Pheochromocytoma: A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Adrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Adrenal Gland Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Adrenal Medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.Adrenalectomy: Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Metanephrine: Product of epinephrine O-methylation. It is a commonly occurring, pharmacologically and physiologically inactive metabolite of epinephrine.PC12 Cells: A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.Paraganglioma: A neural crest tumor usually derived from the chromoreceptor tissue of a paraganglion, such as the carotid body, or medulla of the adrenal gland (usually called a chromaffinoma or pheochromocytoma). It is more common in women than in men. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Adrenal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).3-Iodobenzylguanidine: A guanidine analog with specific affinity for tissues of the sympathetic nervous system and related tumors. The radiolabeled forms are used as antineoplastic agents and radioactive imaging agents. (Merck Index, 12th ed) MIBG serves as a neuron-blocking agent which has a strong affinity for, and retention in, the adrenal medulla and also inhibits ADP-ribosyltransferase.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Normetanephrine: A methylated metabolite of norepinephrine that is excreted in the urine and found in certain tissues. It is a marker for tumors.Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a: A form of multiple endocrine neoplasia characterized by the presence of medullary carcinoma (CARCINOMA, MEDULLARY) of the THYROID GLAND, and usually with the co-occurrence of PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA, producing CALCITONIN and ADRENALINE, respectively. Less frequently, it can occur with hyperplasia or adenoma of the PARATHYROID GLANDS. This disease is due to gain-of-function mutations of the MEN2 gene on CHROMOSOME 10 (Locus: 10q11.2), also known as the RET proto-oncogene that encodes a RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. It is an autosomal dominant inherited disease.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Paraganglioma, Extra-Adrenal: A relatively rare, usually benign neoplasm originating in the chemoreceptor tissue of the CAROTID BODY; GLOMUS JUGULARE; GLOMUS TYMPANICUM; AORTIC BODIES; and the female genital tract. It consists histologically of rounded or ovoid hyperchromatic cells that tend to be grouped in an alveolus-like pattern within a scant to moderate amount of fibrous stroma and a few large thin-walled vascular channels. (From Stedman, 27th ed)Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.Submandibular Gland: One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)Ganglioneuroma: A benign neoplasm that usually arises from the sympathetic trunk in the mediastinum. Histologic features include spindle cell proliferation (resembling a neurofibroma) and the presence of large ganglion cells. The tumor may present clinically with HORNER SYNDROME or diarrhea due to ectopic production of vasoactive intestinal peptide. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p966)Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Adrenocortical Adenoma: A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.von Hippel-Lindau Disease: An autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in a tumor suppressor gene. This syndrome is characterized by abnormal growth of small blood vessels leading to a host of neoplasms. They include HEMANGIOBLASTOMA in the RETINA; CEREBELLUM; and SPINAL CORD; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; pancreatic tumors; and renal cell carcinoma (see CARCINOMA, RENAL CELL). Common clinical signs include HYPERTENSION and neurological dysfunctions.Chromogranin A: A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.Vanilmandelic AcidIodobenzenesCushing Syndrome: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.Splanchnic Nerves: The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.Chromogranins: A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia: A group of autosomal dominant diseases characterized by the combined occurrence of tumors involving two or more ENDOCRINE GLANDS that secrete PEPTIDE HORMONES or AMINES. These neoplasias are often benign but can be malignant. They are classified by the endocrine glands involved and the degree of aggressiveness. The two major forms are MEN1 and MEN2 with gene mutations on CHROMOSOME 11 and CHROMOSOME 10, respectively.Parotid Gland: The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.Zona Fasciculata: The wide middle zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Succinate Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Hyperaldosteronism: A condition caused by the overproduction of ALDOSTERONE. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant HYPERTENSION and HYPOKALEMIA.Adrenal Cortex Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Chromaffin Cells: Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.Dopamine beta-HydroxylaseAldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Zona Reticularis: The inner zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces the enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE, a 21-carbon steroid, to 19-carbon steroids (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPREGNENOLONE.Sweat Glands: Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the DERMIS. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct.Adrenocortical Hyperfunction: Excess production of ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE. Hyperadrenal syndromes include CUSHING SYNDROME; HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and VIRILISM.Sebaceous Glands: Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.Sublingual Gland: A salivary gland on each side of the mouth below the TONGUE.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Chromaffin Granules: Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Incidental Findings: Unanticipated information discovered in the course of testing or medical care. Used in discussions of information that may have social or psychological consequences, such as when it is learned that a child's biological father is someone other than the putative father, or that a person tested for one disease or disorder has, or is at risk for, something else.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 220.127.116.11.Harderian Gland: A sebaceous gland that, in some animals, acts as an accessory to the lacrimal gland. The harderian gland excretes fluid that facilitates movement of the third eyelid.Adosterol: A sterol usually substituted with radioactive iodine. It is an adrenal cortex scanning agent with demonstrated high adrenal concentration and superior adrenal imaging.Chromaffin System: The cells of the body which stain with chromium salts. They occur along the sympathetic nerves, in the adrenal gland, and in various other organs.Steroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Cosyntropin: A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX.Zona Glomerulosa: The narrow subcapsular outer zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to ALDOSTERONE. The final steps involve three successive oxidations by CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP11B2.Adrenal Cortex HormonesAdrenal Cortex Function Tests: Examinations that evaluate and monitor hormone production in the adrenal cortex.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Abdominal NeoplasmsSalivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Addison Disease: An adrenal disease characterized by the progressive destruction of the ADRENAL CORTEX, resulting in insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Clinical symptoms include ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; WEIGHT LOSS; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; and HYPERPIGMENTATION of the SKIN due to increase in circulating levels of ACTH precursor hormone which stimulates MELANOCYTES.Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Neurites: In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret: Receptor protein-tyrosine kinases involved in the signaling of GLIAL CELL-LINE DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR ligands. They contain an extracellular cadherin domain and form a receptor complexes with GDNF RECEPTORS. Mutations in ret protein are responsible for HIRSCHSPRUNG DISEASE and MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA TYPE 2.Myelolipoma: A rare benign tumor of the adrenal gland, several centimeters in diameter, composed in varying proportions of adipose tissue, lymphocytes, and primitive myeloid cells, probably a developmental abnormality. (Dorland, 27th ed)Nerve Growth Factor: NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.Tuberculosis, Endocrine: Infection of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS with species of MYCOBACTERIUM, most often MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS.Carcinoma, Medullary: A carcinoma composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma. Medullary carcinomas of the breast constitute 5%-7% of all mammary carcinomas; medullary carcinomas of the thyroid comprise 3%-10% of all thyroid malignancies. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1141; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B1 gene, is important in the synthesis of CORTICOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Defects in CYP11B1 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Dehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.Germ-Line Mutation: Any detectable and heritable alteration in the lineage of germ cells. Mutations in these cells (i.e., "generative" cells ancestral to the gametes) are transmitted to progeny while those in somatic cells are not.Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and NEOPLASMS. The neoplastic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Radiography, Abdominal: Radiographic visualization of the body between the thorax and the pelvis, i.e., within the peritoneal cavity.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase: A microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone or pregnenolone and subsequent cleavage of the residual two carbons at C17 in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP17 gene, generates precursors for glucocorticoid, androgen, and estrogen synthesis. Defects in CYP17 gene cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL) and abnormal sexual differentiation.Hypophysectomy: Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Salivary Gland DiseasesPregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate: The circulating form of a major C19 steroid produced primarily by the ADRENAL CORTEX. DHEA sulfate serves as a precursor for TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE.Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein: A ubiquitin-protein ligase that mediates OXYGEN-dependent polyubiquitination of HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT. It is inactivated in VON HIPPEL-LINDAU SYNDROME.Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2b: Similar to MEN2A, it is also caused by mutations of the MEN2 gene, also known as the RET proto-oncogene. Its clinical symptoms include medullary carcinoma (CARCINOMA, MEDULLARY) of THYROID GLAND and PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of ADRENAL MEDULLA (50%). Unlike MEN2a, MEN2b does not involve PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. It can be distinguished from MEN2A by its neural abnormalities such as mucosal NEUROMAS on EYELIDS; LIP; and TONGUE, and ganglioneuromatosis of GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT leading to MEGACOLON. It is an autosomal dominant inherited disease.