When the teeth are biting down, the maxillary central incisors occlude with the mandibular central and lateral incisors. The ...
The peg-shaped primary central incisors were left untreated, as the patients parents were unwilling to have him undergo ... Intraoral examination showing presence of peg-shaped primary maxillary right and left central incisor. ... left and right central incisors with peg-shaped crowns on the right and left primary central incisors, and also showed partial ... developed crown on the permanent left and right central incisors, with a peg-shaped crown on the right and left primary central ...
A , The permanent central incisors are erupting lingual to the retained primary central incisors , which were extracted . B , ... central ray is directed through the long axis of the maxillary central incisor roots ... ... the adjacent second primary and the first permanent molars undergo identical .... Pagina 75. The central ray is projected ... Thus there is a calcification sequence of central incisor , first molar , lateral incisor , canine , and second molar . The ...
Lower central incisors underwent retrusion of 4 mm and intrusion of 1.5 mm (Fig 5). Upper central incisors were subsequently ... Outcome of orthodontic space closure with a missing maxillary central incisor. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2003;123(6):597- ... arch and associated to the migration of central incisors and to the space of missing lateral incisors (Fig 3). ... Mesial movement of central incisors produced the necessary space for implant placement. This was based on the margin of space ...
Upper-right central incisor was lost through trauma two years prior. Soft tissue is lacking both horizontally and vertically. ... Situation: Trauma on both upper central incisors in 1994. Teeth were re-implanted and extraction done in November 2012. ... Situation: Edentulous female patient, 86 years old, has undergone a complete rhinectomy. ... Situation: Periapical infection and an open fistulous track toward the root of upper central incisor (tooth #21). Presence of a ...
The incisors are at the epithelial thickening stage (asterix) in the two central slices (bottom of image). (C) Sagittal slice ... Figure 2. Incisor and gland culture. (A) E12.5 Mandible that has been chopped sagittally. Developing incisors (outlined white ... In culture the tooth germ extends backwards as the cervical loops grow, while the salivary gland continues to undergo branching ... Prepare central-well organ culture dishes ready for culture by adding approximately 2 ml of autoclaved water to the outer well ...
He underwent surgical procedures, including the extraction of the left maxillary central and lateral incisor and right ... Extraction of the right maxillary first molar, mandibular central incisors, and right mandibular lateral incisor was planned ... Figure 1: Panoramic radiography of the patient before extraction of the left maxillary central and lateral incisor in 2011. ...
In the 5-year follow-up of the group of 10 patients with an impacted upper central incisor, half of whom underwent the surgical ... Impacted upper central incisors, manifested by their lack in the dental arch or the presence of a deciduous predecessor, ... Studies conducted by Shi [34] on a group of 50 patients aged 6.4 to 10.4 years with an impacted maxillary central incisor with ... Dilacerate unerupted maxillary central incisors. Br Dent J 1978; 145: 229-233. Topouzelis N, Tsaousoglou P, Pisoka V, Zouloumis ...
... each containing one pair of maxillary central and lateral incisor, so it made 500 maxillary central incisors and 500 lateral ... He underwent a primary open rhinoplasty procedure consisting of an unilateral lower lateral crural turnover flap.. Lower ...
This article reports a clinical case of a boy who underwent an avulsion of the upper right central incisor at 8 years old. The ... The palatogingival groove is a developmental anomaly that typically starts near the cingulum of the maxillary incisors and ... This case report describes the multidisciplinary treatment and long-term management of an avulsed permanent central incisor in ... Conclusion: The upper right central incisor, avulsed, replanted and ankylosed presented an evolutionary condition of root ...
This article reports a clinical case of a boy who underwent an avulsion of the upper right central incisor at 8 years old. The ... the effects of oral and dental injuries caused by trauma appear later with the eruption of the permanent incisors when ectopic ... OUTCOMES: Teeth that underwent pulp treatment presented with external resorption. On the other hand, the tooth that had ... In the context of tooth trauma mostly the maxillary central front teeth are involved, whereby their roots are in some cases in ...
