Extracellular structures found in a variety of microorganisms. They contain CELLULASES and play an important role in the digestion of CELLULOSE.
An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.
Organelles in which the splicing and excision reactions that remove introns from precursor messenger RNA molecules occur. One component of a spliceosome is five small nuclear RNA molecules (U1, U2, U4, U5, U6) that, working in conjunction with proteins, help to fold pieces of RNA into the right shapes and later splice them into the message.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.
A genus of gram-positive bacteria in the family Lachnospiraceae that inhabits the RUMEN; LARGE INTESTINE; and CECUM of MAMMALS.
A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Common name of the order Siluriformes. This order contains many families and over 2,000 species, including venomous species. Heteropneustes and Plotosus genera have dangerous stings and are aggressive. Most species are passive stingers.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.
A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose.
Enzymes that hydrolyze O-glucosyl-compounds. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.2.1.-.
An exocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE and cellotetraose. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing ends of beta-D-glucosides with release of CELLOBIOSE.
An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.
Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.
A genus known for fibers obtained from their leaves: sisal from A. sisalana, henequen from A. fourcroyoides and A. cantala, or Manila-Maguey fiber from A. cantala. Some species provide a sap that is fermented to an intoxicating drink, called pulque in Mexico. Some contain agavesides.
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Use of various chemical separation and extraction methods, such as SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION; CHROMATOGRAPHY; and SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION; to prepare samples for analytical measurement of components.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.

ScaC, an adaptor protein carrying a novel cohesin that expands the dockerin-binding repertoire of the Ruminococcus flavefaciens 17 cellulosome. (1/63)

A new gene, designated scaC and encoding a protein carrying a single cohesin, was identified in the cellulolytic rumen anaerobe Ruminococcus flavefaciens 17 as part of a gene cluster that also codes for the cellulosome structural components ScaA and ScaB. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the sequence of the ScaC cohesin is distinct from the sequences of other cohesins, including the sequences of R. flavefaciens ScaA and ScaB. The scaC gene product also includes at its C terminus a dockerin module that closely resembles those found in R. flavefaciens enzymes that bind to the cohesins of the primary ScaA scaffoldin. The putative cohesin domain and the C-terminal dockerin module were cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli as His(6)-tagged products (ScaC-Coh and ScaC-Doc, respectively). Affinity probing of protein extracts of R. flavefaciens 17 separated in one-dimensional and two-dimensional gels with recombinant cohesins from ScaC and ScaA revealed that two distinct subsets of native proteins interact with ScaC-Coh and ScaA-Coh. Furthermore, ScaC-Coh failed to interact with the recombinant dockerin module from the enzyme EndB that is recognized by ScaA cohesins. On the other hand, ScaC-Doc was shown to interact specifically with the recombinant cohesin domain from ScaA, and the ScaA-Coh probe was shown to interact with a native 29-kDa protein spot identified as ScaC by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. These results suggest that ScaC plays the role of an adaptor scaffoldin that is bound to ScaA via the ScaC dockerin module, which, via the distinctive ScaC cohesin, expands the range of proteins that can bind to the ScaA-based enzyme complex.  (+info)

Interaction between a type-II dockerin domain and a type-II cohesin domain from Clostridium thermocellum cellulosome. (2/63)

The interaction between the type-II dockerin domain of the scaffoldin protein CipA and the type-II cohesin domain of the outer layer protein SdbA is the fundamental mechanism for anchoring the cellulosome to the cell surface of Clostridium thermocellum. We constructed and purified a dockerin polypeptide and a cohesin polypeptide, and determined affinity constants of the interaction between them by the surface plasmon resonance method. The dissociation constant (K(D)) value was 1.8 x 10(-9) M, which is a little larger than that for the combination of a type-I dockerin and a type-I cohesin.  (+info)

A novel Acetivibrio cellulolyticus anchoring scaffoldin that bears divergent cohesins. (3/63)

Sequencing of a cellulosome-integrating gene cluster in Acetivibrio cellulolyticus was completed. The cluster contains four tandem scaffoldin genes (scaA, scaB, scaC, and scaD) bounded upstream and downstream, respectively, by a presumed cellobiose phosphorylase and a nucleotide methylase. The sequences and properties of scaA, scaB, and scaC were reported previously, and those of scaD are reported here. The scaD gene encodes an 852-residue polypeptide that includes a signal peptide, three cohesins, and a C-terminal S-layer homology (SLH) module. The calculated molecular weight of the mature ScaD is 88,960; a 67-residue linker segment separates cohesins 1 and 2, and two approximately 30-residue linkers separate cohesin 2 from 3 and cohesin 3 from the SLH module. The presence of an SLH module in ScaD indicates its role as an anchoring protein. The first two ScaD cohesins can be classified as type II, similar to the four cohesins of ScaB. Surprisingly, the third ScaD cohesin belongs to the type I cohesins, like the seven ScaA cohesins. ScaD is the first scaffoldin to be described that contains divergent types of cohesins as integral parts of the polypeptide chain. The recognition properties among selected recombinant cohesins and dockerins from the different scaffoldins of the gene cluster were investigated by affinity blotting. The results indicated that the divergent types of ScaD cohesins also differ in their preference of dockerins. ScaD thus plays a dual role, both as a primary scaffoldin, capable of direct incorporation of a single dockerin-borne enzyme, and as a secondary scaffoldin that anchors the major primary scaffoldin, ScaA and its complement of enzymes to the cell surface.  (+info)

Hydrophilic domains of scaffolding protein CbpA promote glycosyl hydrolase activity and localization of cellulosomes to the cell surface of Clostridium cellulovorans. (4/63)

CbpA, the scaffolding protein of Clostridium cellulovorans cellulosomes, possesses one family 3 cellulose binding domain, nine cohesin domains, and four hydrophilic domains (HLDs). Among the three types of domains, the function of the HLDs is still unknown. We proposed previously that the HLDs of CbpA play a role in attaching the cellulosome to the cell surface, since they showed some homology to the surface layer homology domains of EngE. Several recombinant proteins with HLDs (rHLDs) and recombinant EngE (rEngE) were examined to determine their binding to the C. cellulovorans cell wall fraction. Tandemly linked rHLDs showed higher affinity for the cell wall than individual rHLDs showed. EngE was shown to have a higher affinity for cell walls than rHLDs have. C. cellulovorans native cellulosomes were found to have higher affinity for cell walls than rHLDs have. When immunoblot analysis was carried out with the native cellulosome fraction bound to cell wall fragments, the presence of EngE was also confirmed, suggesting that the mechanism anchoring CbpA to the C. cellulovorans cell surface was mediated through EngE and that the HLDs play a secondary role in the attachment of the cellulosome to the cell surface. During a study of the role of HLDs on cellulose degradation, the mini-cellulosome complexes with HLDs degraded cellulose more efficiently than complexes without HLDs degraded cellulose. The rHLDs also showed binding affinity for crystalline cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose. These results suggest that the CbpA HLDs play a major role and a minor role in C. cellulovorans cellulosomes. The primary role increases cellulose degradation activity by binding the cellulosome complex to the cellulose substrate; secondarily, HLDs aid the binding of the CbpA/cellulosome to the C. cellulovorans cell surface.  (+info)

