Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Epithelium, Corneal: Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.Corneal Stroma: The lamellated connective tissue constituting the thickest layer of the cornea between the Bowman and Descemet membranes.Limbus Corneae: An annular transitional zone, approximately 1 mm wide, between the cornea and the bulbar conjunctiva and sclera. It is highly vascular and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea. It is ophthalmologically significant in that it appears on the outer surface of the eyeball as a slight furrow, marking the line between the clear cornea and the sclera. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)Ophthalmic Nerve: A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.Eye Burns: Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.Corneal Diseases: Diseases of the cornea.Endothelium, Corneal: Single layer of large flattened cells covering the surface of the cornea.Corneal Neovascularization: New blood vessels originating from the corneal veins and extending from the limbus into the adjacent CORNEAL STROMA. Neovascularization in the superficial and/or deep corneal stroma is a sequel to numerous inflammatory diseases of the ocular anterior segment, such as TRACHOMA, viral interstitial KERATITIS, microbial KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS, and the immune response elicited by CORNEAL TRANSPLANTATION.Burns, ChemicalKeratitis: Inflammation of the cornea.Corneal Opacity: Disorder occurring in the central or peripheral area of the cornea. The usual degree of transparency becomes relatively opaque.Corneal Topography: The measurement of curvature and shape of the anterior surface of the cornea using techniques such as keratometry, keratoscopy, photokeratoscopy, profile photography, computer-assisted image processing and videokeratography. This measurement is often applied in the fitting of contact lenses and in diagnosing corneal diseases or corneal changes including keratoconus, which occur after keratotomy and keratoplasty.Lasers, Excimer: Gas lasers with excited dimers (i.e., excimers) as the active medium. The most commonly used are rare gas monohalides (e.g., argon fluoride, xenon chloride). Their principal emission wavelengths are in the ultraviolet range and depend on the monohalide used (e.g., 193 nm for ArF, 308 nm for Xe Cl). These lasers are operated in pulsed and Q-switched modes and used in photoablative decomposition involving actual removal of tissue. (UMDNS, 2005)Corneal Transplantation: Partial or total replacement of the CORNEA from one human or animal to another.Photorefractive Keratectomy: A type of refractive surgery of the CORNEA to correct MYOPIA and ASTIGMATISM. An EXCIMER LASER is used directly on the surface of the EYE to remove some of the CORNEAL EPITHELIUM thus reshaping the anterior curvature of the cornea.Conjunctiva: The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.Tears: The fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Keratoconus: A noninflammatory, usually bilateral protrusion of the cornea, the apex being displaced downward and nasally. It occurs most commonly in females at about puberty. The cause is unknown but hereditary factors may play a role. The -conus refers to the cone shape of the corneal protrusion. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Corneal Ulcer: Loss of epithelial tissue from the surface of the cornea due to progressive erosion and necrosis of the tissue; usually caused by bacterial, fungal, or viral infection.Keratoplasty, Penetrating: Partial or total replacement of all layers of a central portion of the cornea.Eye Banks: Centers for storing various parts of the eye for future use.Corneal Edema: An excessive amount of fluid in the cornea due to damage of the epithelium or endothelium causing decreased visual acuity.Descemet Membrane: A layer of the cornea. It is the basal lamina of the CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM (from which it is secreted) separating it from the CORNEAL STROMA. It is a homogeneous structure composed of fine collagenous filaments, and slowly increases in thickness with age.Corneal Keratocytes: Fibroblasts which occur in the CORNEAL STROMA.Keratitis, Herpetic: A superficial, epithelial Herpesvirus hominis infection of the cornea, characterized by the presence of small vesicles which may break down and coalesce to form dendritic ulcers (KERATITIS, DENDRITIC). (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)Keratan Sulfate: A sulfated mucopolysaccharide initially isolated from bovine cornea. At least two types are known. Type I, found mostly in the cornea, contains D-galactose and D-glucosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit; type II, found in skeletal tissues, contains D-galactose and D-galactosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit.Tissue Preservation: The process by which a tissue or aggregate of cells is kept alive outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Corneal Dystrophies, Hereditary: Bilateral hereditary disorders of the cornea, usually autosomal dominant, which may be present at birth but more frequently develop during adolescence and progress slowly throughout life. Central macular dystrophy is transmitted as an autosomal recessive defect.Ophthalmic Solutions: Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.Sodium Hydroxide: A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Fuchs' Endothelial Dystrophy: Disorder caused by loss of endothelium of the central cornea. It is characterized by hyaline endothelial outgrowths on Descemet's membrane, epithelial blisters, reduced vision, and pain.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Contact Lenses: Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (UMDNS, 1999)Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Artificial Organs: Devices intended to replace non-functioning organs. They may be temporary or permanent. Since they are intended always to function as the natural organs they are replacing, they should be differentiated from PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS and specific types of prostheses which, though also replacements for body parts, are frequently cosmetic (EYE, ARTIFICIAL) as well as functional (ARTIFICIAL LIMBS).Alkalies: Usually a hydroxide of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium or cesium, but also the carbonates of these metals, ammonia, and the amines. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Ophthalmology: A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Contact Lenses, Hydrophilic: Soft, supple contact lenses made of plastic polymers which interact readily with water molecules. Many types are available, including continuous and extended-wear versions, which are gas-permeable and easily sterilized.Contact Lenses, Extended-Wear: Hydrophilic contact lenses worn for an extended period or permanently.Contact Lens Solutions: Sterile solutions used to clean and disinfect contact lenses.