This report describes a case of a 13-year-old boy with anterior open bite complicated by an ankylosed maxillary central incisor ... Thirty-six non-carious primary central incisors were assigned to 12 experimental groups (n = 3) based on the erosive and ... Of these 18 patients, 10 (55.6%) had hospital-acquired bacteremia and 6 (33.3%) had undergone invasive procedures before ... Treatment of Class II Open Bite Complicated by an Ankylosed Maxillary Central Incisor The Angle Orthodontist. Jul, 2011 , ...
Materials and Methods: Fifty-six extracted human maxillary central incisors were selected and divided randomly into two groups ... Group 1 samples underwent dental finishing using high-speed rotating diamond burs, while group 2 used sonic oscillating diamond ... Materials and Methods: Forty bovine incisor roots were divided into four groups after phosphoric acid etching: group 1 (control ... Materials and Methods: Fifteen bovine incisors were selected and the roots removed. Crowns were sectioned into four pieces, ...
Central incisor procumbency Another positional variant of the upper central incisors, procumbency, shows best fit to the ... In the present study, a series of morphological traits of the human dentition undergo a complex segregation analysis in a n ... Central incisor procumbency. The degree of procumbency of the upper central incisor is scored using a standard developed by the ... However, further analyses are possible for the two incisors. For the central incisor, three other breakpoints-1/2, 213, and 314 ...
A 3 year old presents with subluxated maxillary central incisors. What is the most appropriate management? A. Reposition the ... C. mandibular central incisor to the first premolar. D. mandibular second premolar to the second molar. Which of the following ... 4. undergoes both degenerative and proliferative changes. The most appropriate treatment for a vital primary molar with carious ... For which of the following pathological conditions would a lower central incisor tooth be expected to respond to heat, cold and ...
The upper central incisors were most susceptible to fracture. Even though most athletes knew a mouthguard was needed during ... The prevalence of caries was higher in the upper arch, and the most affected tooth was the central incisor (p = 0.001). ... Each group, in its time (TG0 to TG180), underwent analysis of superficial roughness with the aid of optical profilometer ( ... Observe the high incidence of injuries primarily against lips and tongue when this athlete undergoing orthodontic treatment ...
... all of them coming out from the incisal edge of thebuccal inclined upper central incisor. With the data collected through the ... Patients underwent computed tomography in twostages: (T1) before rapid maxillary expansion and (T2) three months after ... Evaluation of the changes in the upper central incisors after rapid maxillary expansion. Author: Roberta Lopes Gomes Cesário, ... Objective: Short-term evaluation of the changes in the position of permanent upper central incisors after rapid maxillary ...
2.2.3. Case 3: GBR on upper right central incisor. Upper right central incisor was extracted due to intermittent pain, swelling ... 2.2.4. Case 4: ridge split and expansion on lower central incisors. Ridge split procedure was performed to secure the labio- ... When the patient underwent secondary surgery, six months later, well-formed bone, which surrounds the implant and fill the gap ... CBCT images of GBR on upper right central incisor. (a) Before extraction of upper right central incisor; (b) placement of ...
Group 2 showed statistically significantly more proclination of the maxillary central incisors than group 1. ... Maxillary incisor.. The difference in change of the U1-SN in group 1 compared with group 2 was statistically significant. In ... The maxillary canines underwent statistically significant distal movement by 2.24 ± 1.91 mm (right: 2.25 ± 2.15 mm; left: 2.24 ... the lower incisors may have advanced more in group 2, thereby causing the upper incisors to tip forward. Further research is ...
The left incisor continues to heal apically.. Figure 17.2 Root fracture of maxillary left central incisor while undergoing ... e) The two central incisors are etched. (f) Sealing of the incisors with bonded composite restorations. A definitive well- ... The lesion at the apex of the left incisor is healing. (d) Fracture of the thin root of the right central incisor 3 months ... 2 and restoration of crown on traumatically injured maxillary central incisor. (a) Facial views of fractured incisor (courtesy ...
