One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)
A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration.
A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)
Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.
A class of compounds that reduces the secretion of H+ ions by the proximal kidney tubule through inhibition of CARBONIC ANHYDRASES.
Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.
A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.
Mechanical ventilation delivered to match the patient's efforts in breathing as detected by the interactive ventilation device.
An organophosphorus insecticide that inhibits ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE.
The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.
An abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by alternating periods of apnea and deep, rapid breathing. The cycle begins with slow, shallow breaths that gradually increase in depth and rate and is then followed by a period of apnea. The period of apnea can last 5 to 30 seconds, then the cycle repeats every 45 seconds to 3 minutes.
A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Clinical manifestation consisting of a deficiency of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
The vocal apparatus of the larynx, situated in the middle section of the larynx. Glottis consists of the VOCAL FOLDS and an opening (rima glottidis) between the folds.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.
A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC 4.2.1.1.
A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.
A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.
Multiple symptoms associated with reduced oxygen at high ALTITUDE.
Rough, noisy breathing during sleep, due to vibration of the uvula and soft palate.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.
A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.
Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Selective renal carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. It may also be of use in certain cases of respiratory failure.
The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.
A sport involving mountain climbing techniques.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor used as diuretic and in glaucoma. It may cause hypokalemia.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
A movable fold suspended from the posterior border of the hard palate. The uvula hangs from the middle of the lower border.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is used as a diuretic and in the treatment of glaucoma.
A fleshy extension at the back of the soft palate that hangs above the opening of the throat.
A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids.
Moving a retruded mandible forward to a normal position. It is commonly performed for malocclusion and retrognathia. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
An amphetamine analog that is rapidly taken up by the lungs and from there redistributed primarily to the brain and liver. It is used in brain radionuclide scanning with I-123.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.
A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is used in the treatment of glaucoma.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The blood pressure as recorded after wedging a CATHETER in a small PULMONARY ARTERY; believed to reflect the PRESSURE in the pulmonary CAPILLARIES.
Disorders characterized by hypersomnolence during normal waking hours that may impair cognitive functioning. Subtypes include primary hypersomnia disorders (e.g., IDIOPATHIC HYPERSOMNOLENCE; NARCOLEPSY; and KLEINE-LEVIN SYNDROME) and secondary hypersomnia disorders where excessive somnolence can be attributed to a known cause (e.g., drug affect, MENTAL DISORDERS, and SLEEP APNEA SYNDROME). (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):192-202; Thorpy, Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 2nd ed, p320)
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
Excision of the adenoids. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Surgical removal of a tonsil or tonsils. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.
The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.
Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
An autosomal dominant familial disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of skeletal muscle weakness associated with falls in serum potassium levels. The condition usually presents in the first or second decade of life with attacks of trunk and leg paresis during sleep or shortly after awakening. Symptoms may persist for hours to days and generally are precipitated by exercise or a meal high in carbohydrates. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1483)
A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.
The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
A gamma-emitting RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING agent used in the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow and in non-invasive dynamic biodistribution studies and MYOCARDIAL PERFUSION IMAGING. It has also been used to label leukocytes in the investigation of INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A thiazide diuretic with actions and uses similar to those of HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p812)
A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme found widely distributed in cells of almost all tissues. Deficiencies of carbonic anhydrase II produce a syndrome characterized by OSTEOPETROSIS, renal tubular acidosis (ACIDOSIS, RENAL TUBULAR) and cerebral calcification. EC 4.2.1.-
Organic compounds that contain technetium as an integral part of the molecule. These compounds are often used as radionuclide imaging agents.
Androstanes in which ring contractions have occurred or which are lacking carbon-18. Compounds with any degree of unsaturation are included. Androstanes which are lacking carbon-19 are ESTRANES.
Analogs or derivatives of AMPHETAMINE. Many are sympathomimetics and central nervous system stimulators causing excitation, vasopressin, bronchodilation, and to varying degrees, anorexia, analepsis, nasal decongestion, and some smooth muscle relaxation.
A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.
Rigid or flexible appliances that overlay the occlusal surfaces of the teeth. They are used to treat clenching and bruxism and their sequelae, and to provide temporary relief from muscle or temporomandibular joint pain.
HYPOVENTILATION syndrome in very obese persons with excessive ADIPOSE TISSUE around the ABDOMEN and DIAPHRAGM. It is characterized by diminished to absent ventilatory chemoresponsiveness; chronic HYPOXIA; HYPERCAPNIA; POLYCYTHEMIA; and long periods of sleep during day and night (HYPERSOMNOLENCE). It is a condition often related to OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA but can occur separately.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.
A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.
Physiologic effects of central apnea: During central apneas, the central respiratory drive is absent, and the brain does not ... There is limited evidence for medication, but acetazolamide "may be considered" for the treatment of central sleep apnea; it[ ... Sleep apnea may be either obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), in which breathing is interrupted by a blockage of air flow, central ... People who smoke tobacco have sleep apnea at three times the rate of people who have never done so. Central sleep apnea is more ...
If the majority of a sleep-apnea sufferer's apneas/hypopneas are central, their condition is classified as central; likewise, ... Javaheri S (January 2006). "Acetazolamide improves central sleep apnea in heart failure: a double-blind, prospective study". ... Central sleep apnea due to a medication or substance and Treatment Emergent Central Apnea (also called Complex Sleep Apnea). ... Central sleep apnea (CSA) or central sleep apnea syndrome (CSAS) is a sleep-related disorder in which the effort to breathe is ...
... is differentiated from central sleep apnea (CSA), which is characterized by episodes of reduction or ... When hypopneas are present alongside apneas, the term Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea is used and when it is associated with ... This includes the use of fluoxetine, paroxetine, acetazolamide, and tryptophan among others. Recent studies are trying to ... July 2017). "Obstructive and Central Sleep Apnea and the Risk of Incident Atrial Fibrillation in a Community Cohort of Men and ...
