Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Clostridium thermocellum: A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Cellulases: A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Cellulase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.Cellulosomes: Extracellular structures found in a variety of microorganisms. They contain CELLULASES and play an important role in the digestion of CELLULOSE.Panicum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).Energy-Generating Resources: Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Cellobiose: A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose.Waste Products: Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Xylans: Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.Trichoderma: A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.Cellulose 1,4-beta-Cellobiosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE and cellotetraose. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing ends of beta-D-glucosides with release of CELLOBIOSE.Thermoanaerobacter: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria in the family Thermoanaerobacteriaceae. Cultures consist of rods interspersed with coccoid cells.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases: Enzymes which catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in XYLANS.Xylosebeta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Cellulose, Oxidized: A cellulose of varied carboxyl content retaining the fibrous structure. It is commonly used as a local hemostatic and as a matrix for normal blood coagulation.Radioactive Waste: Liquid, solid, or gaseous waste resulting from mining of radioactive ore, production of reactor fuel materials, reactor operation, processing of irradiated reactor fuels, and related operations, and from use of radioactive materials in research, industry, and medicine. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.FuraldehydeEcosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Glycoside HydrolasesTrees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium: A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.Polyporaceae: A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Saccharomycopsis: Yeast-like ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycopsidaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES, isolated from the stomach of rabbits and some other animals.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Photobioreactors: Devices for generating biological products that use light as the energy source. They are used for controlled BIOMASS production such as growing cyanobacteria, mosses, or algae.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Microalgae: A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.Acetaldehyde: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Salix: A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Members contain salicin, which yields SALICYLIC ACID.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Renewable Energy: Forms of energy that are constantly and rapidly renewed by natural processes such as solar, ocean wave, and wind energy. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carbon Sequestration: Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.FiresCulture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.SmokePopulation Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Yue, Zhengbo; Teater, Charles; Liu, Yan; MacLellan, James; Liao, Wei (2010). "A sustainable pathway of cellulosic ethanol ... "Methods for kinetic analysis of methane fermentation in high solids biomass digesters". Biomass and Bioenergy. 1 (2): 65-73. ... In a batch system, biomass is added to the reactor at the start of the process. The reactor is then sealed for the duration of ... Questions about biomass energy Archived 30 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine., dti.gov.uk. Retrieved 17.08.07. 38% HHV ...
Goettemoeller, Jeffrey; Adrian Goettemoeller (2007). Sustainable Ethanol: Biofuels, Biorefineries, Cellulosic Biomass, Flex- ... Normally this will be in the form of raw biomass, but processed biomass is also an option. If the exported biomass is used to ... of ethanol. The Economist, March 1, 2008, Ethanol and water: don't mix, p. 36 Barnett, Cynthia. "Fueling worries: four ethanol ... At this time, costs of conversion of cellulosic fuels, at $1.46 per gallon, were roughly twice that of corn-based ethanol, at $ ...
Cellulosic ethanol Endoglucanase (EG) Kumar R, Singh S, Singh OV (May 2008). "Bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass: ... May 2008). "Genome sequencing and analysis of the biomass-degrading fungus Trichoderma reesei (syn. Hypocrea jecorina)". Nat. ... a major component of plant biomass, into glucose. T. reesei isolate QM6a was originally isolated from the Solomon Islands ... A Fungal Enzyme Producer for Cellulosic Biofuels". In Dos Santos Bernardes, Marco Aurélio. Biofuel Production-Recent ...
The company is accelerating development and deployment of cellulosic ethanol, which is made from non-food biomass. DDCE plans ... DuPont Danisco Cellulosic Ethanol LLC is a 50/50 joint venture between DuPont and Genencor, a subsidiary of Danisco. ... DuPont Danisco Cellulosic Ethanol, LLC - Frequently asked questions Archived November 20, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. DuPont ... "DuPont-Danisco in Tennessee cellulosic ethanol project". Cleantech Group. Archived from the original on 2008-09-16. Retrieved ...
16 billion shall come from cellulosic ethanol. The remaining 5 billion US gallons (19,000,000 m3) shall come from biomass-based ... Third-generation technologies are still under development and include advanced biomass gasification, biorefinery technologies, ... biomass combustion, geothermal power and heat. These technologies are quite widely used. Second-generation technologies include ...
... is a Danish company that produces cellulosic ethanol. Elsam, a Danish power company, began looking at using biomass for ... L.H. Gerlach "Method and Apparatus for conversion of Cellulosic Material to Ethanol." U.S. Patent 8 123 864, Feb. 28, 2012. ... DSM has an enzyme cocktail for the production of cellulosic ethanol. This cocktail contains thermostable cellulases that ... Inbicon has approved three companies' enzymes for their patented cellulosic ethanol production method: Novozymes, Genencor and ...