... which underwent morphological modification to replicate the morphology of a maxillary right incisor. The patient was pleased ... The maxillary left central incisor was moved into the position of the maxillary right central incisor. All other left maxillary ... Substituting a missing central incisor with the contralateral one can be a useful approach to reduce the number of teeth that ... including the maxillary right central incisor, which required extraction due to endodontic failure. ...
This tooth appeared much wider and more prominent than the adjacent central incisor. Mark wanted to fix this cosmetic problem ... She underwent orthodontic treatment to move her teeth to a better position, and her front four teeth were restored. ... Jennifer had old discolored crowns on her two lateral incisors and worn front teeth. This wear was related to the position of ...
J Int Clin Dent Res Organ, Official publication of International Clinical Dental Research Organization (ICDRO),India
Because of the loss of bone around the right central incisor (Figure 15), it was decided to sacrifice this tooth and ... Generally, the embrasure space of the maxillary central incisors will be filled with the interdental papillae if the distance ... This esthetically demanding patient had undergone several plastic surgery procedures over the previous years, including facial ... The examination and treatment considerations included forced orthodontic eruption8 of the right central incisor as a means of ...
For example, if the lateral incisors on either side of the central incisors (the two teeth front and center) dont develop, it ... If they are slim in width, they can be re-shaped to make them appear more like a lateral incisor, and the gums possibly ... Be Sure Your Dentist Knows Youre Undergoing Aspirin Therapy. *Replacing Missing Back Teeth Is Important - Just Ask Christie ... closer to the central incisors. This choice is determined by the size of the canine teeth. ...
  • It is located mesial (closer to the midline of the face) to the maxillary lateral incisor . (wikipedia.org)
  • It is larger than the neighboring lateral incisor and is usually not as convex on its labial surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • He underwent surgical procedures, including the extraction of the left maxillary central and lateral incisor and right mandibular second molar tooth under local anesthesia in 2011 (Figures 1 and 2 ) and the sequestrectomy of right mandible under general anesthesia in 2013 (Figure 3 ). (hindawi.com)
  • Total numbers of patients were 250, each containing one pair of maxillary central and lateral incisor, so it made 500 maxillary central incisors and 500 lateral incisors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • PATIENT CONCERNS: In case 1, the left upper lateral incisor became loose after 10 years of replantation. (bvsalud.org)
  • After completion of orthodontic treatment, acrylic build-up was performed on the maxillary left lateral incisor, which underwent morphological modification to replicate the morphology of a maxillary right incisor. (apospublications.com)
  • In adult patients, the treatment options include autotransplantation, a partial denture, dental implants, and closure of a single edentulous space by substituting the missing central incisor with the ipsilateral lateral incisor. (apospublications.com)
  • I worked with my lab to come up with a plan in which I would gain space from the lateral incisor next to it by shaving down the side in order to make it "skinnier" and then placing a porcelain veneer to restore the tooth to full function. (rincondental.com)
  • Association between gingivitis and anterior gingival enlargement in subjects undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. (springermedizin.de)
  • There are several options for replacing a missing maxillary central incisor in orthodontic treatment. (apospublications.com)
  • In the orthodontic treatment of missing maxillary central incisors, there are several options for replacing one or both central incisors. (apospublications.com)
  • Orthodontic treatment with translocation of a maxillary central incisor across the MPS has been described previously, but all of these reports involved young or adolescent patients with a MPS that had not yet ossified. (apospublications.com)
  • These patients underwent extraction and orthodontic treatment with upper incisor intrusion and retraction. (springeropen.com)
