ChymotrypsinogenClostridium thermocellum: A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.Clostridium cellulolyticum: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is a cellulolytic, mesophilic species isolated from decayed GRASS.Cellulase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Cellulases: A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Clostridium cellulovorans: A species of gram-positive, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It produces CELLULOSOMES which are involved in plant CELL WALL degradation.Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases: Enzymes which catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in XYLANS.Piromyces: A genus of fungi in the family Neocallimasticaceae, order NEOCALLIMASTICALES, containing uniflagellate zoospores.Cellobiose: A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose.Xylans: Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.Xylosidases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha- or beta-xylosidic linkages. EC 3.2.1.8 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.32 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.37 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans; and EC 3.2.1.72 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans. Other xylosidases have been identified that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-xylosidic bonds.Metabolic Engineering: Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Chylothorax: The presence of chyle in the thoracic cavity. (Dorland, 27th ed)Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cellulosomes: Extracellular structures found in a variety of microorganisms. They contain CELLULASES and play an important role in the digestion of CELLULOSE.Spliceosomes: Organelles in which the splicing and excision reactions that remove introns from precursor messenger RNA molecules occur. One component of a spliceosome is five small nuclear RNA molecules (U1, U2, U4, U5, U6) that, working in conjunction with proteins, help to fold pieces of RNA into the right shapes and later splice them into the message.Ruminococcus: A genus of gram-positive bacteria in the family Lachnospiraceae that inhabits the RUMEN; LARGE INTESTINE; and CECUM of MAMMALS.BooksMetagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Twins, Monozygotic: Two off-spring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from a single fertilized OVUM that split into two EMBRYOS. Such twins are usually genetically identical and of the same sex.Diseases in Twins: Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Metagenomics: The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.Microbiota: The full collection of microbes (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.) that naturally exist within a particular biological niche such as an organism, soil, a body of water, etc.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Catfishes: Common name of the order Siluriformes. This order contains many families and over 2,000 species, including venomous species. Heteropneustes and Plotosus genera have dangerous stings and are aggressive. Most species are passive stingers.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Molecular Biology: A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cytophaga: A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.Glucosidases: Enzymes that hydrolyze O-glucosyl-compounds. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.2.1.-.Cellulose 1,4-beta-Cellobiosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE and cellotetraose. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing ends of beta-D-glucosides with release of CELLOBIOSE.beta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Microbial Consortia: A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.Agave: A genus known for fibers obtained from their leaves: sisal from A. sisalana, henequen from A. fourcroyoides and A. cantala, or Manila-Maguey fiber from A. cantala. Some species provide a sap that is fermented to an intoxicating drink, called pulque in Mexico. Some contain agavesides.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Analytic Sample Preparation Methods: Use of various chemical separation and extraction methods, such as SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION; CHROMATOGRAPHY; and SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION; to prepare samples for analytical measurement of components.

ScaC, an adaptor protein carrying a novel cohesin that expands the dockerin-binding repertoire of the Ruminococcus flavefaciens 17 cellulosome. (1/63)

A new gene, designated scaC and encoding a protein carrying a single cohesin, was identified in the cellulolytic rumen anaerobe Ruminococcus flavefaciens 17 as part of a gene cluster that also codes for the cellulosome structural components ScaA and ScaB. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the sequence of the ScaC cohesin is distinct from the sequences of other cohesins, including the sequences of R. flavefaciens ScaA and ScaB. The scaC gene product also includes at its C terminus a dockerin module that closely resembles those found in R. flavefaciens enzymes that bind to the cohesins of the primary ScaA scaffoldin. The putative cohesin domain and the C-terminal dockerin module were cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli as His(6)-tagged products (ScaC-Coh and ScaC-Doc, respectively). Affinity probing of protein extracts of R. flavefaciens 17 separated in one-dimensional and two-dimensional gels with recombinant cohesins from ScaC and ScaA revealed that two distinct subsets of native proteins interact with ScaC-Coh and ScaA-Coh. Furthermore, ScaC-Coh failed to interact with the recombinant dockerin module from the enzyme EndB that is recognized by ScaA cohesins. On the other hand, ScaC-Doc was shown to interact specifically with the recombinant cohesin domain from ScaA, and the ScaA-Coh probe was shown to interact with a native 29-kDa protein spot identified as ScaC by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. These results suggest that ScaC plays the role of an adaptor scaffoldin that is bound to ScaA via the ScaC dockerin module, which, via the distinctive ScaC cohesin, expands the range of proteins that can bind to the ScaA-based enzyme complex.  (+info)

Interaction between a type-II dockerin domain and a type-II cohesin domain from Clostridium thermocellum cellulosome. (2/63)

The interaction between the type-II dockerin domain of the scaffoldin protein CipA and the type-II cohesin domain of the outer layer protein SdbA is the fundamental mechanism for anchoring the cellulosome to the cell surface of Clostridium thermocellum. We constructed and purified a dockerin polypeptide and a cohesin polypeptide, and determined affinity constants of the interaction between them by the surface plasmon resonance method. The dissociation constant (K(D)) value was 1.8 x 10(-9) M, which is a little larger than that for the combination of a type-I dockerin and a type-I cohesin.  (+info)

A novel Acetivibrio cellulolyticus anchoring scaffoldin that bears divergent cohesins. (3/63)

Sequencing of a cellulosome-integrating gene cluster in Acetivibrio cellulolyticus was completed. The cluster contains four tandem scaffoldin genes (scaA, scaB, scaC, and scaD) bounded upstream and downstream, respectively, by a presumed cellobiose phosphorylase and a nucleotide methylase. The sequences and properties of scaA, scaB, and scaC were reported previously, and those of scaD are reported here. The scaD gene encodes an 852-residue polypeptide that includes a signal peptide, three cohesins, and a C-terminal S-layer homology (SLH) module. The calculated molecular weight of the mature ScaD is 88,960; a 67-residue linker segment separates cohesins 1 and 2, and two approximately 30-residue linkers separate cohesin 2 from 3 and cohesin 3 from the SLH module. The presence of an SLH module in ScaD indicates its role as an anchoring protein. The first two ScaD cohesins can be classified as type II, similar to the four cohesins of ScaB. Surprisingly, the third ScaD cohesin belongs to the type I cohesins, like the seven ScaA cohesins. ScaD is the first scaffoldin to be described that contains divergent types of cohesins as integral parts of the polypeptide chain. The recognition properties among selected recombinant cohesins and dockerins from the different scaffoldins of the gene cluster were investigated by affinity blotting. The results indicated that the divergent types of ScaD cohesins also differ in their preference of dockerins. ScaD thus plays a dual role, both as a primary scaffoldin, capable of direct incorporation of a single dockerin-borne enzyme, and as a secondary scaffoldin that anchors the major primary scaffoldin, ScaA and its complement of enzymes to the cell surface.  (+info)

Hydrophilic domains of scaffolding protein CbpA promote glycosyl hydrolase activity and localization of cellulosomes to the cell surface of Clostridium cellulovorans. (4/63)