Waste to energy technology includes fermentation, which can take biomass and create ethanol, using waste cellulosic or organic ... "Waste Biomass Carbonization Plant - KG Biomass Plant". Field, Christopher B. "Emissions pathways, climate change, and impacts ... Carbon 14 dating can determine with precision the biomass fraction of waste, and also determine the biomass calorific value. ... As of spring 2016 Enerkem expected ethanol production to commence some time ín 2017, and no public confirmation of any actual ...
Biomass and sugarcane ethanol must have 50 percent reductions. Research at Argonne National Laboratory sponsored by the ... Separate quotas and blending requirements are determined for cellulosic biofuels, biomass-based diesel, advanced biofuels, and ... while corn ethanol production continued unabated. "Analysts, including some in the ethanol sector, say ethanol demand adds ... The amount of ethanol used in the United States is capped by a limit of 10% ethanol content for most gasoline and diesel sales ...
States with low cellulosic biomass ethanol production may be rewarded grants for research, development, and application of ... which mandates that 35 billion gallons of ethanol-equivalent biofuels and 1 billion gallons of biomass-based diesel be consumed ... Ethanol critics contend that RFS requirements crowd out production that would go to feed livestock. Advanced Technology ... To be labeled as Biomass-based Diesel, fuel must be able to reduce emissions by 50 percent when compared to petroleum diesel. ...
Ethanol from biomass by enzymatic hydrolysis - JD Wright - Chemical Engineering Progress, 1988 - osti.gov. ... It may be used to help provide renewable energy, as with Cellulosic ethanol. Digestion enzyme Acid hydrolysis Alkaline ...
Also, Biomass to liquids (BTLs) and cellulosic ethanol are still under research. The use of municipal and household waste is on ... Researchers working with cellulosic ethanol are trying to make the extraction of ethanol from sugarcane bagasse and other ... Biomass can be converted to other usable forms of energy like methane gas or transportation fuels like ethanol and biodiesel. ... This is a common misconception, as bioenergy is the energy extracted from the biomass, as the biomass is the fuel and the ...
It also has potential for cellulosic ethanol (biomass ethanol), which is "ethanol made from non-grain plant materials known as ... But if the commercialization of cellulosic ethanol advances enough technologically, biomass ethanol production would use the ... The free accessibility to corn stover makes it a prime candidate for biomass ethanol production. A new DuPont facility in ... biofuels.dupont.com/cellulosic-ethanol/nevada-site-ce-facility/ "DuPont to temporarily halt corn stover program at Nevada plant ...
Cellulosic ethanol is produced using the lignocellulose biomass that comprises much of the mass of plants. Essentially at the ... Treethanol is an ethanol fuel (more precisely cellulosic ethanol) made from trees. The biofuel is a contender in the race to ... They also note that while cellulosic ethanol does not necessarily yield more energy than say, corn based ethanol per unit of ... Hoover, F; Abraham, J (2009). "A comparison of corn-based ethanol with cellulosic ethanol as replacements for petroleum-based ...
Lynd, L. R.; Cushman, J. H.; Nichols, R. J.; Wyman, C. E. (1991). "Fuel Ethanol from Cellulosic Biomass". Science. 251 (4999): ... In contrast, switchgrass cellulosic ethanol and corn ethanol were found to mitigate 5.2 and 1.5 tonnes of CO2 per hectare, ... Thus, switchgrass cellulosic ethanol should give a higher yield of ethanol per hectare at lower cost. However, this will depend ... current technology for herbaceous biomass conversion to ethanol is about 340 liters per tonne. In contrast, corn ethanol yields ...
... has also conducted various ethanol research projects, mainly in the area of cellulosic ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol ... Cellulosic biomass, derived from non-food sources, such as trees and grasses, is also being developed as a feedstock for ... for cellulosic ethanol, corn ethanol, and gasoline are 10.3, 1.36, and 0.81, respectively. Ethanol has roughly one-third lower ... E.ON Bio ethanol fires information bio ethanol fireplace. (2009) see "Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol" ...