  • She completed her ophthalmology residency at the Wilmer Eye Institute and fellowship in cornea and refractive disease at the Moran Eye Institute in Salt Lake City, Utah, where she received the Claes Dohlman Fellow of the Year Award, recognizing the most distinguished cornea fellow in the nation. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Central Eye Care, LTD. is an ophthalmology practice serving the northwest suburbs of Chicago. (lsms.org)
  • From the Cornea and Ocular Surface Unit, Department of Ophthalmology, Complejo Hospitalario de Santiago de Compostela, University of Santiago de Compostela, La Coruña, Spain. (healio.com)
  • Address correspondence to M. Teresa Rodríguez-Ares, Cornea and Ocular Surface Unit, Department of Ophthalmology, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela -Hospital de Conxo, Rúa Ramón Baltar s/n, CP: 15706, Santiago de Compostela. (healio.com)
  • Using EdU (5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine), we identified long-term label retaining cells in the basal cells of peripheral post-metamorphic Xenopus cornea, consistent with slow-cycling stem cells of the limbus that have been described in other vertebrates. (ovid.com)
  • Purpose: To compare small nerve fiber damage in the central cornea and whorl area in participants with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and to examine the accuracy of evaluating these 2 anatomical sites for the diagnosis of DPN. (mendeley.com)
  • We compared the distribution and self-renewal capacity of rabbit corneal endothelial cell precursors in the central and peripheral regions of the cornea. (nii.ac.jp)
  • To identify mediators of granulocyte recruitment to the corneal stroma, we determined the relative contribution of chemokine receptors CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR)-2 (IL-8R homologue) and CCR1 using a murine model of ocular onchocerciasis (river blindness) in which neutrophils and eosinophils migrate from peripheral vessels to the central cornea. (jimmunol.org)
  • Disorder occurring in the central or peripheral area of the cornea. (icd9data.com)
  • Looking for a comprehensive, medical retina, glaucoma, or cornea specialist as we have need in all of these areas. (lsms.org)
  • including evaluation for cataract, glaucoma, diabetic, general eye exams and also specialized in Cornea and Cataract surgeries including refractive procedures such as LASIK and PRK. (healthgrades.com)
  • a high number of cases that had diagnosis of glaucoma suspicion and primary open-angle glaucoma showed thin corneas (p=0,62 and (p=0,08 respectively). (sld.cu)
  • however, the biggest number of cases that had diagnosis of suspected glaucoma and primary open angle glaucoma showed thinner corneas. (sld.cu)
  • The coupler conducts heat from the anterior portion of the cornea during the heating of the stroma by the light energy. (google.co.uk)
  • Overall, the results demonstrate that excimer laser ablation of the corneal stroma can produce a stable dioptric change in the primate cornea with good healing and long-term corneal clarity. (jamanetwork.com)
  • We found that production of macrophage-inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, KC, and MIP-1α was localized to the corneal stroma, rather than to the epithelium, which was consistent with the location of neutrophils in the cornea. (jimmunol.org)
  • Water is the principal component of stroma which saturates the collagen solid phase, solvates the ionic phase and accounts for about 78% of the cornea by weight [ 7 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • 3 , 4 The migration of dendritic immune cells from the limbus into the central cornea may be initiated by proinflammatory cytokines or chemokines 5 , 6 and may be accomplished via pathways along the nerve plexus. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In the limbus, one might expect the superior cornea (under the lid) to be thickest (because of the expected hypoxia) whereas I found the temporal cornea was thickest. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • To generate lamellar nanostructured artificial human corneas of allogeneic origin of dead donor, from sclerocorneal limbus and agarose-fibrin biomaterials. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Diabetic mouse corneas exhibit changes similar to those observed in diabetic human corneas, with fewer nerve insertion sites near the limbus, and severely delayed regeneration of sensory nerve endings that exhibit a tortuous, fragmented appearance ( 20 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Three integral parts that cover the ocular surface are the conjunctiva, limbus, and cornea. (intechopen.com)
