Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.
Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Extracellular structures found in a variety of microorganisms. They contain CELLULASES and play an important role in the digestion of CELLULOSE.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.
A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.
Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.
Devices for generating biological products that use light as the energy source. They are used for controlled BIOMASS production such as growing cyanobacteria, mosses, or algae.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose.
Forms of energy that are constantly and rapidly renewed by natural processes such as solar, ocean wave, and wind energy. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)
A family of glycoprotein cofactors that are required for the efficient catabolization of SPHINGOLIPIDS by specific acid hydrolases such as GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE; GALACTOCEREBROSIDASE; BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASE; and CEREBROSIDE-SULFATASE.
An exocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE and cellotetraose. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing ends of beta-D-glucosides with release of CELLOBIOSE.
A glycosphingolipid that accumulates due to a deficiency of hexosaminidase A or B (BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASES), or GM2 activator protein, resulting in GANGLIOSIDOSES, heredity metabolic disorders that include TAY-SACHS DISEASE and SANDHOFF DISEASE.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.
Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.
A common name (but used formally) for a group of organisms that are mostly kinds of algae including BACILLARIOPHYTA; OOMYCETES; PHAEOPHYCEAE; and CHRYSOPHYCEAE. They all contain CHLOROPLASTS that are thought to have been derived from the endosymbiosis of ancient RED ALGAE.
Enzymes which catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in XYLANS.
Water in its gaseous state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria in the family Thermoanaerobacteriaceae. Cultures consist of rods interspersed with coccoid cells.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A group of four homologous sphingolipid activator proteins that are formed from proteolytic cleavage of a common protein precursor molecule referred to as prosaposin.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
A cellulose of varied carboxyl content retaining the fibrous structure. It is commonly used as a local hemostatic and as a matrix for normal blood coagulation.
Liquid, solid, or gaseous waste resulting from mining of radioactive ore, production of reactor fuel materials, reactor operation, processing of irradiated reactor fuels, and related operations, and from use of radioactive materials in research, industry, and medicine. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
An essential cofactor for the degradation of G(M2)GANGLIOSIDE by lysosomal BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASES. Genetic mutations resulting in loss of G(M2) activator protein are one of the causes of TAY-SACHS DISEASE, AB VARIANT.
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
A genus known for fibers obtained from their leaves: sisal from A. sisalana, henequen from A. fourcroyoides and A. cantala, or Manila-Maguey fiber from A. cantala. Some species provide a sap that is fermented to an intoxicating drink, called pulque in Mexico. Some contain agavesides.
Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
Enzymes that hydrolyze O-glucosyl-compounds. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.2.1.-.
A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.
Salts that melt below 100 C. Their low VOLATILIZATION can be an advantage over volatile organic solvents.
A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.
A family of fungi, order POLYPORALES, found on decaying wood.
Yeast-like ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycopsidaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES, isolated from the stomach of rabbits and some other animals.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A type of COUMARINS with added pyran ring(s).
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
An order of fungi in the phylum BASIDIOMYCOTA having macroscopic basidiocarps. The members are characterized by their saprophytic activities as decomposers, particularly in the degradation of CELLULOSE and LIGNIN. A large number of species in the order have been used medicinally. (From Alexopoulos, Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp504-68)
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.
The application of engineering principles and methods to living organisms or biological systems.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
A mammalian pancreatic extract composed of enzymes with protease, amylase and lipase activities. It is used as a digestant in pancreatic malfunction.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A hexosaminidase specific for non-reducing N-acetyl-D-hexosamine residues in N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminides. It acts on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES. Two specific mammalian isoenzymes of beta-N-acetylhexoaminidase are referred to as HEXOSAMINIDASE A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B. Deficiency of the type A isoenzyme causes TAY-SACHS DISEASE, while deficiency of both A and B isozymes causes SANDHOFF DISEASE. The enzyme has also been used as a tumor marker to distinguish between malignant and benign disease.
Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
The rotation of linearly polarized light as it passes through various media.
The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.
Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.
Chemical compounds derived from acids by the elimination of a molecule of water.
7-Hydroxycoumarins. Substances present in many plants, especially umbelliferae. Umbelliferones are used in sunscreen preparations and may be mutagenic. Their derivatives are used in liver therapy, as reagents, plant growth factors, sunscreens, insecticides, parasiticides, choleretics, spasmolytics, etc.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Compounds consisting of glucosamine and lactate joined by an ether linkage. They occur naturally as N-acetyl derivatives in peptidoglycan, the characteristic polysaccharide composing bacterial cell walls. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
Cellulose derivative used in chromatography, as ion-exchange material, and for various industrial applications.
A genus of chiefly Eurasian and African land snails including the principal edible snails as well as several pests of cultivated plants.
A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.
Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.
A family of galactoside hydrolases that hydrolyze compounds with an O-galactosyl linkage. EC 3.2.1.-.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
A strong oxidizing agent.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues successively from non-reducing ends of polysaccharide chains with the release of beta-glucose. It is also able to hydrolyze 1,6-alpha-glucosidic bonds when the next bond in sequence is 1,4.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.
Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)
A plant genus of the family BERBERIDACEAE which is used in DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL. Members contain flavonol glycosides including epimedins, icariin and noricariin.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
Fatty acid derivatives that have specificity for CANNABINOID RECEPTORS. They are structurally distinct from CANNABINOIDS and were originally discovered as a group of endogenous CANNABINOID RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Cerebrosides which contain as their polar head group a glucose moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramides. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in beta-glucosidase, is the cause of Gaucher's disease.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2).
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.
Amides composed of unsaturated aliphatic FATTY ACIDS linked with AMINES by an amide bond. They are most prominent in ASTERACEAE; PIPERACEAE; and RUTACEAE; and also found in ARISTOLOCHIACEAE; BRASSICACEAE; CONVOLVULACEAE; EUPHORBIACEAE; MENISPERMACEAE; POACEAE; and SOLANACEAE. They are recognized by their pungent taste and for causing numbing and salivation.
A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Members contain salicin, which yields SALICYLIC ACID.
The contamination of indoor air.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
... enzymatic hydrolysis, and dehydration of cellulosic biomass to reactive intermediates for biological or catalytic conversion ... He is one of the researchers responsible for the development of the Bioenergy, Biomass & Biofuel. He is an authoritative figure ... He has addressed several important problems in cellulosic biomass to ethanol and other products with particular focus on ... He has first time introduced direct iterative based how biotech can transform biofuels problems, which is still a challenging ...
Using enzymatic hydrolysis technology, Iogen has produced cellulosic ethanol since 2004. In 2012, Iogen laid off 150 people at ... has completed construction of a commercial biomass-to-ethanol facility using Iogen's advanced cellulosic biofuel technology. ... Enzymatic hydrolysis: The enzymatic hydrolysis step is a multi-day operation run under mild conditions. Tanks receive feed ... Iogen's cellulosic biofuels technology converts a wide variety of cellulosic feedstocks into ethanol and other biofuels. The ...
The ensiled biomass can be subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis without pretreatment. Enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic ... Inbicon is a Danish company that produces cellulosic ethanol. Elsam, a Danish power company, began looking at using biomass for ... EU in strategic biofuel partnerships - Inbicon as partner. (Accessed March 31, 2013) Larsen, Jan. Non-sterile fermentation of ... During the pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass, microbial inhibitors are released which have a significant effect ...
... but the biomass can be deconstructed using Acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, organosolv dissolution, autohydrolysis or ... Cellulosic sugars are used as renewable resources for biochemical and biofuels industries and can be used to produce ... Cellulosic sugars are derived from non-food biomass (e.g. wood, agricultural residues, municipal solid waste). The biomass is ... "Cellulosic Sugars: Unlocking Biomass' Potential", Nexant, (2012), p.1-2 Xylose, Material Measurement Technology, National ...
Biomass costs less, and it makes the resulting cellulosic ethanol a 100% second-generation biofuel, i.e., it uses no 'food for ... key enzymes in the production of cellulosic ethanol by enzymatic hydrolysis. A recent breakthrough in this regard was the ... Biofuels, 237-264. *^ "DOE Selects Six Cellulosic Ethanol Plants for Up to $385 Million in Federal Funding". United States ... "Effect of biomass species and plant size on cellulosic ethanol: A comparative process and economic analysis". Biomass Bioenergy ...
This $35 million biomass facility will exclusively research and develop ethanol production processes using enzymatic hydrolysis ... The feedstock comprises woody and non-woody cellulosic biomass provided by plant biomass, agricultural wastes, forestry ... AB constructed a biomass-to-ethanol facility in Hugoton, Kansas that produced second generation biofuels. The refinery went ... Pre-treatment consists of contacting the cellulosic biomass feedstock with an acidic liquid medium to form an acid-impregnated ...
Alkaline hydrolysis Enzymatic hydrolysis Acid catalysis "Hydrolysis - an overview , ScienceDirect Topics". www.sciencedirect. ... Goldstein, Irving S. (1983), Côté, Wilfred A. (ed.), "Hydrolysis of Cellulose by Acids", Biomass Utilization, NATO Advanced ... Sulfuric acid Trifluoroacetic acid Formic acid Nitric acid Acid hydrolysis can be utilized in the pretreatment of cellulosic ... ISBN 978-0-08-100135-6. Pandey; Larroche; Ricke; Dussap; Gnansounou (2011). Biofuels: Alternaative Feedstocks and Conversion ...
... fuels Bioenergy Biofuel Bioliquids Biomass Biomass gasification Biomass heating systems Bioproduct Biorefinery Cellulosic ... at USDA FAS website Enzymatic Hydrolysis at DOE EERE website NSF article on the work of Huber and others towards plant based ... This will improve the value of cellulosic biomass for animals and biofuel production. This will reduce the density of the ... Biomass to liquid (BtL or BMtL) is a multi-step process of producing synthetic hydrocarbon fuels made from biomass via a ...
The process technology uses enzymatic hydrolysis, followed by fermentation of C5 and C6 sugar into ethanol. Italy-based Mossi ... DOE Release National Biofuels Action Plan Commercializing Cellulosic Ethanol Cellulosic ethanol output could "explode" Poet ... Bioethanol plant in Denmark inaugurated Biomass Magazine, November 19, 2009. Cellulosic ethanol blend available at filling ... Cellulosic ethanol commercialization involves converting cellulose-containing organic matter into cellulosic ethanol for use as ...
Cellulose from the organosolv process is susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis into glucose followed by fermentation to dilute ... The clean cellulosic fibre is used in various high-end packaging and textile purposes (bleached easily with hydrogen peroxide ... Biomass, (1990). 23(4): p. 289-305. Macfarlane, AL, Prestidge, R, Farid, MM, Chen, JJJ, Dissolved air flotation: A novel ... Recently, due to the popularity of second generation biofuels, the organosolv process has been considered in the context of ...
... per day of dry biomass. Unit operations include feedstock washing and milling, pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation ... The main focus of the research is to convert biomass into biofuels/biochemical intermediates via both biochemical and ... A CRADA between NREL and DuPont helped the chemical company develop two key technologies for processing cellulosic ethanol and ... The National Bioenergy Center Homepage NREL's biomass research, development, and deployment projects "Biomass Research - ...
"Cellulase Enzymes for the Conversion of Biomass to Biofuels and Chemicals". Energy Innovation Portal. Retrieved 1 March 2012. " ... Zhu JY, Pan XJ, Wang GS, Gleisner R (April 2009). "Sulfite pretreatment (SPORL) for robust enzymatic saccharification of spruce ... Hydrolysis of (1->4)-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in cellulose and cellotetraose, releasing cellobiose from the non-reducing ends ... particularly cellulosic ethanol. The main technological impediment to widespread utilization of cellulose for fuels is still ...
Conversion of cellulose from energy crops into biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol is under development as a renewable fuel ... "Top Ten Fundamental Challenges of Biomass Pyrolysis for Biofuels". Energy & Environmental Science. 5 (7): 7797. doi:10.1039/ ... Young, Raymond (1986). Cellulose structure modification and hydrolysis. New York: Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-82761-0. Kobayashi, ... often assisted by chemical oxidation or enzymatic treatment, yielding semi-flexible cellulose nanofibrils generally 200 nm to 1 ...
"Enzymatic hydrolysis combined with mechanical shearing and high-pressure homogenization for nanoscale cellulose fibrils and ... "Nitro-oxidation" has been developed to prepare carboxycellulose nanofibers directly from raw plant biomass. Owing to fewer ... "Engineering Algae to Make the 'Wonder Material' Nanocellulose for Biofuels and More". newswise.com. "Nanocellulose - NaNo ... Kalashnikova, Irina; Bizot, Herve; Bertoncini, Patricia; Cathala, Bernard; Capron, Isabelle (2013). "Cellulosic nanorods of ...
Goettemoeller, Jeffrey; Adrian Goettemoeller (2007). Sustainable Ethanol: Biofuels, Biorefineries, Cellulosic Biomass, Flex- ... DOE invested in enzymatic, thermochemical, acid hydrolysis, hybrid hydrolysis/enzymatic, and other research approaches ... Goettemoeller, Jeffrey; Adrian Goettemoeller (2007). Sustainable Ethanol: Biofuels, Biorefineries, Cellulosic Biomass, Flex- ... Biofuels, Biorefineries, Cellulosic Biomass, Flex-Fuel Vehicles, and Sustainable Farming for Energy Independence. Prairie Oak ...
... is used in the fermentation of biomass into biofuels, although this process is relatively experimental at present. ... from an uncultured bacterium for efficient hydrolysis of cellulosic substrates". PLOS One. 8 (6): e65727. Bibcode:2013PLoSO... ... The assay is terminated by the addition of a basic solution that stops the enzymatic reaction and deprotonates the liberated ... Hydrolysis of chain ends to break the polymer into smaller sugars (exocellulase) 3. Hydrolysis of disaccharides and ...
"Top Ten Fundamental Challenges of Biomass Pyrolysis for Biofuels". 》Energy & Environmental Science》 5 (7): 7797. doi:10.1039/ ... 에너지 작물의 셀룰로스를 셀룰로식 에탄올(cellulosic ethanol)과 같은 바이오 연료로 전환하는 것은 재생 가능한 연료 공급원으로 개발 중에 있다. 산업용 셀룰로스는 주로 목재 펄프 및 면섬유로부터 얻는다.[4] ... Young, Raymond (1986). 》Cellulose structure modification and hydrolysis》. New York: Wiley. ISBN 0-471-82761-4.. ... Kobayashi, Shiro; Kashiwa, Keita; Shimada, Junji; Kawasaki, Tatsuya; Shoda, Shin-ichiro (1992). "Enzymatic polymerization: The ...