Javaheri S. Acetazolamide improves central sleep apnea in heart failure: a double-blind, prospective study. [Clinical Trial. ... Apnea tidur (bahasa Inggris: sleep apnea atau sleep apnoea) adalah gangguan tidur dengan kesulitan bernapas (apnea = "tanpa ... Sleep apnea and heart failure: Part II: central sleep apnea. [Review] [55 refs] [Journal Article. Review] Circulation. 107(13): ... Ada dua jenis sleep apnea: Central dan Obstructive. Terdapat juga jenis campuran. Orang yang menderita hal ini biasanya tidak ...
Whereas in central sleep apnea the body's motions of breathing stop, in OSA the chest not only continues to make the movements ... Mason, M; Welsh, EJ; Smith, I (May 31, 2013). "Drug therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea in adults". The Cochrane Database of ... acetazolamide and tryptophan among others.[26][50] ... As in central apnea, pauses are followed by a relative decrease ... Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common type of sleep apnea and is caused by complete or partial obstructions of the ...
If the majority of a sleep-apnea sufferers apneas/hypopneas are central, their condition is classified as central; likewise, ... Javaheri S (January 2006). "Acetazolamide improves central sleep apnea in heart failure: a double-blind, prospective study". ... Central sleep apnea due to a medication or substance and Treatment Emergent Central Apnea (also called Complex Sleep Apnea). ... Central sleep apnea (CSA) or central sleep apnea syndrome (CSAS) is a sleep-related disorder in which the effort to breathe is ...
Physiologic effects of central apnea: During central apneas, the central respiratory drive is absent, and the brain does not ... There is limited evidence for medication but acetazolamide "may be considered" for the treatment of central sleep apnea; it ... Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q "Sleep Apnea: What Is Sleep ... Obstructive sleep apnea, central sleep apnea, mixed sleep apnea[1]. Risk factors. Overweight, family history, allergies, ...
Physiologic effects of central apnea: During central apneas, the central respiratory drive is absent, and the brain does not ... Javaheri S (January 2006). "Acetazolamide improves central sleep apnea in heart failure: a double-blind, prospective study". ... All about Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Polysomnogram Test - Sleep Apnea Study , Obstructive Sleep Apnea , Central Sleep Apnea. ... Central sleep apnea. In pure central sleep apnea or Cheyne-Stokes respiration, the brains respiratory control centers are ...
... and obstructive apneas (OA) are highly prevalent in heart failure (HF), a comparison of apnea prevalence, predictors and ... and obstructive apneas (OA) are highly prevalent in heart failure (HF), a comparison of apnea prevalence, predictors and ... acetazolamide, or treatment with continuous positive airway pressure or servoventilation. Written informed consent was obtained ... AHI, apnea hypopnea index; BMI, body mass index; CA, central apneas; CAI, central apnea index HF, heart failure; HFmrEF, heart ...
Central Sleep Apnea Syndrome (CSAS) is most commonly defined as the presence of five or more central apneas per hour of sleep. ... Javaheri, S. "Acetazolamide improves central sleep apnea in heart failure: a double-blind, prospective study". Am J Respir Crit ... whereas the central apneas might have been caused by the stroke. Wang, D, Teichtahl, H, Drummer, O. "Central sleep apnea in ... What imaging studies will be helpful in making or excluding the diagnosis of central sleep apnea syndrome?. If a central ...
... or pharmacological attenuation of chemosensitivity with dihydrocodeine or acetazolamide significantly reduced central apnea ... Role of hyperventilation in the pathogenesis of central sleep apneas in patients with congestive heart failure. Am. Rev. Respir ... The role of central chemosensitivity in central apnea of heart failure. Sleep 16, S37-S38. ... Javaheri, S. (1999). A mechanism of central sleep apnea in patients with heart failure. N. Engl. J. Med. 341, 949-954. doi: ...
Acetazolamide attenuates the ventilatory response to arousal in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep 2013; 36: 281-285. ... 37-s Tn seen in patients with idiopathic central sleep apnoea [30]. Moreover, our findings of an increased Tn with ... Acetazolamide improves loop gain but not the other physiological traits causing obstructive sleep apnoea. J Physiol 2012; 590: ... Predicting responses to lowering loop gain with oxygen and acetazolamide (ACZ). a) A larger reduction in sleep apnoea severity ...
Complex sleep apnea syndrome (CompSAS) describes the coexistence or appearance and persistence of central apneas or hypopneas ... acetazolamide) and gases (oxygen, CO2) to positive airway pressure therapy. Future research should focus on defining outcomes ... The emergence of central sleep apnea after surgical relief of nasal obstruction in obstructive sleep apnea.. Journal of ... By the current definition, complex sleep apnea (CompSA) refers to the emergence of central sleep apnea (CSA) during the ...
Central Sleep Apnea (CSA) (see Central Sleep Apnea). *Clinical Efficacy *Trial of Acetazolamide in Central Sleep Apnea ... Acetazolamide Decreased Central Sleep Apneas and Nocturnal Oxygen Desaturation. *Acetazolamide Blunted the Chemosensitivity to ... Acetazolamide Decreased Central Sleep Apneas and Nocturnal Oxygen Desaturation. *Acetazolamide Improved Sleep Quality, ... Acetazolamide improves central sleep apnea in heart failure: a double-blind, prospective study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 ...
Physiologic effects of central apnea: During central apneas, the central respiratory drive is absent, and the brain does not ... Javaheri S (January 2006). Acetazolamide improves central sleep apnea in heart failure: a double-blind, prospective study. ... Central sleep apnea. Edit. In pure central sleep apnea or Cheyne-Stokes respiration, the brains respiratory control centers ... Sleep apnea (or sleep apnoea in British English or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or Obstructive sleep apne syndrome OSAS ) is a ...