Towards designer cellulosomes in Clostridia: mannanase enrichment of the cellulosomes produced by Clostridium cellulolyticum. (5/63)

The man5K gene of Clostridium cellulolyticum was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. This gene encodes a 424-amino-acid preprotein composed of an N-terminal leader peptide, followed by a dockerin module and a C-terminal catalytic module belonging to family 5 of the glycosyl hydrolases. Mature Man5K displays 62% identity with ManA from Clostridium cellulovorans. Two forms of the protein were purified from E. coli; one form corresponds to the full-length enzyme (45 kDa), and a truncated form (39 kDa) lacks the N-terminal dockerin module. Both forms exhibit the same typical family 5 mannanase substrate preference; they are very active with the galactomannan locust bean gum, and the more galacto-substituted guar gum molecules are degraded less. The truncated form, however, displays fourfold-higher activity with galactomannans than the full-length enzyme. Man5K was successfully overproduced in C. cellulolyticum by using expression vectors. The trans-produced protein was found to be incorporated into the cellulosomes and became one of the major enzymatic components. Modified cellulosomes displayed 20-fold-higher specific activities than control fractions on galactomannan substrates, whereas the specific activity on crystalline cellulose was reduced by 20%. This work clearly showed that the composition of the cellulosomes is obviously regulated by the relative amounts of the enzymes produced and that this composition can be engineered in clostridia by structural gene cloning.  (+info)

Structural insights into the mechanism of formation of cellulosomes probed by small angle X-ray scattering. (6/63)

Exploring the mechanism by which the multiprotein complexes of cellulolytic organisms, the cellulosomes, attain their exceptional synergy is a challenge for biologists. We have studied the solution structures of the Clostridium cellulolyticum cellulosomal enzyme Cel48F in the free and complexed states with cohesins from Clostridium thermocellum and Clostridium cellulolyticum by small angle x-ray scattering in order to investigate the conformational events likely to occur upon complexation. The solution structure of the free cellulase indicates that the dockerin module is folded, whereas the linker connecting the catalytic module to the dockerin is extended and flexible. Remarkably, the docking of the different cohesins onto Cel48F leads to a pleating of the linker. The global structure determined here allowed modeling of the atomic structure of the C. cellulolyticum dockerin-cohesin interface, highlighting the local differences between both organisms responsible for the species specificity.  (+info)

Interactions between immunoglobulin-like and catalytic modules in Clostridium thermocellum cellulosomal cellobiohydrolase CbhA. (7/63)

Cellobiohydrolase CbhA from Clostridium thermocellum cellulosome is a multi-modular protein composed starting from the N-terminus of a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) of family 4, an immunoglobulin(Ig)-like module, a catalytic module of family 9 glycoside hydrolases (GH9), X1(1) and X1(2) modules, a CBM of family 3 and a dockerin module. Deletion of the Ig-like module from the Ig-GH9 construct results in complete inactivation of the GH9 module. The crystal structure of the Ig-GH9 module pair reveals the existence of an extensive module interface composed of over 40 amino acid residues of both modules and maintained through a large number of hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions. To investigate the importance of these interactions between the two modules, we compared the secondary and tertiary structures and thermostabilities of the individual Ig-like and GH9 modules and the Ig-GH9 module pair using both circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Thr230, Asp262 and Asp264 of the Ig-like module are located in the module interface of the Ig-GH9 module pair and are suggested to be important in 'communication' between the modules. These residues were mutated to alanyl residues. The structure, stability and catalytic properties of the native Ig-GH9 and its D264A and T230A/D262A mutants were compared. The results indicate that despite being able to fold relatively independently, the Ig-like and GH9 modules interact and these interactions affect the final fold and stability of each module. Mutations of one or two amino acid residues lead to destabilization and change of the mechanism of thermal unfolding of the polypeptides. The enzymatic properties of native Ig-GH9, D264A and T230A/D262A mutants are similar. The results indicate that inactivation of the GH9 module occurs as a result of multiple structural disturbances finally affecting the topology of the catalytic center.  (+info)

Action of designer cellulosomes on homogeneous versus complex substrates: controlled incorporation of three distinct enzymes into a defined trifunctional scaffoldin. (8/63)

In recent work, we reported the self-assembly of a comprehensive set of defined "bifunctional" chimeric cellulosomes. Each complex contained the following: (i) a chimeric scaffoldin possessing a cellulose-binding module and two cohesins of divergent specificity and (ii) two cellulases, each bearing a dockerin complementary to one of the divergent cohesins. This approach allowed the controlled integration of desired enzymes into a multiprotein complex of predetermined stoichiometry and topology. The observed enhanced synergy on recalcitrant substrates by the bifunctional designer cellulosomes was ascribed to two major factors: substrate targeting and proximity of the two catalytic components. In the present work, the capacity of the previously described chimeric cellulosomes was amplified by developing a third divergent cohesin-dockerin device. The resultant trifunctional designer cellulosomes were assayed on homogeneous and complex substrates (microcrystalline cellulose and straw, respectively) and found to be considerably more active than the corresponding free enzyme or bifunctional systems. The results indicate that the synergy between two prominent cellulosomal enzymes (from the family-48 and -9 glycoside hydrolases) plays a crucial role during the degradation of cellulose by cellulosomes and that one dominant family-48 processive endoglucanase per complex is sufficient to achieve optimal levels of synergistic activity. Furthermore cooperation within a cellulosome chimera between cellulases and a hemicellulase from different microorganisms was achieved, leading to a trifunctional complex with enhanced activity on a complex substrate.  (+info)