CbpA, the scaffolding protein of Clostridium cellulovorans cellulosomes, possesses one family 3 cellulose binding domain, nine cohesin domains, and four hydrophilic domains (HLDs). Among the three types of domains, the function of the HLDs is still unknown. We proposed previously that the HLDs of CbpA play a role in attaching the cellulosome to the cell surface, since they showed some homology to the surface layer homology domains of EngE. Several recombinant proteins with HLDs (rHLDs) and recombinant EngE (rEngE) were examined to determine their binding to the C. cellulovorans cell wall fraction. Tandemly linked rHLDs showed higher affinity for the cell wall than individual rHLDs showed. EngE was shown to have a higher affinity for cell walls than rHLDs have. C. cellulovorans native cellulosomes were found to have higher affinity for cell walls than rHLDs have. When immunoblot analysis was carried out with the native cellulosome fraction bound to cell wall fragments, the presence of EngE was also confirmed, suggesting that the mechanism anchoring CbpA to the C. cellulovorans cell surface was mediated through EngE and that the HLDs play a secondary role in the attachment of the cellulosome to the cell surface. During a study of the role of HLDs on cellulose degradation, the mini-cellulosome complexes with HLDs degraded cellulose more efficiently than complexes without HLDs degraded cellulose. The rHLDs also showed binding affinity for crystalline cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose. These results suggest that the CbpA HLDs play a major role and a minor role in C. cellulovorans cellulosomes. The primary role increases cellulose degradation activity by binding the cellulosome complex to the cellulose substrate; secondarily, HLDs aid the binding of the CbpA/cellulosome to the C. cellulovorans cell surface.  (+info)

Towards designer cellulosomes in Clostridia: mannanase enrichment of the cellulosomes produced by Clostridium cellulolyticum. (5/63)

The man5K gene of Clostridium cellulolyticum was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. This gene encodes a 424-amino-acid preprotein composed of an N-terminal leader peptide, followed by a dockerin module and a C-terminal catalytic module belonging to family 5 of the glycosyl hydrolases. Mature Man5K displays 62% identity with ManA from Clostridium cellulovorans. Two forms of the protein were purified from E. coli; one form corresponds to the full-length enzyme (45 kDa), and a truncated form (39 kDa) lacks the N-terminal dockerin module. Both forms exhibit the same typical family 5 mannanase substrate preference; they are very active with the galactomannan locust bean gum, and the more galacto-substituted guar gum molecules are degraded less. The truncated form, however, displays fourfold-higher activity with galactomannans than the full-length enzyme. Man5K was successfully overproduced in C. cellulolyticum by using expression vectors. The trans-produced protein was found to be incorporated into the cellulosomes and became one of the major enzymatic components. Modified cellulosomes displayed 20-fold-higher specific activities than control fractions on galactomannan substrates, whereas the specific activity on crystalline cellulose was reduced by 20%. This work clearly showed that the composition of the cellulosomes is obviously regulated by the relative amounts of the enzymes produced and that this composition can be engineered in clostridia by structural gene cloning.  (+info)

Structural insights into the mechanism of formation of cellulosomes probed by small angle X-ray scattering. (6/63)

Exploring the mechanism by which the multiprotein complexes of cellulolytic organisms, the cellulosomes, attain their exceptional synergy is a challenge for biologists. We have studied the solution structures of the Clostridium cellulolyticum cellulosomal enzyme Cel48F in the free and complexed states with cohesins from Clostridium thermocellum and Clostridium cellulolyticum by small angle x-ray scattering in order to investigate the conformational events likely to occur upon complexation. The solution structure of the free cellulase indicates that the dockerin module is folded, whereas the linker connecting the catalytic module to the dockerin is extended and flexible. Remarkably, the docking of the different cohesins onto Cel48F leads to a pleating of the linker. The global structure determined here allowed modeling of the atomic structure of the C. cellulolyticum dockerin-cohesin interface, highlighting the local differences between both organisms responsible for the species specificity.  (+info)

Interactions between immunoglobulin-like and catalytic modules in Clostridium thermocellum cellulosomal cellobiohydrolase CbhA. (7/63)

Cellobiohydrolase CbhA from Clostridium thermocellum cellulosome is a multi-modular protein composed starting from the N-terminus of a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) of family 4, an immunoglobulin(Ig)-like module, a catalytic module of family 9 glycoside hydrolases (GH9), X1(1) and X1(2) modules, a CBM of family 3 and a dockerin module. Deletion of the Ig-like module from the Ig-GH9 construct results in complete inactivation of the GH9 module. The crystal structure of the Ig-GH9 module pair reveals the existence of an extensive module interface composed of over 40 amino acid residues of both modules and maintained through a large number of hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions. To investigate the importance of these interactions between the two modules, we compared the secondary and tertiary structures and thermostabilities of the individual Ig-like and GH9 modules and the Ig-GH9 module pair using both circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Thr230, Asp262 and Asp264 of the Ig-like module are located in the module interface of the Ig-GH9 module pair and are suggested to be important in 'communication' between the modules. These residues were mutated to alanyl residues. The structure, stability and catalytic properties of the native Ig-GH9 and its D264A and T230A/D262A mutants were compared. The results indicate that despite being able to fold relatively independently, the Ig-like and GH9 modules interact and these interactions affect the final fold and stability of each module. Mutations of one or two amino acid residues lead to destabilization and change of the mechanism of thermal unfolding of the polypeptides. The enzymatic properties of native Ig-GH9, D264A and T230A/D262A mutants are similar. The results indicate that inactivation of the GH9 module occurs as a result of multiple structural disturbances finally affecting the topology of the catalytic center.  (+info)

Action of designer cellulosomes on homogeneous versus complex substrates: controlled incorporation of three distinct enzymes into a defined trifunctional scaffoldin. (8/63)

In recent work, we reported the self-assembly of a comprehensive set of defined "bifunctional" chimeric cellulosomes. Each complex contained the following: (i) a chimeric scaffoldin possessing a cellulose-binding module and two cohesins of divergent specificity and (ii) two cellulases, each bearing a dockerin complementary to one of the divergent cohesins. This approach allowed the controlled integration of desired enzymes into a multiprotein complex of predetermined stoichiometry and topology. The observed enhanced synergy on recalcitrant substrates by the bifunctional designer cellulosomes was ascribed to two major factors: substrate targeting and proximity of the two catalytic components. In the present work, the capacity of the previously described chimeric cellulosomes was amplified by developing a third divergent cohesin-dockerin device. The resultant trifunctional designer cellulosomes were assayed on homogeneous and complex substrates (microcrystalline cellulose and straw, respectively) and found to be considerably more active than the corresponding free enzyme or bifunctional systems. The results indicate that the synergy between two prominent cellulosomal enzymes (from the family-48 and -9 glycoside hydrolases) plays a crucial role during the degradation of cellulose by cellulosomes and that one dominant family-48 processive endoglucanase per complex is sufficient to achieve optimal levels of synergistic activity. Furthermore cooperation within a cellulosome chimera between cellulases and a hemicellulase from different microorganisms was achieved, leading to a trifunctional complex with enhanced activity on a complex substrate.  (+info)