  • At present the patient is undergoing orthodontic treatment and his regular clinical and radiographic follow ups scheduled. (dergipark.org.tr)
  • The maxillary central incisor is a human tooth in the front upper jaw, or maxilla , and is usually the most visible of all teeth in the mouth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The overall length of the deciduous maxillary central incisor is 16 mm on average, with the crown being 6 mm and the root being 10 mm. [9] In comparison to the permanent maxillary central incisor, the ratio of the root length to the crown length is greater in the deciduous tooth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tooth malformations such as conical incisors and conical canines are commonly seen in hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia males and may also occur in heterozygous females to a less severe degree. (bmj.com)
  • The orthopantomogram view showed multiple permanent tooth buds with peg-shaped primary central incisors ( figure 2 ). (bmj.com)
  • The lateral cephalogram also showed multiple permanent tooth buds and peg-shaped primary central incisors with multiple wormian bones ( figure 3 ). (bmj.com)
  • Orthopantomogram showing multiple tooth buds with peg-shaped primary central incisors. (bmj.com)
  • In comparison to the permanent maxillary central incisor, the ratio of the root length to the crown length is greater in the deciduous tooth. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The permanent maxillary central incisor is the widest tooth mesiodistally in comparison to any other anterior tooth. (wikipedia.org)
  • 7 mm buccal probing and mild root resorption at upper central incisor (tooth #21). (nobelbiocare.com)
  • In case 2, the patient underwent tooth replantation after external root canal treatment due to tooth dislocation caused by trauma 8 years ago. (bvsalud.org)
  • Tooth movement across the midpalatal suture (MPS) is a treatment option for closing a maxillary central incisor space, which might help avoid prosthetic treatment, reduce the number of extractions of healthy teeth, and help correct crowding and incisor proclination. (apospublications.com)
  • [ 1 , 2 ] However, tooth movement across an ossified MPS has been reported only in animal experiments, [ 6 ] and there are no reports describing the movement of a central incisor across an ossified suture in adult patients. (apospublications.com)
  • It was done this way by the previous dentist and lab so that the size of the 2 central incisors would match-two central incisors of very different widths would be even more unaesthetic than a single tooth that is out of position. (rincondental.com)
  • The development of the tooth will be followed, looking at what controls the shape of the tooth and how signals from the mesenchyme and epithelium interact to lead to formation of a molar or incisor. (wiley.com)
  • The mouse can therefore tell us much about patterning of teeth (molar vs. incisor), control of tooth number, and the role of stem cells in tooth development. (wiley.com)
  • Nonetheless, it is found that the reaction of the alveolar bone surrounding the maxillary incisors does not always react to the tooth movement as expected. (springeropen.com)
  • Intraoral examination revealed many deep caries lesions and a supernumerary tooth between his maxillary central incisor teeth. (dergipark.org.tr)
  • Maxillary central incisors of permanent and primary teeth marked in red. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mandibular central incisors are the only other type of teeth to do so. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extraction of both lower central incisors needed due to extensive root infection and fractured teeth. (nobelbiocare.com)
  • OUTCOMES: Teeth that underwent pulp treatment presented with external resorption. (bvsalud.org)
  • Conclusion: It can be concluded that there is significant protrusion and lingualinclination of the permanent upper central incisor teeth after rapid maxillaryexpansion in a short-term evaluation analysis. (journalcra.com)
  • Substituting a missing central incisor with the contralateral one can be a useful approach to reduce the number of teeth that require extraction during the treatment. (apospublications.com)
  • Herein, we describe the treatment of a 26-year-old woman who had lost multiple teeth on one side, including the maxillary right central incisor, which required extraction due to endodontic failure. (apospublications.com)