A new genus of cellulolytic, gram-negative, nonsporeforming, anaerobic bacteria is described. The colonies produced by these bacteria on cellulose agar were round, clear, translucent, and cream-colored and had an undulate margin. Single cells of the bacterium were straight to slightly curved rods 0.5 to 0.8 μm wide by 4 to 10 μm long and were motile by means of a single flagellum located one-third of the distance from the end of the cell. Among the various substrates tested, only cellulose, cellobiose, and salicin were able to support growth. The major fermentation products of cellobiose or cellulose degradation were acetic acid, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. The deoxyribonucleic acid base composition of the type species was 38 mol% guanine plus cytosine. The name Acetivibrio is proposed for this new genus, which is placed in the family Bacteroidaceae. The type species, Acetivibrio cellulolyticus sp. nov., is named on the basis of its cellulolytic activity. The type strain of A. cellulolyticus is CD2
Treated wastewater effluent could be a viable alternative to potable freshwater for cellulosic ethanol production, according to a study by the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. The study, Use of Treated Effluent Water in Cellulosic Ethanol Production, was funded in part by the Illinois Sustainable Technology Center.. The use of non-food cellulosic feedstock for ethanol fuel production has a number of advantages, including lowering greenhouse gas emissions and reducing cost pressure on food and feed markets, the study says. Drought-resistant cellulosic feedstock also can be grown on land unsuitable for row crops.. However, cellulosic ethanol plants consume large amounts of water. Dry grind ethanol plants currently use around three to four gallons of water per gallon of ethanol produced, whereas cellulosic ethanol plants are estimated to consume around six to 10 gallons of water per gallon of ethanol produced, the study says.. The study evaluated the effects of two different types of ...
The Technology Behind Cellulosic Ethanol:Qteros primary focus when it comes to cellulosic ethanol production is on the Q Microbe, a super-bug microorganism that consumes plant and tree waste and converts these waste products into clean transportation fuel relatively simply. Traditional approaches to cellulosic biomass require intensive pretreatments using enzymes that break down the biomass into simple sugars. These enzymes and pretreatment are the largest cost contributor to cellulosic ethanol production. The Q Microbe, however, breaks down a wide variety of plant materials including corn residues, cane bagasse, woody biomass and cellulose waste, and produces ethanol from its own enzymes. This process reduces overall process time, saves money in pretreatment and eliminates the need to produce ethanol from essential food resources.. ...
A new genus of cellulolytic, gram-negative, nonsporeforming, anaerobic bacteria is described. The colonies produced by these bacteria on cellulose agar were round, clear, translucent, and cream-colored and had an undulate margin. Single cells of the bacterium were straight to slightly curved rods 0.5 to 0.8 μm wide by 4 to 10 μm long and were motile by means of a single flagellum located one-third of the distance from the end of the cell. Among the various substrates tested, only cellulose, cellobiose, and salicin were able to support growth. The major fermentation products of cellobiose or cellulose degradation were acetic acid, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. The deoxyribonucleic acid base composition of the type species was 38 mol% guanine plus cytosine. The name Acetivibrio is proposed for this new genus, which is placed in the family Bacteroidaceae. The type species, Acetivibrio cellulolyticus sp. nov., is named on the basis of its cellulolytic activity. The type strain of A. cellulolyticus is CD2
Republican presidential candidate and former U.S. Senator Rick Santorum visited the site of the first commercial cellulosic ethanol production in the state of Iowa at Quad County Corn Processors (QCCP) Friday.. One of the things thats helped rural small towns and farmers, particularly in Iowa, is the Renewable Fuel Standard, said Santorum, who met with met with plant representatives, including QCCP CEO Delayne Johnson, who share how they recently passed the two-million gallon milestone for cellulosic ethanol production using Syngentas Cellerate™ process technology. We are excited to have achieved our goal of producing 2 million gallons per year of cellulosic ethanol, and are on target to continue, or increase, this production level going forward, Johnson said. Were now focusing on growing alliances and relationships within the industry.. During 2014, QCCP achieved EPA certification to generate D3 Renewable Identification Numbers (RINs) for cellulosic ethanol. According to Johnson, the ...
Cellulosomes known as the proficient nanomachine in nature are cell bound multi-enzyme complexes that break down cellulose and hemicelluloses. They are very important in the process of carbon turnover. The cellulosome complexes require highly ordered proteins (the interactions between cohesions and dockerins) to assembly cellulases and hemicellulases into a scaffold structure. The protein interactions between cohesion and dockerin play an important role in cellulosome assembly and the attachment of cellulosome to the surface of cells while remaining flexible to provide a stable catalytic synergy.. One function of cellulosomes is breaking down plants structural polysaccharides. It is hypothesize that the constraints of the cellulosomes system created by bacteria and fungi caused the deconstruction of plant cell wall to become more and more efficient. The splicing of the plant-cell wall involves the addition of enzymes on to a macromolecule complex will increase the effectiveness of the ...
We report the single-contig genome sequence of the anaerobic, mesophilic, cellulolytic bacterium, Bacteroides cellulosolvens. The bacterium produces a particularly elaborate cellulosome system, whereas the types of cohesin-dockerin interactions are opposite of other known cellulosome systems: cell-surface attachment is thus mediated via type-I interactions whereas enzymes are integrated via type-II interactions. ...
The 2018 Gordon Research Seminar on Cellulosomes, Cellulases and Other Carbohydrate Modifying Enzymes (GRS) will be held in Andover, NH. Apply today to reserve your spot.
Downloadable! The U.S. biofuel industry is striving to produce ethanol from cellulosic feedstock sources in an effort to augment its existing corn grain-based ethanol production infrastructure. Technology to commercially produce cellulosic ethanol is rapidly advancing due in large part to the availability of substancial federal research and development funding. At the moment, several firms have pilot scale cellulosic ethanol production facilities under construction and testing. The transition from pilot scale to full commercialization of cellulosic ethanol will be difficult, due in large part financial constraints being imposed both internally and externally on the biofuels industry. This paper provides an overview of the biofuel industrys current financial setting and describes future challenges it faces in attempting to expand. These challenges are rooted in lack of industry capital, limited availability of performance benchmarks, concerns regarding future prospects of the industry, and general
Over the first year of operations of its pilot-scale cellulosic ethanol plant in South Dakota (earlier post), POET has reduced its per gallon production cost from $4.13 to $2.35, exceeding its expectations. Cost reduction came via reductions in energy usage, enzyme costs, raw material requirements and capital expenses. The pilot...