Goettemoeller, Jeffrey; Adrian Goettemoeller (2007), Sustainable Ethanol: Biofuels, Biorefineries, Cellulosic Biomass, Flex- ... Ethanol economy Ethanol fuel in Australia Ethanol fuel in Brazil Ethanol fuel in Sweden Ethanol fuel in the Philippines Ethanol ... While the EROEI and economics of corn based ethanol are a bit weak, it paves the way for cellulosic ethanol which should have ... Cellulosic ethanol commercialization is moving forward rapidly. The world's first commercial wood-to-ethanol plant began ...
... and as biomass for fermentation or as a feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production. Stover from various crops can also be used ... Using Corn Stover for Ethanol Production: A Look at the Regional Economic Impacts for Selected Midwestern States (PDF). ...
Goettemoeller, Jeffrey; Adrian Goettemoeller (2007). Sustainable Ethanol: Biofuels, Biorefineries, Cellulosic Biomass, Flex- ... As ethanol fuel economy is lower than gasoline because of ethanol's energy content is close to 34% less per unit volume than ... However, as a result of higher ethanol prices caused by the Brazilian ethanol industry crisis that began in 2009, by November ... The small gasoline reservoir for starting the engine with pure ethanol in cold weather, used in earlier ethanol-only vehicles, ...
... and other biomass into cellulosic ethanol. This process is dependent upon microbial consortia(association) that transform the ... Biofuels are fuels derived from biomass conversion, as in the conversion of cellulose contained in corn stalks, switchgrass, ... "An insect herbivore microbiome with high plant biomass-degrading capacity". PLoS Genetics. 6 (9): e1001129. doi:10.1371/journal ... The efficient industrial-scale deconstruction of biomass requires novel enzymes with higher productivity and lower cost. ...
... bio-energy also has the added benefit of not requiring infrastructure changes the way processing biomass for cellulosic ethanol ... "Use of mobile fast pyrolysis plants to densify biomass and reduce biomass handling costs-A preliminary assessment". Biomass & ... Assessment of sustainable energy potential of non-plantation biomass resources in Sri Lanka, 29 Biomass & Bioenergy 199, 204 ( ... If biomass is pyrolyzed to biochar and put back into the soil, rather than being completely burned, this may reduce carbon ...
... www.dupont.com/products-and-services/industrial-biotechnology/advanced-biofuels/cellulosic-ethanol.html. Missing or empty , ... bagasse and biomass. The manufacturing and marketing rights to the patented DiGenter technology were re-licensed to a Hong Kong ... was deployed widely in China and India was one of the first successful commercial scale sustainable cellulosic waste to ethanol ... technologies; a forerunner to the now successful DuPont technologies manufacturing renewable fuel grade Bio-ethanol and ...
He has addressed several important problems in cellulosic biomass to ethanol and other products with particular focus on ... and dehydration of cellulosic biomass to reactive intermediates for biological or catalytic conversion into fuels and chemicals ... He is an authoritative figure in the broad area of ethanol. He has made significant seminal contributions in the specific areas ... "The development of leading biomass pretreatment technologies". Elsevier. August 30, 2016. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2005.01.010. ...
Cellulosic Ethanol Type strain of Clostridium thermocellum at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Biology portal. ... This makes it useful in converting biomass into a usable energy source. The degradation of the cellulose is carried out in the ... being capable of directly converting a cellulosic substrate into ethanol by consolidated bioprocessing. ... However, there are some shortfalls in applying the organism to practical applications due to it having low ethanol yield, at ...
... "biomass-based diesel" category. Cellulosic ethanol and cellulosic diesel met the "cellulosic biofuel" standard. The table ... As of 2008, multiple full life cycle studies had found that corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol and Brazilian sugarcane ethanol ... Goettemoeller, Jeffrey; Adrian Goettemoeller (2007). "Sustainable Ethanol: Biofuels, Biorefineries, Cellulosic Biomass, Flex- ... However, 20 to 30 percent reduction for corn ethanol, and 85 to 85 percent for cellulosic ethanol, both figures estimated by ...
Goettemoeller, Jeffrey; Adrian Goettemoeller (2007). "Sustainable Ethanol: Biofuels, Biorefineries, Cellulosic Biomass, Flex- ... hydrous ethanol fuel (E100). After the neat ethanol fiasco, consumer confidence in ethanol-powered vehicles was restored, ... shifting sugarcane ethanol production from fuel to sugar. By mid-1989, a shortage of ethanol fuel supply in the local market ... neat ethanol vehicles were launched in the Brazilian market. Gasoline engines were modified to support hydrous ethanol ...