Biotechnology for Biofuels 7: 71; 72 (2014)]. In this study, corn stover solids from IL, DA, and AFEX pretreatments were ... and how they overcome the biomass recalcitrance. These studies reveal that biomass recalcitrance is overcome by combination of ... and how they overcome the biomass recalcitrance. These studies reveal that biomass recalcitrance is overcome by combination of ... The surface roughness variations measured by SANS were correlated to the removal and redistribution of biomass components and ...
Cellulosic biomass represents an abundant renewable resource for the production of bio-based products and biofuels. 5- ... Enhancement in Enzymatic Hydrolysis by Mechanical Refining of Pretreated Biomass. Conference Presentation ... The production of algal biofuels involves algae cultivation, biomass harvesting and dewatering, lipid extraction, and ... Therefore, cellulosic bioethanol has been identified as a fuel source that has tremendous potential... ...
... of lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars is among the major challenges in producing cellulosic biofuels and biobased ... Most pretreatments do not completely fractionate cellulose and lignin, the latter of which interferes with enzymatic hydrolysis ... of the cost of producing cellulosic biofuels. ...
... impact on the degree of accessibility accomplished by pretreatment and subsequent sugar release by enzymatic hydrolysis. To ... of total biomass. These results suggest that structural, as well as chemical characteristics of the biomass may influence ... of total biomass. These results suggest that structural, as well as chemical characteristics of the biomass may influence ... To evaluate this, biomass from 10 genetically diverse, genotypes of shrub willow (Salix spp.) was pretreated with a hot-water ...
Chapter 2.1 Integrated Production of Cellulose Nanofibrils and Cellulosic Biofuel by Enzymatic Hydrolysis of wood Fibers. One ... In the field of conversion of biomass to ethanol, an important area of research is the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Once ... The regenerated cellulosic fibers from cellulosic woody biomass were obtained from.... .hidewebpageurl { display: none; ... key barrier to converting woody biomass to biofuel through the sugar platform is the low efficiency of enzymatic cellulose ...
Aspen, poplar, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, cellulosic ethanol, pretreatment, recalcitrance, hydrolysis, sugars, biomass ... Chapter 2.1 Integrated Production of Cellulose Nanofibrils and Cellulosic Biofuel by Enzymatic Hydrolysis of wood Fibers. One ... sulfite (SPORL) pretreatment, woody biomass, biofuel/bioethanol, enzymatic saccharification/hydrolysis, nonproductive cellulase ... enzymatic hydrolysis, saccharification, sugars, cellulose, biomass, pretreatment, hydrolysis, lignocellulose, biodegradation, ...
... through enzymatic hydrolysis (e.g., by way of genetic engineering). * Synthetic biofuels, produced from the cellulose extracted ... Cellulosic ethanol, produced from the cellulose extracted from cellulose-rich biomass (trees, straw, grasses), ... Biomass and biofuel production receive an average of 75% of subsidies for renewable energy sources in the EU, while the ... Destructive biofuels and wood-based biomass out of next Renewable Energy Directive say 120 organisations to EU renewables ...
... a cellulosic sugar manufacturer has oversubscribed and closed its Series A funding round. The company sought $5 million in ... The companys process combines the use of an enzymatic hydrolysis to release sugars from biomass, along with technologies to ... Cellulosic ethanol producers, cellulosic and advanced biofuel producers, biobased chemical producers and bioplastic ... Rochester, N.Y.-based Sweetwater Energy Inc., a cellulosic sugar manufacturer has oversubscribed and closed its Series A ...
... and its resistance to chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis and insolubility in ... One of the barriers to the production of ethanol from cellulosic biomass is the toughness of the cellulosic structure, ... Ethanol from Cellulosic Biomass. Posted in Biofuels , Ethanol Fuel. One of the barriers to the production of ethanol from ... cellulosic biomass is the toughness of the cellulosic structure, and its resistance to chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis and ...
... enzymatic hydrolysis, and dehydration of cellulosic biomass to reactive intermediates for biological or catalytic conversion ... He is one of the researchers responsible for the development of the Bioenergy, Biomass & Biofuel. He is an authoritative figure ... He has addressed several important problems in cellulosic biomass to ethanol and other products with particular focus on ... He has first time introduced direct iterative based how biotech can transform biofuels problems, which is still a challenging ...
A key factor in biomass recalcitrance is the... ... and ease of enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulosic component of ... Understanding the causes of lignocellulosic biomass recalcitrance is necessary for developing robust biomass conversion ... Part I: the chemical compositions and physical structures affecting the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose. Biofuels ... Grethlein HE (1985) The effect of pore size distribution on the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic substrates. Nat ...
... and structural changes of biomass with these changes ultimately govern the efficiency of the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. ... The conversion of biomass to biofuels through a biochemical platform usually requires a pretreatment stage to reduce the ... Practical applications of these pretreatment are rapidly developing as illustrated by recent commercial scale cellulosic ... Lignocellulosic biomass has a complex and rigid cell wall structure that makes biomass recalcitrant to biological and chemical ...
One of the most critical steps of all cellulosic biorefinery processes is the hydrolysis of the cellulosic substrate into ... To overcome this hurdle, Lignol, a biorefinery technology company, developed a novel enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) process which ... Despite vast biomass resources in Canada, the conversion of cellulose to fermentable sugars has been a major techno-economic ... challenge that hinders commercial scale production of cellulosic biofuels. The Project addressed this technology gap by ...
... microbial fermentation of sugars generated by thermochemical pretreatment of the biomass followed by an enzymatic hydrolysis of ... Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable resource that can be utilized for the production of biofuels, chemicals, and bio-based ... Biochemical conversion of lignocellulose to advanced biofuels, such as cellulosic ethanol, is generally performed through ... While treatment with sulfur oxyanions had a positive effect on microbial fermentation and enzymatic hydrolysis, treatment with ...
The 183 projects in 43 states include several for the manufacturing of advanced batteries; biomass projects; and vehicles. The ... biomass pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation). These biocatalysts will aid the production of biofuels ... used in manufacturing cellulosic ethanol from corn stover by the biochemical platform ( ... Biomass. In the biomass sector, Novozymes Blair, Inc. was awarded a $28,401,000 credit to support the installation of equipment ...
... microbial fermentation of sugars generated by thermochemical pretreatment of the biomass followed by an enzymatic hydrolysis of ... Biochemical conversion of lignocellulose to advanced biofuels, such as cellulosic ethanol, is generally performed through ... Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable resource that can be utilized for the production of biofuels, chemicals, and bio-based ... Lignocellulosic biomass is a sustainable resource with abundant reserves. Compared to petroleum ‐ based products, the biomass ...
... microbial fermentation of sugars generated by thermochemical pretreatment of the biomass followed by an enzymatic hydrolysis of ... Biochemical conversion of lignocellulose to advanced biofuels, such as cellulosic ethanol, is generally performed through ... Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable resource that can be utilized for the production of biofuels, chemicals, and bio-based ... Substances formed during the pretreatment of the lignocellulosic feedstock inhibit enzymatic hydrolysis as well as microbial ...
Guest speaker: Industrial Biomass Processing and Hydrolysis. Written assignment due. 8. Metabolic Engineering. ... such issues have limited the economic feasibility of cellulosic biofuels.. Goals. This course aims to equip students with the ... We will focus on the biology behind enzymatic cellulose breakdown, the different types of enzymes required, and how these ... Sugars released from cellulose hydrolysis can later be fermented into biofuels like ethanol. ...
... enzymatic hydrolysis, and conversion technologies that accelerate the commercial application of biomass processing to ... of renewable energy technologies with particular emphasis on the production of biofuels and chemicals from cellulosic biomass ... This is important from a practical point of view, whereby novel insights on the effectiveness of biomass pretreatment may arise ... Our derived picture thus challenges the traditional understanding of cellulosic materials, which neglects the differences ...
... a significant problem when considering lignocellulose for biofuel production. Consequently, cellulosic biomass must first be ... Generally, enzymatic deconstruction and hydrolysis occurs slowly under conditions typically around 50 °C and pH 5.0. The ... and undergo either chemical or enzymatic deconstruction to release sugars that can be subsequently fermented to biofuels. ... Cellulases active above 100 °C may assist in biofuel production from lignocellulosic feedstocks by hydrolysing cellulose under ...
... higher titers decrease the volumes required for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation vessels. Therefore, increasing biofuels ... ethanol achieved from the DDR process could significantly reduce the minimum ethanol selling price from cellulosic biomass.« ... In this work, we achieved over 200 g/L of monomeric sugars after high solids enzymaticmore » hydrolysis using the novel ... In this work, we achieved approximately 230 g L -1 of monomeric sugars after high solid enzymatic hydrolysis using ...
... putting it at the forefront of technology for co-called cellulosic ethanol, which is expected to replace corn as the main ... Enzymatic hydrolysis is considered to be the most cost-effective way to make the biofuel, and the Q Microbe is expected to be ... NEW YORK (CNNMoney.com) -- Figuring out a way to turn wood pulp, sugar cane, wheat straw and other biomass products into ... VeraSun is among the first of the larger ethanol companies to stake out a position in cellulosic ethanol. The nations ethanol ...
... of cellulosic biomass such as sugarcane with the compound was shown to increase the degree of downstream enzymatic hydrolysis ... MMO has also been shown to be useful in the production of biofuels; pretreatment ...
... microbial fermentation of sugars generated by thermochemical pretreatment of the biomass followed by an enzymatic hydrolysis of ... Biochemical conversion of lignocellulose to advanced biofuels, such as cellulosic ethanol, is generally performed through ... Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable resource that can be utilized for the production of biofuels, chemicals, and bio-based ... While treatment with sulfur oxyanions had a positive effect on microbial fermentation and enzymatic hydrolysis, treatment with ...
... biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to liquid fuels requires pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of the biomass ... To compete with traditional refineries, biorefineries must achieve high carbohydrate-to-fuel yields with low enzymatic input ... Most pretreatment processes require high enzymatic loadings to achieve higher sugar yields under industrially-relevant ... biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to liquid fuels requires pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of the biomass ...
... with current emphasis on pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis.. While the cellulosic ethanol industry is making progress, ... Key players in the cellulosic biofuels industry are working out the details to get what they need and leave what the soil needs ... Biomass logistics. Biomass sourcing and logistics, followed by technology and scale-up issues, have been two of the main ... "We began testing our proprietary enzymatic hydrolysis technology at laboratory scale in 2003, and first produced cellulosic ...
Cellulosic biomass (plants, wood, and their wastes) can be separated into its component sugars and lignin using enzymatic or ... BIOconversion, bioenergy, biofuels, ethanol, hydrolysis, syngas, cellulosic, legislation, gasification, decentralization, ... There are biomass waste streams throughout the world that could provide the feedstock for future biomass conversion to biofuels ... Most commonly, biomass refers to plant matter grown for use as biofuel, but it also includes plant or animal matter used for ...
Cellulosic biomass (plants, wood, and their wastes) can be separated into its component sugars and lignin using enzymatic or ... BIOconversion, bioenergy, biofuels, ethanol, hydrolysis, syngas, cellulosic, legislation, gasification, decentralization, ... Other conversion processes involve converting cellulosic feedstock (like woody biomass) into biofuels. The way that wood stores ... There are biomass waste streams throughout the world that could provide the feedstock for future biomass conversion to biofuels ...
Using enzymatic hydrolysis technology, Iogen has produced cellulosic ethanol since 2004. In 2012, Iogen laid off 150 people at ... has completed construction of a commercial biomass-to-ethanol facility using Iogens advanced cellulosic biofuel technology. ... Enzymatic hydrolysis: The enzymatic hydrolysis step is a multi-day operation run under mild conditions. Tanks receive feed ... Iogens cellulosic biofuels technology converts a wide variety of cellulosic feedstocks into ethanol and other biofuels. The ...
"Imidazolium is the most effective known ionic liquid for breaking down cellulosic biomass for enzymatic hydrolysis into ... Advanced biofuels made from cellulosic sugars stored in the biomass of grasses and other non-food crops and agricultural waste ... One-Pot to Prep Biomass for Biofuels:. News Release Lynn Yarris (510) 486-5375 • August 13, 2013 ... In their efforts to develop cost-effective ways to deconstruct cellulosic biomass into fuel sugars, Simmons, Singh and their ...
  • Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is a prerequisite to overcome recalcitrance and allow enzyme accessibility to cellulose and maximize product recovery for improved economics of second-generation lignocellulosic bio-refineries. (frontiersin.org)
  • Lignocellulosic biomass is considered as sustainable and renewable feedstock to produce biofuels that is alternative to petroleum derived fuels. (frontiersin.org)
  • This book provides a comprehensive review of bioprocessing technologies that use lignocellulosic biomass for the production of biofuels, biochemicals and biopolymers and sets the stage for their large-scale production. (aiche.org)
  • Deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars is among the major challenges in producing cellulosic biofuels and biobased products. (aiche.org)
  • The reduction of US dependency on foreign oil will require the production of domestic renewable transportation fuels from lignocellulosic biomass as alternative energy sources. (frontiersin.org)
  • To reach this goal within the next decade and prevent competition for food crops such as corn, the conversion processes of lignocellulosic biomass into fermentation products, such as ethanol or butanol has to be improved. (frontiersin.org)
  • The feasibility of generating biofuels from lignocellulosic energy crops is largely dependent on cost reductions throughout the production cycle and conversion process. (frontiersin.org)
  • Converting lignocellulosic material into ethanol involves four major steps: pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, and product purification or distillation ( Lynd, 1996 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Pretreatment processes break apart the highly recalcitrant lignocellulosic material mechanically or chemically to make cellulose and hemicelluloses more accessible for hydrolysis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Understanding the causes of lignocellulosic biomass recalcitrance is necessary for developing robust biomass conversion processes for fuels and chemicals. (springer.com)
  • It has been shown that the water retention value, and water constraint as measured by spin-spin low field NMR (T 2 LFNMR) techniques, correlated to biomass recalcitrance for similar lignocellulosic materials pretreated at different severities. (springer.com)
  • Lignocellulosic biomass has a complex and rigid cell wall structure that makes biomass recalcitrant to biological and chemical degradation. (osti.gov)
  • Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable resource that can be utilized for the production of biofuels, chemicals, and bio-based materials. (diva-portal.org)
  • Cellulases active above 100 °C may assist in biofuel production from lignocellulosic feedstocks by hydrolysing cellulose under conditions typically employed in biomass pretreatment. (asknature.org)
  • Distilling and purifying ethanol and other products from second generation lignocellulosic biorefineries adds significant capital and operating costs to biofuel production. (osti.gov)
  • Lignocellulosic crop residues are a promising alternative feedstock for producing liquid fuels and chemicals for modern biobased economies, and biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to liquid fuels requires pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of the biomass to yield fermentable sugars. (glbrc.org)
  • By using liquid ammonia to pretreat lignocellulosic biomass under certain conditions, it is possible to convert native cellulose to a highly digestible cellulose allomorph (i.e., cellulose III) and simultaneously extract a lignin fraction for downstream catalytic upgrading. (glbrc.org)
  • In collaboration with researchers at the Joint BioEnergy Institute and Bioenergy Science Center, researchers in the Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center developed a new liquid ammonia pretreatment called Extractive Ammonia (EA) to simultaneously convert native crystalline cellulose I to a highly digestible cellulose III allomorph and selectively extract up to ~45% of the lignin from lignocellulosic biomass with near-quantitative retention of all polysaccharides. (glbrc.org)
  • Agricultural residues and energy crops are potential lignocellulosic feedstocks for use in biorefineries to produce biofuels and bioproducts. (osu.edu)
  • Lignocellulosic biomass bioconversion is hampered by the structural and chemical complexity of the network created by cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. (nature.com)
  • Understanding plant cell wall complexity during lignocellulosic bioconversion is therefore important to identify critical features impacting hydrolysis, for optimising pretreatments of biomass 5 and enzyme cocktails 6 . (nature.com)
  • In industrial processes, addition of LPMOs to cellulolytic cocktails leads to the reduction of the enzyme loading required for efficient saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass 26 . (nature.com)
  • In recent years, the fact that production of ethanol from cellulosic and lignocellulosic material is being hindered due to inadequate technology to enable efficient and economically viable methods to break down the multipolymeric raw material has gained wide popularity (Verma et al , 2010). (ukessays.com)
  • Lignocellulosic biofuels are thus likely to be seen as a part of the portfolio of solutions being offered to reduce high energy prices, including more efficient energy use along with the use of other alternative fuels (Coyle, 2007). (ukessays.com)
  • Among the various types of alternative fuels considered (liquid fuels from coal and/or biomass with and without carbon capture and storage (CCS)), biofuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass offer the most clean and sustainable alternative to fossil fuels essentially because of their cost competitiveness as opposed to the current expensive methods of ethanol production from sugarcane and corn (Stephanopoulos, 2008) (Shen and Gnanakaran, 2009). (ukessays.com)
  • Lignin from different biomass sources and pretreatment methods have shown distinct effects on enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic substrates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The lignocellulosic feedstock-based biofuel market is poised to grow by USD 7.83 billion during 2020-2024, progressing at a CAGR of about 32% during the forecast period. (finanznachrichten.de)
  • Technavio has announced its latest market research report titled global lignocellulosic feedstock-based biofuel market 2020-2024. (finanznachrichten.de)
  • In addition, the emergence of integrated waste management system is anticipated to boost the growth of the lignocellulosic feedstock-based biofuel market. (finanznachrichten.de)
  • Hence, rising adoption of bioethanol as a transport fuel will drive the demand for lignocellulosic feedstock-based biofuel. (finanznachrichten.de)
  • The company uses lignocellulosic biomass such as cereal straw as feedstock for the production of bioethanol. (finanznachrichten.de)
  • The company employs sunliquid process for the conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks such as agricultural residues into biofuels. (finanznachrichten.de)
  • [2] According to the National Academy of Sciences in 2011, there is no commercially viable bio-refinery in existence to convert lignocellulosic biomass to fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conversion of cellulose and hemicellulose of lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol is a promising solution to the anticipated future fuel crisis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Han, "Process systems engineering studies for catalytic production of bio-based platform molecules from lignocellulosic biomass ," Energy Conversion and Management, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In this context, Trichoderma reesei may play an important role in decreasing costs for bioethanol production, whereas it is the filamentous fungus with the greatest capacity of degrading the lignocellulosic biomass [2, 15, 32]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The palm oil industry is reported to generate great volumes of lignocellulosic biomass during plantation and palm oil extraction process. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A mixture of the three major inhibitors produced during lignocellulosic biomass treatment, acetic acid, furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, were evaluated on P. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Ethanol production from lignocellulosic material is a topic of interest because it does not undermine crops used for human consumption but it uses various sources of lignocellulosic biomass such as agricultural and municipal solid wastes [1]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For lignocellulosic biomass , the CrI indicates the relative amount of crystalline cellulose in the substrates. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • At the same time, domestic growth in pellet demand for power production may require another 9 million tons per year of lignocellulosic biomass when the EPA's mandated Clean Power Plan is put in place in 2022. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The performance of cellulase in the enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulose depends on the characteristics of lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks and the pretreatment method used. (ncsu.edu)
  • Therefore, the production of bio-based fuels or chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass has garnered much attention (Hill et al . (ncsu.edu)
  • Currently, commercial cellulases employed for the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass exhibit many obstacles, such as non-productive absorption of enzymes into lignin (Ko et al . (ncsu.edu)
  • 2008). Therefore, an efficient pretreatment process is needed for cellulose conversion process which promotes the disruption of the lignocellulosic matrix in order to facilitate acid or enzyme catalyzed hydrolysis (Silverstein et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • They use external forces to reduce the lignocellulosic biomass in to fine particles in order to increase the surface area of the material. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Current biofuel research focuses mainly on lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) such as agricultural, industrial and municipal solid wastes due to their abundance and renewability. (springeropen.com)
  • Second generation biofuels are derived from inedible lignocellulosic biomass of food and non-food crops. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Lignocellulosic biomass is mainly composed of cell walls that contain a large proportion of cellulosic and hemicellulosic polysaccharides. (bio-protocol.org)
  • To test the saccharification efficiency of lignocellulosic biomass on a lab-scale, a manual saccharification protocol was established that uses only small amounts of biomass and a low concentration of enzyme. (bio-protocol.org)
  • However, for the process to become financially competitive in comparison with first-generation ethanol (E1G), it is necessary to reduce the costs related to the lignocellulosic biomass processing required to recover and break the sugars present in plant cell walls [ 1 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • 10] REN N.Q, WANG A.J, CAO G.L, XU J.F, GAO L.F. Bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to hydrogen: potential and challenges. (blucher.com.br)
  • Although previous enzymatic optimization studies have acquired different types of in vitro synthetic mixtures for efficient lignocellulose hydrolysis, production of in vivo optimized cellulase mixtures by industrial strains remains one of the obstacles to reduce enzyme cost in the biofuels production from lignocellulosic biomass. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Depletion of fossil fuels and deterioration of ecological environments have attracted intensive attentions toward the utilization of renewable lignocellulosic biomass for production of biofuels, such as cellulosic ethanol [ 1 , 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An essential step in conversion of the lignocellulosic materials to ethanol or other liquid fuels is the enzymatic hydrolysis of polysaccharides into fermentable sugars [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Researchers from the CSIR-Indian Institute of Petroleum are proposing a biorefinery scheme using lignocellulosic biomass feedstock (sugarcane bagasse) for the production of fuel (ethanol), chemicals (furfural), and energy (electricity). (greencarcongress.com)
  • Also known as lignocellulosic biomass, the structural part of plants that is not edible by humans and contains cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, and lignin. (springer.com)
  • Ethanol made from lignocellulosic biomass by biological, chemical, or chemo-biological processes. (springer.com)
  • This blog will talk about the issues about biomass, biofuels and biochemical production from lignocellulosic biomass. (blogspot.com)
  • 2010). Since conversion of starch and plant oils into first generation biofuels may compete with food production, these raw materials have been increasingly replaced with lignocellulosic biomass, including wastes from forestry, agriculture, wood processing and papermaking, like woodchips and fines from paper mills. (paperity.org)
  • However, enzymatic degradation of cellulose and hemicelluloses contained in lignocellulosic biomass to simple sugars is not as easy as starch hydrolysis because of the complex, tightly bound and crosslinked, three dimensional structure of plant tissues and protective impact of lignin, resinous substances and waxes. (paperity.org)
  • Efficient liberation of fermentable soluble sugars from lignocellulosic biomass waste not only decreases solid waste handling but also produces value-added biofuels and biobased products. (heartland.io)
  • However, some groups of bacteria belonging to the actinomycetes, α-proteobacteria and β-proteobacteria were also found to be efficient in degrading lignocellulosic biomass but not well understood unlike the fungi. (ijbs.com)
  • The abundance and availability of lignocellulosic biomass makes the cellulosic ethanol as a significant and immediate alternative for conventional fuels. (ijbs.com)
  • Fungi are greatly known for their ability to depolymerize lignocellulosic biomass compared to bacteria. (ijbs.com)
  • At first, however, other commercial applications for cellulases were developed [ 16 - 18 ] as it became clear that efficient and complete saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars requires many more enzymatic activities than initially anticipated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bio-electrolysis: Novel Technology for Hydrogen Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The overall goal of the proposed research is to develop a novel bio-electrolytic process to generate hydrogen directly from renewable, abundant and readily available lignocellulosic biomass in a cost-effective manner. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Dr. Liu, along with Kaichang Li (OSU), will examine the factors affecting hydrogen production from complex lignocellulosic biomass in order to improve the overall efficiency of the process. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The team will use pine wood flour as the model lignocellulosic biomass. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Various plants and plant-derived materials are used for biofuels manufacturing including grains (1st generation) and lignocellulosic biomass (2nd generation). (springeropen.com)
  • The 'second generation' of biofuels is more important as they are based on the cheap and abundant lignocellulosic biomass and do not compete with food crops. (springeropen.com)
  • During the past decade, a significant amount of progress has been made in understanding and improving the production of second‐generation biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. (els.net)
  • The sweet sorghum is an excellent crop for bioethanol production due to its dual capacity of providing a sugar juice (rich in glucose, fructose, and sucrose) and spent lignocellulosic biomass (rich in C5 and C6 sugars) that are efficiently converted into first and second-generation ethanol [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • MetZyme® SUNO™ is a game-changing enzyme solution designed to significantly improve the economics of lignocellulosic chemicals production, including biofuels. (metgen.com)
  • MetZyme® SUNO™ solution is individually tailored for each lignocellulosic biomass and process. (metgen.com)
  • Brodeur G, Yau E, Badal K, Collier J, Ramachandran KB, Ramakrishnan S (2011) Chemical and physicochemical pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass: a review. (springer.com)
  • Lignocellulosic biomass, after pretreatment, can be used as a renewable feedstock for microbial production of various bioproducts including ethanol and PHA bioplastics [ 3 , 4 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • Commercial-scale bio-refineries are designed to process 2000 tons/day of single lignocellulosic biomass. (lbl.gov)
  • Because cellulose and hemicellulose exist routinely and concurrently with lignin as found in lignocellulosic biomass, and cellulose forms a highly crystalline structure due to the presence of extensive intra- and inter-molecular hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions, it remains a major challenge for cost-effective hydrolysis of (lingo)cellulosic materials. (dicp.ac.cn)
  • Enzymatic hydrolysis that converts lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars may be the most complex step in this process due to substrate-related and enzyme-related effects and their interactions. (woodtobiofuels.org)