Pacific Ethanol Inc (NASDAQ:PEIX), a leading producer and marketer of low-carbon renewable fuels in the United States, announced the U.S. Environmental
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Waiting for the cellulosic ethanol industry to move into commercial production is like watching grass grow. This morning cellulosic ethanol developer Coskata
A recent ORNL story tip features our simulations on the characterization of the temperature dependence of the structure and dynamics of lignin polymers. The detailed characterization obtained provides insight, at the atomic level, both into processes relevant to biomass pretreatment for cellulosic ethanol production and general polymer coil-globule transition phenomena.. Read on: ORNL. ...
President George W. Bush is escorted on a tour of the fermentation room by David Pace at Novozymes North America, Inc., Thursday, Feb. 22, 2007 in Franklinton, N.C., where cellulosic ethanol is being produced from bio mass materials. White House photo by Paul Morse ...
Roughly a year after it first announced plans to sell its cellulosic ethanol plant, DuPont Industrial Biosciences has reached an agreement to sell the facility to the U.S. subsidiary of German bioenergy producer Verbio Vereinigte BioEnergie AG.
Shengquan is investing $100 million to produce cellulosic ethanol. Novozymes will supply the enabling enzyme technology. The two companies will sign the final agreement Friday during Hu Jintaos visit to Denmark.
At the 4th Annual World Congress on Industrial Biotechnology and Bioprocessing in Orlando, Fla., Novozymes today introduced a five-step strategy to achieve economically viable cellulosic ethanol.
The cellulosome is a macromolecular machine, whose components interact in a synergistic manner to catalyze the efficient degradation of cellulose. The cellulosome complex is composed of numerous kinds of cellulases and related enzyme subunits, which are assembled into the complex by virtue of a uniq …
Found an interesting article on the subject. Lots of detail, havent made it all the way through yet. Turning grass into gas - Salon.com
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Daily objective reports on advanced clean transportation technologies, cars, green transportation, energy, issues and policies related to sustainable mobility.
Three new U.S. DOE-funded research centers will house multidisciplinary teams of scientists from across the country with the aim of coordinating the basic research needed to accelerate the promise of cellulosic ethanol as a renewable, sustainable, secure and cost-competitive biofuel.
WASHINGTON, D.C., Sept. 13, 2017 -- Converting fibrous plant waste, like corn stalks and wood shavings, into fermentable simple sugars for the production of biofuel is no simple process. Bacteria must break down tough leaves, stems and other cellulosic matter resistant to degradation to turn them into usable energy.. Helping bacteria become more efficient in this process could result in more affordable biofuels for our gas tanks and sustainable products such as bioplastics. One way to achieve this goal is to re-engineer the bacterial enzyme complexes, called cellulosomes, which serve as catalysts in the degradation process. In an effort to produce these so-called designer cellulosomes, the international research consortium CellulosomePlus is developing methods to enhance the efficiency of this complex engineering process to make it economically feasible and effective. Consortium researchers from Spain, Poland and Ireland reported their findings for one method recently in The Journal of Chemical ...
On July 31, 2013, INEOS Bio, a bioenergy company, announced that its Florida facility became the world pioneer in producing commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol. Ethanol, or ethyl alcohol, is a renewable fuel resulting from fermenting plant-based materials. INEOS Bio produces cellulosic ethanol using vegetative and yard waste. Despite the flurry that accompanied last Julys event, Brazil is still regarded as the country that implemented the most successful ethanol industry in the world -the sugarcane ethanol industry. In the United States, the ethanol industry touches on two critical areas. First, ethanol can be used as motor fuel, and it is no secret that the United States relies on motor fuel. Second, the nations reliance on motor fuel, especially gasoline, raises significant environmental concerns, notably, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Thus, given the recent advancements in ethanol production, and the critical areas that ethanol touches on, an issue emerges as to whether Brazils ethanol ...
Building a Sustainable Regional Eco System for Green Technologies: Case of Cellulosic Ethanol in Oregon: 10.4018/978-1-4666-3886-0.ch049: This chapter begins with a brief overview of the environmental and policy drivers for cellulosic ethanol, and a description of the basic technology behind it.
This report provides information on (1) the availability of biomass, (2) potential for cellulosic ethanol production in California, and (3) federal and state policies that support the use of biomass, particularly for ethanol production. There is a large amount of biomass in California. Nearly 90 million tons of biomass (agricultural residues, forest materials, and municipal waste) are produced annually in California, and 30 to 40 million tons are estimated to be technically feasible to collect and use in producing renewable electricity, fuels, and biomass-based products. According to energy experts, there is enough biomass to support the production of as much as 1.5 billion gallons of ethanol per year. However, the cellulosic ethanol industry faces challenges related to biomass collection, costs, price variability, competition from Midwest corn based ethanol industry, mitigating environmental effects, and the need of more efficient technologies for the processing of biomass to ethanol ...
Pacific Ethanol to add Edeniq Cellunator and Pathway technologies at its Madera ethanol plant, bringing cellulosic ethanol production to a second facility.
Edeniq Inc. recently announced that the U.S. EPA has approved Flint Hills Resources registration of its 100 million gallons per year Iowa Falls, Iowa, ethanol plant for cellulosic ethanol production.
The cellulosic ethanol industry is at a critical development stage: there are technology developers who are taking stock of the lessons learnt during the development of their first plants, and several more are constructing or planning their first plant.. This report develops two deployment scenarios for the EU based on detailed bottom up assumptions on the number of technology developers, plant development timelines, plant capacity, utilisation rates, the rate at which new projects can be initiated, and takes into consideration the availability of project finance. It also considers at what cost cellulosic ethanol could be produced.. The two scenarios (which assume a favourable policy environment) see total EU production capacity for cellulosic ethanol increase from 31 million litres in 2017 to 2.75 billion litres in 2030 in the central scenario, and 3.8 billion litres in the more ambitious scenario. Depending on EU energy demand in 2030, this could equate to a 4-5.6% blend of cellulosic ethanol ...
Cellulosic ethanol is fast becoming the preferred type of ethanol production. Vecoplan provides systems for the biorefining industry.