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Parathyroid Glands: Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Meibomian Glands: The sebaceous glands situated on the inner surface of the eyelids between the tarsal plates and CONJUNCTIVA.Neurofibromatosis 1: An autosomal dominant inherited disorder (with a high frequency of spontaneous mutations) that features developmental changes in the nervous system, muscles, bones, and skin, most notably in tissue derived from the embryonic NEURAL CREST. Multiple hyperpigmented skin lesions and subcutaneous tumors are the hallmark of this disease. Peripheral and central nervous system neoplasms occur frequently, especially OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA and NEUROFIBROSARCOMA. NF1 is caused by mutations which inactivate the NF1 gene (GENES, NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1) on chromosome 17q. The incidence of learning disabilities is also elevated in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1014-18) There is overlap of clinical features with NOONAN SYNDROME in a syndrome called neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome. Both the PTPN11 and NF1 gene products are involved in the SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway of Ras (RAS PROTEINS).Steroidogenic Factor 1: A transcription factor and member of the nuclear receptor family NR5 that is expressed throughout the adrenal and reproductive axes during development. It plays an important role in sexual differentiation, formation of primary steroidogenic tissues, and their functions in post-natal and adult life. It regulates the expression of key steroidogenic enzymes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Adrenomedullin: A 52-amino acid peptide with multi-functions. It was originally isolated from PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA and ADRENAL MEDULLA but is widely distributed throughout the body including lung and kidney tissues. Besides controlling fluid-electrolyte homeostasis, adrenomedullin is a potent vasodilator and can inhibit pituitary ACTH secretion.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Lacrimal Apparatus: The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.Neuroblastoma: A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Retroperitoneal Space: An area occupying the most posterior aspect of the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. It is bounded laterally by the borders of the quadratus lumborum muscles and extends from the DIAPHRAGM to the brim of the true PELVIS, where it continues as the pelvic extraperitoneal space.Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed: Neoplasms composed of more than one type of neoplastic tissue.Laparoscopy: A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.Brunner Glands: The abundant submucosal mucous glands in the DUODENUM. These glands secrete BICARBONATE IONS; GLYCOPROTEINS; and PEPSINOGEN II.Salivary Glands, Minor: Accessory salivary glands located in the lip, cheek, tongue, floor of mouth, palate and intramaxillary.Germinal Center: The activated center of a lymphoid follicle in secondary lymphoid tissue where B-LYMPHOCYTES are stimulated by antigens and helper T cells (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER) are stimulated to generate memory cells.2-Hydroxyphenethylamine: Simple amine found in the brain. It may be modulator of sympathetic functions. Its derivatives are adrenergic agonists and antagonists. It is also used in chemical industry.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Progesterone Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of a 3 beta-hydroxy-delta(5)-steroid to 3-oxo-delta(4)-steroid in the presence of NAD. It converts pregnenolone to progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone to androstenedione. EC 18.104.22.168.Aldosterone Synthase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 18-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-specific flavoprotein. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B2 gene, is important in the conversion of CORTICOSTERONE to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion to ALDOSTERONE.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.Endocrine Glands: Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 2: A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in the ADRENAL CORTEX. It shows specificity for ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 22.214.171.124.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Dihydroxyphenylalanine: A beta-hydroxylated derivative of phenylalanine. The D-form of dihydroxyphenylalanine has less physiologic activity than the L-form and is commonly used experimentally to determine whether the pharmacological effects of LEVODOPA are stereospecific.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Enkephalins: One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.Hypokalemia: Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Scent Glands: Exocrine glands in animals which secrete scents which either repel or attract other animals, e.g. perianal glands of skunks, anal glands of weasels, musk glands of foxes, ventral glands of wood rats, and dorsal glands of peccaries.Vipoma: A tumor that secretes VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE, a neuropeptide that causes VASODILATION; relaxation of smooth muscles; watery DIARRHEA; HYPOKALEMIA; and HYPOCHLORHYDRIA. Vipomas, derived from the pancreatic ISLET CELLS, generally are malignant and can secrete other hormones. In most cases, Vipomas are located in the PANCREAS but can be found in extrapancreatic sites.Receptors, Corticotropin: Cell surface receptors that bind CORTICOTROPIN; (ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. Pharmacology suggests there may be multiple ACTH receptors. An ACTH receptor has been cloned and belongs to a subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. In addition to the adrenal cortex, ACTH receptors are found in the brain and immune systems.Reserpine: An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.Endocrine System Diseases: Pathological processes of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, and diseases resulting from abnormal level of available HORMONES.Radionuclide Imaging: The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.Pituitary-Adrenal Function Tests: Tests that evaluate the adrenal glands controlled by pituitary hormones.Adenoma, Acidophil: A benign tumor, usually found in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, whose cells stain with acid dyes. Such pituitary tumors may give rise to excessive secretion of growth hormone, resulting in gigantism or acromegaly. A specific type of acidophil adenoma may give rise to nonpuerperal galactorrhea. (Dorland, 27th ed)19-Iodocholesterol: 19-Iodocholest-5-en-3 beta-ol. A cholesterol derivative usually substituted with radioactive iodine in the 19 position. The compound is an adrenal cortex scanning agent used in the assessment of patients suspected of having Cushing's syndrome, hyperaldosteronism, pheochromocytoma and adrenal remnants following total adrenalectomy.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Submandibular Gland DiseasesGene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Phenylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase: A methyltransferase that catalyzes the reaction of S-adenosyl-L-methionine and phenylethanolamine to yield S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and N-methylphenylethanolamine. It can act on various phenylethanolamines and converts norepinephrine into epinephrine. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 126.96.36.199.17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone: A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of HYDROCORTISONE and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Child Day Care Centers: Facilities which provide care for pre-school and school-age children.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.17-Hydroxycorticosteroids: A group of hydroxycorticosteroids bearing a hydroxy group at the 17-position. Urinary excretion of these compounds is used as an index of adrenal function. They are used systemically in the free alcohol form, but with esterification of the hydroxy groups, topical effectiveness is increased.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Phenoxybenzamine: An alpha-adrenergic antagonist with long duration of action. It has been used to treat hypertension and as a peripheral vasodilator.Mineralocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS primarily associated with water and electrolyte balance. This is accomplished through the effect on ION TRANSPORT in renal tubules, resulting in retention of sodium and loss of potassium. Mineralocorticoid secretion is itself regulated by PLASMA VOLUME, serum potassium, and ANGIOTENSIN II.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Ganglioneuroblastoma: A moderately malignant neoplasm composed of primitive neuroectodermal cells dispersed in myxomatous or fibrous stroma intermixed with mature ganglion cells. It may undergo transformation into a neuroblastoma. It arises from the sympathetic trunk or less frequently from the adrenal medulla, cerebral cortex, and other locations. Cervical ganglioneuroblastomas may be associated with HORNER SYNDROME and the tumor may occasionally secrete vasoactive intestinal peptide, resulting in chronic diarrhea.17-Ketosteroids: Steroids that contain a ketone group at position 17.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Apocrine Glands: Large, branched, specialized sweat glands that empty into the upper portion of a HAIR FOLLICLE instead of directly onto the SKIN.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Neuropeptide Y: A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Endorphins: One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Nerve Tissue Proteins
The adrenal medulla is located anatomically at the center of each adrenal gland, and is composed of neuroendocrine (chromaffin ... adrenocortical carcinoma and some adrenal pheochromocytomas. Most adrenal pheochromocytomas and all adrenocortical adenomas are ... An adrenal tumor or adrenal mass is any benign or malignant neoplasms of the adrenal gland, several of which are notable for ... "Adrenal Cortical Neoplasms: Perspectives in Pediatric Patients" in "Adrenal Glands: From Pathophysiology to Clinical Evidence" ...
Other rare causes of hyperthermia include thyrotoxicosis and an adrenal gland tumor, called pheochromocytoma, both of which can ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 57 (24): 649-653. 20 June 2008. Retrieved 21 March 2014. Mallapur, Chaitanya (27 ... In contrast, hyperthermia occurs when the body temperature rises without a change in the heat control centers. Some of the ... "Microclimate Conditioning Systems" (PDF). US Army Natick Soldier RD&E Center. May 2007. Retrieved 2 August 2015. Northam, ...
adrenalectomy, i.e. surgical removal of the adrenal gland is done in conditions like Conn syndrome, pheochromocytoma, adreno- ... the United Kingdom and later in the USA to help train surgeons within this highly specialized field.The early training center ... the parathyroid glands, the adrenal glands, glands of the endocrine pancreas, and some neuroendocrine glands. Surgery of the ... Endocrine surgery is a surgical sub-speciality focusing on surgery of the endocrine glands, including the thyroid gland, ...
... his mother's autopsy report as indicating that Pauline had died due to a pheochromocytoma tumor on one of her adrenal glands. ... ISBN 0-333-42126-4 Hemingway-Pfeiffer timeline Official biography, Hemingway-Pfeiffer Museum & Educational Center Website. ... "Gender of Hemingway's son at center of feud," September 22, 2003. Accessed June 27, 2011 "Gloria Hemingway (1931 - 2001) writer ...
A phaeochromocytoma (PCC) or pheochromocytoma, is a neuroendocrine tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands, or extra-adrenal ... such surgery should be performed only at centers experienced in the management of this disorder. This episode looks at the ... Extra-adrenal paragangliomas (are closely related, though less common, tumors that originate in the ganglia of the sympathetic ... In the end Clarance is diagnosed with phaeochromocytoma (PCC), it is surgically removed and he is then sent back to death row ...
PC12 cell line
"Adrenal Gland and Paraganglia - Embryology". Westerink RH, Ewing AG (2008). "The PC12 cell as model for neurosecretion". Acta ... PC12 is a cell line derived from a pheochromocytoma of the rat adrenal medulla, that have an embryonic origin from the neural ... Center for Cancer Education Wikipedia articles containing the term "PC12 cells"  Ras function was partially elucidated using ... "Establishment of a noradrenergic clonal line of rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cells which respond to nerve growth factor". Proc ...
The adrenal medulla is at the centre of each adrenal gland, and is surrounded by the adrenal cortex. The chromaffin cells of ... Adrenal carcinomas are very rare, with an incidence of 1 case per million per year. Pheochromocytomas are tumors of the adrenal ... The adrenal glands are composed of two heterogenous types of tissue. In the center is the adrenal medulla, which produces ... The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including ...
Diaphoresis due to ectopic catecholamine is a classic symptom of a pheochromocytoma, a rare tumor of the adrenal gland. ... Sweating is controlled from a center in the preoptic and anterior regions of the brain's hypothalamus, where thermosensitive ... Two types of sweat glands can be found in humans: eccrine glands and apocrine glands. The eccrine sweat glands are distributed ... People have an average of two to four million sweat glands. But how much sweat is released by each gland is determined by many ...
