The formation of DENTAL CEMENTUM, a bone-like material that covers the root of the tooth.
The bonelike rigid connective tissue covering the root of a tooth from the cementoenamel junction to the apex and lining the apex of the root canal, also assisting in tooth support by serving as attachment structures for the periodontal ligament. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)

The root surface in human teeth: a microradiographic study. (1/33)

In an attempt to clarify the nature of the human cemento-dentinal junction, ground sections of incompletely formed and fully formed extracted teeth were prepared and their histology compared with their microradiographic appearances. The results showed that incompletely formed teeth possess distinctive surface layers outside the granular layer of Tomes. The evidence indicates that these layers are of dentinal origin; their presence during development supports previous explanations by the author of the hyaline layer of Hopewell-Smith and of so-called intermediate cementum. The results also indicate that the granular layer of Tomes does not represent the outer limit of root dentine. The relationship of these surface layers to the definitive cementum which is present in fully formed teeth was studied in both young and older patients. From the results it was concluded that cementum formation begins in the more apical region of the teeth at a time when root formation is well advanced, and that it spreads towards the crown rather than in the generally accepted reverse direction.  (+info)

On the configuration of incremental lines in human dentine as revealed by tetracycline labelling. (2/33)

The pattern of tetracycline labelling in dentine was investigated in ground sections of human teeth under visible and ultraviolet light. The tetracycline lines presented different appearances near the enamel-junction region, near the dentine-cementum junction, in the mantle dentine, and in the circumpulpal dentine, depending on whether the mineralization front was linear, globular or linear-globular.  (+info)

The developmental biology of cementum. (3/33)

In conclusion, we have reviewed an extensive literature on early cementogenesis and performed a detailed morphological and molecular analysis to illustrate and verify key issues in the current debate about epithelial and mesenchymal contributions to root cementum. We have demonstrated that prior to cementogenesis, Hertwig's epithelial root sheath disintegrates and dental follicle cells penetrate the epithelial layer to invade the root surface. Our studies confirmed that HERS became disrupted or disintegrated prior to cementum deposition. We visualized how mesenchymal cells from the dental follicle penetrated the HERS bilayer and deposited initial cementum, while immediately adjacent epithelial cells were separated from the root surface by a basal lamina and did not secrete any cementum. Human specimen from the Gottlieb collection indicated that HERS was removed from the root surface prior to cementum deposition. Our in situ hybridization and immolocalization data revealed that both amelogenin mRNAs and enamel proteins were restricted to the crown enamel and were absent from the root surface and from the cervical-most ameloblasts adjacent to the root margin. On Western blots, cementum protein extracts did not cross-react with amelogenin antibodies. Our studies in conjunction with our literature review together confirmed the classical theory of cementum as a dental follicle derived connective tissue that forms subsequent to HERS disintegration.  (+info)

Lesions related to the formation of bone, cartilage or cementum arising in the oral area: a statistical study and review of the literature. (4/33)

This report contains a statistical review of 559 cases of lesions forming hard tissues that were diagnosed by the departments of Clinical Pathophysiology and of Pathology at Tokyo Dental College from 1966 to 2001. Sixteen kinds of lesions which were related to the formation of bone, cartilage or cementum were analysed: osteoma, osteo-chondroma, chondroma, osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, ossifying fibroma, cemento-ossifying fibroma, cementifying fibroma, so-called cementoma, cementoblastoma, gigantiform cementoma, periapical cemental dysplasia, osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, fibro-osseous lesion, and fibrous dysplasia of bone. The most common lesion was osteoma (203 cases). There is a marked tendency for this condition to occur in females (201 males cases and 358 female cases). The patients' ages ranged from 3 to 84 years, and the mean was 40.1 years old. Lesions with hard tissue formation were observed most frequently in the third decade and in the mandibular molar region.  (+info)

Cementum and periodontal wound healing and regeneration. (5/33)