  • This review discusses the various pretreatment process methods and the recent literature that has reported on the use of these technologies for pretreatment of various lignocellulosic biomasses. (woodtobiofuels.org)
  • Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant renewable resource in the biosphere, and the total biomass formed by plant photosynthesis reached more than 200 billion tons every year. (springer.com)
  • Cellulase and hemicellulose and lignin degradation enzymes, the efficient biocatalyst, could efficiently convert the lignocellulosic biomass into sugars that could be further processed into biofuels, biochemical, and biomaterial for human requirement. (springer.com)
  • These new mentioned technologies are promising for lignocellulosic biomass degradation in a huge scale biorefinery. (springer.com)
  • This review article has briefly explained the emerging technologies especially the consolidated bioprocessing, chemistry, and physical base pretreatment and their importance in the valorization of lignocellulosic biomass conversion. (springer.com)
  • Bajpai P, (2016) Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuel production. (springer.com)
  • Overcoming this recalcitrance and improving cellulose digestibility are key research areas for making cellulosic ethanol profitable and involve improvements in pretreatments and hydrolysis. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the conversion of woody biomass feedstocks into liquid fuel ethanol, the pretreatment process is the most critical and costly step. (frontiersin.org)
  • Sweetwater is continually working to expand the list of feedstocks it can process, and has already worked with stover, switchgrass, energy sorghum and wood biomass. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • He has dedicated most of his career to the development of renewable energy technologies with particular emphasis on the production of biofuels and chemicals from cellulosic biomass feedstocks and other sustainable resources. (aalto.fi)
  • Biofuel labs across the country have been busy experimenting with various enzymes that can extract sugar from feedstocks which then can be converted into ethanol. (cnn.com)
  • After working with farmers in central Kansas to produce feedstocks and iron out the logistics of getting them from the field to the plant, Abengoa will begin producing cellulosic ethanol early next year at its 25 million-gal. (farmindustrynews.com)
  • Iogen's cellulosic biofuels technology converts a wide variety of cellulosic feedstocks into ethanol and other biofuels. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Iogen process involves: Feedstock handling: Feedstocks such as agriculture residues are trucked to a cellulosic ethanol facility where the material is weighed and tested for moisture content. (wikipedia.org)
  • A major step forward in this goal has now been achieved by researchers with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) who report the first demonstration of a one-pot, wash-free, process for the ionic liquid pretreatment and saccharification of switchgrass, one of the leading potential biofuel feedstocks. (lbl.gov)
  • Many people know that corn stover and switchgrass can be converted to ethanol, but technologies have been developed to process a number of other cellulosic feedstocks, including dedicated energy crops like hybrid poplars, willow, miscanthus, sorghum as well as "waste" biomass like sugarcane bagasse, rice hulls, orchard prunings, wheat straw, and forest thinnings. (eesi.org)
  • We have engineered and constructed a continuous pilot facility in Rivalta, Italy where we have developed a unique bio-mass pretreatment and hydrolysis process, for which 11 patents applications have been filed, for transforming cellulosic feedstocks into sugar for conversion into ethanol and/or bio- based chemicals. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • In summary, the test data shows that VIASPACE's proprietary Giant King Grass has essentially the same properties as corn stover and wheat straw, which are current leading candidate feedstocks for making not only cellulosic biofuels but also a wide range of biochemicals. (viaspace.com)
  • The abundance and diversity of feedstocks and the potential to prevent changes of the thermal equilibrium of the atmosphere caused mostly by carbon dioxide makes conversion of cellulosic biomass to ethanol and other fuels more advantageous than fossil fuels or firstgeneration corn ethanol [1]. (cyberleninka.org)
  • Infections and Host-Pathogen Interactions of Chlorella The non-photosynthetic, predatory cyanobacterium Vampirovibrio chlorellavorus is a globally important obligate pathogen of Chlorella species/strains, which are of interest as biofuel feedstocks. (doe.gov)
  • As steam cracker operators are capitalizing on the shale-gas revolution and inexpensive natural gas liquids are pushing naphtha feedstocks aside, the development of alternative routes for the production of aromatics from renewables, such as biomass, is receiving considerable attention. (udel.edu)
  • Characteristics of various feedstocks and fuels, processes for conversion of biomass to biofuels, the physical, chemical factors, and limitations affecting the conversion of biomass to fuels are discussed in this chapter. (springerprofessional.de)
  • Background: Heterogeneity within herbaceous biomass can present important challenges for processing feedstocks to cellulosic biofuels. (diva-portal.org)
  • Results of enzymatic hydrolysis of pine kraft cellulosic pulps (Kappa numbers ranging from 17.2 to 86.2) and waste fines from paper production line suggest that they are potential feedstocks for biofuel production. (paperity.org)
  • Compared to the first-generation biofuels (fuels produced from feedstocks such as corn starch and sugar cane, which can potentially be made into food/feed), producing biofuels from the inedible cellulosic biomass creates less competition with food/feed production for the limited agricultural farmland and other resources [3]. (ukdiss.com)
  • a) Plant biomass sequesters solar energy and is used as feedstocks. (els.net)
  • When Congress passed the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of December 2007 (1), it envisioned that ethanol from various cellulosic feedstocks would play an important role in supplying U.S. automotive fuel in the next 15 years. (agmrc.org)
  • In this article, we review the planned role of cellulosic ethanol, some alternative feedstocks that are being considered, a general overview of some of the production processes being developed, plants currently in the development and construction stages, and possible volumes of production in the next two or three years. (agmrc.org)
  • In contrast to the starch from corn that is easily converted to ethanol, the cell walls of cellulosic feedstocks are difficult to break down chemically so that sugars can be released and fermented. (agmrc.org)
  • This research article tests the Actinomycete Streptomyces griseus for its ability to digest lignin as a way to pretreat linogellulosic feedstocks for biofuel production. (woodtobiofuels.org)
  • Cellulosic ethanol can be produced from a diverse array of feedstocks, such as wood pulp from trees or any plant matter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemical conversion of lignocellulose to advanced biofuels, such as cellulosic ethanol, is generally performed through microbial fermentation of sugars generated by thermochemical pretreatment of the biomass followed by an enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose. (diva-portal.org)
  • In the biomass sector, Novozymes Blair, Inc. was awarded a $28,401,000 credit to support the installation of equipment at a new manufacturing facility to produce biocatalysts (enzymes) used in manufacturing cellulosic ethanol from corn stover by the biochemical platform (biomass pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation). (greencarcongress.com)
  • The energy usage associated with distillation negatively affects plant gate costs and causes environmental and life-cycle impacts, and the lower titers in fermentation caused by lower sugar concentrations from pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis increase energy and water usage and ethanol production costs. (osti.gov)
  • In addition, lower ethanol titers increase the volumes required for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation vessels increase capital expenditure (CAPEX). (osti.gov)
  • Cellulosic biomass is one of the most abundant industrial waste products and an appealing substrate for biorefining strategies to produce biofuels by fermentation. (bl.uk)
  • This has been traditionally facilitated by an economically inefficient multistep process referred to as separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF), in which the enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulosic substrate and fermentation of the liberated sugars is performed sequentially. (bl.uk)
  • CBP is believed to be a potentially cost-efficient and commercially viable way to produce cellulosic biofuels since the feedback inhibition of glycosyl hydrolases by monosaccharides as they are released is reduced by their rapid conversion through microbial fermentation. (bl.uk)
  • The last two steps, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation, can be combined into a single-unit operation known as simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), which avoids end-product inhibition of hydrolytic enzymes and eliminates the need for separate hydrolysis and fermentation reactors [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Normally these assays mimic the aforementioned steps of cellulosic ethanol production, and then measure either released glucose and xylose, ethanol concentration after fermentation, or both. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2006). The production of fuels and chemicals from lignocelluloses involves three major processing steps: pretreatment of lignocellulose, enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated lignocellulose, and microbial fermentation to yield fuels and chemicals (Limayem and Riche 2012). (ncsu.edu)
  • 2004). A successful pretreatment must avoid the degradation or loss of carbohydrate, avoid the formation of by-products inhibitory to the subsequent hydrolysis and fermentation process and finally must be cost-effective (Wyman, 1996). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The process uses steam-explosion to open up the cellulosic structures of the sawdust, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to extract the sugars for ethanol fermentation. (canadianbiomassmagazine.ca)
  • BACKGROUND: In a biorefinery producing cellulosic biofuels, biomass pretreatment will significantly influence the efficacy of enzymatic hydrolysis and microbial fermentation. (usda.gov)
  • A team led by researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana−Champaign has, for the first time, integrated the fermentation pathways of both hexose and pentose sugars from biomass as well as an acetic acid reduction pathway into one strain of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae using synthetic biology and metabolic. (greencarcongress.com)
  • ABRD is developing a novel biomass-to-ethanol process, with emphasis on thermochemical fractionation and enzymatic hydrolysis to release these sugars for ethanol fermentation. (typepad.com)
  • Ethanol can be made synthetically from petroleum or by microbial conversion of biomass materials through fermentation. (ebscohost.com)
  • Several limitations to bioconversion of biomass are described such as size reduction, crystallinity, byproduct inhibition to fermentation, deactivation of cellulases, ethanol tolerance by yeast, and cofermentation of various sugars. (springerprofessional.de)
  • The company's hybrid technology platform deconstructs, or "fractionates", raw biomass into fermentable sugars and separate lignins, sending the sugars to acetogenic fermentation and the lignins to gasification. (terutalk.com)
  • Biofuel conversion is mainly conducted through a biochemical pathway in which size reduction, pelleting, pretreatment, hydrolysis, and fermentation are the main processes. (ukdiss.com)
  • Biomass particle size also influences sugar yield in hydrolysis, which is approximately proportional to biofuel yield after fermentation. (ukdiss.com)
  • The traditional way for ethanol preparation is dependent on enzymatic hydrolysis-fermentation, with disadvantages of long production cycle, expensive enzyme cost and easy deactivation by poisoning. (cas.cn)
  • The objective of this research was to determine optimum extrusion parameters (last zone of the barrel temperature, screws speed, and feedstock moisture content) of sweet sorghum bagasse for its subsequent sugar enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation with the strain Issatchenkia orientalis 20381 into bioethanol. (hindawi.com)
  • Subject to improved energy efficiency, sugar producers could supply energy either as ''green'', co-generated electricity, or as fuel ethanol through cellulose hydrolysis followed by fermentation. (scribd.com)
  • After pre-treatment of the raw material, the fibrous fraction is first hydrolysed at high consistency and then the modified material is subjected simultaneously to continued hydrolysis with a cellulase and to ethanol fermentation in a fermentation mixture. (google.com)
  • Ahmed A, Lewis RL (2007) Fermentation of biomass generated synthesis gas: effects of nitric oxide. (springer.com)
  • The process technology uses enzymatic hydrolysis, followed by fermentation of C5 and C6 sugar into ethanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was determined that the EH process reduces enzyme cost (on a per unit sugar released basis) from 40% to 65% (as compared to the base case), depending on the biomass feedstock. (gc.ca)
  • The U.S. revised renewable fuel standard (RFS2) mandates the production of 16 billion gallons of cellulosic biofuels by 2022, which will annually require about 200 million U.S. tons of cellulosic feedstock. (osu.edu)
  • These sugars can be further utilized to produce biofuels and bioproducts, making them a potential feedstock source for use in a biorefinery. (osu.edu)
  • Feedstock logistics for agricultural residues and energy crops for the cellulosic biorefinery. (osu.edu)
  • However, a single harvest at the end of the season can maximize biomass yield, which may make it the most economical option for use as a biomass feedstock. (osu.edu)
  • Pretreatment: Pretreatment is a high temperature, short residence time, mild acid hydrolysis which breaks down the feedstock and prepares it for the introduction of enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conventional separate pretreatment and saccharification of biofuel feedstock (a) entails water and waste disposal that one-pot system (b) eliminates. (lbl.gov)
  • Irvine, California, USA-February 14, 2011-VIASPACE Inc. (OTC Bulletin Board: VSPC), and its subsidiary VIASPACE Green Energy Inc. (OTC Bulletin Board: VGREF) reported results of recent independent testing of Giant King Grass as a feedstock for producing second-generation cellulosic biofuels such ethanol and butanol, and biomass-based chemicals. (viaspace.com)
  • This validates Giant King Grass, a nonfood dedicated energy crop, as a competitive feedstock for producing cellulosic biofuels. (viaspace.com)
  • Most importantly, an acre of Giant King Grass yields up to 10 times greater tonnage than an acre of corn stover, which is the stalk and leaves leftover from harvesting an acre of corn,' Kukkonen continued, 'With our high yield, we believe that Giant King Grass can reduce biofuel feedstock costs by up to 40%, even when compared to projected prices for corn straw as agricultural waste. (viaspace.com)
  • This new data on its potential for biofuels places Giant King Grass in a unique position as a low-cost feedstock with universal application in the worldwide push toward clean electricity generation and production of cellulosic ethanol and other liquid biofuels. (viaspace.com)
  • Through its majority-owned subsidiary VIASPACE Green Energy Inc., the Company grows Giant King Grass as a low-carbon fuel for electricity generating power plants, as a feedstock for bio methane production and cellulosic biofuels, and for other low-carbon, renewable energy products. (viaspace.com)
  • The first two groups of raw material are currently the main resources for ethanol production, but concomitant growth in demand for human feed similar to energy could make them potentially less competitive and perhaps expensive feed stocks in the near future, leaving the cellulosic material as the only potential feedstock for production of ethanol (Taherzadeh and Karimi, 2007). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The most significant challenge for biofuel production is to develop feasible and efficient conversion process, suitable for each specific biomass feedstock that are capable of powering everyday life without bringing harmful environmental changes. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The initial moisture content of feedstock was found to be the key factor affecting the development of physical features and enzymatic hydrolysis of micronized wood. (wsu.edu)
  • In an effort to exploit the underlying mechanism associated with the reduced recalcitrance in micronized wood, we reported the increased enzymatic sugar yield and correspondingly structural and accessible properties of micronized feedstock. (wsu.edu)