It is located at the center of the gland, being surrounded by the adrenal cortex. It is the innermost part of the adrenal gland ... Neoplasms include: Pheochromocytoma (most common), a catecholamine-secreting tumor of the adrenal medulla Neuroblastoma, a ... The adrenal medulla (Latin: medulla glandulae suprarenalis) is part of the adrenal gland. ... Blood Supply to the Suprarenal Glands" Anatomy Atlases - Microscopic Anatomy, plate 15.292 - "Adrenal Gland". ...
Main article: Adrenal medulla. The adrenal medulla is at the centre of each adrenal gland, and is surrounded by the adrenal ... Pheochromocytomas are tumors of the adrenal medulla that arise from chromaffin cells. They can produce a variety of nonspecific ... The adrenal glands are composed of two heterogenous types of tissue. In the center is the adrenal medulla, which produces ... The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including ...
... (PCC) is a neuroendocrine tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands (originating in the chromaffin cells), or ... Even finer localization can be obtained in certain PET scan centers using PET-CT or PET-MRI with [18F] fluorodopamine or FDOPA ... Micrograph of pheochromocytoma. Bilateral pheochromocytoma in MEN2. Pheochromocytoma. CT abdomen. Pheochromocytoma. CT abdomen ... Extra-adrenal paragangliomas (often described as extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas) are closely related, though less common, ...
Medullary thyroid cancer
When it coexists with tumors of the parathyroid gland and medullary component of the adrenal glands (pheochromocytoma) it is ... it is very important for patients to seek care under an experienced surgeon at a Center of Excellence who operates on MTC ... Its germline mutation may also be responsible for the development of hyperparathyroidism and pheochromocytoma. Hereditary ... The parathyroid tumors and pheochromocytomas are removed when they cause clinical symptomatology. Hereditary medullary thyroid ...
ADRENAL CLINIC Patients with adrenal-related disorders like Addison's disease, Cushing' syndrome, phaeochromocytoma, Conn's ... which are under progress at the center. The center has achieved excellence in undergraduate and postgraduate medical ... PITUITARY AND GROWTH CLINIC Patients with pituitary gland problems, adenoms, growth retardation etc. are seen on Saturday every ... this makes it one of the best and most caring centres in the world. The facility is headed by legendary lecturer Dr. Khadija ...
MEN2A (which affects 60% to 90% of MEN2 families):Medullary thyroid carcinoma; Pheochromocytoma (tumor of the adrenal glands); ... "Cancer Treatment Centers for America. Rising Tide. Retrieved 18 November 2016.. *^ Reference, Genetics Home. "African iron ... a disorder of the thyroid gland). People with PKU do not have an enzyme needed to process the amino acid phenylalanine, which ... Pheochromocytoma; Mucosal neuromas (benign tumors of nerve tissue on the tongue and lips); Digestive problems; Muscle, joint, ...
Hindgut GEP-NET Liver and gallbladder Adrenal tumors, particularly adrenomedullary tumors Pheochromocytoma Peripheral nervous ... Pituitary gland: Neuroendocrine tumor of the anterior pituitary Thyroid gland: Neuroendocrine thyroid tumors, particularly ... Ten per cent (10%) or less of carcinoids, primarily some midgut carcinoids, secrete excessive levels of a range of hormones, ... The various kinds of cells that can give rise to NETs are present in endocrine glands and are also diffusely distributed ...
List of cutaneous conditions
Acral dry gangrene Acromegaly Addison's disease Adrenal adenoma Adrenal carcinoma Adrenal hyperplasia Alopecia-nail dystrophy- ... follicular center cell lymphoma, follicular center lymphoma) Primary cutaneous immunocytoma Primary cutaneous marginal zone ... In the embryo, the epidermis, hair, and glands form from the ectoderm, which is chemically influenced by the underlying ... pheochromocytoma and amyloid-producing medullary thyroid carcinoma, PTC syndrome, Sipple syndrome) Multiple endocrine neoplasia ...
International Classification of Diseases for Oncology
Adrenal medullary/chromaffin paraganglioma Chromaffin tumor Chromaffinoma M8700/3 Pheochromocytoma, malignant (C74.1) Adrenal ... NOS M8400/1 Sweat gland tumor, NOS (C44._) M8400/3 Sweat gland adenocarcinoma (C44._) Sweat gland carcinoma Sweat gland tumor, ... follicular/follicle center, NOS M9691/3 Follicular lymphoma, grade 2 Follicular lymphoma, small cleaved cell M9698/3 Follicular ... Adrenal cortical tumor, benign Adrenal cortical tumor, NOS M8370/3 Adrenal cortical carcinoma (C74.0) Adrenal cortical ...
Pheochromocytoma (most often located in the adrenal medulla) increases secretion of catecholamines such as epinephrine and ... Cortisol is a hormone secreted by the cortex of the adrenal glands. Cushing's syndrome can be caused by taking glucocorticoid ... Westchester Medical Center Addison WL (March 1928). "The Use of Sodium Chloride, Potassium Chloride, Sodium Bromide, and ... the sympathetic nervous system and the adrenal gland. The specific mechanism involved is increased release of the "stress ...
Pineal gland. References. *^ Wippold FJ, Perry A (March 2006). "Neuropathology for the neuroradiologist: rosettes and ... more neuropil at centre of the rosette and, (2) the edge of neuropil meshwork irregular/undulating. ... Adrenal tumor. *Cortex *Adrenocortical adenoma. *Adrenocortical carcinoma. *Medulla *Pheochromocytoma. *Neuroblastoma. * ... Pineocytoma, also known as a pinealocytoma, is a benign, slowly growing tumor of the pineal gland. Unlike the similar condition ...
... , is a benign, slowly growing tumor of the pineal gland. Unlike the similar condition pineal gland cyst, it is ... at the centre. Pineocytomatous/neurocytic rosettes are superficially similar to Homer Wright rosettes; however, they differ ... Adrenal tumor. *Cortex *Adrenocortical adenoma. *Adrenocortical carcinoma. *Medulla *Pheochromocytoma. *Neuroblastoma. * ... Pineal gland. References. *^ Wippold FJ, Perry A (March 2006). "Neuropathology for the neuroradiologist: rosettes and ...
List of OMIM disorder codes
PAH Pheochromocytoma; 171300; KIF1B Pheochromocytoma; 171300; RET Pheochromocytoma; 171300; SDHB Pheochromocytoma; 171300; SDHD ... CYP11B1 Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to combined P450C17 and P450C21 deficiency; 201750; POR Adrenal hypoplasia, ... OMIM is one of the databases housed in the U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Isolated 17,20-lyase deficiency ... salivary gland pleomorphic; 181030; PLAG1 Adenomatous polyposis coli; 175100; APC Adenosine deaminase deficiency, partial; ...
... adrenal gland, or kidney. Very often they also spread to the important blood or lymphatic vessels and nerves that run close to ... As all this group are rare, guidelines emphasize that treatment should be undertaken in a specialized center. Use of ... Pancreatic, neuroendocrine GI, and adrenal cancers. Cancer Management: A Multidisciplinary Approach 13th edition 2010. ISBN 978 ... "The Sol Goldman Pancreas Cancer Research Center. Johns Hopkins Medicine. 2012. Archived from the original on 8 October 2014. ...
Diaphoresis due to ectopic catecholamine is a classic symptom of a pheochromocytoma, a rare tumor of the adrenal gland. ... Sweating is controlled from a center in the preoptic and anterior regions of the brain's hypothalamus, where thermosensitive ... Two types of sweat glands can be found in humans: eccrine glands and apocrine glands. The eccrine sweat glands are ... People have an average of two to four million sweat glands. But how much sweat is released by each gland is determined by many ...
Pheochromocytoma: An Adrenal Gland Tumor | Johns Hopkins Medicine
A pheochromocytoma causes the adrenal glands to make too much of these hormones. ... The adrenal glands make different hormones. These hormones help keep your heart rate and blood pressure normal. ... A pheochromocytoma is a rare type of tumor in the middle of the adrenal gland. ... Find a Treatment Center * Nephrology Find Additional Treatment Centers at:. * Howard County General Hospital ...
Adrenal Gland Cancer | Neuroblastoma | Pheochromocytoma | MedlinePlus
Most adrenal gland tumors are benign. Types of tumors include Neuroblastoma and Pheochromocytoma. ... Article: Laparoscopic transperitoneal adrenalectomy in the large adrenal tumor from single center... ... Most adrenal gland tumors are benign. They usually do not cause symptoms and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland ... Your adrenal, or suprarenal, glands are located on the top of each kidney. These glands produce hormones that you cant live ...
Benign adrenal tumors - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic
Most benign adrenal tumors require no treatment, but there are exceptions. Learn about diagnosis and treatment options at Mayo ... Adenoma of the adrenal gland. Genetics and Rare Diseases Information Center. https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/5745/ ... Those that develop in the medulla are also called pheochromocytomas (fee-o-kroe-moe-sy-TOE-muhs). ... Adrenal glands Open pop-up dialog box Close Adrenal glands. Adrenal glands. Perched atop each of your kidneys, your adrenal ...
Martindale's Medical Center: Eastern Medicine, Emergency Medicine, Endocrinology, Evidenced-Based Medicine, Gastroenterology,...
Disorders of the Adrenal Gland; Cushings Syndrome; Pituitary Tumor; Hyperprolactinemia and Prolactinoma; Pheochromocytoma; ... Disorders of the Adrenal Gland Examples of "Disorders of the Adrenal Gland" Course Lectures include "...Incidental Adrenal Mass ... SEE THE PUBLIC HEALTH CENTER FOR DRUGS & MEDICATION SEE THE PHARMACY CENTER FOR ER/SURGERY SEE THE SURGERY CENTER Emergency ... Home Page ~ Medical Center Eastern Medicine ~ Emergency Medicine Endocrinology ~ Evidenced-Based Medicine ~ Gastroenterology ...