The extracellular matrix (ECM) of cementum resembles other mineralized tissues in composition; however, its physiology is unique, and it contains molecules that have not been detected in other tissues. Cementum components influence the activities of periodontal cells, and they manifest selectivity toward some periodontal cell types over others. In light of emerging evidence that the ECM determines how cells respond to environmental stimuli, we hypothesize that the local environment of the cementum matrix plays a pivotal role in maintaining the homeostasis of cementum under healthy conditions. The structural integrity and biochemical composition of the cementum matrix are severely compromised in periodontal disease, and the provisional matrix generated during periodontal healing is different from that of cementum. We propose that, for new cementum and attachment formation during periodontal regeneration, the local environment must be conducive for the recruitment and function of cementum-forming cells, and that the wound matrix is favorable for repair rather than regeneration. How cementum components may regulate and participate in cementum regeneration, possible new regenerative therapies using these principles, and models of cementoblastic cells are discussed.  (+info)

Gene therapy of bone morphogenetic protein for periodontal tissue engineering. (6/33)

BACKGROUND: The reconstruction of lost periodontal support including bone, ligament, and cementum is a major goal of therapy. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have shown much potential in the regeneration of the periodontium. Limitations of BMP administration to periodontal lesions include need for high-dose bolus delivery, BMP transient biological activity, and low bioavailability of factors at the wound site. Gene transfer offers promise as an alternative treatment strategy to deliver BMPs to periodontal tissues. METHODS: This study utilized ex vivo BMP-7 gene transfer to stimulate tissue engineering of alveolar bone wounds. Syngeneic dermal fibroblasts (SDFs) were transduced ex vivo with adenoviruses encoding either green fluorescent protein (Ad-GFP or control virus), BMP-7 (Ad-BMP-7), or an antagonist of BMP bioactivity, noggin (Ad-noggin). Transduced cells were seeded onto gelatin carriers and then transplanted to large mandibular alveolar bone defects in a rat wound repair model. RESULTS: Ad-noggin treatment tended to inhibit osteogenesis as compared to the control-treated and Ad-BMP-7-treated specimens. The osseous lesions treated by Ad-BMP-7 gene delivery demonstrated rapid chrondrogenesis, with subsequent osteogenesis, cementogenesis and predictable bridging of the periodontal bone defects. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate the first successful evidence of periodontal tissue engineering using ex vivo gene transfer of BMPs and offers a new approach for repairing periodontal defects.  (+info)

Cementoblast delivery for periodontal tissue engineering. (7/33)

BACKGROUND: Predictable periodontal regeneration following periodontal disease is a major goal of therapy. The objective of this proof of concept investigation was to evaluate the ability of cementoblasts and dental follicle cells to promote periodontal regeneration in a rodent periodontal fenestration model. METHODS: The buccal aspect of the distal root of the first mandibular molar was denuded of its periodontal ligament (PDL), cementum, and superficial dentin through a bony window created bilaterally in 12 athymic rats. Treated defects were divided into three groups: 1) carrier alone (PLGA polymer sponges), 2) carrier + follicle cells, and 3) carrier + cementoblasts. Cultured murine primary follicle cells and immortalized cementoblasts were delivered to the defects via biodegradable PLGA polymer sponges, and mandibulae were retrieved 3 weeks and 6 weeks post-surgery for histological evaluation. In situ hybridization, for gene expression of bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcin (OCN), and histomorphometric analysis were further done on 3-week specimens. RESULTS: Three weeks after surgery, histology of defects treated with carrier alone indicated PLGA particles, fibrous tissue, and newly formed bone scattered within the defect area. Defects treated with carrier + follicle cells had a similar appearance, but with less formation of bone. In contrast, in defects treated with carrier + cementoblasts, mineralized tissues were noted at the healing site with extension toward the root surface, PDL region, and laterally beyond the buccal plate envelope of bone. No PDL-bone fibrous attachment was observed in any of the groups at this point. In situ hybridization showed that the mineralized tissue formed by cementoblasts gave strong signals for both BSP and OCN genes, confirming its nature as cementum or bone. The changes noted at 3 weeks were also observed at 6 weeks. Cementoblast-treated and carrier alone-treated defects exhibited complete bone bridging and PDL formation, whereas follicle cell-treated defects showed minimal evidence of osteogenesis. No new cementum was formed along the root surface in the above two groups. Cementoblast-treated defects were filled with trabeculated mineralized tissue similar to, but more mature, than that seen at 3 weeks. Furthermore, the PDL region was maintained with well-organized collagen fibers connecting the adjacent bone to a thin layer of cementum-like tissue observed on the root surface. Neoplastic changes were observed at the superficial portions of the implants in two of the 6-week cementoblast-treated specimens, possibly due in part to the SV40-transformed nature of the implanted cell line. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study demonstrates that cementoblasts have a marked ability to induce mineralization in periodontal wounds when delivered via polymer sponges, while implanted dental follicle cells seem to inhibit periodontal healing. These results confirm the selective behaviors of different cell types in vivo and support the role of cementoblasts as a tool to better understand periodontal regeneration and cementogen-  (+info)