Treated wastewater effluent could be a viable alternative to potable freshwater for cellulosic ethanol production, according to a study by the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. The study, "Use of Treated Effluent Water in Cellulosic Ethanol Production," was funded in part by the Illinois Sustainable Technology Center.. The use of non-food cellulosic feedstock for ethanol fuel production has a number of advantages, including lowering greenhouse gas emissions and reducing cost pressure on food and feed markets, the study says. Drought-resistant cellulosic feedstock also can be grown on land unsuitable for row crops.. However, cellulosic ethanol plants consume large amounts of water. Dry grind ethanol plants currently use around three to four gallons of water per gallon of ethanol produced, whereas cellulosic ethanol plants are estimated to consume around six to 10 gallons of water per gallon of ethanol produced, the study says.. The study evaluated the effects of two different types of ...
A new genus of cellulolytic, gram-negative, nonsporeforming, anaerobic bacteria is described. The colonies produced by these bacteria on cellulose agar were round, clear, translucent, and cream-colored and had an undulate margin. Single cells of the bacterium were straight to slightly curved rods 0.5 to 0.8 μm wide by 4 to 10 μm long and were motile by means of a single flagellum located one-third of the distance from the end of the cell. Among the various substrates tested, only cellulose, cellobiose, and salicin were able to support growth. The major fermentation products of cellobiose or cellulose degradation were acetic acid, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. The deoxyribonucleic acid base composition of the type species was 38 mol% guanine plus cytosine. The name Acetivibrio is proposed for this new genus, which is placed in the family Bacteroidaceae. The type species, Acetivibrio cellulolyticus sp. nov., is named on the basis of its cellulolytic activity. The type strain of A. cellulolyticus is CD2
Cellulosomes known as the proficient nanomachine in nature are cell bound multi-enzyme complexes that break down cellulose and hemicelluloses. They are very important in the process of carbon turnover. The cellulosome complexes require highly ordered proteins (the interactions between cohesions and dockerins) to assembly cellulases and hemicellulases into a scaffold structure. The protein interactions between cohesion and dockerin play an important role in cellulosome assembly and the attachment of cellulosome to the surface of cells while remaining flexible to provide a stable catalytic synergy.. One function of cellulosomes is breaking down plants structural polysaccharides. It is hypothesize that the constraints of the cellulosomes system created by bacteria and fungi caused the deconstruction of plant cell wall to become more and more efficient. The splicing of the plant-cell wall involves the addition of enzymes on to a macromolecule complex will increase the effectiveness of the ...
We report the single-contig genome sequence of the anaerobic, mesophilic, cellulolytic bacterium, Bacteroides cellulosolvens. The bacterium produces a particularly elaborate cellulosome system, whereas the types of cohesin-dockerin interactions are opposite of other known cellulosome systems: cell-surface attachment is thus mediated via type-I interactions whereas enzymes are integrated via type-II interactions. ...
The 2018 Gordon Research Seminar on Cellulosomes, Cellulases and Other Carbohydrate Modifying Enzymes (GRS) will be held in Andover, NH. Apply today to reserve your spot.
Downloadable! The U.S. biofuel industry is striving to produce ethanol from cellulosic feedstock sources in an effort to augment its existing corn grain-based ethanol production infrastructure. Technology to commercially produce cellulosic ethanol is rapidly advancing due in large part to the availability of substancial federal research and development funding. At the moment, several firms have pilot scale cellulosic ethanol production facilities under construction and testing. The transition from pilot scale to full commercialization of cellulosic ethanol will be difficult, due in large part financial constraints being imposed both internally and externally on the biofuels industry. This paper provides an overview of the biofuel industrys current financial setting and describes future challenges it faces in attempting to expand. These challenges are rooted in lack of industry capital, limited availability of performance benchmarks, concerns regarding future prospects of the industry, and general
Over the first year of operations of its pilot-scale cellulosic ethanol plant in South Dakota (earlier post), POET has reduced its per gallon production cost from $4.13 to $2.35, exceeding its expectations. Cost reduction came via reductions in energy usage, enzyme costs, raw material requirements and capital expenses. The pilot...
A recent ORNL story tip features our simulations on the characterization of the temperature dependence of the structure and dynamics of lignin polymers. The detailed characterization obtained provides insight, at the atomic level, both into processes relevant to biomass pretreatment for cellulosic ethanol production and general polymer coil-globule transition phenomena.. Read on: ORNL. ...
Roughly a year after it first announced plans to sell its cellulosic ethanol plant, DuPont Industrial Biosciences has reached an agreement to sell the facility to the U.S. subsidiary of German bioenergy producer Verbio Vereinigte BioEnergie AG.
Shengquan is investing $100 million to produce cellulosic ethanol. Novozymes will supply the enabling enzyme technology. The two companies will sign the final agreement Friday during Hu Jintaos visit to Denmark.
At the 4th Annual World Congress on Industrial Biotechnology and Bioprocessing in Orlando, Fla., Novozymes today introduced a five-step strategy to achieve economically viable cellulosic ethanol.
The cellulosome is a macromolecular machine, whose components interact in a synergistic manner to catalyze the efficient degradation of cellulose. The cellulosome complex is composed of numerous kinds of cellulases and related enzyme subunits, which are assembled into the complex by virtue of a uniq …
Daily objective reports on advanced clean transportation technologies, cars, green transportation, energy, issues and policies related to sustainable mobility.
Three new U.S. DOE-funded research centers will house multidisciplinary teams of scientists from across the country with the aim of coordinating the basic research needed to accelerate the promise of cellulosic ethanol as a renewable, sustainable, secure and cost-competitive biofuel.
WASHINGTON, D.C., Sept. 13, 2017 -- Converting fibrous plant waste, like corn stalks and wood shavings, into fermentable simple sugars for the production of biofuel is no simple process. Bacteria must break down tough leaves, stems and other cellulosic matter resistant to degradation to turn them into usable energy.. Helping bacteria become more efficient in this process could result in more affordable biofuels for our gas tanks and sustainable products such as bioplastics. One way to achieve this goal is to re-engineer the bacterial enzyme complexes, called cellulosomes, which serve as catalysts in the degradation process. In an effort to produce these so-called designer cellulosomes, the international research consortium CellulosomePlus is developing methods to enhance the efficiency of this complex engineering process to make it economically feasible and effective. Consortium researchers from Spain, Poland and Ireland reported their findings for one method recently in The Journal of Chemical ...
On July 31, 2013, INEOS Bio, a bioenergy company, announced that its Florida facility became the world pioneer in producing commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol. Ethanol, or ethyl alcohol, is a renewable fuel resulting from fermenting plant-based materials. INEOS Bio produces cellulosic ethanol using vegetative and yard waste. Despite the flurry that accompanied last Julys event, Brazil is still regarded as the country that implemented the most successful ethanol industry in the world -the sugarcane ethanol industry. In the United States, the ethanol industry touches on two critical areas. First, ethanol can be used as motor fuel, and it is no secret that the United States relies on motor fuel. Second, the nations reliance on motor fuel, especially gasoline, raises significant environmental concerns, notably, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Thus, given the recent advancements in ethanol production, and the critical areas that ethanol touches on, an issue emerges as to whether Brazils ethanol ...