  • Embodiments of the method comprise passing the cellulosic feedstock out of at least one outlet of a vessel (such as a holding tank) and obtaining at least two streams of cellulosic feedstock wherein each stream may be fed different hydrolysis reactors. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Embodiments of the apparatus comprise passing the cellulosic feedstock downwardly through the vessel and withdrawing the feedstock from the vessel in two different lateral directions. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 2. The method of claim 1, wherein step (b) comprises conveying the cellulosic feedstock laterally across the outlet of the vessel. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 5. The method of claim 4, wherein a first hydrolysis reactor is filled from a first stream while a second hydrolysis reactor is operated to hydrolyze cellulosic feedstock obtained from a second stream. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 6. The method of claim 1, further comprising passing the cellulosic feedstock downwardly through the vessel. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 8. The method of claim 7, further comprising drawing a first portion of cellulosic feedstock for the first stream from a first portion of the outlet and drawing a second portion of cellulosic feedstock for the second stream from a second portion of the outlet. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 9. The method of claim 1, wherein the at least one inlet of the vessel is disposed at an elevation above the at least one outlet of the vessel, and the cellulosic feedstock is conveyed from the at least one inlet towards the at least one outlet of the vessel under the force of gravity. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 11. The method of claim 1, wherein the residence time of the cellulosic feedstock in the vessel is between 10 minutes and 30 minutes. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 12. The method of claim 1, further comprising applying heat to the cellulosic feedstock in the vessel. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The proposed scheme could be integrated with existing sugar or paper mills, where the availability of biomass feedstock is in abundance. (greencarcongress.com)
  • It is agreed that biomass feedstock particle sizing can impact the economics of cellulosic ethanol commercialization through its effects on conversion yield and energy cost. (blogspot.com)
  • Conclusions: Cell wall structural differences within a single plant can play a significant role in feedstock properties and have the potential to be exploited for improving biomass processability during a biorefining process. (diva-portal.org)
  • Process improvements completed with the recent construction have expanded the plant's range of acceptable feedstock to better utilize locally sourced biomass such as wood chips and wheat straw. (terutalk.com)
  • 2015) Downregulation of GAUT12 in Populus deltoides by RNA silencing results in reduced recalcitrance, increased growth and reduced xylan and pectin in a woody biofuel feedstock. (els.net)
  • Because of the bulky nature of the feedstock, current and anticipated first-phase technologies are expected to result in an optimum size of cellulosic ethanol plants that will be much smaller than those for typical recently constructed starch-ethanol plants in the Corn Belt. (agmrc.org)
  • Saccharification, the process to depolymerize cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars, is a considerable cost component in the biochemical conversion of biomass and feedstock to bioproducts. (lbl.gov)
  • The extent to which solids loading can be increased in hydrolysis varies with the type of feedstock, pretreatment process, and enzyme/catalyst. (lbl.gov)
  • This textbook chapter presents the detailed procedure of the liquid hot water pretreatment of cellulosic feedstock. (woodtobiofuels.org)
  • This paper discusses a property associated with plant biomass recalcitrance to enzyme and microbial deconstructions in sugar production from cellulose and hemicelluloses. (usda.gov)
  • The energy from the sun converted into plant biomass is the most promising renewable resource available to humanity. (mit.edu)
  • We will examine each of the critical steps along the pathway towards the conversion of plant biomass into ethanol. (mit.edu)
  • Cellulose, a linear polymer of β 1-4, linked glucose, is the most abundant renewable fraction of plant biomass (lignocellulose). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The sugar monomers of these two major components of plant biomass can be fermented to ethanol [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Considerable attention in recent years has been given to plant biomass, which in contrast to the fossil sources is continuously renewed in nature. (ncsu.edu)
  • In this critical review the use of non-edible plant biomass for production of various kinds of biofuels is considered. (ncsu.edu)
  • To generate energy, plant biomass either can be burned directly or it can be used after its conversion into carbonized solid fuel ( e.g. biochar), liquid fuels (bioethanol, biodiesel, bio-oil), or gases (biogas). (ncsu.edu)
  • A comparative analysis of energetic potential of biomass and various kinds of biofuels revealed that the most efficient way to produce energy is by direct burning of the plant biomass in a pelletized form, while the burning of such amount of the solid, liquid, or gaseous biofuel, which can be obtained from the plant material, gives a much smaller energetic effect. (ncsu.edu)
  • Aqueous pretreatment of plant biomass for biological and chemical conversion to fuels and chemicals. (springer.com)
  • Background: The conversion of plant biomass to ethanol via enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis offers a potentially sustainable route to biofuel production. (ebscohost.com)
  • The highly cross-linked lignin coating, surrounding fibers of cellulose and hemicelluloses is considered one of main causes of plant biomass recalcitrance since it restricts access of enzymes catalyzing depolymerization of polysaccharides (Alvira et al. (paperity.org)
  • Most prominently in biorefineries which use T. reesei enzymes to saccharify lignocellulose from renewable plant biomass in order to produce biobased fuels and chemicals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In a bio-based economy we want to produce bioplastics, biochemicals and biofuels from plant biomass. (chalmers.se)
  • Direct conversion of plant biomass to bioproducts by engineered Caldicellulosiruptor bescii. (lbl.gov)
  • Therefore, cellulosic bioethanol has been identified as a fuel source that has tremendous potential. (aiche.org)
  • Alvira P, Tomás-Pejó E, Ballesteros M, Negro MJ (2010) Pretreatment technologies for an efficient bioethanol production process based on enzymatic hydrolysis: a review. (springer.com)
  • The review thus aims to provide a brief overview about the need and importance of biofuels particularly bioethanol with respect to the growing environmental concerns along with an urgent need to address the existing problems about cost-optimisation and large scale production of biofuels. (ukessays.com)
  • Bioethanol has emerged as one of the most significant biofuels in the transportation sector due to its ability to offer sustainable mobility and significantly reduce GHG emissions. (finanznachrichten.de)
  • The company produces bioethanol by employing its in-house developed enzymatic hydrolysis technology. (finanznachrichten.de)
  • Among various biofuels, production of bioethanol has potential to be the most attractive if recent technological advances become implemented, such that the co-production of ethanol and valuable byproducts can be combined together with recycling of solid and liquid wastes. (ncsu.edu)
  • Chemtex and its parent, Gruppo Mossi and Ghisolfi, have invested significant funds and have dedicated years of effort into the development of the PROESA ligno- cellulosic bioethanol technology. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • This paper aims to summarize the various methods for conversion of lignocllusoic biomass to bioethanol. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Phosphomolybdic acid and ferric iron as efficient electron mediators for coupling biomass pretreatment to produce bioethanol and electricity generation from wheat straw. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The production capacity of the plant is expected to be 10 million litres of bioethanol per year, and will be leased to North European Oil Trade Oy (NEOT), which engages in oil and bioproduct wholesale trade, according to a recent press release from St1 Biofuels Oy. (canadianbiomassmagazine.ca)
  • Dyadic will use the proceeds from this private sale to fund R&D obligations called for in the agreement, which has as its objective the development of a cost-effective enzyme production system for commercial application in Abengoa Bioenergy ' s bioethanol (cellulosic ethanol) production process. (typepad.com)
  • Abengoa Bioenergy, headquartered in St. Louis, Missouri, is a company dedicated to the development of biofuels for transport, including bioethanol and biodiesel, to support sustainable development. (typepad.com)
  • Policy interventions, in the form of subsidies and mandated blending of biofuels with fossil fuels are driving the rush to liquid biofuels [ 1 ], which include biodiesel, bioethanol and biobutanol. (springeropen.com)
  • Thermoplastic extrusion is a promising technique for the biomass processing to bioethanol production [ 1 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Those factors are often coupled together and their relative contributions to the biomass recalcitrance can vary greatly, depending on the types of biomass and enzymes as well as the pretreatment conditions, etc. (frontiersin.org)
  • Water is known to be important for enzymatic hydrolysis both because it is a co-substrate for cellulose hydrolysis, but also because it acts as a swelling agent that allows enzymes access to the substrate. (springer.com)
  • One of the most critical steps of all cellulosic biorefinery processes is the hydrolysis of the cellulosic substrate into fermentable sugars by the addition of enzymes. (gc.ca)
  • The aims of the research presented in this thesis were to address problems associated with pretreatment by-products that inhibit microbial and enzymatic biocatalysts, and to investigate the potential of utilizing residual streams from pulp mills and biorefineries to produce hydrolytic enzymes. (diva-portal.org)
  • We will focus on the biology behind enzymatic cellulose breakdown, the different types of enzymes required, and how these enzymes form complexes in nature that improve their catalytic performance. (mit.edu)
  • But many of the processes are labor and power intensive because of the need to create special enzymes, leaving American producers to continue to rely on corn until cheaper cellulosic methods are perfected. (cnn.com)
  • Enzymes are introduced to cellulosic products like woodchips and switchgrass to extract sugar, which is then fermented to produce ethanol. (cnn.com)
  • Enzymatic hydrolysis is considered to be the most cost-effective way to make the biofuel, and the Q Microbe is expected to be cheaper to use than other enzymes because it can do its work naturally in one step, whereas other enzymes need multiple steps in a laboratory to extract the sugar. (cnn.com)
  • Moreover, the Q Microbe so far has been effective with almost all biomass, while other enzymes only work on particular substances. (cnn.com)
  • They are composed by lignocellulose made from three main polymers (cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin) assembling as a network whose structural and chemical complexity hampers hydrolysis of cellulose by enzymes and micro-organisms 1 . (nature.com)
  • An important step in the production of biofuels is the breakdown of cellulose fibres by the enzymes capable of degrading it. (ukessays.com)
  • 2011). A typical process of enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocelluloses involves a cooperative effort of several different enzymes, including cellobiohydrolase (CBH), endoglucanase (EG), β-glucosidase (BG), and hemicellulase (Rosgaard et al . (ncsu.edu)
  • In this work, corn stover subjected to ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX™)1AFEX™, is a trademark of MBI International.1 pretreatment or alkaline pre-extraction followed by hydrogen peroxide post-treatment (AHP pretreatment) were compared for their enzymatic hydrolysis yields over a range of solids loadings, enzymes loadings, and enzyme combinations. (usda.gov)
  • Thus, the costs of enzymes and pre-treatment are the major barriers to low costs by biological processing of cellulosic biomass, and must be lowered substantially to make the cost of cellulosic ethanol competitive with that of fossil fuels or corn ethanol [3]. (cyberleninka.org)
  • Advances in current pretreatment technologies to generate more digestible substrates and modifying hydrolytic enzyme cocktails to improve enzyme efficacy could benefit from more in-depth and comprehensive understanding of the interaction between pretreated biomass and enzymes, and the synergism operating between different enzyme components in producing fermentable sugars. (cyberleninka.org)
  • Enzymatic digestion of cellulosic materials involves synergic action of a group of different functional enzymes [4,5]. (cyberleninka.org)
  • Therefore, the accessibility of the cellulose surface to cellulases and the subsequent efficacy of these enzymes have been identified as important factors that dominate cellulose hydrolysis yield [9-12]. (cyberleninka.org)
  • However, the heterogeneous nature of cellulosic materials makes enzyme access to the cellulose surface very difficult, and the presence of lignin and hemicelluloses in pretreated biomass have been suggested to cause major obstacles to enzymatic digestion of cellulosic materials, by physically blocking the access of cellulase and non-productively binding with enzymes [13-17]. (cyberleninka.org)
  • These enzymes are among the most used in enzymatic cocktails to deconstruct plant cell walls. (intechopen.com)
  • The facility will use Novozymes ' customized enzymes to produce cellulosic ethanol from sawdust. (canadianbiomassmagazine.ca)
  • I am delighted that our enzymes have been chosen for this pioneering project in Finland," said Sebastian Søderberg, vice-president of biomass conversion at Novozymes. (canadianbiomassmagazine.ca)
  • Dyadic is applying its technologies to produce enzymes for use in converting various agricultural products (e.g. corn) and waste products (e.g. switch grass, wheat straw, sugar cane bagasse, etc.) into fermentable sugars, which can then be used in the production of traditional and cellulosic ethanol as well as other products currently derived from petroleum. (typepad.com)
  • Production of biofuels via environmentally friendly technologies requires employing enzymes for polysaccharide saccharification. (paperity.org)
  • Culture filtrates from five filamentous fungi cultivations were evaluated regarding their ability to improve saccharification of the industrial cellulase cocktail Celluclast 1.5L. It was demonstrated that supplementing commercial cocktails with enzymes from carefully selected fungi can result in significantly more efficient saccharification of biomass. (chalmers.se)
  • In the attempt to lower the cost of enzymes (transgenic or synthetic ones) to obtain cellulosic ethanol, millions of dollars are at stake. (wrm.org.uy)
  • At the same time we are able to extend the typical boundaries for hydrolysis: our thermotolerant and inhibitor resistant enzymes allow for hydrolysis in 60 °C and high consistency. (metgen.com)
  • The conversion of agri-industrial wastewaters to bioenergy and value-added products is discussed, with special mention of the newly published South African Bio-Economy Strategy, and the potential production of biofuels and enzymes from waste streams using recombinant Aspergillus strains. (scielo.org.za)
  • Hence the requirement for different types of enzymes and their higher dosages to achieve maximum sugar yield from cellulose and hemicellulose fractions of the pretreated biomass. (lbl.gov)
  • We offer a cocktail of enzymes such as cellulases, hemicellulases, and other accessory enzymes for complete hydrolysis. (lbl.gov)
  • This review looks at which organisms produce enzymes, as well as the chemistry and physics of these enzymatic processes. (woodtobiofuels.org)
  • Ali N, Ting Z, Minnan L (2015) Heterogeneous expression and functional characterization of cellulose-degrading enzymes from Aspergillus niger for enzymatic hydrolysis of alkali pretreated bamboo biomass. (springer.com)
  • Current pretreatment methods to liberate solid cellulose are expensive, accounting for as much as 30% of the cost of producing cellulosic biofuels. (aiche.org)
  • The Project addressed this technology gap by investigating and evaluating a novel enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) step which would increase the efficiency of the saccharification process and thereby reduce the cost of producing cellulosic sugars. (gc.ca)
  • Decreasing the cost of producing cellulosic biofuels to be competitive with gasoline and grain-based ethanol is a major goal of the US Department of Energy [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Jtherm is both an ionic liquid and heat tolerant cellulase cocktail that can liberate sugars from biomass in the presence of up to 20-percent ionic liquids," Gladden says. (lbl.gov)
  • In this study, commercial cellulase preparations (Accellerase™ 1000, Accellerase® 1500, and Spezyme® CP from DuPont and Cellic® CTec2 from Novozymes) were evaluated for their hydrolysis efficiency of hydrothermally pretreated empty fruit bunches (EFBs). (ncsu.edu)
  • Results: In this study, cellulase was supplemented with xylanase and p-xylosidase to boost conversion of both cellulose and hemicellulose in pretreated biomass through conversion of xylan and xylo-oligomers to the less inhibitory xylose. (cyberleninka.org)