Treatment of anxiety could help reduce apnea and hyperventilation. ... Apnea and Hyperventilation Children with Pitt-Hopkins can have periods of very unusual breathing patterns, which has been ... Acetazolamide is not a typical treatment for apnea. It is used for acute altitude sickness and central apnea caused by high ... Polygraphic monitoring showed the presence of several short central apneas but with preserved oxygen saturation and a more ...
Latshang and coauthors evaluated whether acetazolamide combined with autoadjusted continuous positive airway pressure (autoCPAP ... although it prevented central apneas/hypopneas.7 Conversely, CPAP alone did not consistently suppress central apneas associated ... Exacerbation of sleep apnoea by frequent central events in patients with the obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome at altitude: a ... Exacerbation of sleep apnoea by frequent central events in patients with the obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome at altitude: a ...
Sleep Apnea and Heart Disease. *Role of Nocturnal Rostral Fluid Shift in the Pathogenesis of Obstructive and Central Sleep ... Protriptiline, a tricyclic antidepressant, is helpful for a small number of Sleep Apnea patients. Sometimes acetazolamide and ... Home Diagnosis of the Obstructive Sleep Apnoea/Hypopnoea Syndrome.. *Effect of Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure ... Methylxanthine Theophylline is often used to treat those afflicted with Central Sleep Apnea and sometimes children or infants ...
2003;548:639-48.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar. *. Javaheri S. Acetazolamide improves central sleep apnea in ... 2015;38:1067-73.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar. *. McNicholas WT, Bonsigore MR. Sleep apnoea as an independent ... Pathophysiology of sleep apnea. Physiol Rev. 2010;90:47-112.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar. ... Effect of acetazolamide and autoCPAP therapy on breathing disturbances among patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome who ...
... and decide which sleep apnea cures might work for you! Sleep apnea surgery options, CPAP, sleep apnea dental device, natural ... Acetazolamide has been used in central sleep apnea treatments. Tricyclic antidepressants inhibit deep sleep (REM) and are ... Nasal CPAP is an effective apnea sleep treatment because it prevents obstruction while in use but apneas return when CPAP is ... Sleep Apnea Natural Cures. While there is no one magic natural cure for sleep apnea, some of these sleep apnea remedies may ...
Exacerbation of sleep apnoea by frequent central events in patients with the obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome at altitude: a ... Acetazolamide improves loop gain but not the other physiological traits causing obstructive sleep apnoea. J Physiol. 2012;590(5 ... the residual apnea-hypopnea index clearly rose as altitude increased, likely due to the development of central sleep apnea3. ... Central apnea or hypopnea can occur with narrowing or closing of the upper airway13,14, however auto-CPAP devices may not ...
... obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (oAHI) > 1) ; four had severe OSA (oAHI >/= 10). One had central sleep apnea (central apnea ... snoring and witnessed apneas were the most common presenting complaints. In addition to breathing abnormalities during wake, ... acetazolamide : 2 (15%), nasal mometasone : 1 (7.7%), adenotonsillectomy : 3 (23.1%), and positive airway pressure : 2 (15%). ... and witnessed apnea (7/13, 53.8%). On baseline PSG, all patients (100%) exhibited hyperapneas followed by a central apnea ...
Central Sleep Apnea Syndrome (CSAS) is most commonly defined as the presence of five or more central apneas per hour of sleep. ... Javaheri, S. "Acetazolamide improves central sleep apnea in heart failure: a double-blind, prospective study". Am J Respir Crit ... whereas the central apneas might have been caused by the stroke. Wang, D, Teichtahl, H, Drummer, O. "Central sleep apnea in ... Acetazolamide, supplemental oxygen and temazepam have also been reported to improve this condition. Central Sleep Apnea that is ...
Prevalencia de síndrome metabólico y obesidad en pacientes con síndrome de apnea hipopnea del sueño (SAHOS) en el Hospital ... Javaherl S. Acetazolamide improves central sleep apnea in heart failure: a double-blind, prospectiva study. Am J Respir Crit ... Consenso Nacional sobre el síndrome de apneas-hipopneas del sueño. Arch Bronconeumol 2005; 41: 3S-10S. ... Bradley D. Sleep apnea and heart failure part I: obstructive sleep apnea. Circulation 2003: 107: 1671-78. ...
Javaheri S. Acetazolamide improves central sleep apnea in heart failure: a double-blind, prospective study. [Clinical Trial. ... Apnea tidur (bahasa Inggris: sleep apnea atau sleep apnoea) adalah gangguan tidur dengan kesulitan bernapas (apnea = "tanpa ... Sleep apnea and heart failure: Part II: central sleep apnea. [Review] [55 refs] [Journal Article. Review] Circulation. 107(13): ... Ada dua jenis sleep apnea: Central dan Obstructive. Terdapat juga jenis campuran. Orang yang menderita hal ini biasanya tidak ...
Physiologic effects of central apnea: During central apneas, the central respiratory drive is absent, and the brain does not ... Medications like Acetazolamide lower blood pH and encourage respiration. Low doses of oxygen are also used as a treatment for ... Central Sleep Apnea In pure central sleep apnea or Cheyne-Stokes respiration, the brains respiratory control centers are ... Mixed apnea and complex sleep apnea Some people with sleep apnea have a combination of both types. When obstructive sleep apnea ...
Snow MB, Fraigne JJ, Thibault-Messier G, Chuen VL, Thomasian A, Horner RL, Peever J (2017) GABA Cells in the Central Nucleus of ... Necakov A, Peever JH, Shen L, Duffin J (2002) Acetazolamide and respiratory chemosensitivity to CO(2) in the neonatal rat ... Schwarz PB, Peever JH (2010) Noradrenergic control of trigeminal motoneurons in sleep: relevance to sleep apnea. Adv Exp Med ... Tadjalli A, Duffin J, Peever J (2010) Repeated obstructive apneas induce long-term facilitation of genioglossus muscle tone. ...