This report provides information on (1) the availability of biomass, (2) potential for cellulosic ethanol production in California, and (3) federal and state policies that support the use of biomass, particularly for ethanol production. There is a large amount of biomass in California. Nearly 90 million tons of biomass (agricultural residues, forest materials, and municipal waste) are produced annually in California, and 30 to 40 million tons are estimated to be technically feasible to collect and use in producing renewable electricity, fuels, and biomass-based products. According to energy experts, there is enough biomass to support the production of as much as 1.5 billion gallons of ethanol per year. However, the cellulosic ethanol industry faces challenges related to biomass collection, costs, price variability, competition from Midwest corn based ethanol industry, mitigating environmental effects, and the need of more efficient technologies for the processing of biomass to ethanol ...
Pacific Ethanol to add Edeniq Cellunator and Pathway technologies at its Madera ethanol plant, bringing cellulosic ethanol production to a second facility.
Edeniq Inc. recently announced that the U.S. EPA has approved Flint Hills Resources registration of its 100 million gallons per year Iowa Falls, Iowa, ethanol plant for cellulosic ethanol production.
The cellulosic ethanol industry is at a critical development stage: there are technology developers who are taking stock of the lessons learnt during the development of their first plants, and several more are constructing or planning their first plant.. This report develops two deployment scenarios for the EU based on detailed bottom up assumptions on the number of technology developers, plant development timelines, plant capacity, utilisation rates, the rate at which new projects can be initiated, and takes into consideration the availability of project finance. It also considers at what cost cellulosic ethanol could be produced.. The two scenarios (which assume a favourable policy environment) see total EU production capacity for cellulosic ethanol increase from 31 million litres in 2017 to 2.75 billion litres in 2030 in the central scenario, and 3.8 billion litres in the more ambitious scenario. Depending on EU energy demand in 2030, this could equate to a 4-5.6% blend of cellulosic ethanol ...
Cellulosic ethanol is fast becoming the preferred type of ethanol production. Vecoplan provides systems for the biorefining industry.
This off-take agreement is a significant step forward for BlueFire. It provides immediate revenue once our plant is on-line. Also, it will move BlueFire closer to a debt financing agreement with the Department of Energy and U.S. Department of Agriculture," stated Arnold Klann, CEO of BlueFire Renewables, Inc. "This is one of the first cellulosic ethanol contracts of its kind in the United States establishing BlueFire as a clear leader in the industry ...
Acidothermus cellulolyticus ATCC ® 43068D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Acidothermus cellulolyticus strain 11B TypeStrain=True Application:
​Imagine powering a plane or car with fuels made from grasses, wood, or other plant residues. This type of fuel, called cellulosic ethanol, has the potential to be a major source of renewable fuel for Americas transportation fleets.
KBR says it has been awarded a contract by DuPont for engineering and procurement services for DuPonts previously announced cellulosic ethanol plant at Nevada, IA. KBR will provide front-end...
ALL Manufacturer of Cheap Designer Bags for Cheap Designer Bags, China cheap designer bags information resources . cheap designer bags Marketplace In Taiwan ,China and Asian Manufacturers,Help you to find more Manufacturers,Suppliers,Exporter,Agent,Global cheap designer bags buyers, cheap designer bags,cheap designer bags Factory.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
The idea of producing plentiful amounts of ethanol from materials such as switchgrass and wood scraps has successfully emerged from the laboratory, but challenges lie ahead.
Today the EPA announced its proposed 2012 Renewable Fuel Standard requirements: The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) established the annual
Global (North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa) Foundry Binder Market 2017 Forecast to 2022. "This report studies the Foundry Binders market, from angles of players, regions, product types and end industries, to analyze the status and the future. This report covered the Organic Binder and Inorganic Binder." Scope of the Report: This report focuses on the Foundry Binder in Global market, especially in North America, Europe and .... January 2018 , $4880 ,View Details>> ...
The enigmatically named Q Microbe, under development by SunEthanol Inc., has attracted the attention of major ethanol producer VeraSun Energy, putting it at the forefront of technology for co-called cellulosic ethanol, which is expected to replace corn as the main source of alternative fuel in the United States.
Manufacturer of Florists & Floral Designers, Suppliers of Florists & Floral Designers, Dealers of Florists & Floral Designers in UAE
Searching the largest collection of designer scarves for women at the cheapest price in Tbdress.com. Here offers all kinds of designer scarves for women with the unique styles. Buy designer scarves for women in Tbdress, you will get the best service and high discount.
Join for free! Read real reviews and see ratings for Rio Vista, CA Interior Designers near you to help you pick the right pro Interior Designer.
On the strength of its varied product and custom web designing Services company has built of a growing base of loyal customers from all over the world. Check web design portfolio designed by our professional web designer.
... : Part IForetell whats in 2006 E-Commerce Web DevelopmentWill it be a better year or worst than the exiting year? It remains to be seen. None…
Get an answer for What are advantages for designer babies? Are there more pros than cons? Should i be against it? and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
Designer : 64 Colors Country : USA Size : 20 cm Limited to 800 pcs A Daydreamer, neer-do-well, lazy, irresponsible, loafer, maker of nothing, doer of little... a floater, and thats okay with me. Im just having a good time at my own pace thats all. Lifes too short with both good luck and bad. Too much pressure and expectations for sure. So Ill roll... ...
We can design a specific resin or oligomer for you. Or, if you desire a formulated product, we can prepare a unique material for you. Contact us today to get started. ...
This years Ventura Lambrate themes are Social Design and Cultural Heritage-two very open-ended themes that invite designers to show work that address global change and/or represents their country of origin. Were happy to see most designers bringing thought-provoking work along these lines to the table. Within the two themes, were ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Automated Yeast Transformation Protocol to Engineer Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains for Cellulosic Ethanol Production with Open Reading Frames That Express Proteins Binding to Xylose Isomerase Identified Using a Robotic Two-Hybrid Screen. AU - Hughes, Stephen R.. AU - Rich, Joseph O.. AU - Bischoff, Kenneth M.. AU - Hector, Ronald E.. AU - Qureshi, Nasib. AU - Saha, Badal C.. AU - Dien, Bruce S.. AU - Liu, Siqing. AU - Jackson, John S.. AU - Sterner, David E.. AU - Butt, Tauseef R.. AU - LaBaer, Joshua. AU - Cotta, Michael A.. PY - 2009/8. Y1 - 2009/8. N2 - Commercialization of fuel ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass has focused on engineering the glucose-fermenting industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to use pentose sugars. Because S. cerevisiae naturally metabolizes xylulose, one approach involves introducing xylose isomerase (XI), which catalyzes conversion of xylose to xylulose. In this study, an automated two-hybrid interaction protocol was used to find ...
Numerous investors are thinking about some of the SWOT issues noted above as well as others. The three plants will have to run for a while and then try to market their investments in new technology to others, hoping to capitalize on the prize of cellulosic ethanol. The progress toward cellulosic ethanol has seemed torturous to many up to this time; however, the pace is about to quicken. There are likely to be substantial rewards for reliable technologies involving equipment, enzymes and fermenting organisms by those firms that can demonstrate or offer substantial performance guarantees for ethanol production methods that do not require starch molecules. There will be lots of excitement ahead in efforts to develop viable cellulosic ethanol businesses based on corn stover. Considerable study has occurred revealing the magnitude of corn stover supplies around the country and the potential to utilize this biofuels feedstock. How it all plays out for stover producers and investors in cellulosic ...