  • Improving the enzymatic hydrolysis of dilute acid pretreated wheat straw by metal ion blocking of non-productive cellulase adsorption on lignin. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The optimal concentration of MgCl2 was 1 mM, but the beneficial action was also dependent on pH, hydrolysis time and cellulase loading. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These results demonstrate that genetically exploiting the potentials of T. reesei endogenous cellulases to produce highly efficient cellulase mixtures is a powerful strategy to promote the saccharification efficiency, which will eventually facilitate cost reduction for lignocellulose-based biofuels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The response of the most widely studied filamentous fungus for cellulase production, Trichoderma reesei, to cellulosic substrates with different supramolecular structures was studied. (chalmers.se)
  • In biorefinery applications, MetZyme® SUNO™ breaks the recalcitrance, catalyzes lignin reactions, and together with cellulase and hemicellulase complexes SUNO™ enables more thorough hydrolysis. (metgen.com)
  • The supernatant fraction separated after the acid pre-treated rice straw produced highest amount of glucose (205 mg/g of rice straw) upon subsequent hydrolysis with synergistic action of cellulase and laccase-producing microbes. (springer.com)
  • To overcome this hurdle, Lignol , a biorefinery technology company, developed a novel enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) process which has the potential to increase enzyme effectiveness (i.e. lower the cost of sugar) and at the same time, produce a unique co-product that has higher economic value. (gc.ca)
  • In addition, biomass modification options (e.g., densification or upgrading to form pellets, torrefied biomass or bio-oils) are also being considered for larger biorefinery systems. (osu.edu)
  • In the interest of full disclosure, I am also a Marketing Consultant for Price BIOstock Services - the logistics support company responsible for procuring, delivering, and preparing woody biomass to paper and pulp mills and biorefineries - like Range Fuels' landmark cellulosic ethanol biorefinery in Georgia. (blogspot.com)
  • Our study provides a useful strategy for investigating enzyme dynamics and activity in plant cell wall to improve enzymatic cocktails aimed at expanding lignocelluloses biorefinery. (nature.com)
  • While this research is important, federal support through programs authorized in the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (P.L. 109-58), e.g, the DOE Loan Guarantee program, the Production Incentives for Cellulosic Biofuels program, and the Integrated Biorefinery Demonstration Projects, need to be expeditiously funded and implemented to overcome initial barriers to commercialization and to gain the considerable public benefits that will flow from deployment. (eesi.org)
  • Background: Accumulation of recalcitrant oligosaccharides during high-solids loading enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass reduces biofuel yields and increases processing costs for a cellulosic biorefinery. (ebscohost.com)
  • This new Biorefinery model uses a pyrolysis process, which applies very high temperatures to convert biomass into various products. (oregonstate.edu)
  • These studies reveal that biomass recalcitrance is overcome by combination of structural and chemical changes to carbohydrates and lignin after pretreatment. (frontiersin.org)
  • Most pretreatments do not completely fractionate cellulose and lignin, the latter of which interferes with enzymatic hydrolysis. (aiche.org)
  • Among the three major structural biopolymers (i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) in plant cell walls, lignin is considered the most recalcitrant component and generally plays a negative role in the biochemical conversion of biomass to biofuels. (osti.gov)
  • While these thermochemical pretreatments generally lead to only a limited delignification and no significant change of lignin content in the pretreated biomass, the lignin transformations that occur during these pretreatments and the roles they play in recalcitrance reduction is an important research aspect. (osti.gov)
  • lignin chemical structures, molecular weights, and redistributions in the pretreated biomass. (osti.gov)
  • Improving cellulosic biomass deconstruction while extracting lignin. (glbrc.org)
  • To compete with traditional refineries, biorefineries must achieve high carbohydrate-to-fuel yields with low enzymatic input and facilitate lignin valorization to co-products extending beyond simply using lignin to generate heat and power. (glbrc.org)
  • Unlike the simple sugars in corn grain, the complex polysaccharides in biomass are deeply embedded within a tough woody material called lignin. (lbl.gov)
  • Based on current technologies and the biological platform for producing cellulosic biofuels, increasing the polysaccharide to lignin ratio is one possible route to increasing biofeedstock quality. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lignin typically inhibits enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass, but certain organosolv lignins or lignosulfonates enhance enzymatic hydrolysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions between lignin and cellulases play critical roles in the enzymatic hydrolysis process. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We examined the physicochemical properties and the structures of ethanol organosolv lignins (EOL) from hardwood and softwood and ascertained the association between lignin properties and their inhibitory and stimulatory effects on enzymatic hydrolysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The zeta potential and hydrophobicity of EOL lignin samples, isolated from organosolv pretreatment of cottonwood (CW), black willow (BW), aspen (AS), eucalyptus (EH), and loblolly pine (LP), were determined and correlated with their effects on enzymatic hydrolysis of Avicel. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study revealed that the effect of lignin on enzymatic hydrolysis is a function of both hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic repulsions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study has potential implications in biomass pretreatment for the reduction of lignin inhibition by increasing lignin negative zeta potential and decreasing hydrophobicity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ethanol organosolv lignin (EOL) from hardwood has been observed to improve the 72 h hydrolysis yield of Avicel. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The detailed testing of Giant King Grass included sugar and lignin content, several levels of pretreatment, and enzymatic hydrolysis to sugars. (viaspace.com)
  • Developing energy efficient, sustainable processes for the selective hydrolysis of lignocellulose into cellulose and hemi-cellulose, and their conversion to monosaccharides, and intact lignin under mild conditions is essential. (udel.edu)
  • Mechanism of lignin inhibition of enzymatic biomass deconstruction. (ebscohost.com)
  • However, the inhibition of enzymatic activity in pretreated biomass by lignin severely limits the efficiency of this process. (ebscohost.com)
  • Determination of Structural Carbohydrates and Lignin in Biomass , National Renewable Energy Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • Stem internodes exhibited the highest lignin content as well as the lowest hydrolysis yields, which were inversely correlated to lignin content. (diva-portal.org)
  • Non-cellulosic polysaccharides were linked to differences in cell wall response to deconstruction in lower lignin fractions. (diva-portal.org)
  • Structural Basis of Stereospecificity in the Bacterial Enzymatic Cleavage of β-Aryl Ether Bonds in Lignin. (jbei.org)
  • The major impediment to the use of forest biomass for biofuels and platform chemicals is the difficulty of separating the polysaccharides in wood from lignin. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The long-term goal is to enhance the efficiency in biofuel production from lignin-containing biomass. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The composition of cellulosic biomass includes approximately 40-50% cellulose, 20-30% hemicellulose, and 15-20% lignin [10,11]. (ukdiss.com)
  • Hydrolysis efficiency from all the hardwoods was correlated to the wood chemical composition and lignin characteristics. (woodtobiofuels.org)
  • One key barrier to converting woody biomass to biofuel through the sugar platform is the low efficiency of enzymatic cellulose saccharification due to the strong recalcitrance of the crystalline cellulose. (usda.gov)
  • The regenerated cellulosic fibers from cellulosic woody biomass were obtained from. (usda.gov)
  • This mini review discusses several key technical issues associated with cellulosic ethanol production from woody biomass: energy consumption for woody biomass pretreatment, pretreatment energy efficiency, woody biomass pretreatment technologies, and quantification of woody biomass recalcitrance. (usda.gov)
  • Size reduction is the first step for manufacturing biofuels from woody biomass. (k-state.edu)
  • For example, the thickness of woody biomass play more critical role in chemical pretreatment of wood chips than its length. (blogspot.com)
  • The successful completion of this project will result in the development of a novel process for hydrogen production from woody biomass. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Energy produced from biomass is called bioenergy. (wrm.org.uy)
  • One of the traditional ways of generating bioenergy is from biomass in solid form, such as firewood. (wrm.org.uy)
  • Up until now, support for so-called renewable energy sources, such as bioenergy (from biomass), wind power and solar power, has largely resulted from the funding and policies of the countries of the North, particularly the European Union and the United States. (wrm.org.uy)
  • He is one of the researchers responsible for the development of the Bioenergy, Biomass & Biofuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biomass sourcing and logistics, followed by technology and scale-up issues, have been two of the main stumbling blocks to getting cellulosic ethanol off the ground, says Christopher Standlee, executive vice president of institutional affairs at Abengoa Bioenergy. (farmindustrynews.com)
  • Technical contributor to the International Energy Agency Bioenergy , through activities in various tasks, addressing climate change , sustainability certification of bioenergy and biomass, and integrated systems. (nrel.gov)
  • U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced the offer of a conditional commitment for a $133.9 million loan guarantee to Abengoa Bioenergy Biomass of Kansas LLC to support the development of a commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol plant. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • The Abengoa Bioenergy project is expected to convert approximately 300,000 tons of corn stover (stalks and leaves) into approximately 23 million gallons of ethanol per year using an innovative enzymatic hydrolysis process. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • Among them are two pathways for cellulosic ethanol produced by Abengoa Bioenergy at its Hugoton, Kansas plant. (greencarcongress.com)
  • In a review article in the December 3, 2010, issue of Science , DOE Joint Bioenergy Institute director Jay Keasling discusses advances in metabolic engineering and outlines current efforts to develop economical production of biofuel compounds by microbes. (ornl.gov)
  • The report, entitled, "Quick Evaluation Process on Biofuels and Sustainability," was prepared by researchers who participated in FAPESP's special programs, specifically the Program for Research on Bioenergy (BIOEN), the Research Program in Identification, Conservation, Recovery and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity in the State of São Paulo (Biota) and The FAPESP Research Program on Global Climate Change (RPGCC). (fapesp.br)
  • Bioenergy production from biomass can also contribute to the recovery and increase of environmental resources for the fauna of degraded soils. (fapesp.br)
  • Bioenergy routes suggest that atmospheric carbon can be cycled through biofuels in carefully designed systems for sustainability. (springeropen.com)
  • Bioenergy, in the form of biofuels, can contribute to economic development and to the environment through climate change mitigation as biofuels offer C neutral alternative. (springeropen.com)
  • Forage quality and composition measurements may be used to predict cellulosic ethanol yield to guide biofeedstock improvement through agronomic research and plant breeding. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Exploring alternative harvesting techniques, agronomic practices, and on-farm storage methods, as well as developing high-quality crop varieties through plant breeding and transgenic approaches, are ways biofeedstocks could be improved to increase ethanol yield per dollar spent on biofeedstock production, thermochemical pretreatment, and enzymatic hydrolysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • EOLs from CW, BW, and AS improved the 72 h hydrolysis yield by 8-12%, while EOLs from EH and LP decreased the 72 h hydrolysis yield by 6 and 16%, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results showed a strong correlation between the 72 h hydrolysis yield with hydrophobicity and zeta potential. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Two different sugar yield definitions (cellulose-based and biomass-based) were used in reported studies investigating the relationship between biomass particle size and enzymatic hydrolysis sugar yield. (k-state.edu)
  • Of the four cellulases tested, Cellic® CTec2, which showed the highest cellobiohydrolase, xylanase, and β-glucosidase activities, showed the highest glucose yield in the enzymatic hydrolysis of hydrothermally pretreated EFBs. (ncsu.edu)
  • This study investigates the effect of mechanical refining to improve the sugar yield from biomass processed under a wide range of steam pretreatment conditions. (usda.gov)
  • Here, we report the morphology of fibers changed through the process and yield of glucose in the enzymatic hydrolysis step. (mdpi.com)
  • The low enzyme concentrations make it possible to detect subtle improvements in saccharification yield and to analyze the speed of hydrolysis. (bio-protocol.org)
  • The production of second-generation ethanol (E2G) provides an additional source of energy in the sugar and ethanol sector by increasing the biofuel yield without expanding the crop area, thus leading to a sustainable production system. (intechopen.com)
  • D.W. Relationships between cellulosic biomass particle size and enzymatic hydrolysis sugar yield: Analysis of inconsistent reports in the literature. (blucher.com.br)
  • Production yield was enhanced with the enzymatic hydrolysis with Aspergillus niger and the obtained ethanol was analyzed with GC-MS. (ebscohost.com)
  • At most time, quite a lot of soluble oligomers existing in the hydrolyzates that could not be measured by the standard HPLC analysis, which will lead to lower hydrolysis yield. (blogspot.com)
  • This can be confirmed by post-dilute acid hydrolysis, showing several fold increase in monomeric sugars (glucose and xylose) yield. (blogspot.com)
  • This work, for the first time, demonstrates a chemo-catalytic approach for high yield and high concentration of ethanol production from biomass using non noble metal catalyst. (cas.cn)
  • The cellulose hydrolysis rate of the S mutant strain was 60% lower than the parent strain, with the S mutant strain also exhibiting a 40% reduction in cell yield. (pnas.org)
  • A strong correlation was found between the average pore size and the specific surface area of the starting material and the enzymatic conversion yield. (chalmers.se)
  • As the severity factor of the pretreatment process decreases, the sugar yield after enzymatic hydrolysis also decreases. (lbl.gov)
  • Maintaining high solids concentrations throughout the biomass conversion process is important for final product yield with reduced intensity of the separation process. (lbl.gov)
  • In this study, the ABPDU in collaboration with Idaho and Sandia National Laboratories developed a model to predict continuous envelopes of biomass blends that are optimal for a given pretreatment condition to achieve a predetermined sugar yield or vice versa. (lbl.gov)
  • Significant potential exists for bioconversion of biomass, the most abundant and also the most renewable biomaterial on our planet. (springeropen.com)
  • To mitigate fossil‐fuel shortages and the environmental impact of excess fossil‐fuel consumption, bioconversion of biomass into biofuels has emerged as a clean and sustainable alternative. (els.net)
  • In chemoheterotrophic organisms TAGs are synthesized by bioconversion of organic compounds such as the sugars and organic acids derived from globally-abundant cellulosic biomass. (prolekare.cz)
  • Thus, there is a huge opportunity for growth of cellulosic biorefineries. (osu.edu)
  • The plant being built in Kajaani represents an overall investment of EUR 40 million, of which 30 per cent is covered by an investment subsidy granted by the Ministry of Employment and the Economy for biorefineries producing transport biofuels. (canadianbiomassmagazine.ca)
  • The complex structure of lignocellulose and its strong hydrogen bonds make its deconstruction a great challenge for the second-generation cellulosic biorefineries. (udel.edu)
  • Biorefineries have the potential to produce much-needed biofuels, supply valuable bioproducts, utilize waste streams and create jobs in rural communities. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Some U.S. cellulosic biorefineries are being designed to use cellulose from corn cobs and corn stover. (agmrc.org)