Pheochromocytoma: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor of adrenal gland tissue. It results in the release of too much epinephrine and norepinephrine ... It usually develops in the center (medulla) of one or both adrenal glands. The adrenal glands are two triangle-shaped glands. ... One gland is located on top of each kidney. In rare cases, a pheochromocytoma occurs outside the adrenal gland. When it does, ... Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor of adrenal gland tissue. It results in the release of too much epinephrine and norepinephrine ...
Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma Treatment (PDQ®) (Patients) | OncoLink
Each adrenal gland has two parts. The outer layer of the adrenal gland is the adrenal cortex. The center of the adrenal gland ... the center of the adrenal gland).. Pheochromocytoma forms in the adrenal glands. There are two adrenal glands, one on top of ... Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor that forms in the adrenal medulla (the center of the adrenal gland). ... Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor of the adrenal medulla. Usually, pheochromocytoma affects one adrenal gland, but it may affect ...
Paraganglioma & Pheochromocytoma - TCGA
Paraganglioma that develops in the center of the adrenal gland is called pheochromocytoma. Paraganglioma that forms outside of ... What are paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma?. Paraganglioma is a rare cancer that originates in the nerve cells of the adrenal ... the adrenal gland, often along blood vessels and nerves in the head and neck, is called extra-adrenal paraganglioma, or simply ... View additional information on paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma.. Paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma are part of an effort to ...
Pheochromocytoma | BIDMC of Boston
... tumor develops in an adrenal gland and can affect one or both adrenal glands. ... A pheochromocytoma is a condition where a rare, usually benign (noncancerous) ... Centers & Departments. See All Centers & Departments *A*B*C*D*E*F*G*H*I*J*K*L*M*N*O*P*Q*R*S*T*U*V*W*X*Y*Z. Acute Care Surgery, ... Pheochromocytomas are very rare tumors that usually develop in the adrenal glands, small glands on top of the kidneys. They ...
S1609) DART: Dual Anti-CTLA-4 and Anti-PD-1 blockade in Rare Tumors | Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center
Carcinomas of pituitary gland, thyroid gland parathyroid gland and adrenal cortex 27. Desmoid tumors 28. Peripheral nerve ... Pheochromocytoma, malignant 25. Paraganglioma (closed to accrual 11/29/2018) 26. ... Epithelial tumors of major salivary glands (closed to accrual 03/20/2018) 3. Salivary gland type tumors of head and neck, lip, ... Adrenal cortical tumors (closed to accrual 06/27/2018) 32. Tumor of unknown primary (Cancer of Unknown Primary; CuP) (closed to ...
Treatments for adrenal gland cancer - Canadian Cancer Society
Learn about treatment options for adrenal gland cancer. ... Treatments for adrenal gland cancer include surgery, supportive ... This treatment may not be available at all treatment centres.. Side effects of radiation therapy will depend mainly on the size ... Targeted radiation therapy with radioactive metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) may be used to treat cancerous pheochromocytomas. ... Treatments for adrenal gland cancer. If you have adrenal gland cancer, your healthcare team will create a treatment plan just ...
Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment (PDQ®)-Patient Version - National Cancer Institute
The center of the adrenal gland is the adrenal medulla. Pheochromocytoma is a tumor of the adrenal medulla. The adrenal glands ... Each adrenal gland has two parts. The outer layer of the adrenal gland is the adrenal cortex. The center of the adrenal gland ... There are two adrenal glands. The adrenal glands are small and shaped like a triangle. One adrenal gland sits on top of each ... Pheochromocytoma forms in the adrenal glands. There are two adrenal glands, one on top of each kidney in the back of the upper ...
Iobenguane I 131 | Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
It is used to treat a tumor on the adrenal gland called pheochromocytoma or another type of tumor called paraganglioma. ... A drug to protect the thyroid gland will be given to you. Take it as you have been told. If this is not done, the chance of ... If you think there has been an overdose, call your poison control center or get medical care right away. Be ready to tell or ...
Causes of Hot Flashes in Young Women | Livestrong.com
Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor of the adrenal gland, a small gland located on top of each kidney. This tumor secretes the ... Cleveland Clinic Center for Continuing Education: Flushing * Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology: The Flushing ... Hyperthyroidism and pheochromocytoma are examples of such conditions. In hyperthyroidism, the thyroid gland in overactive and ... Tumors or conditions affecting hypothalamus or pituitary gland of the brain can also cause premature menopause due to impaired ...
Pheochromocytoma | Multimedia Encyclopedia | Health Information | St. Luke's Hospital
It usually develops in the center (medulla) of one or both adrenal glands . In rare cases, this kind of tumor occurs outside ... Adrenal glands. The adrenal glands are two triangle-shaped glands. One gland is located on top of each kidney. ... Adrenal Tumor - CT - illustration CT scan of the upper abdomen in a person with a right adrenal mass. The adrenal glands are ... Adrenal Tumor - CT - illustration CT scan of the upper abdomen in a person with a right adrenal mass. The adrenal glands are ...
Oncology (Medical) - Doctors - Mayo Clinic
Pheochromocytoma - Pipeline Review, H1 2018
Pheochromocytoma is a rare, usually non-cancerous (benign) tumor that develops in cells in the center of an adrenal gland. ... Pheochromocytoma - Pipeline by Exelixis Inc, H1 2018 Pheochromocytoma - Pipeline by Ipsen SA, H1 2018 Pheochromocytoma - ... Pheochromocytoma - Pipeline by Novartis AG, H1 2018 Pheochromocytoma - Pipeline by Pfizer Inc, H1 2018 Pheochromocytoma - ... Pheochromocytoma - Dormant Projects, H1 2018 List of Figures. Number of Products under Development for Pheochromocytoma, H1 ...
Pheochromocytoma - Pipeline Review, H2 2016
Global Markets Directs latest Pharmaceutical and Healthcare disease pipeline guide Pheochromocytoma - Pipeline Review, H2 2016 ... Pheochromocytoma is a rare, usually non-cancerous (benign) tumor that develops in cells in the center of an adrenal gland. ... Pheochromocytoma - Dormant Projects, H2 2016 59. LIST OF FIGURES. Number of Products under Development for Pheochromocytoma, H2 ... Pheochromocytoma - Pipeline by Exelixis, Inc., H2 2016. Pheochromocytoma - Pipeline by MediaPharma s.r.l., H2 2016. ...
Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI]
Paragangliomas that form in the adrenal glands are called pheochromocytomas. Paragangliomas that form outside the adrenal ... Paragangliomas form in nerve tissue in the adrenal glands and near certain blood vessels and nerves. ... Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma are rare tumors that come from the same type of tissue. ... Each adrenal gland has two parts. The outer layer of the adrenal gland is the adrenal cortex. The center of the adrenal gland ...
Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma Treatment (PDQ )
Each adrenal gland has two parts. The outer layer of the adrenal gland is the adrenal cortex. The center of the adrenal gland ... the center of the adrenal gland).. Pheochromocytoma forms in the adrenal glands. There are two adrenal glands, one on top of ... Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor of the adrenal medulla. Usually, pheochromocytoma affects one adrenal gland, but it may affect ... Treatment for inherited pheochromocytoma that forms in both adrenal glands or later forms in the remaining adrenal gland may be ...
Summary View > Yale Cancer Center | Yale School of...
The center of the adrenal gland is the adrenal medulla. Pheochromocytoma is a tumor of the adrenal medulla. The adrenal glands ... Each adrenal gland has two parts. The outer layer of the adrenal gland is the adrenal cortex. The center of the adrenal gland ... There are two adrenal glands. The adrenal glands are small and shaped like a triangle. One adrenal gland sits on top of each ... Pheochromocytoma forms in the adrenal glands. There are two adrenal glands, one on top of each kidney in the back of the upper ...
Preventive Cardiology: Beta-blockers | Frankfort Regional Medical Center
Adrenal Tumors / Pheochromocytoma
The center of the gland (the adrenal medulla) makes epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). Epinephrine ... Pheochromocytoma: An Adrenal Gland Tumor. What are the adrenal glands?. There are two adrenal glands, one on top of each kidney ... The adrenal glands work interactively with the hypothalamus and pituitary gland in the brain. The adrenal gland is made of ... What is a pheochromocytoma?. A pheochromocytoma is an adrenal gland tumor that secretes too much epinephrine (adrenaline) and ...
What are Adrenal Conditions? Adrenal Conditions Symptoms, Treatment, Diagnosis - UCLA
What are Adrenal Conditions? When the adrenal glands produce more or less hormones than required by the body, disease ... Pheochromocytoma. A pheochromocytoma is an adrenaline-producing tumor that originates from cells in the adrenal gland (most ... Adrenal nodules, including Incidentally discovered adrenal masses (adrenal "incidentalomas"). An adrenal incidentaloma is an ... Adrencortical carcinoma is a very rare cancer of the adrenal glands that occurs in about 1 per 1 million people. There are no ...
Gastrointestinal Surgery Clinical - Adrenal Diseases - Penn Surgery
This is a tumor arising from chromaffin cells in the adrenal gland. Signs and symptoms of pheochromocytoma are related to the ... Perelman Center - West Pavilion, 4th Floor (HUP). 266 Wright-Saunders Building (PPMC). 700 Spruce Street - Garfield Duncan ... In addition CT scanning or MRI scanning can demonstrate lesions that are in the adrenal gland. Patients with pheochromocytoma ... adrenal gland. The first is Cushings Syndrome, the second Conns Disease, and the third is from a tumor arising in the adrenal ...