The shift to a renewable fuel resource has been a target for many years now. However, most of its production is with the use of corn ethanol. In the year 2000, only 6.2 billion liters were produced in the United States, but this number has expanded over 800% to 50 billion litres in just a decade (2010).[46] Government pressures to shift to renewable fuel resources have been apparent since the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency implemented the 2007 Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), which required that a certain percentage of renewable fuel be included in fuel products. The shift to cellulosic ethanol production from corn ethanol has been strongly promoted by the US government.[47] Even with these policies in place and the governments attempts to create a market for cellulose ethanol, there was no commercial production of this fuel in 2010 and 2011.[48] The Energy Independence and Security Act originally set goals of 100 million, 250 million, and 500 million gallons for the years 2010, 2011, and ...
Trp22, Trp24, and Tyr8 play a pivotal role in the binding of the family 10 cellulose-binding module from Pseudomonas xylanase A to insoluble ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The vision is for the ingredients to be mixed in the fuel tank of your car, for instance. A car with an approximately 12-gallon tank could hold 27 kilograms (kg) of starch, which is the equivalent of 4 kg of hydrogen. The range would be more than 300 miles, Zhang estimates. One kg of starch will produce the same energy output as 1.12 kg (0.38 gallons) of gasoline. Since hydrogen is gaseous, hydrogen storage is the largest obstacle to large-scale use of hydrogen fuel. The Department of Energys long-term goal for hydrogen storage was 12 mass percent, or 0.12 kg of hydrogen per one kg of container or storage material, but such technology is not available, said Zhang. Using polysaccharides as the hydrogen storage carrier, the research team achieved hydrogen storage capacity as high as 14.8 mass percent, they report in the PLOS article.. The idea began as a theory. The research was based on Zhangs previous work pertaining to cellulosic ethanol production and the ORNL and University of Georgia ...
Corn ethanol never made any sense, either economically or environmentally. Congress is finally killing corn ethanol subsidies, but it shouldnt abandon ethanol entirely. Made from the fiber of plants and with a really good energy balance, cellulosic ethanol is the better alternative.
Corn cobs could soon contribute to the nations fuel supply. Poet is currently expanding its corn ethanol facility in Emmetsburg, Iowa, into one of the worlds first cellulosic ethanol plants. Once complete in 2011, Project Liberty, will produce 125 million gallons of ethanol per year, with 25 million gallons coming from corn cobs. ...
Alliance BioEnergys CTS Fuel is Proving to Cost Remarkably Less to Build and Operate Compared to Other Cellulosic Ethanol Technologies and Traditional Corn Ethanol Plants
Efforts to create a market for cellulosic ethanol in the U.S. veered into the realm of the absurd last month when companies faced fines of $6.8 million for failing to meet a 2011 federal quota to blend 6.6 million gallons of the renewable fuel into oil and diesel supplies. The problem? [...]
Cellulosic Ethanol Industry Definition & Scope, Research Methodology, Executive Summary, Industry Dynamics, Industry by Component, Geographical Analysis, Competitive Intelligence, Industry Share
Ethanol giant POET says it can make ethanol from cellulosic sources-rather than the corn grain its usually made from in the United States-for costs that are approaching that of corn grain ethanol. Last year, when it started a pilot plant for making ethanol from corn cobs (one of many potential cellulosic sources), it cost $4.13…
than imported, scarce petroleum. How much would it cost to sequester and store the CO2 he mentions? Is there any market for this stuff once thats been done, to offset the cost of sequestering and storing it, or is it an expense that will be added to the cost of the process?. Not objecting, just curious.. Posted by: Tim Scott , Jan 29, 2006 11:19:41 AM. David Roberts,. They use a very low grade of sugar to make ethanol in Brazil. Soybeans and corn are far to valuable in Brazil.. In Brazil, the state that is the largest producer of sugar is Minas Gerais, a state I know very well and my father-in-law happens to farm sugar there. No rainforest there, but there has been a loss of huge chunks of the Mata Atlántica (Atlantic Forest), but that has been happening regardless of ethanol.. The greatest problem Brazil faces in this regard is infrastructure. A recent study indicates that Brazil needs to invest US$10 Billion in ethanol development by 2012.. Posted by: Randy Paul , Jan 29, 2006 8:01:34 ...
Cohesins are protein complexes that join the two copies of each chromosome-called sister chromatids-to ensure that they are shared fairly between the daughter cells during cell division. In this way, each daughter cell receives exactly the same genetic information from the parent cell.. Pds5 is a protein associated with cohesins; it binds cohesins along different chromosome regions. In vertebrates there are two variants of Pds5, Pds5A and Pds5B, not very well characterised to date. Scientists from the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), led by Ana Losada, from the Chromosome Dynamics Group, have discovered-by using genetically-modified mice (knock-out mice for Pds5A and Pds5B)- that the two Pds5 variants are not equivalent, as both are necessary for cell proliferation and for embryo development to take place correctly.. The results, published today in the online version of The EMBO Journal, contribute to improving our understanding of how Pds5 proteins modulate the behaviour of ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
85 Visual Designer jobs available in San Diego, CA on Indeed.com. User Experience Designer, User Interface Designer, Visual Designer and more!
You can help build a more sustainable future - one community, one designer, one donation at a time.. Help us provide 365 days of professional design services around the world by donating to support a designer for a day, week, month, or a year.. Will support a meeting with a client. In a meeting a designer can provide a community in need with technical advice in a one-on-one consultation.. Will support a designer for a day. In a day a designer can create a schematic drawing, establish a site, resolve a design detail or troubleshoot a code issue.. Will support a designer for a week. In a week a designer can hold a community workshop, start planning for construction, design a site-specific structural solution or do a post-occupancy analysis.. Will support a designer for a month. In a month a designer can hold community workshops, plan, develop, and construct a small community building or a house.. Donate and support good design. Your donation, no matter what size, can make a difference and bring ...
You can help build a more sustainable future - one community, one designer, one donation at a time.. Help us provide 365 days of professional design services around the world by donating to support a designer for a day, week, month, or a year.. Will support a meeting with a client. In a meeting a designer can provide a community in need with technical advice in a one-on-one consultation.. Will support a designer for a day. In a day a designer can create a schematic drawing, establish a site, resolve a design detail or troubleshoot a code issue.. Will support a designer for a week. In a week a designer can hold a community workshop, start planning for construction, design a site-specific structural solution or do a post-occupancy analysis.. Will support a designer for a month. In a month a designer can hold community workshops, plan, develop, and construct a small community building or a house.. Donate and support good design. Your donation, no matter what size, can make a difference and bring ...
While there is funding available for U.S. cellulosic ethanol companies in the form of grants or loan guarantees from the departments of…
O designer de interiores, além do trabalho que envolve a decoração do ambiente, mais ao final do projeto, tem a função de elaborar o espaço de forma coerentemente, seguindo normas técnicas de ergonomia, acústica, térmico e luminotécnica. Ele também é um profissional capaz de captar as reais necessidades dos clientes e concretizá-las através de projetos totalmente personalizados. Dessa forma, a reconstrução do espaço através da releitura do layout, da ampliação ou redução de espaços, dos efeitos cênicos e aplicações de tendências e novidades técnicas, do desenvolvimento de peças exclusivas é de responsabilidade do designer de interiores. Esse profissional é habilitado e tem conhecimento técnico para atuar em projetos de interiores, auxiliando o arquiteto a resolver os espaços da edificação de forma a atender melhor às necessidades do cliente, para complementar o fechamento da obra.. O designer de interiores define revestimentos, acabamentos, tecidos, cores e ...
Apply to 401 New Web Designer Developer Jobs in Delhi on Placement India - View thousands of Web Designer Developer job opportunities for freshers and experience across Top Companies in India & worldwide