  • The first step was for the patient to undergo orthdodontics to create space between the central incisors and the canine teeth. (rincondental.com)
  • The mouse only has one generation of teeth, and the incisors continuously grow throughout the animal's life. (wiley.com)
  • Maxillary incisor protrusion is often orthodontically treated, most commonly by extracting premolars and retracting anterior teeth with maximum anchorage. (springeropen.com)
  • In group 1 and 2, maxillary first molars underwent significant distal movement (1.92 mm ± 0.80 mm and 1.67 mm ± 1.56 mm, respectively) with distal tipping and rotation, maxillary canines underwent significant distal movement (2.34 mm ± 1.07 mm and 2.24 mm ± 1.91 mm, respectively) with distal tipping and rotation, and mandibular molars underwent significant mesial movement (-1.37 mm ± 1.23 mm and -2.51 mm ± 1.51 mm, respectively) with mesial tipping. (allenpress.com)
  • A thin gingival biotype was noted at the marginal soft tissue around the central incisor implant sites and the adjacent lateral incisors and canines. (quintessence-partner.com)
  • Significantly more mandibular molar mesial movement and maxillary incisor flaring were observed in patients with skeletal Class II. (allenpress.com)
  • The impacted permanent maxillary impacted incisor was extracted and extraction socket was inspected for any pathology. (ejmr.org)
  • On clinical examination, both mandibular central incisors were discolored. (hindawi.com)
  • The clinical case we present here regards a 25-year old girl who underwent an extremely severe car accident in which she was the only one survivor out of 4 passengers of the same age. (zerodonto.com)
  • 2015. 'Εvaluation of a Treatment protocol for unerupted maxillary central incisors: retrospective clinical study of 46 children. (dergipark.org.tr)
  • Patients underwent computed tomography in twostages: (T1) before rapid maxillary expansion and (T2) three months after rapidmaxillary expansion. (journalcra.com)
  • Djeu G, Hayes C, Zawaideh S. Correlation between mandibular central incisor proclination and gingival recession during fixed appliance therapy. (springermedizin.de)
  • Figure 17.1 Fractured root of the maxillary right central incisor following successful apexification with calcium hydroxide and filling of root canal with guttapercha. (pocketdentistry.com)
  • Figure 17.3 Apical closure and root completion following direct pulp capping in maxillary right central incisor. (pocketdentistry.com)
  • Figure 17.4 Cvek pulpotomy with MTA on a maxillary right central incisor. (pocketdentistry.com)
  • The maxillary left central incisor was moved into the position of the maxillary right central incisor. (apospublications.com)
  • Maxillary Right Central Incisor On The Labial Side. (ejmr.org)
  • f) Sealing of the incisors with bonded composite restorations. (pocketdentistry.com)
  • Two sets of custom gold abutments were used prior to and following surgical correction of a pre-existing soft and hard tissue ridge defect surrounding maxillary central incisor implant restorations. (quintessence-partner.com)
  • A stable and esthetically pleasing result was documented 7 years following delivery of definitive esthetic central incisor implant restorations. (quintessence-partner.com)
  • A preliminary set of custom abutments and provisional restorations for the implants at the site of the maxillary central incisors was fabricated using a silicone index taken from a wax-up. (quintessence-partner.com)
  • Maxillary incisor protrusion is a prevalent dental deformity and is often treated by upper incisor intrusion and retraction. (springeropen.com)
  • The cohort included 34 female patients (mean age 25.8 years) who were diagnosed with skeletal class II malocclusion with upper incisor protrusion. (springeropen.com)
  • a sinus opening was seen on the labial aspect of mandibular right central incisor. (hindawi.com)
  • When a second canal is located in mandibular incisors, it is most frequently found A. labial to the main canal. (docplayer.net)
  • Aziz T, Flores-Mir C. A systematic review of the association between appliance-induced labial movement of mandibular incisors and gingival recession. (springermedizin.de)
  • In addition, the change in angulation between the incisor and alveolar bone was inversely correlated with several initial angulations: between the initial palatal plane and upper incisor angle, between the initial palatal plane and upper incisor labial surface angle, and between the initial palatal plane and bone labial surface angle. (springeropen.com)