Molecules | Free Full-Text | Astaxanthin Protects PC12 Cells against Homocysteine- and Glutamate-Induced Neurotoxicity | HTML
The cell line PC12 cells (BCRC 6008), originating from the pheochromocytoma on the rat adrenal gland, was purchased from the ... Bioresource Collection and Research Center (Hsin-Chu, Taiwan).. 3.3. Cultivation of PC12 Cell Line. The method for cultivation ... Greene, L.A.; Tischler, A.S. Establishment of a noradrenergic clonal line of rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cells which respond ... originally isolated from a pheochromocytoma in the rat adrenal medulla, has become an in vitro model for studying numerous ...
Settler's Country Market Condition Center
Hypertensive emergencies can be caused by a history of kidney disorders, pheochromocytoma (tumor of the adrenal glands), and ... such as pheochromocytoma (tumor of the adrenal gland), acromegaly (a disease caused by the secretion of excessive amounts of ... Chronic stress can lead to an increase in the release of the stress hormone cortisol from the adrenal glands. Researchers ... Other conditions that can cause high blood pressure include diseases of the adrenal glands (located on top of the kidneys), ...
Tests for Adrenal Gland Cancer, tumors and hormone disorders.
Description of frequently used x-ray tests used to examine adrenal tumors. CAT scans, MRI scans, ultrasound, and MIBG are shown ... The MIBG scan is used only to detect the presence and location of adrenal pheochromocytomas. This test does NOT detect any ... The spinal column can be seen as a series of discs lying on top of one another down the center of the picture. ... This CT scan, on the other hand, shows a much larger adrenal gland. This right adrenal (outlined in yellow) measures18 cm (8 ...
Arthur S. Tischler, MD | Tufts Medical Center
His research deals with catecholamine-producing adrenal gland neuroendocrine tumors called pheochromocytomas and their extra- ... Diagnostic tests and biomarkers for pheochromocytoma and extra-adrenal paraganglioma: from routine laboratory methods to ... adrenal counterparts known as paragangliomas. It encompasses basic and translational aspects of pheochromocytoma biology, with ... Tufts Medical Center. 800 Washington St.. Box 802. Boston, MA 02111 Phone #: 617-636-5829 Fax #: 617-636-8302 *Map It ...
HIE Multimedia - Pheochromocytoma
It usually develops in the center (medulla) of one or both adrenal glands. The adrenal glands are two triangle-shaped glands. ... Adrenal glands. The adrenal glands are two small triangle-shaped glands. One gland is located on top of each kidney. ... One gland is located on top of each kidney. In rare cases, a pheochromocytoma occurs outside the adrenal gland. When it does, ... Pheochromocytoma. Chromaffin tumors; Paraganglionoma. Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor of adrenal gland tissue. It results in ...
Search of: 'methodist hospital' | Recruiting, Not yet recruiting, Available Studies | 'Cystadenocarcinoma' | Houston - List...
Adrenal Cortex Carcinoma. *Adrenal Gland Pheochromocytoma. *(and 79 more...). *Procedure: Biospecimen Collection ... Sutter Cancer Centers Radiation Oncology Services-Auburn. Auburn, California, United States. *Alta Bates Summit Medical Center- ... University of Alabama at Birmingham Cancer Center. Birmingham, Alabama, United States. *University of South Alabama Mitchell ... University of Alabama at Birmingham Cancer Center. Birmingham, Alabama, United States. *Tennessee Valley Gynecologic Oncology. ...
BenignType of tumorLeft adrenal glandAdrenalectomyPituitary glandTumors of the adrenal glandMetastaticNeuroendocrine tumorsCatecholaminesParagangliomasRight adrenalAdrenocorticalCancerMIBGAdrenalineDisordersCushing'sSurgeryKidneysCancersAbdomenParathyroid glandConn'sHyperaldosteronismAdenomaRisk of pheochromocytomaDiagnosis of pheochromocytomaClinicalTumor of the adrenal glandIncidentalomasTissueKidneyHormones produced by the adrenal glandsFound outside the adrenalMedullaryTreatment of pheochromocytoma and paragangliomaForms in the adrenalLesions of the Adrenal GlandEpinephrine and norepinephHyperplasiaSurgicalEndocrine systemIncidentalomaLaparoscopicCortical tumorsParaganglioma treatmentExtra-adrenal paragangliomaSurgeonSalivaryCortisolTypes of tumors
- Most adrenal gland tumors are benign. (medlineplus.gov)
- Benign adrenal tumors are noncancerous masses that form in the adrenal glands. (mayoclinic.org)
- Benign adrenal tumors that develop in the cortex are also called adrenal adenomas. (mayoclinic.org)
- Most benign adrenal tumors cause no symptoms and don't need treatment. (mayoclinic.org)
- In these cases, benign adrenal tumor treatment may include surgery or medications. (mayoclinic.org)
- Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas may be benign (not cancer ) or malignant (cancer). (oncolink.org)
- A pheochromocytoma is a rare, usually benign (noncancerous) tumor that develops in an adrenal gland. (bidmc.org)
- Pheochromocytoma is a rare, usually non-cancerous (benign) tumor that develops in cells in the center of an adrenal gland. (marketpublishers.com)
- The most common presentation was that of a single benign adrenal tumor in patients older than 40 years. (redorbit.com)
- An adrenal tumor or adrenal mass is any benign or malignant neoplasms of the adrenal gland, several of which are notable for their tendency to overproduce endocrine hormones. (wikipedia.org)
- Most adrenal pheochromocytomas and all adrenocortical adenomas are benign tumors, which do not metastasize or invade nearby tissues, but may cause significant health problems by unbalancing hormones. (wikipedia.org)
- Both benign and malignant tumors of the adrenal cortex may produce steroid hormones, with important clinical consequences. (wikipedia.org)
- Adrenocortical adenomas are benign tumors of the adrenal cortex which are extremely common (present in 1-10% of persons at autopsy). (wikipedia.org)
- Pheochromocytomas are active adrenal gland tumors, the majority of which are benign. (eurekalert.org)
- Pheochromocytoma is usually benign (not cancer), but the accompanying medullary carcinoma of the thyroid that characterizes this condition is a very aggressive and potentially fatal cancer. (uclahealth.org)
- Benign adrenal tumors, such as adenoma or pheochromocytoma, also can develop in the adrenal glands. (middlesexhealth.org)
- A neuroendocrine tumor, usually benign (noncancerous), within or outside of the adrenal gland. (nyhq.org)
- Adrenal gland tumors may be malignant or benign, but all typically excrete excessive amounts of one or more hormones. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
- Most adrenal tumors can be imaged very well with a CT scan or MRI, and benign tumors tend to look different on these tests than do cancerous tumors. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
- Benign adrenal tumors (just like parathyroid tumors) lend themselves very nicely to minimally invasive surgical techniques since the goal of the operation is simply to remove the source of the excess hormone . (factbites.com)
- Tumors of the adrenal cortex are reported in 2% of all autopsies, with the most common lesion being a benign adenoma (see the first image below). (medscape.com)
- this finding is diagnostic of a benign adrenal adenoma. (medscape.com)
- A pheochromocytoma (fee-o-kroe-moe-sy-toe-muh) is a rare, usually noncancerous (benign) tumor th at develops in cells in the center of an adrenal gland. (pheosupportfoundation.org)
- This is to make sure it is benign and confirm it is a pheochromocytoma and not another type of tumor. (pheosupportfoundation.org)
Type of tumor7
- A pheochromocytoma is a rare type of tumor. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Usually, this type of tumor affects one of your two adrenal glands, but it can affect both. (bidmc.org)
- It is used to treat a tumor on the adrenal gland called pheochromocytoma or another type of tumor called paraganglioma. (mskcc.org)
- Ivanhoe Newswire) "" Variations of a gene are associated with a type of tumor that forms within the adrenal gland, and were found in an age group uncommon for these types of tumors. (redorbit.com)
- When this type of tumor occurs outside the adrenal gland, it is called a paraganglioma. (chemdiv.com)
- This case highlights the importance of identifying the type of tumor in a patient with adrenal mass. (shmabstracts.com)
- One type of tumor of the adrenal glands is called a pheochromocytoma. (nyhq.org)
Left adrenal gland5
- This scan shows a left adrenal gland ( yellow ) lying on top of the left kidney ( red ) and behind the pancreas ( green ). (endocrineweb.com)
- The picture on the right shows a bright pheo in the patient's left adrenal gland. (endocrineweb.com)
- following hormone testing, 123I-MIBG scintigraphy was performed to determine the presence of pheochromocytoma, which confirmed eccentric uptake by a large left adrenal gland mass. (ebscohost.com)
- MRI of the abdomen revealed a 4.2×3.1×3.5 cm lesion on the left adrenal gland suggestive of a pheochromocytoma. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
- A Pheochromocytoma is seen as a dark sphere in the center of the body (it is in the left adrenal gland). (cfapps.io)
- Adrenalectomy is a surgery to remove the whole adrenal gland. (cancer.ca)
- However if the only site of spread is to the adrenal gland, surgical removal with laparoscopic adrenalectomy can improve the patient's prognosis. (uclahealth.org)
- To achieve this, doctors must remove the all of the affected adrenal gland (adrenalectomy). (middlesexhealth.org)
- Adrenalectomy is the surgical removal of one or both adrenal glands. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
- Adrenalectomy is usually advised for patients with tumors of the adrenal glands. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
- Occasionally, adrenalectomy may be recommended when hormones produced by the adrenal glands aggravate another condition such as breast cancer. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
- Frequently, lesions metastatic to the adrenal gland necessitate adrenalectomy, and reports exist of adrenal excision for symptomatic adrenal cysts. (medscape.com)
- It typically involves removal of the mass and the adrenal gland (adrenalectomy). (weillcornell.org)
- Treatment of an aldosterone producing tumor involves monitoring and replacing serum potassium levels, and laparoscopic adrenal removal or partial adrenalectomy. (weillcornell.org)
- Although NF1 patients have a well-known increased risk of developing pheochromocytoma, in the current series, all NF1 patients referred to the surgeon for adrenalectomy had pheochromocytoma diagnosed incidentally. (nih.gov)