  • The limbus forms the boundary between the transparent cornea and the opaque sclera. (intechopen.com)
  • The ocular surface is an anatomic entity that is composed of different ocular structures: conjunctiva, limbus, and cornea. (intechopen.com)
  • Keratoglobus: It is a familial and hereditary bilateral congenital disorder characterized by thinning and hemispherical protrusion of the entire cornea. (wikibooks.org)
  • It results in corneal vascularization and pigmentation that will, if not controlled, advance across the entire cornea. (vin.com)
  • Stromal keratocytes from normal human corneas were cultured in the presence of serum. (molvis.org)
  • We investigated the influence of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on the decellularization of the corneal ultrastructure and its involvement in transparency, and assessed the in vivo behaviour of the decellularized cornea using two animal transplantation models, in relation to remodelling of collagen fibrils. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study (Kass et al, 2002: Gordon et al, 2002) results suggested that IOP measurements need to be adjusted for abnormally thick or thin corneas. (aetna.com)
  • Thus, individuals with thicker corneas may be mis-classified as having ocular hypertension. (aetna.com)
  • An apparatus is described for use in combination with a noninvasive ophthalmological method for cornea reshaping in order to correct ocular refractive errors such as myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), and astigmatism. (google.co.uk)
  • however, that work didn't examine the regenerative potential of different regions of the cornea. (ovid.com)
  • Corneal dystrophy is a group of several hereditary eye disorders where the structure of the cornea is abnormal, leading to pain, discomfort and a build-up of cloudy material that leads to loss of vision. (healthcanal.com)
  • It is important to understand the steep and flat axes of the cornea, the potential for posterior corneal astigmatism, and lenticular astigmatism when analyzing the patient's condition. (medscape.com)
  • In this study, careful evaluation of tomographic pachymetry and posterior corneal elevation maps successfully identified corneas with subclinical edema because subtle corneal thickening manifested as loss of the normal parallel isopachs, displacement of the thinnest point of the cornea and posterior corneal surface depression," says Dr. Patel. (mayoclinic.org)
  • He can prescribe anti-viral treatment to reduce the risk of deeper cell infection, which could inflame and scar the cornea. (centralfloridaeye.com)
  • Further investigation showed that he had concurrent TB lymphadenitis and central nervous system (CNS) tuberculoma, as well as HIV infection, with a CD4 cell count of 153 cells/mm 3 . (hindawi.com)
  • Clouding that can occur in the transparent part of the coat of the eyeball or cornea, secondary to inflammation, infection or irritant exposure by a foreign body or chemical. (icd9data.com)
  • 6. The method according to any one of claims 1 - 3 , additionally comprising positioning on the coupler in a region of the concave surface thereof a mask to block said infrared radiation from reaching a central optic zone of the cornea while allowing said infrared radiation to enter the cornea in an area surrounding said central optic zone. (google.co.uk)
  • Conversely, eyes with thin corneas have a true IOP that is greater than the measured IOP. (aetna.com)
  • The nearest gene to the associated chromosome 16 SNPs was ZNF469, a locus recently implicated in Brittle Cornea Syndrome (BCS), a very rare disorder characterized by abnormal thin corneas. (cdc.gov)
  • In the cross-sectional study (with follow-up of outcomes) of 93 eyes from 57 patients with a range of severity of FECD and 74 eyes from 40 patients with normal corneas, the Mayo researchers clinically assessed corneas for FECD and corneal edema via slit-lamp biomicroscopy. (mayoclinic.org)
  • A new Northwestern Medicine study has identified a gene that plays a major role in maintaining clarity of the cornea in humans and mice - and could possibly be used as gene therapy to treat diseases that cause blindness. (healthcanal.com)