  • Del Rio LF, Chandra RP, Saddler JN (2011) The effects of increasing swelling and anionic charges on the enzymatic hydrolysis of organosolv-pretreated softwoods at low enzyme loadings. (springer.com)
  • Despite recent advancements in enzyme technologies, the current enzymatic hydrolysis processes are still viewed, in general, as too costly due to a combination of slow conversion rates, high dosages and high enzyme price. (gc.ca)
  • However, imidazolium, like other ionic liquids, can inhibit the commercial enzyme cocktails now used for the saccharification of cellulosic biomass and must therefore be removed by substantial amounts of water after the pretreatment. (lbl.gov)
  • It's projected biomass cost is $40-$50 per tonne, or around $80-$100 per tonne of recoverable sugars, with around $150 per ton for the enzyme load. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • From an industrial viewpoint, the ultimate goal in the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose is to minimize the enzyme loading and maximize sugar production (Van Dyk and Pletschke 2012). (ncsu.edu)
  • Background: Hemicellulose is often credited with being one of the important physical barriers to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose, and acts by blocking enzyme access to the cellulose surface. (cyberleninka.org)
  • I am pleased to have Novozymes as enzyme technology supplier," said Mika Aho, managing director at St1 Biofuels. (canadianbiomassmagazine.ca)
  • The R&D agreement calls upon Dyadic to use its proprietary technologies to develop one or more enzyme mixture manufacturing systems customized to ABRD ' s proprietary biomass substrates. (typepad.com)
  • it has identified and tested highly effective enzyme mixtures for the efficient conversion of renewable cellulosic biomass to ethanol. (typepad.com)
  • Sugar loss and enzyme inhibition due to oligosaccharide accumulation during high solids-loading enzymatic hydrolysis. (ebscohost.com)
  • The reason for this is that most of the commercial enzyme cocktails are not for global use and need customization for a specific biomass substrate. (blogspot.com)
  • Physical size reduction can not always achieve expected effect of biomass enzyme digestibility. (blogspot.com)
  • An customized enzyme cocktails have to be developed and applied on specific biomass substrates. (blogspot.com)
  • Therefore, more potent and efficient enzyme preparations need to be developed for the enzymatic saccharification process to be more economical. (springeropen.com)
  • It is noteworthy, that lowering the enzyme dosage through tailored and more specific enzyme solutions also enables addressing another key-challenge in biorefining: extremely high volumes of the processed biomass due to low consistency (dry-matter content). (metgen.com)
  • Utilizing process and pre-treatment technology from SunOpta Inc., Abengoa is building a 5 million US gallons (19,000 m3) cellulosic ethanol facility in Spain and have recently entered into a strategic research and development agreement with Dyadic International, Inc. (AMEX: DIL), to create new and better enzyme mixtures which may be used to improve both the efficiencies and cost structure of producing cellulosic ethanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequently, cellulosic biomass must first be subjected to pretreatment to increase the accessible surface area, and undergo either chemical or enzymatic deconstruction to release sugars that can be subsequently fermented to biofuels. (asknature.org)
  • Generally, enzymatic deconstruction and hydrolysis occurs slowly under conditions typically around 50 °C and pH 5.0. (asknature.org)
  • By combining ionic liquid pretreatment and saccharification into a single vessel we eliminate the excessive use of water and waste disposal currently associated with washing biomass that is pretreated with ionic liquids," says chemical engineer Blake Simmons who heads JBEI's Deconstruction Division. (lbl.gov)
  • Mechanical deconstruction offers a promising strategy to overcome biomass recalcitrance for facilitating enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated substrates with zero chemicals input and presence of inhibitors. (wsu.edu)
  • Develop molten salt hydrate catalytic systems for the efficient dissolution, exfoliation, and deconstruction of biomass. (udel.edu)
  • Deconstruction of biomass has been one of the biggest hurdles toward commercialization. (udel.edu)
  • To address this challenge, the focus of this study was to characterize the relationship between composition and properties of the plant cell wall and cell wall response to deconstruction by NaOH pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis for anatomical fractions (stem internodes, leaf sheaths, and leaf blades) within switchgrass at various tissue maturities as assessed by differing internode. (diva-portal.org)
  • This complex crystalline organization together with the heterogeneous polysaccharide network renders plant material particularly recalcitrant to deconstruction and poorly susceptible to both chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis ( 9 , 41 , 42 ). (asm.org)
  • The company develops technology for making renewable cellulosic biofuels (also known as second generation biofuels, or advanced biofuels) from agricultural residues and other organic wastes. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, Giant King Grass promises the cost-of-production breakthrough that has plagued the second-generation biofuels industry. (viaspace.com)
  • On the other hand, second generation biofuels can help solve the problem of GHG emission and can contribute to a larger proportion of our fuel supply sustainably, affordably and with greater environmental benefits. (springeropen.com)
  • The second-generation biofuels produced from cellulosic biomass (forest and agricultural residues and dedicated energy crops) are alternatives to conventional transportation fuels. (ukdiss.com)
  • Novel types of pellets, as well as solid/liquid biofuels, having improved fuel characteristics are described. (ncsu.edu)
  • Of the liquid biofuels (ethanol, methanol, fatty acid methyl ester), ethanol has long proven history and environmental advantages. (google.com)
  • The purpose of the work presented here is the production of liquid biofuels from wet organic waste matter in a continuous one-step catalytic process under hydrothermal conditions. (woodtobiofuels.org)
  • In 2014, together with their Brazilian partner Raízen Energia, Iogen built a commercial cellulosic ethanol facility adjacent to Raizen's Costa Pinto sugar mill in Piracicaba, Brazil. (wikipedia.org)
  • The collaboration is key in optimizing our production costs that is one of the key elements in commercial cellulosic ethanol production. (canadianbiomassmagazine.ca)
  • Abengoa currently is building a 5 million liter per year cellulosic ethanol plant in the Salamanca region of Las Vilas in Spain, which it claims will be the worlds first commercial cellulosic ethanol plant. (typepad.com)
  • In the first decade of the 21st century, a lot of companies announced plans to build commercial cellulosic ethanol plants, but most of those plans eventually fell apart, and many of the small companies went bankrupt. (wikipedia.org)
  • He has made significant seminal contributions in the specific areas of pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and dehydration of cellulosic biomass to reactive intermediates for biological or catalytic conversion into fuels and chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • If we expect to substitute renewable energy for fossil fuel energy, we are going to have to tackle the challenge of liquid fuels - how do we replace our dependence on oil, diesel, and gasoline with functionally equivalent biofuels? (blogspot.com)
  • Similar advantages would also be realized for the biofuels industry with the development of a "one-pot" processing system in which sugars could be extracted from biomass and turned into fuels in a single vat. (lbl.gov)
  • Advanced biofuels made from cellulosic sugars stored in the biomass of grasses and other non-food crops and agricultural waste could substantially reduce the use of the fossil fuels responsible for the release of nearly 9 billion metric tons of excess carbon into the atmosphere each year. (lbl.gov)
  • More than a billion tons of biomass are produced annually in the United States alone and fuels from this biomass could be clean, green and renewable substitutes for gasoline, diesel and jet fuel on a gallon-for-gallon basis. (lbl.gov)
  • Unlike ethanol, transportation fuels from biomass can be directly dropped into today's engines and infrastructures without impacting performance. (lbl.gov)
  • If advanced biofuels are to be a commercial success, however, they must be cost-competitive with fossil fuels, which means economic technologies must be developed for extracting fermentable sugars from cellulosic biomass and synthesizing them into fuels as well as other valuable chemical products. (lbl.gov)
  • Over the past few decades, with the successes achieved in genetic engineering technology, advances made in the field of biofuels offer the only immediate solution to fossil fuels. (ukessays.com)
  • Biofuels are liquid fuels derived from plants. (ukessays.com)
  • This increase is primarily a result of the reasons stated above along with rising concerns about global warming and greenhouse gas emissions due to excessive fossil fuels usage since biofuels are carbon-neutral and reduce green house emissions (Sainz, 2009). (ukessays.com)
  • She has developed technologies for the conversion of biomass and a variety of organic wastes into fuels, including hydrogen, chemicals, electricity, and high value materials. (nrel.gov)
  • Instead of putting efforts on steps overcoming the natural resistance of plants to biological breakdown, our study proposes a unique pathway to improve the outcome of the process by co-producing high-value nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC), offering a new economic leverage for cellulosic ethanol to compete with fossil fuels in the near future. (mdpi.com)
  • Energy from renewable biomass can be exploited as a potential alternative to fossil-derived fuels (Arora et al. (springeropen.com)
  • Researchers with the Energy Biosciences Institute (EBI), a partnership that includes Berkeley Lab and the University of California (UC) Berkeley, have introduced new metabolic pathways from the fungus Neurospora crassa into the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to increase the fermentative production of fuels and other chemicals from biomass. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Biomass can provide both hydrocarbon fuels and chemical compounds such as alcohols, gums, sugars, lipid-based products, etc. (springerprofessional.de)
  • Biomass-derived fuels have acquired a lot of attention during recent years because of the abundance of supply of resources and lower green house gas emissions. (springerprofessional.de)
  • Alternative energy- biofuels,natural power sources like solar and wind may be an alliterative before our fossil fuels run out. (blogspot.com)
  • Kraft - Eventual depletion of fossil fuels and their contributions to greenhouse gasses have focused attention on renewable vegetal biomass as a principal alternative energy resource (Alvira et al. (paperity.org)
  • Biofuels are solid, liquid or gaseous fuels obtained relatively from recently dead biological material and are distinguished from fossil fuels, which are derived from long dead biological material. (springeropen.com)
  • When greenhouse gas emission from production and use of biofuels is taken into account, the first generation biofuels frequently approach those of traditional fossil fuels. (springeropen.com)
  • Biofuels derived from cellulosic biomass offer one of the best near- to mid-term alternatives to petroleum-based liquid transportation fuels. (ukdiss.com)
  • The pulp mill could gasify biomass to create synthetic gas (syngas) and then convert it into a series of fuels and chemical materials. (wrm.org.uy)
  • Corn has ushered the United States into alternative fuels, and cellulosic biomass promises to boost domestic production in the future. (therichroffmanshow.com)
  • Biofuels possess numerous advantages over fossil fuels in consumer, environmental, agriculture, economic and national security aspects. (therichroffmanshow.com)
  • Conversion of biomass to fuel energy has received growing attention as a means of replacing energy derived from fossil fuels. (google.com)
  • The term "biofuel" describes a number of different fuels (principally ethanol and biodiesel) that can be produced from organic matter and used as a partial replacement for gasoline or diesel. (blogspot.com)
  • Biotechnology for Biofuels 9 (May): 106. (els.net)
  • Biotechnology for Biofuels 8 (March): 41. (els.net)
  • In this work, water retention and water constraint was measured across species and pretreatment methods and compared to the enzymatic digestibility of the cellulose fraction. (springer.com)
  • Liquid hot water (LHW) and alkaline pretreatments of giant reed biomass were compared in terms of digestibility, methane production, and cost-benefit efficiency for electricity generation via anaerobic digestion with a combined heat and power system. (usda.gov)
  • The scanning electron microscopic images were presented for the CSLF-pretreated biomass for the first time, suggesting that CSLF can completely destruct the plant cell-wall structure, in a good agreement with the highest enzymatic cellulose digestibility and fastest hydrolysis rate. (heartland.io)
  • There is an overall positive correlation between the water retention value and glucose hydrolysis yields. (springer.com)
  • Most pretreatment processes require high enzymatic loadings to achieve higher sugar yields under industrially-relevant conditions. (glbrc.org)
  • This single-stage EA fractionation process achieves high biofuel yields (18.2 kg Et-OH/100 kg untreated corn stover on a dry weight basis), comparable to those achieved using ionic liquid pretreatments. (glbrc.org)
  • Glucose (61-68 % d.w.) and reducing sugars (around 90 % d.w.) yields from the pine cellulosic pulps with Kappa numbers ranging between 17.2 and 47.7 were higher than from the two pulps with Kappa numbers of 60.9 and 86.2. (paperity.org)
  • The use of enzymatic hydrolysis provides a specific sugar production treatment with mild process conditions and ample sugar yields [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, we showed that acid-promoted hydrolysis of chitosan in ionic liquids could give total reducing sugars in over 60% yields in the presence of about 6.0 wt% concentrated hydrochloric acid at 100 ºC within 7 h. (dicp.ac.cn)
  • This study demonstrated the potential of simultaneously recovering cellulosic solid residues (CSR) and producing cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) by strong sulfuric acid hydrolysis to minimize cellulose loss to near zero. (usda.gov)
  • Cellulosic material obtained from wood and agricultural residues, municipal solid wastes and energy crops represent the most abundant global source of biomass (Lin and Tanaka, 2006). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Cellulosic ethanol is a sustainable alternative to petroleum as a transportation fuel, which could be made biologically from agricultural and forestry residues, municipal waste, or herbaceous and woody crops. (mdpi.com)
  • Especially, a nearly complete cellulose conversion (94.2%) was found for the delignified corncob residues after 48 h enzymatic saccharification. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Producing and using cellulosic biofuels can turn residues and wastes into energy, reduce the nation's dependence on foreign oil, create new jobs, and improve rural economies [6]. (ukdiss.com)
  • The plant is able to produce up to 1000 tons of cellulosic ethanol from agricultural residues such as wheat straw, corn stover or sugarcane bagasse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clariant is building a cellulosic ethanol plant to be sourced with agricultural residues and based on their sunliquid® technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the barriers to the production of ethanol from cellulosic biomass is the toughness of the cellulosic structure, and its resistance to chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis and insolubility in most solvents. (alternative-energy-news.info)
  • Efficient hydrolysis of specifically pretreated lignocellulose necessitates the knowledge of the characteristics of the optimal commercial cellulases. (ncsu.edu)
  • Ionic liquid tolerant hyperthermophilic cellulases for biomass pretreatment and hydrolysis. (jbei.org)
  • In this study, corn stover solids from IL, DA, and AFEX pretreatments were compared to gain comprehensive, in-depth understanding of induced morphological and chemical changes incorporated to corn stover, and how they overcome the biomass recalcitrance. (frontiersin.org)
  • Significant past research efforts in cellulosic biofuels have focused on overcoming the recalcitrance of lignocelluloses to enhance the saccharification of. (usda.gov)
  • A key factor in biomass recalcitrance is the physical and chemical relationship between biomass and water. (springer.com)
  • Beckham GT, Matthews JF, Peters B et al (2011) Molecular-level origins of biomass recalcitrance: decrystallization free energies for four common cellulose polymorphs. (springer.com)
  • The conversion of biomass to biofuels through a biochemical platform usually requires a pretreatment stage to reduce the recalcitrance. (osti.gov)
  • Dilute acid, hot water, steam explosion, and ammonia fiber expansion pretreatments are among the leading thermochemical pretreatments with a limited delignification that can reduce biomass recalcitrance. (osti.gov)