This off-take agreement is a significant step forward for BlueFire. It provides immediate revenue once our plant is on-line. Also, it will move BlueFire closer to a debt financing agreement with the Department of Energy and U.S. Department of Agriculture, stated Arnold Klann, CEO of BlueFire Renewables, Inc. This is one of the first cellulosic ethanol contracts of its kind in the United States establishing BlueFire as a clear leader in the industry ...
Acidothermus cellulolyticus ATCC ® 43068D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Acidothermus cellulolyticus strain 11B TypeStrain=True Application:
As a member of the Senate Agriculture Committee, Senator Thune also authored the Biofuels Innovation Program, which is included in the Senate-passed Farm Bill and the House-passed Farm bill. This new program would jumpstart the cellulosic ethanol industry by providing incentives for the production of energy-dedicated crops. Although energy dedicated crops such as switchgrass hold tremendous potential, these crops take one to two years to establish. Senator Thunes program would pay producers for growing these crops while a local biorefinery is being constructed. After the biorefinery is operational, this program would provide a temporary producer payment for the transportation, harvest, and storage of the energy-dedicated crop ...
Cellulosic ethanol, a fuel produced from the stalks and stems of plants (rather than only from sugars and starches, as with corn ethanol), is starting to take root in the United States. This month, Celunol, based in Cambridge, MA, broke ground on an ethanol plant in Louisiana that will be able to produce 1.4 million…
​Imagine powering a plane or car with fuels made from grasses, wood, or other plant residues. This type of fuel, called cellulosic ethanol, has the potential to be a major source of renewable fuel for Americas transportation fleets.
Clariant, a world leader in specialty chemicals, announced the approval by the Board of Directors to invest in a new full-scale commercial plant for the production of cellulosic ethanol from agricultural residues using its sunliquid® technology. The new plant, with an annual production capacity ...
KBR says it has been awarded a contract by DuPont for engineering and procurement services for DuPonts previously announced cellulosic ethanol plant at Nevada, IA. KBR will provide front-end...
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While the corn ethanol bubble has pretty much popped, serious efforts to find an economically sound and carbon-smart biological-based fuel continue. ...
The idea of producing plentiful amounts of ethanol from materials such as switchgrass and wood scraps has successfully emerged from the laboratory, but challenges lie ahead.
Today the EPA announced its proposed 2012 Renewable Fuel Standard requirements: The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) established the annual
Global (North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa) Foundry Binder Market 2017 Forecast to 2022. This report studies the Foundry Binders market, from angles of players, regions, product types and end industries, to analyze the status and the future. This report covered the Organic Binder and Inorganic Binder. Scope of the Report: This report focuses on the Foundry Binder in Global market, especially in North America, Europe and .... January 2018 , $4880 ,View Details>> ...
The enigmatically named Q Microbe, under development by SunEthanol Inc., has attracted the attention of major ethanol producer VeraSun Energy, putting it at the forefront of technology for co-called cellulosic ethanol, which is expected to replace corn as the main source of alternative fuel in the United States.
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We can design a specific resin or oligomer for you. Or, if you desire a formulated product, we can prepare a unique material for you. Contact us today to get started. ...
This years Ventura Lambrate themes are Social Design and Cultural Heritage-two very open-ended themes that invite designers to show work that address global change and/or represents their country of origin. Were happy to see most designers bringing thought-provoking work along these lines to the table. Within the two themes, were ...
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Cellulosomes are multi-enzyme extracellular complexes. Cellulosomes are associated with the cell surface and mediate cell ... Cellulosomes exist as extracellular complexes that are either attached to the cell wall of bacteria or free in solution, where ... From cellulosomes to cellulosomics. Chem Rec. 2008;8(6):364-77. doi:10.1002/tcr.20160 , PubMed ID:19107866 Doi RH and Kosugi A ... At the time, they weren't looking for enzymes or cellulosomes at all. They simply sought a 'cellulose-binding factor' or 'CBF' ...
Bayer EA, Shimon LJ, Shoham Y, Lamed R (1998). "Cellulosomes-structure and ultrastructure". J Struct Biol. 124 (2-3): 221-234. ...
Many contain cellulosomes, multienzyme structures that degrade cellulose on bacterial cell surfaces. C. hutchinsonii does not ... code for cellulosomes. Degradation most likely occurs in the bacterial periplasm. Cytophaga hutchinsonii encodes 9 speculated ...
"A parts list for fungal cellulosomes revealed by comparative genomics." 30 May 2017. Nature Microbiology volume 2, Article ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Fontes, Carlos M.G.A.; Gilbert, Harry J. (2010). "Cellulosomes: Highly Efficient ...
Kang S, Barak Y, Lamed R, Bayer EA, Morrison M (June 2006). "The functional repertoire of prokaryote cellulosomes includes the ...
Action of designer cellulosomes on homogeneous versus complex substrates: Controlled incorporation of three distinct enzymes ... In 1994, Edward A. Bayer proposed an original concept for the construction of designer cellulosomes, based on the specific ... 156, 818-27 (1983). Artzi, L., Bayer, E. A. & Moraïs, S. Cellulosomes: bacterial nanomachines for dismantling plant ... scaffoldins and dockerin-containing enzyme hybrids and serve as nanomolecular tool for the characterization of cellulosomes. ...
Bayer EA, Chanzy H, Lamed R, Shoham Y (October 1998). "Cellulose, cellulases and cellulosomes". Current Opinion in Structural ... The number of sub-units making up cellulosomes can also determine the rate of enzyme activity.[12] ... Tsai SL, DaSilva NA, Chen W (January 2013). "Functional display of complex cellulosomes on the yeast surface via adaptive ... In many bacteria, cellulases in-vivo are complex enzyme structures organized in supramolecular complexes, the cellulosomes. ...
... cellulosomes MeSH A11.284.180.165 - cilia MeSH A11.284.180.225 - dendrites MeSH A11.284.180.225.169 - dendritic spines MeSH ...
Noncatalytic Docking Domains of Cellulosomes of Anaerobic Fungi. Peter J. M. Steenbakkers, Xin-Liang Li, Eduardo A. Ximenes, ... Noncatalytic Docking Domains of Cellulosomes of Anaerobic Fungi. Peter J. M. Steenbakkers, Xin-Liang Li, Eduardo A. Ximenes, ... cellulase complexes similar to cellulosomes of anaerobic bacteria. It has been suggested that the fungal cellulosomes have ... Noncatalytic Docking Domains of Cellulosomes of Anaerobic Fungi. Peter J. M. Steenbakkers, Xin-Liang Li, Eduardo A. Ximenes, ...
... J Struct Biol. 1998 Dec 15;124(2-3):221-34. doi: 10.1006/jsbi.1998.4065. ... Some cellulosomes appear to be tethered to the cell envelope via similarly intricate, multiple-domain anchoring proteins. The ...
... Curr Opin Struct Biol. 1998 Oct;8(5):548-57. doi: 10.1016/s0959-440x(98)80143-7. ...
Boosting Lignocellulose Biomass Deconstruction with Designer Cellulosomes for Industrial Applications. From 2013-11-01 to 2017- ... The improved cellulosomes generated through this innovative multidisciplinary approach represent a step towards green chemistry ... Finally, the production of the optimized cellulosomes (and the process involved) will be scaled up to preindustrial scale to ... Experimental and theoretical knowledge will be then integrated to design improved cellulosomes (with high-selectivity, activity ...