Manufacturer of Florists 26 Floral Designers, Suppliers of Florists 26 Floral Designers, Dealers of Florists 26 Floral Designers in Oman
Cozy meets cute at Troys Designer Group, an adorable furniture store well suited for a wide range of tastes.If you are making your way over to Designer Group, make sure you check out the convenient parking options located nearby. With helpful staff and a simply exquisite selection of pieces, Designer Group in Troy is your best choice in furniture.
Compare ratings and reviews on Designer Supplements products. Get the scoop on what others have to say and their experience with taking Designer Supplements products as part of their training regime.
Lasershow Designer QuickShow 2.7 Product Key included - Lasershow Designer QuickShow 2.5 Serial Key Expires 2018 Announcement: New laser show software available: Procedural
Designer paints from Farrow & Ball, Sanderson, Designers Guild, Dulux Heritage, and many more. The widest range of colours and finishes delivered direct to your door.
LMN is an internationally recognized design practice made up of architects, interior designers, urban designers, and planners who are passionate about design and dedicated to collaboration. We are a single office made up of 170 diverse individuals located in downtown Seattle. Our focus is on...
Lightinthebox.com will help you search for Light Display Designer, guaranteeing youll find the best price out there! So, what are you waiting for? Save big on shipping, and see more similar products available at great prices for amazing value!
Buy Cupcake Retina-Ready Mobile Template by rv_designer on ThemeForest. Please rate the template if you like it *** PhoneGap compatible *** Many of you asked me if this template is PhoneGap...
Structural Designer - Eindhoven, Netherlands 31 January, 2020 You contribute to the successful development of industrial projects for a wide variety of cl...
UFORIA™ is the only company to offer personalized designer nutrition based on your DNA. Decades in the making, this is Exclusive and Proprietary technology.
When it comes to the economy of design, player asymmetry is a costly venture. Asymmetry means more rules, more troublesome exceptions, and more scalability problems. And, while those things can keep designers and developers up late, the cost of asymmetry is borne chiefly by the players themselves. After all,
Stars at the Golden Globes and other red-carpet awards shows often mispronounce the names of the designers who dress them. Heres a guide to the right--and wrong--way to pronounce some of fashions
Afraid of public speaking? Fear not. Barringer offers practical advice for designers or anyone who doesnt spend time in front of an audience.
Create your custom Crayola product in just minutes. Visit the Crayola My Way factory to get started now. Tip the crayon will guide you through each simple step!. ...
Create your custom Crayola product in just minutes. Visit the Crayola My Way factory to get started now. Tip the crayon will guide you through each simple step!. ...
This position will be responsible for all injection mold designs from concept through fabrication and into production. This is a demanding position and requires a dedicated individual capable of working and a fast paced environment.
Find out more about Éric Gizard! Architonic provides information about products, projects, retailers & more. Have a look around and find all..
Francisco Costa, womens creative director of Calvin Klein Collection, spoke to a FIT audience this week about his path to the top.
Structural compon-ents are exposed to mech-an-ical stress, which requires a compre-hens-ive char-ac-ter-iz-a-tion of the mech-an-ical prop-er-ties. Thus compon-ents can be tailored for their inten-ded use. We can determ-ine the follow-ing import-ant key figures for the designer.. ...
BlueFire Renewables, focused on changing the worlds transportation fuel paradigm through the production of renewable fuels from non-food cellulosic wastes, has announced an off-take agreement with Tenaska BioFuels for the purchase and sale of all ethanol produced at BlueFires planned cellulosic ethanol facility in Fulton, Mississippi.. "This off-take agreement is a significant step forward for BlueFire. It provides immediate revenue once our plant is on-line. Also, it will move BlueFire closer to a debt financing agreement with the Department of Energy and U.S. Department of Agriculture," stated Arnold Klann, CEO of BlueFire Renewables, Inc. "This is one of the first cellulosic ethanol contracts of its kind in the United States establishing BlueFire as a clear leader in the industry.". Pricing of the 15-year contract follows a market-based formula structured to capture the premium allowed for cellulosic ethanol compared to corn-based ethanol giving BlueFire a credit worthy contract to support ...
|em|Cytophaga hutchinsonii|/em| and |em|Sporocytophaga myxococcoides|/em| are both Gram-negative, aerobic, mesophilic, cellulose degrading bacterium belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes. Despite both of these organisms being isolated for almost a century, they remain poorly studied with the proteins responsible for cellulose degradation remaining unknown. Both organisms utilize cell associated machinery in order to degrade crystalline cellulose but do not contain any expected scaffoldin or dockerin proteins of the well-known complexed cellulosome system. Therefore, we have employed proteomic analysis in order to identify the abundant proteins present during growth on crystalline cellulose and assess their putative roles in cellulose hydrolysis. Further, we have been able to infer the localization of these proteins based on their abundance in specific cellular fractions. Taken together, the abundance and localization of proteins putatively involved in cellulose degradation led into important
Cellulosic ethanol is a 50-state solution. It can be produced in every single state in the nation. We have enough cellulosic biomass in this country that, with grain ethanol, we can produce enough clean, renewable ethanol to displace every gallon of foreign oil we currently import. The Project Liberty announcement by POET is the single-most important step forward for proving to all the naysayers that we are at the tip of having commercially viable cellulosic ethanol," said Tom Buis, CEO of Growth Energy ...
Leslie Smith2017-01-17T09:22:29+00:00April 18th, 2007,News,Comments Off on Peak Soil: Why cellulosic ethanol, biofuels are unsustainable and a threat to America ...
He goes on to talk about the impact that policy instability has had on the farmers we have contracted with and the investment community. Weve been making tremendous headway in developing the logistics chain necessary to supply our commercial biorefinery with 300,000 tons of biomass per year. You can read about our efforts on our cellulosic ethanol blog. We have been assisted in that effort by the USDAs Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP) that matches payments to the farmers up to $45 per ton. But when legislation was introduced to eliminate BCAP it planted seeds of doubt in the minds of the 85 farmers who signed contracts with us and could make it harder to sign the additional contracts we will need to reach commercial scale.. Similarly, the investment community has received mixed signals from policy makers as uncertainty has arisen about the future of the Department of Energys loan guarantee program. Jeff Broin was one of 34 CEOs of renewable energy companies who signed a letter calling ...
Editors Note: EarthTechling, always looking to forward the cleantech discussion, is proud to bring you this column via a cross post from American Enterprise Institutes Kenneth Green, writing for the site EnvironmentalTrends.. The story of ethanols use as fuel could practically serve as a poster-child for the law of unintended consequences. Originally used to control air pollution by adding oxygen content to gasoline, the corn lobby, with the assistance of environmental groups pushed ever more corn-based ethanol into the fuel supply with fairly disastrous consequences, both environmental and economic. I discuss some of them here, and in greater depth here.. Ethanol boosters have dismissed criticisms of corn-based ethanol, claiming that theyre only a temporary problem, since the real future of ethanol is in producing it from woody materials (cellulosic materials) rather than from corn. The problem is, producing ethanol from cellulose is very difficult, very expensive, and comes with the same ...
The path toward second-generation ethanol -- made from cellulosic sources such as crop residues, wood chips, and municipal waste -- has not been smooth, but it is still on track, say experts in the topic.
1JT2: Structural basis for the substrate specificity of the feruloyl esterase domain of the cellulosomal xylanase Z from Clostridium thermocellum.