  • a) Preoperative radiograph of left central incisor with necrotic pulp and incompletely formed root. (pocketdentistry.com)
  • a) Radiograph of fractured left incisor with pulp exposure. (pocketdentistry.com)
  • Radiographic examination revealed mandibular central incisors with dumbbell shaped periapical lesion. (hindawi.com)
  • Since the presentation of these incisors were very unusual, the patient was advised to undergo an orthopantomogram, a lateral cephalogram, an intraoral periapical (IOPA) radiograph and a maxillary occlusal radiographic view. (bmj.com)
  • This case report focuses on the conventional and surgical management of mandibular central incisors. (hindawi.com)
  • This case report presents the successful treatment of a "trauma induced large periapical lesion in mandibular central incisors by combined nonsurgical and surgical endodontic treatment" and the case was periodically examined. (hindawi.com)
  • The treatment plan comprised of surgical removal of the permanent maxillary impacted incisor. (ejmr.org)
  • A 30-year-old woman presented with a chief complaint of an "artificial" appearance and discoloration of the gingival tissues around the maxillary central incisor implants (Fig 1). (quintessence-partner.com)
  • Fig 1 (left) Preoperative status: Unesthetic implant-supported porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns on central incisors with discoloredsoft tissues due to thin gingival biotype. (quintessence-partner.com)
  • An intraoral examination revealed the presence of a complete primary dentition with good oral hygiene, and also showed the presence of peg-shaped primary maxillary right and left central incisors ( figure 1 ). (bmj.com)
  • The mouse has a highly reduced dentition, with one incisor, separated by a diastema region to three molars, in each quadrant. (wiley.com)
  • C. mandibular central incisor to the first premolar. (docplayer.net)
  • premolar and maxillary central and lateral incisors (2). (ejmr.org)
  • The patient's dental history revealed that she went through endodontic treatment of right maxillary central and lateral incisors, however without any information about the reason and the time that this treatment happened. (bvsalud.org)
  • After root canal treatment, parendodontic surgery was performed for mandibular central incisors. (hindawi.com)
  • The peg-shaped primary central incisors were left untreated, as the patient's parents were unwilling to have him undergo further treatment. (bmj.com)
  • Unsuccessful previous root canal treatment with guttapercha in the left central incisor. (pocketdentistry.com)
  • The unpredictability of alveolar bone remodeling after upper incisor intrusion and retraction poses significant challenges to treatment planning and patient experience. (springeropen.com)
  • A twenty-four-year-old male patient presented with pain in the mandibular central incisors. (hindawi.com)
  • Thus, based on the available findings, the patient was diagnosed as having non-syndromic primary maxillary peg central incisors with multiple wormian bones. (bmj.com)
  • Female patient, 43 years old, loose frontal incisor. (nobelbiocare.com)
  • This was a case where the patient was originally missing her lateral incisors ( a not too uncommon situation). (rincondental.com)
  • The periapical lesion associated with 31, 41, having regular borders, was seen along the apical and lateral root surfaces of mandibular central incisors. (hindawi.com)
  • The dilaceration in the vestibular or palatal direction was determined on the basis of the "bull's-eye" symptom - the deviating root portion forms a round radiopaque area with a dark central area permeable to X-rays, which is the root canal [24]. (termedia.pl)
  • Intraoral examination showing presence of peg-shaped primary maxillary right and left central incisor. (bmj.com)
  • The aim of this study is to determine factors that can help to predict the alveolar bone reaction before maxillary incisor intrusion and retraction. (springeropen.com)
  • crowns on the existing implants in the sites of the maxillary central incisors and porcelain veneers on the adjacent lateral incisors. (quintessence-partner.com)
  • Impacted upper central incisors, manifested by their lack in the dental arch or the presence of a deciduous predecessor, constitute a big aesthetic, developmental and psychological problem. (termedia.pl)