Effect of sustained gene delivery of platelet-derived growth factor or its antagonist (PDGF-1308) on tissue-engineered cementum. (8/33)

BACKGROUND: Cementum, a mineralized tissue lining the tooth root surface, is destroyed during the inflammatory process of periodontitis. Restoration of functional cementum is considered a criterion for successful regeneration of periodontal tissues, including formation of periodontal ligament, cementum, and alveolar bone. Short-term administration of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) has been shown to partially regenerate periodontal structures. Nonetheless, the role of PDGF in cementogenesis is not well understood. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of sustained PDGF gene transfer on cementum formation in an ex vivo ectopic biomineralization model. METHODS: Osteocalcin (OC) promoter-driven SV40 transgenic mice were used to obtain immortalized cementoblasts (OCCM). The OCCM cells were transduced with adenoviruses (Ad) encoding either PDGF-A, an antagonist of PDGF signaling (PDGF-1308), a control virus (green fluorescent protein, GFP), or no treatment (NT). The transduced cells were incorporated into polymer scaffolds and implanted subcutaneously into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. The implants were harvested at 3 and 6 weeks for histomorphometric analysis of the newly formed mineralized tissues. Northern blot analysis was performed to determine the expression levels of mineral-associated genes including bone sialoprotein (BSP), OC, and osteopontin (OPN) in the cell-implant specimens at 3 and 6 weeks. RESULTS: The results indicated mineralization was significantly reduced in both the Ad/PDGF-A and Ad/PDGF-1308 treated specimens when compared to the NT or Ad/GFP groups at 3 and 6 weeks (P<0.01). In addition, the size of the implants treated with Ad/PDGF-A and Ad/PDGF-1308 was significantly reduced compared to implants from Ad/GFP and NT groups at 3 weeks (P<0.05). At 6 weeks, the size of implants and mineral formation increased in NT, Ad/GFP, and Ad/PDGF-A groups, while the Ad/PDGF-1308 treated implants continued to decrease in size and mineral formation (P<0.01). Northern blot analysis revealed that in the Ad/PDGF-A treated implants OPN was increased, whereas OC gene expression was downregulated at 3 weeks. In the Ad/PDGF-1308 treated implants, BSP, OC, and OPN were all downregulated at 3 weeks. At 3 weeks, the Ad/PDGF-A treated implants contained significantly higher multinucleated giant cell (MNGC) density compared to NT, Ad/GFP, and Ad/PDGF-1308 specimens. The MNGC density in NT, Ad/GFP, and Ad/PDGF-A treated groups reduced over time, while the Ad/PDGF-1308 transduced implants continued to exhibit significantly higher MNGC density compared with the other treatment groups at 6 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that continuous exposure to PDGF-A had an inhibitory effect on cementogenesis, possibly via the upregulation of OPN and subsequent enhancement of MNGCs at 3 weeks. On the other hand, Ad/PDGF-1308 inhibited mineralization of tissue-engineered cementum possibly due to the observed downregulation of BSP and OC and a persistence of stimulation of MNGCs. These findings suggest that continuous exogenous delivery of PDGF-A may delay mineral formation induced by cementoblasts, while PDGF is clearly required for mineral neogenesis.  (+info)

Cementogenesis is the biological process of cementum formation, which is a hard connective tissue that covers the root surface of teeth. Cementum helps to attach the periodontal ligaments, providing stability and support to the teeth within the jawbone. This process involves the differentiation and activity of cementoblasts, which are the cells responsible for producing and mineralizing the cementum matrix.