Cellulosic Thickeners 75000mpas 45000cps 100000cps, Wholesale Various High Quality Cellulosic Thickeners 75000mpas 45000cps 100000cps Products from Global Cellulosic Thickeners 75000mpas 45000cps 100000cps Suppliers and Cellulosic Thickeners 75000mpas 45000cps 100000cps Factory,Importer,Exporter at Alibaba.com.
SunEthanol, a company that is developing microbes to produce cellulosic ethanol, announced on Nov. 18 that has raised $25 million in Series B financing and that it is changing its name to Qteros Inc. The funding will allow the company to scale up its process from the pilot plant to commercial operations, and hire additional engineers and scientists, company officials said. Plans call for a demonstration plant by 2010 and commercial production in 2011. The two year old Hadley, MA company is developing the Q Microbe™ (Clostridium phytofermentans), a lollipop-shaped microscopic organism that the company claims has unique properties that make it ideally suited to the production of cellulosic ethanol from a variety of non-food plant materials. Dr. Susan Leschine, Qteros Chief Scientist and co-founder, is the University of Massachusetts, Amherst microbiology professor who, nearly 10 years ago, first collected a sample of the Q Microbe™ near the Quabbin Reservoir in Massachusetts. The Q Microbe, was
Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientists are figuring out how to turn wheat straw into ethanol gold, and learning more about the bacteria that can infect ethanol plants and interfere with fuel production.
The U.S. environmental regulator informed oil industry groups on Thursday that it would reconsider the 2013 target for advanced ethanol made from grasses and trees as producers struggle to make the fuel.
Buy Fashion Designer Labels from Reliable China Fashion Designer Labels suppliers.Find Quality Fashion Designer Labels Home & Garden,Garment Labels,Stickers,Garment Tags, and more on Aliexpress.com
Regular readers know that I often post about my own garden projects and my gardens evolution. Heck, when I started blogging 6 years ago, that was the whole point. Today I have a good excuse for posting home-garden pics because its this months topic for Garden Designers Roundtable. It can be fun to see what garden designers are up to in their own gardens, especially high-end, design-build folks who install fabulous gardenscapes for their well-heeled clients and may do something creative and extravagant on their own back forty-if theyre one of the rare designers who gets paid at that level.. Thats not me, though, nor 99% of the designers I know. Im a do-it-yourselfer (or hire-it-yourselfer) with a limited budget, just like most of my clients. I have a wish list for my own garden, and Ive checked off a few projects during the 3-1/2 years weve lived in our current house, and Ive put a lot of sweat equity into the garden. But my list still contains the bigger projects I dream of, mostly ...
Fungi that digest wood in novel ways could fuel new avenues of research on cellulosic ethanol, and suggest a need to move beyond traditional classification systems. 1 Comment. ...
This page provides useful content and local businesses that can help with your search for Landscape Designers. You will find helpful, informative articles about Landscape Designers, including Balance in Design - Good Landscapes Keep an Even Leel.. You will also find local businesses that provide the products or services that you are looking for. Please scroll down to find the local resources in Bear, DE that will answer all of your questions about Landscape Designers.
Dubai Florists & Floral Designers, Buy High Quality Florists & Floral Designers Products from Dubai Florists & Floral Designers Suppliers and Manufacturers at Dubai Yellow Pages Online
Shop discount designer clothing merchant:2.ZEROGRAND Decon Plain Oxford:. Discount designer wear of all famous brands like Armani, Prada, Gucci, Calvin Klein,
MyBuilders trusted review system makes it easy to find recommended architectural designers. Read real feedback by local people and compare quotes. Over 1,146 expert Architectural Designers signed up. MyBuilder, the better way to find trusted Architectural Designers in IP31, Bury St Edmunds
MyBuilders trusted review system makes it easy to find recommended architectural designers. Read real feedback by local people and compare quotes. Over 1,153 expert Architectural Designers signed up. MyBuilder, the better way to find trusted Architectural Designers in DN34, Grimsby
The number of sub-units making up cellulosomes can also determine the rate of enzyme activity. The cellulase complex from ... Tsai, Shen-Long; DaSilva, Nancy A.; Chen, Wilfred (18 January 2013). "Functional Display of Complex Cellulosomes on the Yeast ... Bayer EA, Chanzy H, Lamed R, Shoham Y (1998). "Cellulose, cellulases and cellulosomes". Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 8 (5): 548-57 ... In many bacteria, cellulases in-vivo are complex enzyme structures organized in supramolecular complexes, the cellulosomes. ...
Cellulosomes are multi-enzyme complexes. The cellulosomes are associated with the cell surface and mediate cell attachment to ... Cellulosomes exist as extracellular complexes that are either attached to the cell wall of bacteria or free in solution, where ... From cellulosomes to cellulosomics. Chem Rec. 2008;8(6):364-77. doi:10.1002/tcr.20160 , PubMed ID:19107866 Doi RH and Kosugi A ... At the time, they weren't looking for enzymes or cellulosomes at all. They simply sought a 'cellulose-binding factor' or 'CBF' ...
Bayer EA, Shimon LJ, Shoham Y, Lamed R (1998). "Cellulosomes-structure and ultrastructure". J Struct Biol. 124 (2-3): 221-234. ...
Fontes, Carlos M.G.A.; Gilbert, Harry J. (2010). "Cellulosomes: Highly Efficient Nanomachines Designed to Deconstruct Plant ...
Kang S, Barak Y, Lamed R, Bayer EA, Morrison M (June 2006). "The functional repertoire of prokaryote cellulosomes includes the ...
Action of designer cellulosomes on homogeneous versus complex substrates: Controlled incorporation of three distinct enzymes ... In 1994, Edward A. Bayer proposed an original concept for the construction of designer cellulosomes, based on the specific ... 156, 818-27 (1983). Artzi, L., Bayer, E. A. & Moraïs, S. Cellulosomes: bacterial nanomachines for dismantling plant ... scaffoldins and dockerin-containing enzyme hybrids and serve as nanomolecular tool for the characterization of cellulosomes. ...
... cellulosomes MeSH A11.284.180.165 - cilia MeSH A11.284.180.225 - dendrites MeSH A11.284.180.225.169 - dendritic spines MeSH ...
Cytophaga hutchinsonii can rapidly digest crystalline cellulose without free cellulases or cellulosomes. Its cell-contact ... Cytophaga hutchinsonii can rapidly digest crystalline cellulose without free cellulases or cellulosomes. Its cell-contact ... Bayer, E. A., Shimon, L. J., Shoham, Y., and Lamed, R. (1998). Cellulosomes-structure and ultrastructure. J. Struct. Biol. 124 ... Cytophaga hutchinsonii can rapidly digest crystalline cellulose without free cellulases or cellulosomes. Its cell-contact ...
... J Struct Biol. 1998 Dec 15;124(2-3):221-34. doi: 10.1006/jsbi.1998.4065. ... Some cellulosomes appear to be tethered to the cell envelope via similarly intricate, multiple-domain anchoring proteins. The ...
... Curr Opin Struct Biol. 1998 Oct;8(5):548-57. doi: 10.1016/s0959-440x(98)80143-7. ...
Boosting Lignocellulose Biomass Deconstruction with Designer Cellulosomes for Industrial Applications. From 2013-11-01 to 2017- ... The improved cellulosomes generated through this innovative multidisciplinary approach represent a step towards green chemistry ... Finally, the production of the optimized cellulosomes (and the process involved) will be scaled up to preindustrial scale to ... Experimental and theoretical knowledge will be then integrated to design improved cellulosomes (with high-selectivity, activity ...
Alternative-designer cellulosomes. The concept of designer cellulosomes was first suggested by Bayer et al. (1994) and the ... Applications of cellulosomes. The future of cellulosomics is very immense and bright. Cellulosomes can be applied to various ... Cellulosomes: futuristic approach for cellulose degradation. Extremely efficient nanomachines, known as cellulosomes, are ... Cellulosomes can play a major role in the biorefineries for the depolymerization of complex biomass (Nakashima et al. 2011). ...
Bacterial cellulosomes are the most prominent type of cellulosomes. They are categorized into two groups: those that are ... Fungal cellulosomes are found in the gastrointestinal tract of herbivores. They are not as developed as bacterial cellulosomes. ... How Cellulosomes Bind to the Plant Cell Wall[edit]. The degrading process of the plant cell wall requires the participation of ... Cellulosomes known as the proficient nanomachine in nature are cell bound multi-enzyme complexes that break down cellulose and ...
The Cellulosomes: Multienzyme Machines for Degradation of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides journal, October 2004 * Bayer, Edward ... Cellulosomes: plant-cell-wall-degrading enzyme complexes journal, July 2004 * Doi, Roy H.; Kosugi, Akihiko ... Functional Display of Complex Cellulosomes on the Yeast Surface via Adaptive Assembly journal, July 2012 * Tsai, Shen-Long; ... Self-surface assembly of cellulosomes with two miniscaffoldins on Saccharomyces cerevisiae for cellulosic ethanol production ...