  • There are three distinct forms of sleep apnea: central, obstructive, and complex (i.e., a combination of central and obstructive) constituting 0.4%, 84% and 15% of cases respectively. (thefullwiki.org)
  • In both forms of sleep apnea, hypoxia leads to surges in adrenergic tone and arousals that stress the cardiovascular system and disrupt sleep. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • In addition, both forms of sleep apnea are associated with increased inflammatory mediators that may be the mechanism of worsening vascular disease and metabolic abnormalities. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • This is the first report on the positive effect of acetazolamide on daytime hyperventilation and apnea in this syndrome. (pitthopkins.org)
  • Polarity of axes is selected for each outcome so that a favorable effect of acetazolamide is shown to the right of the vertical line representing zero difference. (jamanetwork.com)
  • 0.001, not very much more than (~38%) already observed at low-doses.Thus, the large reduction of ventilatory CO2-sensitivity in the high-dose range cannot be ascribed to respiratory muscle weakening, but rather may relate to complete inhibition of red cell CA. Conversely, CA-inhibition may not be the only cause for the weakening effect of acetazolamide on (respiratory) muscles. (edu.pl)
  • In HFrEF patients, CA are present both at nighttime-with a prevalence range of 20-70% ( 1 - 3 )-and at daytime-with a prevalence range of 16-60% ( 5 , 6 )-depending on the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) threshold used and the severity of the HF population recruited. (frontiersin.org)
  • A complete cycle of apnea, hypopnea, hyperpnea, and hypopnea leading to the next apnea usually takes about 45 seconds but may be longer. (endocrinologyadvisor.com)
  • High Altitude Periodic Breathing: Characterized by periods of central apnea or hypopnea cycling with periods of hyperpnea during sleep on ascent to high altitudes, high altitude periodic breathing occurs in virtually everyone at altitudes higher than 7600 meters. (endocrinologyadvisor.com)
  • We report the severity of sleep apnea from 60 to 12,000 feet high in a man with severe OSA (Apnea Hypopnea Index at diagnosis = 60 events/hour) during the 2017 Dakar rally over the Andes mountains. (sleepscience.org.br)
  • Figures 1a and 1b show the variations in 95th percentile pressures and the residual apnea-hypopnea index for each bivouac altitude. (sleepscience.org.br)
  • Olson E, Park J. Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome. (asoneumocito.org)
  • The latter aims at establishing an "objective" diagnosis indicator linked to the quantity of apneic events per hour of sleep ( Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI) , or Respiratory Disturbance Index (RDI) , associated to a formal threshold, above which a patient is considered as suffering from sleep apnea, and the severity of his sleep apnea can be then quantified. (apneaboard.com)
  • Nevertheless, due to the number and variability in the actual symptoms and nature of apneic events (e.g., hypopnea vs apnea, central vs obstructive), the variability of patients' physiologies, and the intrinsic imperfections of the experimental setups and methods, this field is opened to debate. (apneaboard.com)
  • The description of Joe, "the fat boy" in Dickens's novel The Pickwick Papers , is an accurate clinical picture of an adult with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Central sleep apnea (CSA) or central sleep apnea syndrome (CSAS) is a sleep-related disorder in which the effort to breathe is diminished or absent, typically for 10 to 30 seconds either intermittently or in cycles, and is usually associated with a reduction in blood oxygen saturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Central Sleep Apnea Syndrome (CSAS) is most commonly defined as the presence of five or more central apneas per hour of sleep. (endocrinologyadvisor.com)
  • Are you sure your patient has central sleep apnea syndrome? (endocrinologyadvisor.com)
  • The main differential diagnosis of CSA syndrome is the much more prevalent obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. (endocrinologyadvisor.com)
  • Sleep apnea (or sleep apnoea in British English or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or Obstructive sleep apne syndrome OSAS ) is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing during sleep . (wikia.org)
  • Pickwickian Syndrome" is NOT an accurate description of someone with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). (wikia.org)
  • We present the case of a 9 year old boy with Pitt-Hopkins syndrome who had severe attacks of hyperventilation followed by apnea and syncope while awake. (pitthopkins.org)
  • Pitt-Hopkins syndrome is due to de novo mutations at the TCF4 locus and is characterised by distinct facial features, mental retardation and episodic hyperventilation with apnea while awake. (pitthopkins.org)
  • it would also be interesting to study the effects of acetazolamide in patients with similar syndromes including Rett and Joubert syndrome. (pitthopkins.org)
  • There have been two recent reports about the treatment of apnea in children with Pitt Hopkins syndrome. (pitthopkins.org)
  • Exacerbation of sleep apnoea by frequent central events in patients with the obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome at altitude: a randomised trial. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome benefit from acetazolamide during an altitude sojourn: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. (jamanetwork.com)
  • This technique is now used in patients whose breathing is impaired to the point that their blood carbon dioxide level is elevated, as happens in patients with obesity-hypoventilation syndrome, certain neuromuscular diseases, and central apnea . (improve-your-sleep.com)
  • How and/or why did the patient develop central sleep apnea syndrome? (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
  • Shinji T. Obstructive sleep apnea causes systemic inflammation and metabolic syndrome. (asoneumocito.org)
  • Steven R. Obstructive sleep apnea is independently associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. (asoneumocito.org)
  • lnsulin resistance and other metabolic aspects of the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. (asoneumocito.org)
  • Aberrant neural responses to cold pressor challenges in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a complex disorder of the upper airway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Obstructive sleep apnea: Should all children with Down syndrome be tested? (wikipedia.org)
  • 10. The method of claim 21 wherein the sleep-related breathing disorder is selected from the group consisting of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, apnea of prematurity, congenital central hypoventilation syndrome, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, central sleep apnea syndrome, Cheyne-Stokes respiration, and snoring. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Young T, Evans L, Finn L, Palta M. Estimation of the clinically diagnosed proportion of sleep apnea syndrome in middle-aged men and women. (medscape.com)
  • Utility indices in patients with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. (jove.com)
  • Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. (uzh.ch)
  • In severe cases of sleep apnea, the more translucent areas of the body will show a bluish or dusky cast from cyanosis, the change in hue ("turning blue") produced by the deoxygenation of blood in vessels near the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is demonstrated with cases of sleep apnea even being misdiagnosed as dementia. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, some physicians believe that mild cases of sleep apnea respond to drugs that either stimulate breathing or suppress deep sleep. (improve-your-sleep.com)
  • The management of obstructive sleep apnea was revolutionized with the introduction of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), first described in 1981 by Colin Sullivan and associates in Sydney , Australia . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Following mathematical-model validation, we critically tested our method in patients with OSA by comparison with a standard (continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) drop method), and by assessing its ability to detect the known reduction in loop gain with oxygen and acetazolamide. (ersjournals.com)
  • Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is prevalent affliction with major health consequences, but its treatment is largely limited to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), which has an adherence rate as low as 50% [ 1 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • Median differences (and 95% CIs) between outcomes assessed during treatment with acetazolamide plus autoadjusted continuous positive airway pressure (autoCPAP) minus corresponding values on placebo plus autoCPAP are shown for studies at 1630 m and 2590 m, respectively. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Long-term cardiovascular outcomes in men with obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea with or without treatment with continuous positive airway pressure: an observational study. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Continuous positive airway pressure for obstructive sleep apnea. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Complex sleep apnea (or mixed sleep apnea) is a form of sleep apnea in which central apneas persist or emerge during attempts to treat obstructive events with a continuous positive airway pressure ( CPAP ) or bilevel ( BPAP ) device. (apneaboard.com)
  • Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants may be used to promote daytime wakefulness in sleep apnea patients who have residual daytime sleepiness despite optimal use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). (medscape.com)
  • Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is not a fully effective therapy for HCSA - sleep fragmentation, periodic breathing or obstructive events persist in NREM but not REM sleep, while central apneas tend to decrease with time on treatment. (oshercenter.org)
  • Established vascular effects of continuous positive airway pressure therapy in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea-an update. (uzh.ch)
  • That would represent more than 6.5%, or nearly 1 in 15 Americans, making sleep apnea as prevalent as asthma or diabetes. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Although central apneas (CA) and obstructive apneas (OA) are highly prevalent in heart failure (HF), a comparison of apnea prevalence, predictors and clinical correlates in the whole HF spectrum, including HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), mid-range EF (HFmrEF) and preserved EF (HFpEF) has never been carried out so far. (frontiersin.org)
  • INTRODUCTION: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent and constitutes a major health hazard. (stanford.edu)
  • CPAP machines are still the most effective treatment for Sleep Apnea with very minimal risk to the end-user. (cpap.com)
  • CPAP is the most common effective severe sleep apnea treatment . (improve-your-sleep.com)
  • Nasal CPAP is an effective apnea sleep treatment because it prevents obstruction while in use but apneas return when CPAP is stopped. (improve-your-sleep.com)
  • Another one of the CPAP sleep apnea treatments involves nocturnal ventilation. (improve-your-sleep.com)
  • The objective of this case report was to determine if a portable auto-CPAP device effectively treated sleep apnea across different altitudes. (sleepscience.org.br)
  • however central respiratory events 4,5 cannot be controlled by auto-CPAP alone 3 . (sleepscience.org.br)
  • Administration of a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, such as Acetazolamide 6 , along with auto-CPAP is therefore recommended for altitudes above 1600m 7 . (sleepscience.org.br)
  • This paper reports sleep apnea severity in a man treated with a portable auto-CPAP device, but without acetazolamide, while he worked as a technical assistant during the 2017 Dakar Rally across the Andes Mountains. (sleepscience.org.br)
  • The aim was to determine if the portable auto-CPAP device (Transcend auto TM mini CPAP), designed for travel, effectively treated sleep apnea across a wide range of altitudes. (sleepscience.org.br)
  • A 57-year-old man with severe obstructive sleep apnea who had been using an auto-CPAP device (DreamStarT Auto, SEFAM, France) for 4.5 years consulted his home care provider a few weeks prior to participating in the 2017 Dakar Rally in view of obtaining a portable system. (sleepscience.org.br)
  • A small proportion of people using CPAP to treat their obstructive sleep apnea develop central sleep apnea. (restedlife.com)
  • On the other hand, complex sleep apnea consists of all or predominantly obstructive apneas which convert to all or predominantly central apneas when treated with a CPAP or bilevel devices. (apneaboard.com)
  • In these cases CPAP in combination with therapies that target chemoreflex sensitivity, including use of EERS and acetazolamide, can be helpful. (apneaboard.com)
  • However, residual sleep fragmentation and sleep apnea (readily quantifiable on the high resolution flow data available in current generation CPAP devices) is common. (oshercenter.org)
  • Treatment of central sleep apnea can be challenging but includes nocturnal oxygen, traditional CPAP, and BPAP, as well as novel forms of servo-ventilators. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea includes the use of positive airway pressure with CPAP and BPAP, as well as weight loss and oral appliances. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Is CPAP necessarily an everyday therapy in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea? (uzh.ch)
  • [1] People with sleep apnea may not be aware they have it. (wikipedia.org)
  • People with sleep apnea have problems with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), impaired alertness, and vision problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some people with sleep apnea are unaware they have the condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note that many people with sleep apnea esperience the occasional central sleep apnea episode during sleep. (restedlife.com)
  • The association between sleep apnea and the risk of traffic accidents. (jamanetwork.com)