The medical definition of 'cementogenesis' is:

1. The formation and development of cementum on the roots of teeth.
2. The biological process in which cementoblasts secrete and mineralize the extracellular matrix, leading to the growth and maturation of cementum.
3. A critical component of tooth development and maintenance, ensuring proper attachment and function of the teeth within the oral cavity.

Dental cementum is a type of hard connective tissue that covers the root of a tooth. It is primarily composed of calcium salts and collagen fibers, and it serves to attach the periodontal ligaments (the fibers that help secure the tooth in its socket) to the tooth's root. Cementum also helps protect the root of the tooth and contributes to the maintenance of tooth stability. It continues to grow and deposit new layers throughout an individual's life, which can be seen as incremental lines called "cementum annulations."

A tooth root is the part of a tooth that is embedded in the jawbone and cannot be seen when looking at a person's smile. It is the lower portion of a tooth that typically has a conical shape and anchors the tooth to the jawbone through a periodontal ligament. The tooth root is covered by cementum, a specialized bone-like tissue, and contains nerve endings and blood vessels within its pulp chamber.

The number of roots in a tooth can vary depending on the type of tooth. For example, incisors typically have one root, canines may have one or two roots, premolars usually have one or two roots, and molars often have two to four roots. The primary function of the tooth root is to provide stability and support for the crown of the tooth, allowing it to withstand the forces of biting and chewing.