2004) The cellulosomes: Multienzyme machines for degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides. Annu Rev Microbiol 58:521-554. ... 2004) Cellulosomes: Plant-cell-wall-degrading enzyme complexes. Nat Rev Microbiol 2:541-551. ... 2010) Cellulosomes: Highly efficient nanomachines designed to deconstruct plant cell wall complex carbohydrates. Annu Rev ... 2007) The potential of cellulases and cellulosomes for cellulosic waste management. Curr Opin Biotech 18:237-245. ...
2008) From cellulosomes to cellulosomics. Chem Rec 8(6):364-377.. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMed ...
... which are small proteins involved in the assembly of extracellular cellulosomes (11). None of these genes were identified in ... In agreement with the predicted formation of cellulosomes, the Faecalibacterium dockerins from TS28 were found with a number of ... further supporting the existence of human gut cellulosomes. ...
Synthetic Cellulosomes. 7. Guest speaker: Industrial Biomass Processing and Hydrolysis. Written assignment due. ...
Colocalization and Disposition of Cellulosomes in Clostridium clariflavum as Revealed by Correlative Superresolution Imaging. ... implications for cellulose degradation by designer cellulosomes. ... Cellulosomes and designer cellulosomes: why toy with Nature?. ...
The number of sub-units making up cellulosomes can also determine the rate of enzyme activity. The cellulase complex from ... Tsai, Shen-Long; DaSilva, Nancy A.; Chen, Wilfred (18 January 2013). "Functional Display of Complex Cellulosomes on the Yeast ... Bayer EA, Chanzy H, Lamed R, Shoham Y (1998). "Cellulose, cellulases and cellulosomes". Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 8 (5): 548-57 ... In many bacteria, cellulases in-vivo are complex enzyme structures organized in supramolecular complexes, the cellulosomes. ...
Cellulosomes are multi-enzyme complexes. The cellulosomes are associated with the cell surface and mediate cell attachment to ... Cellulosomes exist as extracellular complexes that are either attached to the cell wall of bacteria or free in solution, where ... From cellulosomes to cellulosomics. Chem Rec. 2008;8(6):364-77. doi:10.1002/tcr.20160 , PubMed ID:19107866 Doi RH and Kosugi A ... At the time, they werent looking for enzymes or cellulosomes at all. They simply sought a cellulose-binding factor or CBF ...
Bayer EA, Shimon LJ, Shoham Y, Lamed R (1998). "Cellulosomes-structure and ultrastructure". J Struct Biol. 124 (2-3): 221-234. ...
Fontes CM, Gilbert HJ (2010) Cellulosomes: highly efficient nanomachines designed to deconstruct plant cell wall complex ...
Bayer, E.A.; Chanzy, H.; Lamed, R.; Shoham, Y. Cellulose, cellulases and cellulosomes. Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 1998, 8, 548- ...
Unlike existing cellulosomes, there is no limit to the number or type of enzymes and CBMs that can be incorporated into the ... ii) Existing cellulosomes typically array a limited number of enzymes on a relatively small scaffold. By contrast, there is no ... i) Existing cellulosomes are discrete hard particles and this limits the extent and duration of their interaction with ... The proposed cellulosomes are viscous or soft materials in which cellulases and binding domains are integrated in flexible ...
Bayer, E. A., Chanzy, H., Lamed, R., and Shoham, Y. (1998). Cellulose, cellulases and cellulosomes. Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 8 ...
Analysis of purified cellulosomes by nano-LC-ESI-MS.The resulting purified cellulosomes were separated by 6% sodium dodecyl ... Purified cellulosomes were denatured, and the components were separated by SDS-PAGE. Proteins in the gel bands (Fig. 1) were ... In comparing the cellulosomes from cells grown on these two substrates, we expected to detect several novel gene products and ... The cellulosomes: multienzyme machines for degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 58:521-554. ...
The nature of the carbohydrate-peptide linkage region in glycoproteins from the cellulosomes of Clostridium thermocellum and ... cellulosomes have been found in several strains of anaerobic bacteria and fungi obtained from very different types of ...
... termed cellulosomes (13), which are efficient for degradation of crystalline cellulose. The catalytic subunits of the ... cellulolyticum ATCC 35319 was used as the source of genomic DNA and for production of cellulosomes. E. coli DH5α (Bethesda ...
The organization of microbial plant cell wall-degrading enzymes into multienzyme complexes or cellulosomes was first ...
Purified cellulosomes were processed for 2D LC-MS/MS analysis as follows. Proteins were precipitated overnight at −20 °C by ... After fermentation, cellulosomes were purified from 200 mL of broth, using the affinity digestion protocol from Morgenstern et ... 2004) Use of antisense RNA to modify the composition of cellulosomes produced by Clostridium cellulolyticum. Mol Microbiol 51: ... Enzymatic activity of purified cellulosomes against 0.6 g/L Avicel. Activity is measured in SGE. The data represent the ...
  • Across the 40 genomes, 1.4-5.8 % of genes fall into the carbohydrate active enzyme (CAZyme) families, and 20 out of the 40 genomes may encode cellulosomes with each genome having 1 to 76 genes bearing the cellulosome-related modules such as dockerins and cohesins. (springer.com)
  • This review summarizes some of the general properties of cellulosomes, and more specifically, the properties of the Clostridium cellulovorans cellulosome. (nih.gov)
  • The results reported here highlight the finding that cellulosomes derived from cells grown on glucose and microcrystalline cellulose are more efficient in their action on cellulosic substrates than other cellulosome preparations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cellulosomes are the most efficient plant cell wall degradation machines discovered to date. (queensu.ca)
  • Paired with the organism's innate ability to ferment sugar to ethanol, the presence of cellulosomes makes C. thermocellum , an ideal candidate for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP), a "one-pot" industrial process whereby lignocellulosic biomass is converted directly into biofuel [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To date, cellulosomes have been found in several strains of anaerobic bacteria and fungi obtained from very different types of ecosystems. (asm.org)
  • It is hypothesize that the constraints of the cellulosomes system created by bacteria and fungi caused the deconstruction of plant cell wall to become more and more efficient. (wikibooks.org)
  • The cellulosomes are then amplified by the enzyme-substrate targeting of the scaffolding-borne CBM. (wikibooks.org)
  • CellulosomePlus targets rational design of optimized cellulosomes to overcome this problem.This would allow efficient production of biofuels from low-value raw materials like inedible parts of plants and industrial residues (which are all renewable, sustainable and inexpensive). (europa.eu)
  • The major bottleneck for plant biomass processing is fiber saccharification: the conversion of cell wall lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars (en route to production of value-added chemicals like second generation biofuels). (europa.eu)
  • Interestingly, cellulosomes derived from cells grown on lignocellulosic biomass showed no advantage in hydrolyzing the original carbon source used for their production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Instead, microcrystalline cellulose- and glucose-derived cellulosomes were equal or superior in their capacity to deconstruct lignocellulosic biomass. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our ultimate aim is to create engineered cellulosomes capable of releasing industrial quantities of sugar for biofuel, as part of a cost-effective procedure that does not pollute the environment. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • The cellulosomes are associated with the cell surface and mediate cell attachment to the insoluble substrate and degrade it to soluble products which are then absorbed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins that exhibited higher expression in cellulosomes from cellulose-grown cells than in cellobiose-grown cells were the cell surface anchor protein OlpB, exoglucanases CelS and CelK, and the glycoside hydrolase family 9 (GH9) endoglucanase CelJ. (asm.org)
  • The large size and heterogeneity of cellulosomes from the best-characterized organisms (i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • These protein interactions are essential for the cellulosomes to successfully destruct the cell wall. (wikibooks.org)
  • Experimental and theoretical knowledge will be then integrated to design improved cellulosomes (with high-selectivity, activity and cost-effectiveness). (europa.eu)