In general, each trophic level relates to the one below it by absorbing some of the energy it consumes, and in this way can be regarded as resting on, or supported by, the next lower trophic level. Food chains can be diagrammed to illustrate the amount of energy that moves from one feeding level to the next in a food chain. This is called an energy pyramid. The energy transferred between levels can also be thought of as approximating to a transfer in biomass, so energy pyramids can also be viewed as biomass pyramids, picturing the amount of biomass that results at higher levels from biomass consumed at lower levels. However, when primary producers grow rapidly and are consumed rapidly, the biomass at any one moment may be low; for example, phytoplankton (producer) biomass can be low compared to the ...
The term biomass is especially useful for plants, where some internal structures may not always be considered living tissue, such as the wood (secondary xylem) of a tree. Biofuels include bioethanol, biodiesel & biogas. Biomass is grown from several plants, including switchgrass, hemp, corn, poplar, willow and sugarcane. The particular plant used is usually not very important to the end products, but it does affect the processing of the raw material. Though biomass is a renewable fuel, its use can still contribute to global warming. This happens when the natural carbon equilibrium is disturbed; for example by deforestation or urbanization of green sites. Biomass is part of the carbon cycle. Photosynthesis converts carbon from the atmosphere into plant matter. When the plant rots or burns, the carbon goes back into the atmosphere. This happens somewhat ...
Bioenergy global capacity in 2017 was 109 GW.. Biomass is biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms. It most often refers to plants or plant-derived materials which are specifically called lignocellulosic biomass. As an energy source, biomass can either be used directly via combustion to produce heat, or indirectly after converting it to various forms of biofuel. Conversion of biomass to biofuel can be achieved by different methods which are broadly classified into: thermal, chemical, and biochemical methods. Wood remains the largest biomass energy source today; examples include forest residues - such as dead trees, branches and tree stumps -, yard clippings, wood chips and even municipal solid waste. In the second sense, biomass includes plant or ...
Annual catches of wild European bass are relatively modest, having fluctuated between 8,500 and 11,900 tonnes in 2000-2009. Most of the reported catches originate from the Atlantic Ocean, with France typically reporting the highest catches. In the Mediterranean, Italy used to report the largest catches, but has been surpassed by Egypt in recent years.. The fish has come under increasing pressure from commercial fishing and has recently become the focus in the United Kingdom of a conservation effort by recreational anglers. The Republic of Ireland has strict laws regarding bass. All commercial fishing for the species is banned and several restrictions are in place for recreational anglers, a closed season May 15 - June 15 inclusive every year, a minimum size of 400 mm, and a bag limit of two fish per day. In a scientific advice (June 2013), it is stressed that fishing mortality is increasing. The total biomass has been declining since 2005. Total ...
where: C(algal oil) is the price of microalgal oil in dollars per gallon and C(petroleum) is the price of crude oil in dollars per barrel. This equation assumes that algal oil has roughly 80% of the caloric energy value of crude petroleum. With current technology available, it is estimated that the cost of producing microalgal biomass is $2.95/kg for photobioreactors and $3.80/kg for open-ponds. These estimates assume that carbon dioxide is available at no cost. If the annual biomass production capacity is increased to 10,000 tonnes, the cost of production per kilogram reduces to roughly $0.47 and $0.60, respectively. Assuming that the biomass contains 30% oil by weight, the cost of biomass for providing a liter of oil would be approximately $1.40 ($5.30/gal) and $1.81 ($6.85/gal) for photobioreactors and raceways, respectively. Oil recovered from the lower cost ...
The simple proposal that biomass is carbon-neutral put forward in the early 1990s has been superseded by the more nuanced proposal that for a particular bioenergy project to be carbon neutral, the total carbon sequestered by a bioenergy crop's root system must compensate for all the emissions from the related, aboveground bioenergy project. This includes any emissions caused by direct or indirect land use change. Many first generation bioenergy projects are not carbon neutral given these demands. Some have even higher total GHG emissions than some fossil based alternatives.  Transport fuels might be worse than solid fuels in this regard. . Some are carbon neutral or even negative, though, especially perennial crops. The amount of carbon sequestrated and the amount of GHG (greenhouse gases) emitted will determine if the total GHG life cycle cost of a bio-energy project is positive, neutral or negative. Whitaker et al. estimates that for Miscanthus x giganteus, ...