  • There was an independent association between sleep apnea severity and arterial standard bicarbonate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Because of its neurological nature, some treatment options that effectively treat obstructive sleep apnea are not as effective when treating central sleep apnea. (restedlife.com)
  • Surgical procedures that remove pharyngeal tissue, as well as the uvula, have also been used to treat obstructive sleep apnea but have been only modestly effective. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Sleep Apnea Syndromes. (sleepscience.org.br)
  • The respiratory chemoreflex is central to the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea, periodic breathing at high altitude, congestive heart failure, hypoventilation syndromes and chronic obstructive lung disease. (oshercenter.org)
  • It is a diagnosis of exclusion, as other causes of central sleep apnea noted below are excluded. (endocrinologyadvisor.com)
  • STUDY OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic central sleep apnea (ICSA) is a rare disorder diagnosed when known causes of central sleep apnea are excluded. (bvsalud.org)
  • Among patients with OSA but only mild anatomical deficiency, loop gain is elevated [ 10 , 12 ] and is an important determinant of apnoea severity [ 12 , 15 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • We hypothesized that elevated standard bicarbonate, a proxy for increased carbonic anhydrase activity, is associated with apnea severity and higher blood pressure in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Whether the surrogate for CA activity, StHCO 3 - , is associated with hypertension in OSA patients independent of sleep apnea severity has never been investigated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Medication that could potentially impact sleep apnea severity 11 (hypnotic, sedative drugs or opiods) were not used during the trip. (sleepscience.org.br)
  • Central Sleep Apnea is Characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, un-refreshing sleep, and lack of focus. (restedlife.com)
  • The diagnosis of sleep apnea is based on the conjoint evaluation of clinical symptoms (e.g. excessive daytime sleepiness and fatigue) and of the results of a formal sleep study (polysomnography, or reduced channels home based test). (apneaboard.com)
  • There is evidence that the risk of diabetes among those with moderate or severe sleep apnea is higher. (wikipedia.org)
  • The early reports of obstructive sleep apnea in the medical literature described individuals who were very severely affected, often presenting with severe hypoxemia , hypercapnia and congestive heart failure . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Even in severe cases of central sleep apnea, however, the effects almost always result in pauses that make breathing irregular rather than cause the total cessation of breathing over the medium term. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exact effects of the condition will depend on how severe the apnea is and on the individual characteristics of the person having the apnea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alzheimer's Disease and severe obstructive sleep apnea are connected as there is an increase into the protein beta-amyloid or white matter damage, one of the main indictors of Alzheimer's, which in this case comes from the lack of proper rest or poorer sleep efficiency resulting in neurodegeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Obesity Hypoventilation causes severe OSA with periods of Central Sleep Apnea and takes on a Cheyne Stokes pattern of breathing. (wikia.org)
  • Tracheostomy is used only in patients with severe, life-threatening obstructive sleep apnea. (improve-your-sleep.com)
  • It does not appear to prevent mortality from cardiovascular complications of severe sleep apnea. (improve-your-sleep.com)
  • A previous study in patients with CHF and central sleep apnea (CSA) has shown the highest VE/VCO2 slope during exercise was associated with the most severe CSA. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that in patients with CHF and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), the highest VE/VCO2 slope is also associated with most severe OSA. (bvsalud.org)
  • Longstanding and recurrent episodes of apnea may, over months and years, have the cumulative effect of increasing blood carbon-dioxide levels to the point that enough carbon dioxide dissolves in the blood to form carbonic acid in overall proportions sufficient to cause respiratory acidosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The link between high standard bicarbonate and daytime hypertension suggests that carbonic anhydrase activity may constitute a novel mechanism for blood pressure regulation in sleep apnea. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor acetazolamide is a classic drug to treat patients with breathing disorders. (edu.pl)
  • Elevated intracranial pressure was not suspected, but he was empirically commenced on the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide, 250 mg daily, perhaps to improve perfusion of the swollen discs through reduction of aqueous production and lowering of intraocular pressure. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • It is used for acute altitude sickness and central apnea caused by high altitude in adults. (pitthopkins.org)
  • Theophylline and acetazolamide reduce sleep-disordered breathing at high altitude. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Sleep-related breathing disturbances are exacerbated at altitude in patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). (sleepscience.org.br)
  • Potential mechanisms behind the development of central apnea, and optimal clinical management at altitude are discussed in the light of the findings. (sleepscience.org.br)
  • The pathophysiology of altitude induced CSA, CSA/CSR in heart failure, and possibly idiopathic CSA is thought to be due to hyperventilation during wakefulness with resultant hypocapnia (caused by different known or unknown factors in each disorder) that leads to central apneas during sleep. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
  • In other words, common effects of sleep apnea include daytime fatigue, a slower reaction time, and vision problems. (apneaboard.com)
  • Solriamfetol for the treatment of daytime sleepiness in obstructive sleep apnea. (stanford.edu)
  • The first step if your child has hyperventilation episodes and/or possible sleep apnea, is to have a sleep study (polysomnography) performed and interpreted by a certified sleep specialist. (pitthopkins.org)
  • Diagnosa sleep apnea dilakukan dengan polysomnography . (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus one biomarker of HCSA is the occurrence of non-REM dominant sleep apnea identified during conventional polysomnography. (oshercenter.org)
  • Effect of nocturnal oxygen and acetazolamide on exercise performance in patients with pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension and sleep-disturbed breathing: randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial. (jove.com)
  • IYBAM reduces the slope of the hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR) in complex apnea. (oshercenter.org)
  • IYBAM increases stable breathing and subjective/objective sleep quality in complex apnea. (oshercenter.org)