- Tumors or conditions affecting hypothalamus or pituitary gland of the brain can also cause premature menopause due to impaired secretion of hormones that normally regulate ovarian function. (livestrong.com)
- The adrenal glands work interactively with the hypothalamus and pituitary gland in the brain. (baycare.org)
- The pituitary gland , in turn, produces corticotropin hormones , which stimulate the adrenal glands to produce corticosteroid or steroid hormones . (factbites.com)
- Also called multiple endocrine adenomatosis or Wermer's syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is the result of mutations of the MEN1 gene, causing tumor growth on the parathyroid gland, and then on the pancreas or pituitary gland. (endocrinology-centers.com)
Tumors of the adrenal gland2
- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Azedra (iobenguane I 131) injection for intravenous use for the treatment of adults and adolescents age 12 and older with rare tumors of the adrenal gland (pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma) that cannot be surgically removed (unresectable), have spread beyond the original tumor site and require systemic anticancer therapy. (chemdiv.com)
- Besides hemangioblastomas, the VHL disease can cause tumors of the retina (retinal angiomas), renal tumors and tumors of the adrenal gland (pheochromocytoma). (uniklinik-freiburg.de)
- Debulking may be used for unresectable or metastatic adrenal gland cancer. (cancer.ca)
- A Case of Malignant Metastatic Pheochromocytoma After Eight Years of Primary Diagnosis. (ebscohost.com)
- One recent study assessed whether the size of adrenal tumors plays a role in the development of metastatic disease (disease that moves or spreads from one organ or tissue to another) regardless of the genetic background of these tumors. (nih.gov)
- some of the latter tumors may be metastatic, as approximately 10 per cent of pheochromocytomas are malignant. (semanticscholar.org)
- A primary or metastatic malignant neoplasm affecting the adrenal gland. (icd10data.com)
- The treatment of metastatic lesions of the adrenal gland depend upon the primary malignancy. (weillcornell.org)
- Progenics) for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients ≥12 years old with iobenguane scan positive, unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma who require systemic anticancer therapy. (empr.com)
- His research deals with catecholamine-producing adrenal gland neuroendocrine tumors called pheochromocytomas and their extra-adrenal counterparts known as paragangliomas. (tuftsmedicalcenter.org)
- She then joined as Assistant Professor at the Montefiore Einstein Center for Cancer Care (MECCC) where she focused on all endocrine tumors such as thyroid cancer, parathyroid tumors, advanced gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, adrenal tumors, pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma and other endocrine malignancies. (cancer.gov)
- This includes diseases of the thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal glands, and GI and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. (phs.org)
- A procedure used to find neuroendocrine tumors, such as pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. (pheopara.org)
- The adrenal glands make important hormones called catecholamines . (oncolink.org)
- Catecholamines are hormones made by the adrenal glands. (stlukes-stl.com)
- Catecholamines are chemicals made by nerve tissue (including the brain) and the adrenal gland. (stlukes-stl.com)
- Increased level of these hormones can damage the production of these adrenal hormones called catecholamines. (healthresource4u.com)
- Differing from solid pheochromocytomas, which produce catecholamines and present adrenergic syndrome, cystic pheochromocytomas, may not produce these. (ebscohost.com)
- Paragangliomas form outside the adrenal gland. (oncolink.org)
- Paragangliomas form in nerve tissue in the adrenal glands and near certain blood vessels and nerves. (oncolink.org)
- Paragangliomas that form in the adrenal glands are called pheochromocytomas . (oncolink.org)
- In this summary, extra-adrenal paragangliomas are called paragangliomas. (oncolink.org)
- Current efforts in the laboratory are focused on developing animal models specifically relevant to often-malignant hereditary pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas caused by mutations of succinate dehydrogenase genes and on establishing human pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma cell lines, which currently do not exist. (tuftsmedicalcenter.org)
- Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are types of tumors. (redorbit.com)
- Despite a broad spectrum of susceptibility genes for these tumors, the molecular basis for the majority of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas, including most of the sporadic and rare familial cases, remains unknown, according to background information in the article. (redorbit.com)
- Li Yao, Ph.D., of the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, and colleagues conducted a study to determine the prevalence in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas of mutations in the gene FP/TMEM127, a recently identified pheochromocytoma susceptibility gene. (redorbit.com)
- The researchers sequenced the FP/TMEM127 gene in 990 individuals with pheochromocytomas and/or paragangliomas, including 898 previously unreported cases without mutations in other susceptibility genes from 8 independent worldwide referral centers between January 2009 and June 2010. (redorbit.com)
- Mutations were detected only in patients with tumors of adrenal localization (pheochromocytomas) but not with paragangliomas. (redorbit.com)
- Very large adrenal tumors and those that have extended to adjacent structures, as well as the majority of abdominal paragangliomas, require an open surgical procedure. (providence.org)
- Current recommendations for referral ta genetic counselor include young age at diagnosis (in your 20s or 30s), bilateral pheochromocytomas, all paragangliomas, family history of one of these tumors, or genetic syndromes. (providence.org)
- Germline mutations in the four genes that encode the succinate dehydrogenase complex (SDHx) are a risk factor for developing pheochromocytomas and/or paragangliomas. (cdc.gov)
- The objectives of our study were to characterize the genetic alterations, clinical features, and treatment outcomes of a cohort of SDHx-related pheochromocytomas and/or paragangliomas patients. (cdc.gov)
- Tumors from extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue are titled as extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas or paragangliomas . (cureus.com)
- Extra-adrenal paragangliomas are usually found in the abdomen . (cureus.com)
- The right adrenal gland is its normal small size and cannot be seen on this CT scan (as expected). (endocrineweb.com)
- This right adrenal (outlined in yellow ) measures18 cm (8 inches) which is much more worrisome for cancer. (endocrineweb.com)
- Subsequent MRI and MIBG scan confirmed a small right adrenal mass. (shmabstracts.com)
- Work-up revealed a 2.4 cm mass in the right adrenal gland. (ebscohost.com)
- Adrenal cancer is the presence of malignant adrenal tumors, and includes neuroblastoma, adrenocortical carcinoma and some adrenal pheochromocytomas. (wikipedia.org)
- Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare, highly aggressive cancer of adrenal cortical cells, which may occur in children or adults. (wikipedia.org)
- Adrenocortical Carcinoma is a rare cancer of the adrenal glands. (personalizedcause.com)
- Adrenal cancer, also called adrenocortical cancer, can occur at any age. (middlesexhealth.org)
- Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the outer layer of the adrenal gland. (clevelandclinic.org)
- Adrenocortical carcinoma and pheochromocytoma can occur in both adults and children. (clevelandclinic.org)
- Background: Size can predict malignancy in adrenocortical tumors, but the same extrapolation for pheochromocytomas (PCC) is controversial. (ebscohost.com)
- The common major pathologic entities of the adrenal gland that require surgical intervention are primary hyperaldosteronism (ie, Conn syndrome , see the second image below), Cushing syndrome , pheochromocytoma , neuroblastoma , and adrenocortical carcinoma . (medscape.com)
- Adrenal cancer that starts in the outside layer of the adrenal gland is called adrenocortical carcinoma. (icd10data.com)
- What Is Adrenal Cortical Cancer? (medlineplus.gov)
- How Is Adrenal Cancer Diagnosed? (medlineplus.gov)
- What Should You Ask Your Doctor about Adrenal Cortical Cancer? (medlineplus.gov)
- What Happens After Treatment for Adrenal Cancer? (medlineplus.gov)
- Cancer.gov. www.cancer.gov/types/pheochromocytoma/hp/pheochromocytoma-treatment-pdq#link/_38_toc . (medlineplus.gov)
- This PDQ cancer information summary has current information about the treatment of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. (oncolink.org)
- Paraganglioma is a rare cancer that originates in the nerve cells of the adrenal glands , organs on top of each kidney that produce important hormones. (nih.gov)
- 1 The Cancer Genome Atlas is studying both hereditary and non-hereditary (sometimes called sporadic) paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma. (nih.gov)
- Where can I find clinical trials to treat paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma that are supported by the National Cancer Institute (NCI)? (nih.gov)
- If you have adrenal gland cancer, your healthcare team will create a treatment plan just for you. (cancer.ca)
- You may be offered one or more of the following treatments for adrenal gland cancer. (cancer.ca)
- It is done if the cancer is only in an adrenal gland. (cancer.ca)
- Surgery for metastasis may be used to remove adrenal gland cancer that has spread (metastasized) to other organs such as the liver, kidney, spleen, pancreas and lymph nodes. (cancer.ca)
- Surgery for adrenal gland cancer may cause pain , decreased urinary output, changes in blood pressure and low blood sugar. (cancer.ca)
- It may be given after surgery to destroy cancer cells left behind or treat adrenal gland cancer that comes back. (cancer.ca)
- Some common side effects of chemotherapy drugs used for adrenal gland cancer are low levels of adrenal gland hormones, nausea and vomiting , diarrhea , loss of appetite , and high or low blood pressure. (cancer.ca)
- It may also be given if adrenal gland cancer has spread to the bone or brain. (cancer.ca)
- Some common side effects of radiation therapy used for adrenal gland cancer are fatigue, nausea, loss of appetite, diarrhea and skin problems . (cancer.ca)