Investigation of stress tolerance of endoglucanases of the cellulosomes of Clostridium cellulolyticum to ethanol * U Anieto ... Furthermore the endoglucanase activity for the cellulosomes incubated in 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% ethanol in a standalone ...
Cellulosomes are multi-enzyme extracellular complexes. Cellulosomes are associated with the cell surface and mediate cell ... Cellulosomes exist as extracellular complexes that are either attached to the cell wall of bacteria or free in solution, where ... From cellulosomes to cellulosomics. Chem Rec. 2008;8(6):364-77. doi:10.1002/tcr.20160 , PubMed ID:19107866 Doi RH and Kosugi A ... At the time, they werent looking for enzymes or cellulosomes at all. They simply sought a cellulose-binding factor or CBF ...
Bayer EA, Shimon LJ, Shoham Y, Lamed R (1998). "Cellulosomes-structure and ultrastructure". J Struct Biol. 124 (2-3): 221-234. ...
Bacterial cellulosomes are the most prominent type of cellulosomes. They are categorized into two groups: those that are ... Fungal cellulosomes are found in the gastrointestinal tract of herbivores. They are not as developed as bacterial cellulosomes. ... How Cellulosomes Bind to the Plant Cell Wall[edit]. The degrading process of the plant cell wall requires the participation of ... Cellulosomes known as the proficient nanomachine in nature are cell bound multi-enzyme complexes that break down cellulose and ...
The Cellulosomes: Multienzyme Machines for Degradation of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides journal, October 2004 * Bayer, Edward ... Cellulosomes: plant-cell-wall-degrading enzyme complexes journal, July 2004 * Doi, Roy H.; Kosugi, Akihiko ... Functional Display of Complex Cellulosomes on the Yeast Surface via Adaptive Assembly journal, July 2012 * Tsai, Shen-Long; ... Self-surface assembly of cellulosomes with two miniscaffoldins on Saccharomyces cerevisiae for cellulosic ethanol production ...
Alternative-designer cellulosomes. The concept of designer cellulosomes was first suggested by Bayer et al. (1994) and the ... Applications of cellulosomes. The future of cellulosomics is very immense and bright. Cellulosomes can be applied to various ... Cellulosomes: futuristic approach for cellulose degradation. Extremely efficient nanomachines, known as cellulosomes, are ... Cellulosomes are known to have better enzymatic activity as compared to free enzymes because of the close proximity of various ...
Bayer EA, Chanzy H, Lamed R, Shoham Y (October 1998). "Cellulose, cellulases and cellulosomes". Current Opinion in Structural ... The number of sub-units making up cellulosomes can also determine the rate of enzyme activity.[12] ... Tsai SL, DaSilva NA, Chen W (January 2013). "Functional display of complex cellulosomes on the yeast surface via adaptive ... In many bacteria, cellulases in-vivo are complex enzyme structures organized in supramolecular complexes, the cellulosomes. ...
... we propose that dockerins utilize multivalent modes of cohesin recognition to recruit cellulosomes to the cell surface, a ... The cellulosomes of C. thermocellum and Acetivibrio cellulolyticus are highly elaborate macromolecular complexes (Fig. 1). In C ... Organization of C. thermocellum and A. cellulolyticus cellulosomes.. C. thermocellum scaffoldin CipA, herein renamed ScaA ... The two distinct Coh-binding sites of type-II Docs that assemble cellulosomes on the bacterial surface of C. thermocellum may ...
2004) The cellulosomes: Multienzyme machines for degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides. Annu Rev Microbiol 58:521-554. ... 2004) Cellulosomes: Plant-cell-wall-degrading enzyme complexes. Nat Rev Microbiol 2:541-551. ... 2010) Cellulosomes: Highly efficient nanomachines designed to deconstruct plant cell wall complex carbohydrates. Annu Rev ... 2007) The potential of cellulases and cellulosomes for cellulosic waste management. Curr Opin Biotech 18:237-245. ...
2008) From cellulosomes to cellulosomics. Chem Rec 8(6):364-377.. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMed ...
Synthetic Cellulosomes. 7. Guest speaker: Industrial Biomass Processing and Hydrolysis. Written assignment due. ...
Colocalization and Disposition of Cellulosomes in Clostridium clariflavum as Revealed by Correlative Superresolution Imaging. ... implications for cellulose degradation by designer cellulosomes. ... Cellulosomes and designer cellulosomes: why toy with Nature?. ...
Fontes CM, Gilbert HJ (2010) Cellulosomes: highly efficient nanomachines designed to deconstruct plant cell wall complex ...
Bayer, E.A.; Chanzy, H.; Lamed, R.; Shoham, Y. Cellulose, cellulases and cellulosomes. Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 1998, 8, 548- ...
... "designer cellulosomes". ...
Unlike existing cellulosomes, there is no limit to the number or type of enzymes and CBMs that can be incorporated into the ... ii) Existing cellulosomes typically array a limited number of enzymes on a relatively small scaffold. By contrast, there is no ... i) Existing cellulosomes are discrete hard particles and this limits the extent and duration of their interaction with ... The proposed cellulosomes are viscous or soft materials in which cellulases and binding domains are integrated in flexible ...
A parts list for fungal cellulosomes revealed by comparative genomics. Nat Microbiol. 2017;2:17087. ... and in both fungi and bacteria cellulosomes are also attached to the cell wall [44]. Hauert et al. argue that when a producer ...
Cytophaga hutchinsonii can rapidly digest crystalline cellulose without free cellulases or cellulosomes. Its cell-contact ... Cytophaga hutchinsonii can rapidly digest crystalline cellulose without free cellulases or cellulosomes. Its cell-contact ... Bayer, E. A., Shimon, L. J., Shoham, Y., and Lamed, R. (1998). Cellulosomes-structure and ultrastructure. J. Struct. Biol. 124 ... Cytophaga hutchinsonii can rapidly digest crystalline cellulose without free cellulases or cellulosomes. Its cell-contact ...
Bayer, E. A., Chanzy, H., Lamed, R., and Shoham, Y. (1998). Cellulose, cellulases and cellulosomes. Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 8 ...
Analysis of purified cellulosomes by nano-LC-ESI-MS.The resulting purified cellulosomes were separated by 6% sodium dodecyl ... Purified cellulosomes were denatured, and the components were separated by SDS-PAGE. Proteins in the gel bands (Fig. 1) were ... In comparing the cellulosomes from cells grown on these two substrates, we expected to detect several novel gene products and ... The cellulosomes: multienzyme machines for degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 58:521-554. ...
Cell-surface display of designer cellulosomes by Lactobacillus plantarum. Yonit Ben-David, Sarah Morais, Johanna Stern, Itzhak ...
Bayer, E. A., Shimon, L. J. W., Shoham, Y. and Lamed, R. "Cellulosomes - Structure and ultrastructure". Journal of Structural ... cellulosomes which can degrade plant cell walls, notably cellulose. As most abundantly available potential source of ... This organism produces extracellular enzyme complex known as cellulosomes which can degrade plant cell walls, notably cellulose ...
The cellulosomes: multienzyme machines for degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides.. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 58 521-54 ... The cellulosomes: multienzyme machines for degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides.. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 58 521-54 ...