  • IYBAM improve nocturnal blood pressure in complex apnea. (oshercenter.org)
  • This may also be the problem with patients who have complex apnea. (slideplayer.com)
  • This maybe a problem with patients who have idiopathic central apnea, patients who are on high levels of pain medications or patients with a history of stroke. (slideplayer.com)
  • 3] E.R. Swenson and J.M.B. Hughes: "Effects of acute and chronic acetazolamide on resting ventilation and ventilatory responses in man", J. Appl. (edu.pl)
  • One example of a commonly adopted definition of an apnea (for an adult) includes a minimum 10 second interval between breaths, with either a neurological arousal (a 3-second or greater shift in EEG frequency, measured at C3, C4, O1, or O2) or a blood oxygen desaturation of 3-4% or greater, or both arousal and desaturation . (apneaboard.com)
  • A Central Sleep Apnea (CSA) is defined as a cessation of breathing of at least ten seconds duration in the absence of a ventilatory drive. (endocrinologyadvisor.com)
  • This is in contrast with Obstructive Sleep Apnea, where the ventilatory drive persists but airflow ceases because of the obstruction of the upper airway. (endocrinologyadvisor.com)
  • Obstructive sleep apnea primarily results from collapse of the upper airway, resulting in cessation or decrease in airflow despite continuous and even increased respiratory muscle effort. (endocrinologyadvisor.com)
  • A sleep apnea surgery is effective only about 50 percent of the time because the exact location of the airway obstruction is usually unclear. (improve-your-sleep.com)
  • Useful surgeries for sleep apnea include removal of adenoids and tonsils, nasal polyps or other growths, or other tissue in the airway, or correction of structural deformitites. (improve-your-sleep.com)
  • Localization of upper airway collapse during sleep in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sleep disordered breathing, also known as sleep apnea, occurs in two primary forms, obstructive sleep apnea where lax tissue in the pharynx leads to airway closure and significant negative intrathoracic pressure and central sleep apnea, where the respiratory control center in the brain fails to adequately regulate breathing during sleep, leading to cyclical hyperventilation and apnea known as Cheyne-Stokes respiration. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • The mechanism of obstructive sleep apnea is airway closure during inspiration that prevents airflow to the lungs. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • The conditions of hypoxia and hypercapnia, whether caused by apnea or not, trigger additional effects on the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Obstructive sleep apnea is characterized by intermittent hypoxia and hypercapnia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The clinical picture was markedly improved: long lasting apneas and episodes of syncope were no longer observed. (pitthopkins.org)
  • Does a clinical dose alter peripheral and central CO2 sensitivity? (edu.pl)
  • This treatment uses a non-vented mask and adjunctive dead space, and it can improve the clinical management of NREM-dominant sleep apnea. (oshercenter.org)
  • [5] For a diagnosis of sleep apnea, more than five episodes per hour must occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • For this reason, therapeutic interventions that improve cardiac output may help to treat central sleep apnea and the diagnosis should not be made during an acute heart failure decompensation. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • The neurological feedback mechanism that monitors blood levels of carbon dioxide and in turn stimulates respiration fails to react quickly enough to maintain an even respiratory rate, allowing the entire respiratory system to cycle between apnea and hyperpnea, even for a brief time following an awakening during a breathing pause. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a therapeutic target, loop gain can be lowered with oxygen, acetazolamide and carbon dioxide [ 2 - 4 ], an approach that is particularly effective in the subset of patients with a high loop gain but not in those with a low loop gain [ 2 , 3 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with intermittent oscillations of oxygen and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) during the sleeping period. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Central sleep apnea is associated with systolic heart failure but can also be seen in stroke patients. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Clinically significant levels of sleep apnea are defined as five or more episodes per hour of any type of apnea (from the polysomnogram). (thefullwiki.org)
  • You need a certain number of central sleep apnea episodes per hour in order to be diagnosed with central or mixed sleep apnea. (restedlife.com)
  • This decreased, though did not eliminate, the incidence of apneas, and improved oxygen saturations. (pitthopkins.org)
  • This suggests that the incidence of obstructive sleep apnea may be higher in volume overloaded heart failure patients and nonobese heart failure patients are likely at higher risk than nonobese, non-heart failure patients. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Sometimes acetazolamide and Medroxyprogesterone are prescribed to stimulate normal breathing. (cpap.com)
  • In central sleep apnea (CSA), the basic neurological controls for breathing rate malfunction and fail to give the signal to inhale, causing the individual to miss one or more cycles of breathing. (wikipedia.org)
  • [8] Without treatment, sleep apnea may increase the risk of heart attack , stroke , diabetes , heart failure , irregular heartbeat , obesity , and motor vehicle collisions . (wikipedia.org)
  • Bradley D. Sleep apnea and heart failure part I: obstructive sleep apnea. (asoneumocito.org)
  • Javaherl S. Acetazolamide improves central sleep apnea in heart failure: a double-blind, prospectiva study. (asoneumocito.org)
  • Sleep apnea and heart failure: Part II: central sleep apnea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Naughton MT. The effect of successful heart transplant treatment of heart failure on central sleep apnea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Background: Central sleep apnea (CSA) is common among patients with heart failure and has been strongly linked to adverse outcomes. (bvsalud.org)
  • Low leptin concentration may identify heart failure patients with central sleep apnea. (mayo.edu)
  • The relationship between sleep apnea and heart failure is complex as worsening heart failure can lead to the development of sleep apnea but the presence of sleep apnea also appears to worsen heart failure. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • One proposed mechanism of the development of central sleep apnea in heart failure is decreased cardiac output leading to a prolonged circulation time to the chemoreceptors in the brain that regulate respiration. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • There is now evidence that fluid shifts in heart failure patients, especially while supine can cause edema in the pharyngeal tissues leading to the development of obstructive sleep apnea. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Obstructive sleep apnea impacts heart failure through both direct mechanical and neurohormonal effects. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Treatment of anxiety could help reduce apnea and hyperventilation. (pitthopkins.org)