  • Studies on the prevalence of dilaceration in individual dental groups showed the occurrence of this disorder within the central upper incisors within the range of 0.2-1.2% [7, 9, 11, 12]. (termedia.pl)
  • Después del examen dental, el grupo se dividió en un grupo de buena higiene oral (GHG) y un grupo de mala higiene oral (PHG). (bvsalud.org)
  • La edad dental utilizada en este estudio demostró ser el método radiográfico más efectivo para la determinación de la madurez ósea para su uso en la identificación del talento a través de exámenes de imágenes. (bvsalud.org)
  • There are some minor differences between the deciduous maxillary central incisor and that of the permanent maxillary central incisor. (wikipedia.org)
  • [3] The right deciduous maxillary central incisor is known as "E", and the left one is known as "F". The permanent maxillary central incisors are designated by a number. (wikipedia.org)
  • The permanent maxillary central incisor begins to undergo mineralization when a child is 3-4 months of age. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the mesial and distal surfaces, the cervical line curves incisally, which is also seen in the permanent maxillary central incisor. (wikipedia.org)
  • It develops with root formation ahead of or at an equivalent stage to that of the permanent incisors and usually presents as a mesiodens. (bmj.com)
  • Both the views clearly showing a completely developed crown on the permanent left and right central incisors, with a peg-shaped crown on the right and left primary central incisors, they also show partial root resorption of the primary right and left central incisors. (bmj.com)
  • In the study conducted by Tan [1] among children and adolescents, the incidence of impacted incisors was 2.0%, of which 70.6% of cases concerned the upper medial permanent incisors. (termedia.pl)
  • Objective: Short-term evaluation of the changes in the position of permanent upper central incisors after rapid maxillary expansion. (journalcra.com)
  • permanent right central incisor (Fig. II). (ejmr.org)
  • After careful elevation of the flap, adequate amount of bone was removed using the periosteal elevator and straight elevator and the impacted permanent maxillary impacted incisor (Fig. IV) was exposed. (ejmr.org)
  • Space gain for lateral incisors was achieved in the lower arch by means of an orthodontic appliance. (scielo.br)
  • Evidence of major gene influence on the development of winging of the upper central incisors has been found via segregation analysis (Escobar et al. (docme.ru)
  • axis)1, N.ENA.ENP, Rhi-1.ENA-ENP) were analyzed, all of them coming out from the incisal edge of thebuccal inclined upper central incisor. (journalcra.com)
  • 2,9-13 However, most of these methods procline mandibular incisors. (allenpress.com)
  • The deciduous maxillary central incisor begins to undergo mineralization 14 weeks in utero, and at birth 5/6ths of the enamel is formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The development of mineralized tissue will then be detailed, looking at how the asymmetrical deposition of enamel is controlled in the mouse incisor. (wiley.com)
  • Non-syndromic primary maxillary peg central incisors with multiple wormian bones in a 6-year-old boy: an unusual presentation -- Kumar et al. (bmj.com)
  • He underwent a primary open rhinoplasty procedure consisting of an unilateral lower lateral crural turnover flap. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Kato C, Kokai S, Ono T. Orthodontic movement of a contralateral maxillary central incisor across the midpalatal suture. (apospublications.com)
  • page needed] The overall length of the deciduous maxillary central incisor is 16 mm on average, with the crown being 6 mm and the root being 10 mm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Figure 17.5 Cvek pulpotomy with Ca(OH) 2 and restoration of crown on traumatically injured maxillary central incisor. (pocketdentistry.com)
  • Additionally, viable adipocytes and fibroblasts among other cells were found.The purpose of this research was to study the biology of this matrix after subsequent implantation compared to Juvederm (Allergan, Parsippany, NJ) common soft tissue filler.Fat was obtained from individuals undergoing routine liposuction and was processed by a two-step process to obtain a connective tissue matrix. (stanford.edu)
  • Figure 17.2 Root fracture of maxillary left central incisor while undergoing apexification with calcium hydroxide. (pocketdentistry.com)