Enzymology of cellulosomes for conversion of biomass to biofuels Designer cellulosomes - Selective engineering of chimaeric ...
... "designer cellulosomes". These designer cellulosomes typically consists of the cell wall anchoring subunit (or sometimes ... Fan, L.H.; Zhang, Z.J.; Yu, X.Y.; Xue, Y.X.; Tan, T.W. Self-surface assembly of cellulosomes with two miniscaffoldins on ... Doi, R.H.; Kosugi, A. Cellulosomes: Plant-cell-wall-degrading enzyme complexes. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2004, 2, 541-551. [Google ... The successful assembly of multi-functional cellulosomes on the yeast surface were described by Ito, et al. [70] and Lilly, et ...
Morrison M, Miron J (2000) Adhesion to cellulose by Ruminococcus albus: a combination of cellulosomes and Pil-proteins? FEMS ... Fontes CM, Gilbert HJ (2010) Cellulosomes: highly efficient nanomachines designed to deconstruct plant cell wall complex ...
  • Some of these enzymes act individually and are free in solution, whereas others are constituents of large (hemi)cellulase multienzyme complexes remarkably similar to the cellulosomes of several species of clostridia and other anaerobic bacteria ( 11 , 14 , 23 , 33 , 37 ). (asm.org)
  • Molecular biological evidence is accumulating that enzymes associated with the fungal cellulosomes from the genera Neocallimastix , Orpinomyces , and Piromyces , like those of anaerobic bacteria, are modular. (asm.org)
  • First we propose to characterize the physicochemical and structural properties (including mechanostability) as well as interactions of enzymes and scaffolds from natural cellulosomes and non-cellulosomal components. (europa.eu)
  • At the time, they weren't looking for enzymes or cellulosomes at all. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellulosomes can attack crystalline cellulose, but the free cellulosomal enzymes can attack only soluble and amorphous celluloses. (nih.gov)
  • NREL researchers found that the free enzymes are more active on pretreated biomass, while the cellulosomes are more active on purified cellulose. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • One example is Mark Hargrove, an associate professor of biochemistry, biophysics and molecular biology who is studying natural enzymes called cellulosomes, enzymes found in termites and the first stomachs of cows that excel at breaking down cellulose from plants. (bio-medicine.org)
  • By designing synthetic cellulosomes, researchers at The Weizmann Institute enhance synergy between carbohydrate - active enzymes to achieve remarkable degradation rates. (ittn.org.il)
  • Bio-engineered cellulosomes exhibit synergistic degradation activity of natural substrates compared to the combined action of the free wild-type enzymes. (ittn.org.il)
  • The dockerin-bearing enzymes are incorporated into designer cellulosomes by interacting with a matching cohesion-containing chimeric scaffoldin (scaffoldin subunits contain the cohesin modules that incorporate the enzymes into the cellulosome complex via their resident dockerins). (ittn.org.il)
  • Much research has been conducted on single "free" enzymes with one catalytic unit per protein and on the much larger, complexed "cellulosomes" with many tens of catalytic units per protein, but little work has been done on multi-domain enzymes that are an interpolation in size between free enzymes and cellulosomes. (calpoly.edu)
  • The scaffoldin of some cellulosomes, an example being that of Clostridium thermocellum, contains a carbohydrate-binding module that adheres cellulose to the cellulosomal complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • A metabolic isotope-labeling strategy was used in conjunction with nano-liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry peptide sequencing to assess quantitative alterations in the expression patterns of subunits within cellulosomes of the cellulolytic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum , grown on either cellulose or cellobiose. (asm.org)
  • Clostridium thermocellum, a well-studied cellulolytic bacterium, produces highly active cellulases in the form of cellulosomes. (usda.gov)
  • This review summarizes some of the general properties of cellulosomes, and more specifically, the properties of the Clostridium cellulovorans cellulosome. (nih.gov)
  • Cytophaga hutchinsonii can rapidly digest crystalline cellulose without free cellulases or cellulosomes. (frontiersin.org)
  • In nature, the biological breakdown of cellulose occurs either through cellulases or through cellulosomes. (analytica-world.com)
  • Compared to cellulases, which detach material when sliding along crystalline cellulose surfaces, cellulosomes remain locally bound for minutes and remove the underlying material. (analytica-world.com)
  • We demonstrate that the small, noncomplexed fungal cellulases deconstruct cell walls using mechanisms that differ considerably from those of the larger, multienzyme complexes (cellulosomes). (sciencemag.org)
  • As per the study, "Using a designer cellulosome approach, we have constructed the largest form of homogeneous artificial cellulosomes reported to date, which bear a total of six different cellulases and xylanases from the highly cellulolytic bacterium Thermobifida fusca . (analyteguru.com)
  • Cellulosomes from anaerobic fungi are similar in size and contain about as many polypeptides as the C. thermocellum cellulosome. (asm.org)
  • Designer cellulosomes - Selective engineering of chimaeric cellulosome constructs for nanotechnology. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • The initial hydrolysis rates of crude cell broth measured by QCM on uniform amorphous cellulose thin films were greater than that of cell-free cellulosome, but adsorbed "mass" of crude cell broth on the film was significantly greater than cell-free cellulosomes, potentially due to the differences in the corresponding masses of cell-bound and cell-free cellulosomes adhered to the substrate. (usda.gov)
  • Fungal cellulosomes are found in the gastrointestinal tract of herbivores. (wikibooks.org)
  • In contrast to bacterial cellulosomes, fungal cellulosomes remain almost completely uncharacterized - to date the composition, architecture, and enzyme tethering mechanism remain uknown. (omalleylab.com)
  • Conversely, some bacteria synthesize large multi-enzyme complexes, called cellulosomes, which contain multiple catalytic units per complex. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • The work presented in this thesis consists of two lines of research, both inspired by the intricate multi-enzyme complexes called cellulosomes. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • One way to achieve this goal is to re-engineer the bacterial enzyme complexes, called cellulosomes, which serve as catalysts in the degradation process. (eurekalert.org)
  • The cohesin-dockerin receptor-ligand family is the key element in the formation of multi-enzyme lignocellulose-digesting extracellular complexes called cellulosomes. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Bayer EA, Belaich JP, Shoham Y, and Lamed R. The cellulosomes: multienzyme machines for degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cellulosomes: multienzyme machines for degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • C. hutchinsonii uses a novel strategy to degrade crystalline cellulose without free cellulase and cellulosomes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cellulosomes are highly effective tools for cellulose degradation due to a range of evolutionary adaptations, including targeted substrate adhesion, intelligent substrate-adjusted enzyme composition, efficient assembly mechanisms, and enhanced mechanical properties. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Moreover, the perspective of a cellulolytic PUL lays the foundation for PULs to be considered an alternative mechanism for cellulose degradation, next to cellulosomes and free-enzyme systems. (asm.org)