- Adrencortical carcinoma is a very rare cancer of the adrenal glands that occurs in about 1 per 1 million people. (uclahealth.org)
- Tests for Adrenal Gland Cancer, tumors and hormone disorders. (endocrineweb.com)
- She is also working on tumor immunology and the development of novel immunotherapy approaches for medullary thyroid cancer and targeted therapies for other endocrine malignancies such as advanced pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma. (cancer.gov)
- Parathyroid gland cancer. (unt.edu)
- A diagnosis of FMTC may be made when 2 or more family members have medullary thyroid cancer and no family members have parathyroid or adrenal gland problems. (unt.edu)
- Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia II (MEN II) is a hereditary disorder in which a type of thyroid cancer accompanied by recurring cancer of the adrenal glands. (uclahealth.org)
- Adrenal cancer is a rare cancer that begins in one or both of the small, triangular glands (adrenal glands) located on top of your kidneys. (middlesexhealth.org)
- When adrenal cancer is found early, there is a chance for cure. (middlesexhealth.org)
- But if the cancer has spread to areas beyond the adrenal glands, cure becomes less likely. (middlesexhealth.org)
- It's not clear what causes adrenal cancer. (middlesexhealth.org)
- Adrenal cancer forms when something creates changes (mutations) in the DNA of an adrenal gland cell. (middlesexhealth.org)
- Adrenal cancer happens more often in people with inherited syndromes that increase the risk of certain cancers. (middlesexhealth.org)
- Your doctor may recommend CT, MRI or positron emission tomography (PET) scans to better understand any growths on your adrenal glands and to see if cancer has spread to other areas of your body, such as your lungs or your liver. (middlesexhealth.org)
- If your doctor suspects you may have adrenal cancer, he or she may recommend removing the affected adrenal gland. (middlesexhealth.org)
- Adrenal cancer treatment usually involves surgery to remove all of the cancer. (middlesexhealth.org)
- The goal of surgery is to remove the entire adrenal cancer. (middlesexhealth.org)
- An older drug that has been used to treat advanced adrenal cancer has shown promise in delaying the recurrence of the disease after surgery. (middlesexhealth.org)
- Radiation therapy is sometimes used after adrenal cancer surgery to kill any cells that might remain. (middlesexhealth.org)
- For adrenal cancers that can't be removed with surgery or that return after initial treatments, chemotherapy may be an option to slow the progression of the cancer. (middlesexhealth.org)
- Adrenal cancer is a rare cancer that starts in the adrenal glands. (halifaxhealth.org)
- Removal of the adrenal gland may also be required for certain tumors even if they aren't producing excess hormones , such as very large tumors or if there is a suspicion that the tumor could be a cancer, or sometimes referred to as malignant. (factbites.com)
- Adrenal gland cancers ( adrenal cortical cancer) are rare tumors that are usually very large at the time of diagnosis. (factbites.com)
- Translational research opportunities include development of novel molecular markers and therapeutic targets in endocrine surgical disease (thyroid cancer, hyperthyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, and adrenal tumors), as well as metabolic markers of the endocrine response in severely injured major trauma patients. (bcm.edu)
- Under his direction, a cancer research service at the Francis Delafield Hospital of the Columbia Presbyterian Hospital was initiated, leading to innovative basic and translational cancer research within a dedicated cancer center for the first time at Columbia. (columbiaurology.org)
- Almost everyone with MEN2A develops medullary thyroid cancer (cancer that occurs in the parafollicular C cells of the thyroid that produce calcitonin), and about 50% develop adrenal gland tumors (pheochromocytomas). (endocrinology-centers.com)
- Type 2B (MEN2B): formerly called multiple endocrine neoplasia type 3, this type can cause adrenal gland tumors, medullary thyroid cancer, and painful growths around nerves in your mucus membranes (neuromas). (endocrinology-centers.com)
- Cancer that forms in the tissues of the adrenal glands (two glands located just above the kidneys). (icd10data.com)
- Adrenal cancer that starts in the center of the adrenal gland is called malignant pheochromocytoma. (icd10data.com)
- CgA peptide is increased in the blood in the presence of pheochromocytomas, and endocrinologists have used it as a marker for the presence of prostate cancer. (brighthub.com)
- The laboratory test for CgA is ordered when the physician suspects that the patient might have a tumor such as a pheochromocytoma of the adrenal gland.which is cancer in the adrenal gland. (brighthub.com)
- I trained with the best at UT Southwestern Surgery Residency and additionally at UT MD Anderson Cancer Center as a Fellow and on Faculty. (ahns.info)
- Merrick Ross MD, MD Anderson Cancer Center. (ahns.info)
- Targeted radiation therapy with radioactive metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) may be used to treat cancerous pheochromocytomas. (cancer.ca)
- 123I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) scintigraphy is a widely used functional imaging tool with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity in diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. (ebscohost.com)
- A final diagnosis of undifferentiated adrenal malignant tumor was rendered, instead of histologically malignant pheochromocytoma, despite the uptake of 123I-MIBG demonstrated by scintigraphy. (ebscohost.com)
- Routine preoperative 123I-MIBG scintigraphy for patients with phaeochromocytoma is not necessary. (ebscohost.com)
- Functional imaging using 123I-meta-iodo-benzyl-guanetidine (MIBG) scintigraphy has alleged 100% specificity for phaeochromocytoma (PHAEO). (ebscohost.com)
- A pheochromocytoma is an adrenal gland tumor that secretes too much epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). (baycare.org)
- A pheochromocytoma is an adrenaline-producing tumor that originates from cells in the adrenal gland (most commonly) or rarely in tissue outside of the adrenal gland. (uclahealth.org)
- Pheochromocytomas form in the adrenal gland causing it to make too much adrenaline. (redorbit.com)
- PCC is a tumour that causes adrenal glands to make too much of the hormones norepinephrine or noradrenaline and epinephrine or adrenaline. (healthresource4u.com)
- A paraganglioma is a rare adrenaline-producing tumor found outside the adrenal gland that grows in the peripheral nervous system. (providence.org)
- Hormones secreted by adrenal glands include- cortisol, aldosterone, adrenaline and noradrenaline. (medindia.net)
- A small gland that makes steroid hormones, adrenaline, and noradrenaline. (pheopara.org)
- Pheochromocytoma secretes extra adrenaline in an uncontrolled way and can cause severe health problems, including heart attack, stroke, and even death. (coupons.pharmacy)
- A number of disorders can affect the adrenal glands , including tumors. (medlineplus.gov)
- Certain inherited disorders and changes in certain genes increase the risk of pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma. (oncolink.org)
- Endocrine surgeons at the Center for Advanced Surgery specialize in treating disorders of the adrenal, thyroid, and parathyroid glands. (columbiasurgery.org)
- Likewise, phechromocytoma and paraganglioma occur in a sporadic form or associated with hereditary disorders such as Von Hippel-Lindau disease, Hereditary Paraganglioma-Pheochromocytoma Syndrome, Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) syndrome and neurofibromatosis, type 1. (unipd.it)
- Significant disorders arise when the adrenal glands do not work properly. (medindia.net)
- Therefore, pituitary dysfunction can also cause adrenal gland disorders. (medindia.net)
- Adrenal disorders can cause your adrenal glands to make too much or not enough hormones . (factbites.com)
- At the USF Diabetes and Endocrinology Center, our specialists treat adrenal disorders that are often hard to diagnose. (usf.edu)
- Through its intramural and extramural organizational units, NICHD supports and conducts a variety of research on adrenal gland disorders. (nih.gov)
- Through its intramural and extramural organizational units, NICHD supports and conducts a broad range of research on adrenal gland disorders. (nih.gov)
- Other units within the DIR focus on adrenal gland disorders and disorders of female reproduction. (nih.gov)
- The workup of adrenal disorders requiring surgical intervention has undergone a revolution with the tremendous advances in hormonal research, as well as in radiographic techniques and localization. (medscape.com)
- A doctor who has special training in diagnosing and treating disorders of the endocrine system (the glands and organs that make hormones). (pheopara.org)
- Most patients with an adrenal source of Cushing's syndrome are cured with surgery. (uclahealth.org)
- We treat Cushing's syndrome, Addison's disease, pheochromocytoma and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. (adecteam.org)
- Treatment of adrenal tumors that cause Cushing's disease include laparoscopic surgery and possible medication to reduce the production of cortisol. (weillcornell.org)
- The primary treatment for a pheochromocytoma is surgery to remove the tumor. (bidmc.org)
- After surgery to remove an adrenal gland, your levels of adrenal gland hormones may be low. (cancer.ca)
- It also improves dexterity by allowing 360-degree rotation of surgical toolsThe Lahey Hospital & Medical Center Institute of Urology is equipped with a da Vinci® Surgical System, a computerized robotic platform that enhances the performance of robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery. (lahey.org)
- A laparoscopic, minimally-invasive surgery is used for all tumors confined to the adrenal gland. (providence.org)
- Surgery is needed to remove both the medullary carcinoma of the thyroid and the pheochromocytoma. (uclahealth.org)
- Pheochromocytomas are usually treated with surgery or medications. (health-tourism.com)
- Because this surgical operation is complex and the risks of complications are high, it is highly advisable to have this surgery at medical centers that specialize in the management of this disorder. (health-tourism.com)
- These patients were registered at 18 reference Italian Pediatric Surgery or Oncology centers. (unipd.it)
- Adrenal tumors may cause other problems such as hypertension or inadequate potassium in the blood, and these problems also should be resolved if possible before surgery is performed. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