... is the formation of cementum, one of the three mineralized substances of a tooth. Cementum covers the roots of ... The cementoblasts then disperse to cover the root dentin area and undergo cementogenesis, laying down cementoid. During the ... For cementogenesis to begin, Hertwig epithelial root sheath (HERS) must fragment. HERS is a collar of epithelial cells derived ... This then stimulates the activation of cementoblasts to begin cementogenesis. The external shape of each root is fully ...
Cementogenesis • Cementum • Central giant cell granuloma • Central odontogenic fibroma • Central ossifying fibroma • Central ...
Cementum Cementogenesis Cementoblast Silva, Brunno Santos Freitas; Bueno, Mike Reis; Yamamoto-Silva, Fernanda P.; Gomez, ...
Cementum formation is called cementogenesis and occurs late in the development of teeth. Cementoblasts are the cells ... responsible for cementogenesis. Two types of cementum form: cellular and acellular. Acellular cementum forms first. The ...
Complications of cementogenesis and proliferation of cementoblasts can be implicated; however, cementomas have only been linked ...
After this fragmentation, Hertwig's epithelial root sheath also participates in cementogenesis and formation of the periodontal ... sheath and exposure of dentin covered by a thin layer of intermediate cementum are fundamental for the onset of cementogenesis ...
... known as cementogenesis. The presence of acellular cementum acts to signal the development of periodontal ligament (PDL) fibers ...
Cementum Cementogenesis Tooth development Cementoblastoma Enamel List of human cell types derived from the germ layers List of ... and whose biological function is cementogenesis, which is the formation of cementum (hard tissue that covers the tooth root). ...
... but HERS may be involved in cementogenesis and the secreting of cementum, or that HERS-derived products might be related to ...
... cementogenesis MeSH G07.574.500.325.377.750.461 - dentinogenesis MeSH G07.574.500.325.520 - sex differentiation MeSH G07.574. ...
Cementogenesis is the formation of cementum, one of the three mineralized substances of a tooth. Cementum covers the roots of ... The cementoblasts then disperse to cover the root dentin area and undergo cementogenesis, laying down cementoid. During the ... For cementogenesis to begin, Hertwig epithelial root sheath (HERS) must fragment. HERS is a collar of epithelial cells derived ... This then stimulates the activation of cementoblasts to begin cementogenesis. The external shape of each root is fully ...
cementogenesis answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, ... "Cementogenesis." Tabers Medical Dictionary, 24th ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2021. Nursing Central, nursing.unboundmedicine.com/ ... nursingcentral/view/Tabers-Dictionary/732669/all/cementogenesis. Cementogenesis. In: Venes DD, ed. Tabers Medical Dictionary. ... Cementogenesis [Internet]. In: Venes DD, editors. Tabers Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company; 2021. [cited 2023 December 10 ...
... pleiotropy and the induction of cementogenesis. Ripamonti, U. · abstract in English · text in English · English ( pdf ) ...
Genetic and pharmacologic modulation of cementogenesis via pyrophosphate regulators. To read more please click on the link ...
2. Arzate H., Zeichner-David M., Mercado-Celis G. Cementum proteins: role in cementogenesis, biomineralization, periodontium ...
Accelerated reattachment with cementogenesis to dentin, demineralized in situ. I. Optimum range. J Periodontol. 1975; 46: 646- ...
Unrequired Axotal, stagey, unless cementogenesis - counterjumper with regard to tensible probed cross-pollinate the amidopyrine ... Unrequired Axotal, alternative to phenergan stagey, unless cementogenesis - counterjumper with regard to tensible probed cross- ...
... enhanced cementogenesis, and alleviated orthodontic force-induced root resorption. Overall, compressive force-induced lincRNA- ...
... suggesting that will hypoxia affects cementogenesis involving PDL tissue coating the top of the developing tooth main within an ...
E2.95.147.500 Cementogenesis G7.700.320.500.325.377.750.325 G7.700.320.500.325.377.124 Centrioles A11.284.430.214.190.750. ...
Cementogenesis G7.700.320.500.325.377.124 G7.345.500.325.377.124 Cemeteries J3.150 Centaurium B1.650.940.800.575.100.450.188 ...
E2.95.147.500 Cementogenesis G7.700.320.500.325.377.750.325 G7.700.320.500.325.377.124 Centrioles A11.284.430.214.190.750. ...
E2.95.147.500 Cementogenesis G7.700.320.500.325.377.750.325 G7.700.320.500.325.377.124 Centrioles A11.284.430.214.190.750. ...
Cementogenesis G7.700.320.500.325.377.124 G7.345.500.325.377.124 Cemeteries J3.150 Centaurium B1.650.940.800.575.100.450.188 ...
E2.95.147.500 Cementogenesis G7.700.320.500.325.377.750.325 G7.700.320.500.325.377.124 Centrioles A11.284.430.214.190.750. ...
Cementogenesis G7.700.320.500.325.377.124 G7.345.500.325.377.124 Cemeteries J3.150 Centaurium B1.650.940.800.575.100.450.188 ...
Cementogenesis G7.700.320.500.325.377.124 G7.345.500.325.377.124 Cemeteries J3.150 Centaurium B1.650.940.800.575.100.450.188 ...
Advanced Bleeding Gums Advanced Receeding Gums Bleeding Gums Cementogenesis Coronal Fracture Coronal Fractures Dental Anestheia ...
Advanced Bleeding Gums Advanced Receeding Gums Bleeding Gums Cementogenesis Coronal Fracture Coronal Fractures Dental Anestheia ...
The formation of dentin. Dentin first appears in the layer between the ameloblasts and odontoblasts and becomes calcified immediately. Formation progresses from the tip of the papilla over its slope to form a calcified cap becoming thicker by the apposition of new layers pulpward. A layer of uncalcified dentin intervenes between the calcified tissue and the odontoblast and its processes. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992 ...
Cementogenesis [G07.345.500.325.377.124] * Dentinogenesis [G07.345.500.325.377.186] * Fetal Organ Maturity [G07.345.500.325. ...
  • Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS). (lookformedical.com)
  • Cementogenesis is the formation of cementum, one of the three mineralized substances of a tooth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cementoblasts then disperse to cover the root dentin area and undergo cementogenesis, laying down cementoid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Accelerated reattachment with cementogenesis to dentin, demineralized in situ. (bvsalud.org)