  • In view of the hyperventilation, we started the patient on 250 mg of acetazolamide once daily. (pitthopkins.org)
  • It attenuates post-arousal hyperventilation and loop gain following arousal, reducing central apnea 8,9 . (sleepscience.org.br)
  • A blood gas showed a pH of 7.35 with a pCO 2 of 32.9 mmHg and a base excess of -6.5 mmol/L. Polygraphic monitoring showed the presence of several short central apneas but with preserved oxygen saturation and a more stable CO 2 curve. (pitthopkins.org)
  • Both were started on 250 mg of acetazolamide and both had considerable improvement in oxygen saturation during sleep and the decreased frequency of apnea episodes. (pitthopkins.org)
  • Sleep apnea , also spelled sleep apnoea , is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing or periods of shallow breathing during sleep . (wikipedia.org)
  • Sleep apnea (or sleep apnoea in British English ) is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing during sleep . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Acetazolamide is not a typical treatment for apnea. (pitthopkins.org)
  • If central apnea is confirmed, then the use of a positive pressure device (BiPAP with back-up rate) is the least risky treatment. (pitthopkins.org)
  • This is performed to increase the size or opening of the air passage in the treatment of sleep apnea. (cpap.com)
  • Currently there are no drugs on the market that are effective for the treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea. (cpap.com)
  • No medications are effective in the treatment for sleep apnea . (improve-your-sleep.com)
  • Some patients with sleep apnea may require surgical treatment as a sleep apnea cure . (improve-your-sleep.com)
  • In this sleep apnea alternative treatment , a small hole is made in the windpipe (trachea) below the Adam's apple. (improve-your-sleep.com)
  • Colln W. Surgical treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. (asoneumocito.org)
  • Skeletal advancement for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in children. (wikipedia.org)
  • Still, many treatment options can treat both breeds of sleep apnea, even when they occur simultaneously. (restedlife.com)
  • [0003] This invention generally relates to methods for the pharmacological treatment of breathing disorders and, more specifically, to the administration of agents or compositions having serotonin-related receptor activity for the alleviation of sleep apnea (central and obstructive) and other sleep-related breathing disorders. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Successful treatment of central sleep apnea has led to improved ejection fraction, improved functional capacity as measured by the 6-minute walk test and a trend toward improved transplant-free survival for those successfully treated. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Successful treatment of obstructive sleep apnea has been demonstrated to decrease adrenergic activity and blood pressure even during the day, as well as decrease left ventricular hypertrophy and episodes of atrial fibrillation. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • She was shown to have central apnea during both wakefulness and sleep. (pitthopkins.org)
  • Methylxanthine Theophylline is often used to treat those afflicted with Central Sleep Apnea and sometimes children or infants with Sleep Apnea but is not indicated for adults with OSA. (cpap.com)
  • METHODS: In the remede System Pivotal Trial, 16/151 (11%) participants with central sleep apnea were diagnosed as having ICSA. (bvsalud.org)
  • 6] M. Wagenaar, L. Teppema, A. Berkenbosch, C. Olievier and H. Folgering: "The effect of low-dose acetazolamide on the ventilatory CO2 response curve in the anaesthetized cat", J. Physiol. (edu.pl)
  • Basnyat B, Gertsch JH, Johnson EW, Castro-Marin F, Inoue Y, Yeh C. Efficacy of low-dose acetazolamide (125 mg BID) for the prophylaxis of acute mountain sickness: a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. (jamanetwork.com)
  • As cardiac output falls, central sleep apnea can appear or worsen but as the cardiac output improves, central sleep apnea may also improve. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • in obstructive sleep apnea, breathing is interrupted by a physical block to airflow despite respiratory effort . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Regardless of type, the individual with sleep apnea is rarely aware of having difficulty breathing, even upon awakening. (thefullwiki.org)
  • citation needed] In pure central sleep apnea, the brain's respiratory control centers, located in the region of the human brain known as the pre-Botzinger complex, are imbalanced during sleep and fail to give the signal to inhale, causing the individual to miss one or more cycles of breathing. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the episode of apnea, breathing may be faster and/or more intense (hyperpnea) for a period of time, a compensatory mechanism to blow off retained waste gases, absorb more oxygen, and, when voluntary, enable a return to normal instinctive breathing patterns by restoring oxygen to the breathing muscles themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sleep apnea may be either obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), in which breathing is interrupted by a blockage of air flow, central sleep apnea (CSA), in which regular unconscious breath simply stops, or a combination of the two. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cheyne-Stokes Respiration (CSR): CSR is a breathing pattern characterized by cycles of crescendo-decrescendo changes in tidal volume followed by central sleep apneas. (endocrinologyadvisor.com)
  • A typical pattern is a few minutes very fast breathing (hyperpnoea), followed by a period during which the child stops breathing completely (apnoea). (pitthopkins.org)
  • Kiwull-Schune HF Low-dose acetazolamide does affect respiratory muscle function in spontaneously breathing anesthetized rabbits. (asoneumocito.org)
  • This breathing pattern ultimately produces central sleep apnea. (restedlife.com)
  • Each pause in breathing, called an apnea , can last from a few seconds to minutes, and may occur 5 to 30 times or more an hour. (apneaboard.com)
  • Regardless of type, an individual with sleep apnea is rarely aware of having difficulty breathing, even upon awakening.Sleep apnea is recognized as a problem by others witnessing the individual during episodes or is suspected because of its effects on the body. (apneaboard.com)
  • Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common category of sleep disordered breathing . (apneaboard.com)
  • Adverse effects on respiratory muscles, impaired CO2-transport and acid-base imbalance may limit to make use of stabilizing effects on breathing control functions by high-dose acetazolamide. (edu.pl)
  • 4] L.J. Teppema and A. Dahan: "Acetazolamide and breathing. (edu.pl)
  • During sleep, this high respiratory control system "gain" causes sleep apnea during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. (oshercenter.org)