  • Cellulosomes are multi-enzyme extracellular complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellulosomes exist as extracellular complexes that are either attached to the cell wall of bacteria or free in solution, where the insoluble substrate can be broken down into soluble products and taken up by the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The synergies between the degradation mechanisms of cellulase and cellulosomes could thus help in the design of hybrid cellulase systems and provide new perspectives for applications in biorefineries. (analytica-world.com)
  • Cellulosomes known as the proficient nanomachine in nature are cell bound multi-enzyme complexes that break down cellulose and hemicelluloses. (wikibooks.org)
  • Designer cellulosomes are synthetic multi-enzyme complexes that can degrade cellulosic biomass efficiently and economically. (ittn.org.il)
  • Bacteria assemble cellulosomes using Cohesin-Dockerin interactions. (wikibooks.org)
  • Cohesin-dockerin complexes with distinct specificities are also thought to mediate the attachment of cellulosomes to the cell membrane. (pasteur.fr)
  • Bacterial cellulosomes are the most prominent type of cellulosomes. (wikibooks.org)
  • They are not as developed as bacterial cellulosomes. (wikibooks.org)
  • In contrast to the current static model, we propose that dockerins utilize multivalent modes of cohesin recognition to recruit cellulosomes to the cell surface, a mechanism that maximises substrate access while facilitating complex assembly. (nature.com)
  • The multiple subunits of cellulosomes are composed of numerous functional domains that interact with each other and with the cellulosic substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • CellulosomePlus targets rational design of optimized cellulosomes to overcome this problem.This would allow efficient production of biofuels from low-value raw materials like inedible parts of plants and industrial residues (which are all renewable, sustainable and inexpensive). (europa.eu)
  • In an effort to produce these so-called designer cellulosomes, the international research consortium CellulosomePlus is developing methods to enhance the efficiency of this complex engineering process to make it economically feasible and effective. (eurekalert.org)
  • It is hypothesize that the constraints of the cellulosomes system created by bacteria and fungi caused the deconstruction of plant cell wall to become more and more efficient. (wikibooks.org)
  • Cellulosomes are expressed on the cell surface of anaerobic microorganisms (both bacteria and fungi) that thrive in cellulose-rich environments. (omalleylab.com)
  • Although most bacteria integrate themselves into cellulosomes, Anaerocellum thermophilum, an efficient cellulose-degrading bacterium does not. (wikibooks.org)
  • Although the synergy of having cell-attached cellulosomes is widely accepted, the relative importance of cell-bound and cell-free cellulosomes on observed cellulose hydrolysis rates is unclear. (usda.gov)
  • Similar trends in hydrolysis inhibition by cellobiose for crude cell broth and cell-free cellulosomes suggest that models developed for the cell-free cellulosomes, which allow for more accurate interfacial adsorption analysis by QCM than their cell-attached counterparts, may provide insight into hydrolysis events in both systems. (usda.gov)
  • The major bottleneck for plant biomass processing is fiber saccharification: the conversion of cell wall lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars (en route to production of value-added chemicals like second generation biofuels). (europa.eu)
  • Cellulosomes are extracellular machines produced by anaerobic bacteria to efficiently degrade plant cell wall polysaccharides. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Cellulosomes are associated with the cell surface and mediate cell attachment to insoluble substrates and degrade them to soluble products which are then absorbed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some cellulosomes appear to be tethered to the cell envelope via similarly intricate, multiple-domain anchoring proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Proteins that exhibited higher expression in cellulosomes from cellulose-grown cells than in cellobiose-grown cells were the cell surface anchor protein OlpB, exoglucanases CelS and CelK, and the glycoside hydrolase family 9 (GH9) endoglucanase CelJ. (asm.org)
  • a combination of cellulosomes and Pil-proteins? (osumicrobiology.org)
  • The cellulosomes are then amplified by the enzyme-substrate targeting of the scaffolding-borne CBM. (wikibooks.org)
  • Bernd Nidetzky and his team have set themselves the task of better understanding and visualising cellulosomes as essentially cellulose-degrading biological nanomachines. (analytica-world.com)
  • Furthermore the endoglucanase activity for the cellulosomes incubated in 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% ethanol in a standalone experiment was significantly different from the control without ethanol. (ajol.info)
  • Particularly, highly specific protein-protein complexes responsible for the assembly of cellulosomes are investigated. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • The genetics and biochemical characteristics of cellulosomes are quite diverse, but very little is known about the events underpinning the synthesis and assembly of these interesting complexes. (osumicrobiology.org)
  • These protein interactions are essential for the cellulosomes to successfully destruct the cell wall. (wikibooks.org)
  • By contrast, the cellulosomes physically separate individual cellulose microfibrils from larger particles to enhance access to the cellulose surfaces. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • One function of cellulosomes is breaking down plant's structural polysaccharides. (wikibooks.org)
  • This organism produces extracellular enzyme complex known as cellulosomes which can degrade plant cell walls, notably cellulose. (kenyon.edu)
  • Our analyses prove that cellulosomes are extremely efficient in breaking down cellulose. (analytica-world.com)
  • Cellulosomes are the most efficient plant cell wall degradation machines discovered to date. (queensu.ca)
  • A grant from ConocoPhillips is helping him develop a method to make synthetic cellulosomes that are efficient and easier to work with than natural cellulosomes. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Cellulose and hemicellulose are the most abundant polymers on earth and thus cellulosomes play a key role in carbon turnover. (nature.com)
  • Some microbes enhance this step by using natural self-assembling proteinaceous nanocatalists known as cellulosomes. (europa.eu)
  • Experimental and theoretical knowledge will be then integrated to design improved cellulosomes (with high-selectivity, activity and cost-effectiveness). (europa.eu)
  • The large size and heterogeneity of cellulosomes from the best-characterized organisms (i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, the production of the optimized cellulosomes (and the process involved) will be scaled up to preindustrial scale to demonstrate their viable commercial production. (europa.eu)
  • In addition, cellulosomes are central elements for the production of readily available sugars in the gastrointestinal tract of a variety of mammals 4 . (nature.com)