  • A combination of Total Internal Reflection Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy (TIR-SFG-VS) and conventional SFG-VS together allow probing and understanding the molecular structures at the surface and in the crystalline core of cellulose, as well as the correlation between structural motifs and biomass recalcitrance. (aalto.fi)
  • In situ chemical monitoring of cell wall modifications performed by synchrotron infrared spectroscopy during enzymatic hydrolysis demonstrated that the boosting effect of the AA9 LPMO was dependent on the cellular type indicating contrasted recalcitrance levels in plant tissues. (nature.com)
  • However, the inherent recalcitrance of cellulosic materials means that they require more severe processing than do corn or sugarcane. (cyberleninka.org)
  • We could point at candidate proteins that could be targeted to lower biomass recalcitrance. (intechopen.com)
  • The changes in cellulose molecular structure with respect to degree of polymerization (DP) and crystallinity index (CrI) also benefited to decreasing recalcitrance and facilitating enzymatic hydrolysis of micronized wood. (wsu.edu)
  • A key obstacle to the cost-effective production of cellulosic biofuels is the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • While a particular pretreatment process might be effective against biomass recalcitrance, it may inhibit saccharification. (lbl.gov)
  • This article explains the microbiology behind biomass recalcitrance, what happens during enzymatic hydrolysis, and what industry standards should be. (woodtobiofuels.org)
  • In this work, we achieved approximately 230 g L -1 of monomeric sugars after high solid enzymatic hydrolysis using deacetylation and mechanical refining (DMR) processed corn stover substrates produced at the 100 kg per day scale. (osti.gov)
  • EA pretreated corn stover yielded higher fermentable sugars compared to the older Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process while using 60% lower enzymatic loading. (glbrc.org)
  • The enigmatically named Q Microbe, under development by SunEthanol Inc., has attracted the attention of major ethanol producer VeraSun Energy, putting it at the forefront of technology for co-called cellulosic ethanol, which is expected to replace corn as the main source of alternative fuel in the United States. (cnn.com)
  • The nation's ethanol manufacturers now produce only the corn-based product, with cellulosic commercial sales expected to be at least 18 months away. (cnn.com)
  • Large corn-based ethanol manufacturers include Archer Daniels Midland ( Charts , Fortune 500 ) and Poet Ethanol, with BioFuel Energy Corp. ( Charts ) expected to join that list once its production facility comes online next March. (cnn.com)
  • DIB's cellulosic ethanol plant (co-located with corn plant Lincolnway Energy in Nevada, Iowa) requires the expertise of more than 200 equipment operators for a two-month period in the fall. (farmindustrynews.com)
  • Cellulosic ethanol is ethanol derived from essentially inexhaustible resources by utilizing the cellulose that is found in all plant matter, in contrast to starch-based ethanol produced mainly from corn. (eesi.org)
  • Corn stover , Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), Miscanthus grass species, wood chips and the byproducts of lawn and tree maintenance are some of the more popular cellulosic materials for ethanol production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Successful testing has been completed for a number of different energy crops (Arundo Donax, Miscanthus, Fiber Sorghum and Switchgrass) and biomasses including corn stover, rice husk and straw (wheat and barley). (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • Although addition of xylanase and p-xylosidase did not necessarily enhance Avicel hydrolysis, glucan conversions increased by 27% and 8% for corn stover pretreated with ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) and dilute acid, respectively. (cyberleninka.org)
  • A team led by researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign has developed an integrated framework to determine and to compare greenhouse gas (GHG) intensities and production costs of cellulosic ethanol derived from corn stover, switchgrass, and miscanthus grown on high and low quality soils for three representative counties. (greencarcongress.com)
  • That's 13 years away, and the mandated cellulosic ethanol volume is larger than the 15 billion gallons mandated for corn-starch ethanol. (agmrc.org)
  • On a life cycle basis compared to gasoline, corn ethanol results in 18 percent greenhouse gas emissions reduction, compared to the 80 percent realized with sugarcane ethanol and projected with cellulosic ethanol. (therichroffmanshow.com)
  • Similarly, the life cycle net energy balance (the ratio of renewable energy output over fossil energy input) of corn ethanol is 1.3 compared to 9 or higher for sugarcane and cellulosic ethanol. (therichroffmanshow.com)
  • Ethanol production from cane and cellulosic biomass is powered by renewable energy derived from bagasse or other biomass, whereas corn ethanol production relies mostly on natural gas. (therichroffmanshow.com)
  • The US$105 million plant is located adjacent to Raízen's Costa Pinto sugar cane mill in Piracicaba, São Paulo, and will produce 40 million litres of cellulosic ethanol a year from sugarcane bagasse and straw. (wikipedia.org)
  • The same type of biomass, such as sugarcane, may be used for different purposes, namely liquid fuel for heating or electricity generation, and it would then have different impacts. (fapesp.br)
  • An interesting route to generate biofuels and bio-based materials is via enzymatic hydrolysis of cell wall polysaccharides into fermentable sugars, a process called saccharification. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Mineral acid-catalyzed thermal hydrolysis followed by enzymatic saccharification of the polysaccharides is widely used to convert biomass into fermentable sugars [ 5 , 6 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • Enzymatic hydrolysis of the fines from pine wood processing in a paper mill yielded around 75 % glucose and 78 % total reducing sugars on a dry weight basis that corresponded to around 34 and 36 % on a pine wood dry weight basis. (paperity.org)
  • In fact, they catalyze the hydrolysis of soluble cellulodextrins (oligosaccharides composed of three to seven glucose molecules) and cellobiose produced by both endo- and exo-glucanases to glucose ( 22 , 29 , 36 , 56 ). (asm.org)
  • For this reason the search of novel pretreatments able to disrupt cell walls which render more available cellulose and hemicellulose without inhibitors for the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis is relevant [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Despite their recognized boosting effect on biomass hydrolysis, AA9 LPMOs activity has been essentially investigated on model substrates with only sparse studies focusing on the insoluble fraction of the substrate that show their disruptive action at the surface of cellulosic fibers 29 , 30 , 31 . (nature.com)
  • The aim of the work presented in this thesis was to increase our understanding of the relation between enzymatic hydrolysis and the structural properties of cellulosic substrates. (chalmers.se)
  • The enzymatic hydrolysis of a number of cellulosic substrates derived from softwood preparations used in the pulp and paper industry, as well as model substrates, were studied. (chalmers.se)
  • The differences in cellulosic substrates before and after enzymatic hydrolysis are described on the nanometre scale in terms of their supramolecular structure, i.e. the lateral dimensions of fibrils and fibril aggregates, the accessible surface area, the crystallinity and porosity, using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. (chalmers.se)
  • The substrates were imaged and structural changes in the cellulosic substrates were characterized in real time on the micrometre scale in terms of their molecular density, ordering and autofluorescence, employing nonlinear optical microscopy. (chalmers.se)
  • Monitoring of the substrates during enzymatic hydrolysis revealed substrate-characteristic hydrolysis pattern. (chalmers.se)
  • These results suggest that structural, as well as chemical characteristics of the biomass may influence pretreatment and hydrolytic efficiency. (frontiersin.org)
  • Pretreatment renders compositional and structural changes of biomass with these changes ultimately govern the efficiency of the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. (osti.gov)
  • The enzyme's allure lies in how it is found in nature and does not need to go through the costly process of being manufactured in a lab to be effective, as well as its efficiency with a variety of biomass products. (cnn.com)
  • A deeper mechanistic understanding of the saccharification of cellulosic biomass could enhance the efficiency of biofuels development. (sciencemag.org)
  • these policies include land use and the efficiency of technologies for converting biomass into power, in addition to environmental, economic and social challenges. (fapesp.br)
  • The new approach provides a new way for industrialized production of cellulosic ethanol with high efficiency and low cost. (cas.cn)
  • In contrast to the bio-production of cellulosic ethanol, the direct conversion of cellulose to ethanol by chemical approach may tune the reaction pathway during the cellulose transformation through catalyst design, avoiding CO 2 formation to achieve high atom efficiency. (cas.cn)
  • One of the factors limiting the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis is the structural properties of cellulose. (chalmers.se)
  • In their efforts to develop cost-effective ways to deconstruct cellulosic biomass into fuel sugars, Simmons, Singh and their JBEI colleagues have focused on pretreatments of the biomass with ionic liquids - environmentally benign organic salts often used as green chemistry substitutes for volatile organic solvents. (lbl.gov)
  • The most popular pretreatments include acid hydrolysis, steam explosion, ammonia fiber expansion, alkaline wet oxidation, and hot water pretreatment [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • These three energy sources are actually biomass produced and accumulated through very slow processes over the course of millions of years. (wrm.org.uy)
  • Cellulosic ethanol producers, cellulosic and advanced biofuel producers, biobased chemical producers and bioplastic manufacturers can all utilize Sweetwater's sugar in their processes. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • Enzymatic processes can be used but they are inherently slow. (udel.edu)
  • Processes of plant cell walls into biofuels and value‐added products need optimisation. (els.net)
  • Hydrolysis of Biomass in Ionic Liquids[C]. 见:the 2nd Asia Pacific Conference on Ionic Liquids and Green Processes. (dicp.ac.cn)
  • An abstract of the article "Improving Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose from Rice Straw Using an Ionic Liquid (EMIM)Ac pretreatment" by W. L. Sun is presented. (ebscohost.com)
  • The goal of this dissertation research is to gain a more fundamental understanding on the impact of mechanical pretreatment on generating digestible micronized-wood and how the physicochemical characteristics influence the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of micronized wood. (wsu.edu)
  • We fabricated cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) from different cellulose materials (bleached eucalyptus pulp (BEP), spruce dissolving pulp (SDP) and cotton based qualitative filter paper (QFP) using concentrated oxalic acid hydrolysis and subsequent mechanical fibrillation (for CNFs). (usda.gov)
  • A set of slightly milder acid hydrolysis conditions than that considered as â optimalâ were used to significantly minimize the degradation of cellulose. (usda.gov)
  • The Department of Energy has invested in research on enzymatic, thermochemical, acid hydrolysis, hybrid hydrolysis/enzymatic and a variety of other approaches. (eesi.org)
  • Saeman JF (1945) Kinetics of wood saccharification - hydrolysis of cellulose and decomposition of sugars in dilute acid at high temperature. (springer.com)
  • Additionally, chemical parameters include carbon source, nutrients, acid and alkaline hydrolysis agents, and phenolic inhibitors and sugars generated within the process. (springerprofessional.de)
  • Three pretreatment conditions (acid concentration, reaction temperature, and reaction time) were investigated to treat industrial hemp hurds for a maximal sugar release: a combinatorial result of a maximal retention of solid cellulose and a maximal enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis. (heartland.io)
  • The present work refers to a process involving the use of dilute nitric acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis for the transformation of rice straw into simple sugars. (springer.com)
  • Plant cell walls constitute the largest renewable source of biomass on Earth that can supply environmental benefits for the production of fuel, chemicals and materials. (nature.com)
  • The sugars produced from the PROESA pretreatment and hydrolysis process can be also be converted to renewable diesel and a range of bio-based chemicals using the bio-technology of third parties. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • Therefore, for practical application, an appropriate size reduction needs to be selected based on the biomass type,what chemicals to be used for pretreatment. (blogspot.com)
  • Ultimately, allowing for affordable production of cellulosic sugars and value added chemicals. (metgen.com)
  • Holladay J, Bozell J, White J, Johnson D (2007) Top value-added chemicals from biomass. (springer.com)
  • Monomeric carbohydrates are the most important starting materials for the production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals. (dicp.ac.cn)
  • Taken together, hydrolysis of biomass in ionic liquids should be a powerful technology to advance production of biofuels and chemicals form renewable resources. (dicp.ac.cn)
  • The liberation of fermentable sugars from cellulosic biomass during enzymatic hydrolysis is often incomplete. (chalmers.se)
  • Lynd LR, Cushman JH, Nichols RJ, Wyman CE (1991) Fuel ethanol from cellulosic biomass. (springer.com)
  • However, more work is needed to provide low cost starting materials from cellulosic biomass, improve genetic tools that allow introduction of metabolic pathways and control elements into microbial genomes, and develop a broader range of host microbes that can produce tailored biofuel compounds and withstand stresses associated with industrial fuel production. (ornl.gov)
  • Creation of knockout mutants for Cel48S (also known as CelS, S S , and S8), the most abundant cellulosome subunit, was undertaken to gain insight into its role in enzymatic and microbial cellulose solubilization. (pnas.org)
  • Dasari RK, Eric Berson R (2007) The effect of particle size on hydrolysis reaction rates and rheological properties in cellulosic slurries. (springer.com)
  • Mechanical pretreatment use shearing force to reduce biomass particle size, change the lignocellulose structure, and reduce degree of polymerization and crystallinity of cellulose (Kumar et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The enzymatic hydrolysis of micronized wood was improved as collectively increasing surface area (i.e., reducing particle size and aspect ratio) and decreasing crystallinity during mechanical milling pretreatment. (wsu.edu)
  • Many studies reveal that biomass particle size dictates the energy consumption in size reduction. (ukdiss.com)
  • This study presents a comprehensive experimental investigation on the conversion of three biomass materials into fermentable sugars and studies the effects of biomass particle size on various evaluation parameters throughout the multistage cellulosic biofuel production. (ukdiss.com)
  • SSF is thought to be an ideal process for biochemical conversion of biomass to bioproducts. (lbl.gov)
  • The company's process combines the use of an enzymatic hydrolysis to release sugars from biomass, along with technologies to purify the sugar stream. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • However, conversion of abundant and renewable cellulosic biomass into alternative sources of energy seems to be an effective and promising solution. (ukessays.com)
  • Cellulosic biomass represents an abundant renewable resource for the production of bio-based products and biofuels. (aiche.org)
  • As our country faces a future of growing oil imports and national security concerns, volatile oil and gas markets, climatic shifts, and potentially more challenges to our agricultural policies -cellulosic ethanol technologies have emerged as a part of the solution to all of these problems. (eesi.org)
  • Biofuels employ recycling of agricultural byproducts and dedicated energy crops, which offer opportunities for mitigation of greenhouse gas emission as growing these leads to C sequestration through photosynthesis. (springeropen.com)
  • Cellulosic biomass holds significant promise for the world's future fuel needs as it constitutes an agricultural residue that in many cases is already collected and inexpensive. (therichroffmanshow.com)
  • There are over 1 billion dry tons of cellulosic biomass that can be sustainably harvested in the U.S. every year. (ukdiss.com)
  • The tight structure of lignocellulose is primarily responsible for its inherent stability and strength but presents a barrier to efficient hydrolysis, a significant problem when considering lignocellulose for biofuel production. (asknature.org)
  • From left, John Gladden, Seema Singh, Blake Simmons and Jian Shi led the development at JBEI of a one-pot system for the ionic liquid pretreatment and saccharification of switchgrass for biofuel production. (lbl.gov)
  • Switchgrass and Miscanthus are the major biomass materials being studied today, due to their high productivity per acre. (wikipedia.org)