- Laparoscopic Adrenal Surgery: the preferred operation for most adrenal tumors. (factbites.com)
- He specialized in adrenal surgery and in particular early investigations into the care of patients with pheochromocytoma, a non-malignant tumor of the adrenal glands. (columbiaurology.org)
- MEN treatment involves hormone medication and surgery to remove the affected glands. (endocrinology-centers.com)
- While there is no treatment for any type of multiple endocrine neoplasia, the affected endocrine glands can be treated individually with surgery, medication, or radiation therapy. (endocrinology-centers.com)
- Removing the adrenal mass with minimally invasive surgery, usually laparoscopically. (weillcornell.org)
- Medical treatment is a crucial part of treatment prior to the adrenal surgery in order to suppress effects of the excessive hormone secretion. (weillcornell.org)
- Many (but by no means all) adrenal tumours require surgery. (thyroidsurgeon.org)
- Perched atop each of your kidneys, your adrenal glands produce hormones that help regulate your metabolism, immune system, blood pressure and other essential functions. (mayoclinic.org)
- Pheochromocytomas are very rare tumors that usually develop in the adrenal glands, small glands on top of the kidneys. (bidmc.org)
- This is the fastest, cheapest, and most readily available test to look at the kidneys and adrenals. (endocrineweb.com)
- These glands are located right above the kidneys and make hormones including stress hormones called epinephrines and norepinephrines. (chemdiv.com)
- Your body has two adrenal glands located above the kidneys. (healthresource4u.com)
- Cortisol is a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal glands, located above the kidneys. (bidmc.org)
- Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. (medlineplus.gov)
- There are some cancers that arise from other parts of the body that can spread (or metastasize) to the adrenal gland. (uclahealth.org)
- Most adrenal cancers start in this area. (halifaxhealth.org)
- Adrenal gland cancers are rare cancers occuring in the endocrine tissue of the adrenals . (factbites.com)
- There are two adrenal glands, one on top of each kidney in the back of the upper abdomen . (oncolink.org)
- CT scan of abdomen showed a small right heterogeneously enhancing adrenal mass. 24-hour testing for urine metanephrine, normetanephrine, and dopamine were obtained. (shmabstracts.com)
- Sometimes a vertical incision in the middle of the abdomen provides a better approach, especially if both adrenal glands are involved. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
- The relationship of the adrenal glands to other organs in the abdomen can be seen nicely on CAT scans and MRI scans which are demonstrated on our page on adrenal X-ray tests . (factbites.com)
- Each adrenal glands lies on top of the kidney, at the back of the abdomen. (thyroidsurgeon.org)
- In our patient, CT abdomen did not identify any mass in the adrenal gland or at the bifurcation of the aorta. (cureus.com)
- Adenoma of the adrenal gland. (mayoclinic.org)
- https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/5745/adenoma-of-the-adrenal-gland. (mayoclinic.org)
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan in a patient with Conn syndrome showing a left adrenal adenoma. (medscape.com)
- METHODS: CD44-S and CD44-V6 expression were studied in 12 cases of adrenal cortical adenoma, 3 of adrenal cortical carcinoma, 10 of pheochromocytoma, and 4 normal adrenal glands. (bmj.com)
- CONCLUSIONS: Membranous CD44-S staining may help to distinguish pheochromocytoma from adrenal cortical adenoma. (bmj.com)
Risk of pheochromocytoma1
Diagnosis of pheochromocytoma2
- This is a clinical syndrome that results from excessive secretion of aldosterone due to the presence of an adrenal tumor. (upenn.edu)
- It encompasses basic and translational aspects of pheochromocytoma biology, with a particular focus on development and application of models for basic and pre-clinical research. (tuftsmedicalcenter.org)
- More recently, mouse pheochromocytoma (MPC) cell lines now used for testing a variety of pre-clinical imaging and treatment modalities were developed in the Tischler laboratory at Tufts Medical Center by Dr. James Powers and Dr. Tischler. (tuftsmedicalcenter.org)
- His research program at Ben Taub Hospital and Baylor St. Luke's CHI Medical Center offers opportunities in translational science, clinical outcomes, and mobile technology development/innovation. (bcm.edu)
- Addison later described the clinical effects of adrenal insufficiency in 1855. (medscape.com)
Tumor of the adrenal gland2
- As part of your endocrine system, the adrenal glands produce hormones that give instructions to nearly every organ and tissue in your body. (mayoclinic.org)
- Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor of adrenal gland tissue. (medlineplus.gov)
- Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma are rare tumors that come from the same type of tissue. (oncolink.org)
- CD44 expression in normal adrenal tissue and adrenal tumours. (bmj.com)
- Pheochromocytoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor that arises from adrenal glands, or extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue that failed to involute after birth. (coupons.pharmacy)
- Your body has two adrenal glands , one on top of each kidney. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Your adrenal, or suprarenal, glands are located on the top of each kidney. (medlineplus.gov)
- You have two adrenal glands, one located above each kidney. (mayoclinic.org)
- One gland is located on top of each kidney. (medlineplus.gov)
- The left adrenal normally lives on top of the left kidney and below and behind the spleen. (endocrineweb.com)
- The pheo, therefore is the bright spot (the adrenal) on the top side of the left (empty) kidney. (endocrineweb.com)
- Make sure your doctor knows if you are pregnant or breastfeeding, or if you have kidney disease, liver disease, blood vessel or circulation problems, diabetes, low blood pressure, lung disease (such as asthma), an overactive thyroid, or an adrenal gland tumor (pheochromocytoma). (umm.edu)
- The adrenal glands are paired endocrine glands-one located above each kidney-that produce hormones such as epinephrine, norepinephrine, androgens, estrogens, aldosterone, and cortisol. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
- To remove the adrenal glands, an incision is made below the patient's ribcage (A). The adrenal gland, which sits on top of the kidney (B), is visualized (C). The vein emerging from the gland is tied off and cut (D), and the adrenal gland is removed (E). (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
Hormones produced by the adrenal glands1
Found outside the adrenal1
Treatment of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma1
Lesions of the Adrenal Gland1
Epinephrine and norepineph3
- The middle part of the adrenal glands makes epinephrine and norepinephrine. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- It causes the gland to make too much of the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Pheochromocytoma is a type of adrenal glands tumor that causes the release of high levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine. (health-tourism.com)
- Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) - CAH is a genetic disorder that creates imbalances in the levels of cortisol, androgen and aldosterone. (medindia.net)
- Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is an adrenal disease that affects adrenal gland function, resulting in abnormal steroidogenesis caused by a deficiency or complete lack of the enzyme 21-hydroxylase (accounting for 90% of CAH cases). (factbites.com)
- The Pediatric Growth and Nutrition Branch (PGNB) , within the Division of Extramural Research , supports research about genetic and molecular mechanisms of adrenal gland hyperplasia, prenatal screening for the disorder, and prenatal treatment of classic CAH with dexamethasone. (nih.gov)
- Three surgical correctable diseases exist in relation to adrenal gland. (upenn.edu)
- From a surgical standpoint, primary production of cortisol by an adrenal tumor that accounts for about ten percent of cases. (upenn.edu)
- The third surgical correctable lesion is that of a pheochromocytoma. (upenn.edu)
- Arthur Tischler is a surgical pathologist at Tufts Medical Center and professor of pathology at Tufts University School of Medicine. (tuftsmedicalcenter.org)
- Our patient was sent to a tertiary care center for a surgical intervention. (shmabstracts.com)
- At Halifax Health - Center for Oncology our physicians are leaders in their specialty fields, treatment plans are created through a Multidisciplinary approach with the most advanced medical technology utilizing targeted radiation therapies and minimally invasive surgical techniques. (halifaxhealth.org)
- If both glands need to be removed, the surgeon must remove one gland, repair the surgical wound, turn the patient onto the other side, and repeat the entire process. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
- Although pheochromocytoma is rare, it is being diagnosed oftener and will beconle inereasingly important with safe surgical renmoval. (semanticscholar.org)
- It may center upon medical management with chemotherapy or other medications, or possibly surgical excision. (weillcornell.org)
- Paraganglioma that forms outside of the adrenal gland, often along blood vessels and nerves in the head and neck, is called extra-adrenal paraganglioma, or simply paraganglioma. (nih.gov)
- Diagnostic tests and biomarkers for pheochromocytoma and extra-adrenal paraganglioma: from routine laboratory methods to disease stratification. (tuftsmedicalcenter.org)
- The surgeon may remove 1 or both adrenal glands. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- The surgeon may remove one or both adrenal glands. (baycare.org)
- If the surgeon intends to operate on only one of the adrenal glands, the incision will run under just the right or the left side of the rib cage. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
- Dr. James Suliburk is a board-certified surgeon in Houston specializing in the treatment of tumors of the thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal gland. (bcm.edu)
- Epithelial tumors of major salivary glands (closed to accrual 03/20/2018) 3. (roswellpark.org)
- Salivary gland type tumors of head and neck, lip, esophagus, stomach, trachea and lung, breast and other location (closed to accrual) 4. (roswellpark.org)
- 2. Epithelial tumors of major salivary glands 3. (cancer.gov)
- Accumulation at the sides of the head is from salivary gland uptake of iodide. (cfapps.io)