A snail is a common name for a kind of mollusc. The term is used for a gastropod with a coiled shell.. Snails and slugs which breathe with a kind of lung are members of a group, the Pulmonata, which was a well-known order in traditional taxonomy. Their fossil records extends back into the Carboniferous period.. However, the Pulmonata was found to be polyphyletic in a molecular study. What this means is that, in the course of evolution, the same life-style evolved in a number of different lines. Therefore the pulmonates are polyphyletic, and the Pulmonata is no longer an official term in biological classification.. The term "snail" is also sometimes used for aquatic snail-like gastropods, which usually have gills. Actually, most snail species are marine snails: they have much greater diversity and a greater biomass. Numerous kinds of snail can also be found in fresh water habitats.. Close relatives of the snails are the slugs, which are basically snails without shells. ...
Because of Eustrongylides species' complex life cycle with various host species, preventing infection and controlling outbreaks is difficult. Outbreaks of this disease are closely linked to agricultural runoff and urban development Eutrophication of water bodies supports high population levels of oligochaete worms, which causes increased numbers of infected fish that eat the worms, and then the birds who eat the fish. One way to prevent Eustrongylidosis is to control oligochaete populations. Outbreaks of this parasite are closely linked to high numbers of oligochaete worms in the area's waterways. This is because the worms are essential for Eustrongylides species to reproduce. Oligochaete populations can be controlled by monitoring nutrient levels in the water, because high nutrient levels support oligochaete populations. They can also be controlled by decreasing the level of oxygen in the water. Encouraging responsible farming practices in order to reduce chemical run-off will help ...
In agriculture, a living mulch is a cover crop interplanted or undersown with a main crop, and intended to serve the purposes of a mulch, such as weed suppression and regulation of soil temperature. Living mulches grow for a long time with the main crops, whereas cover crops are incorporated into the soil or killed with herbicides. Other benefits of mulches are slowing the growth of weeds, and protecting soil from water and wind erosion. Some living mulches were found to increase populations of the natural enemies of crop pests. Legumes used as living mulches also provide nitrogen fixation, reducing the need for fertilizer. When cover crops are turned over into the soil, they contribute nutrients to the main crop so that less chemical fertilizer is required. The amount of the contribution depends on the biomass, which varies over time and depends on rainfall and other factors. The greater the biomass, the greater the nutrient turnover of ...
... , or Ming aralia, is a perennial dicot evergreen shrub or dwarf tree native to India. The plant grows fairly slowly but can reach up to 1 to 2 meters in height. The leaves are of a dark green pigment, glossy in texture, and are tripinnate and appear divided. Individual leaves vary from narrowly ovate to lanceolate and are about 10 cm long. The Ming aralia is widely cultivated in several countries of southeastern Asia and the tropical islands of the Pacific region. It was originally located in Polynesia and thrives in environments of medium humidity, with temperatures varying from 16-29⁰C (60-85⁰F). The name Polyscias means many-shaded, in reference to the foliage found on these plants. Their stalks carry compound leaves with up to seven (or more) opposite leaflets. In several species the leaves are deeply lobed. There are about six species of the genus Polyscias which are actively cultivated. The genus contains a variety of tropical plants which include about 80 species ...
In allometric scaling, maximum potential life span (MPLS) is directly related to metabolic rate (MR), where MR is the recharge rate of a biomass made up of covalent bonds. That biomass (W) is subjected to deterioration over time from thermodynamic, entropic pressure. Metabolism is essentially understood as redox coupling, and has nothing to do with thermogenesis. Metabolic efficiency (ME) is then expressed as the efficiency of this coupling, a ratio of amperes[clarification needed] captured and used by biomass, to the amperes available for that purpose. MR is measured in watts, W is measured in grams. These factors are combined in a power law, an elaboration on Kleiber's law relating MR to W and MPLS, that appears as MR = W^ (4ME-1)/4ME.[clarification needed] When ME is 100%, MR = W^3/4; this is popularly known as quarter power scaling, a version of allometric scaling that is premised upon unrealistic ...
The term "Lignin characterization" (or "Lignin analysis") refers to a group of activities within lignin research aiming at describing the characteristics of a lignin by determination of its most important properties. Most often, this term is used to describe the characterization of technical lignins by means of chemical or thermo-chemical analysis. Technical lignins are lignins isolated from various biomasses during various kinds of technical processes such as wood pulping. The most common technical lignins include lignosulphonates (isolated from sulfite pulping), kraft lignins (isolated from kraft pulping black liquor), organosolv lignins (isolated from organosolv pulping), soda lignins (isolated from soda pulping) and lignin residue after enzymatic treatment of biomass. Lignins can be characterized by determination of their purity, molecular structure and thermal properties. For certain applications, other properties such as electrical ...
棘龍擁有獨特的帆狀物，雖然同一時期的該地區其他恐龍也可能發展出類似的背椎結構物，例如鳥腳下目的豪勇龍、蜥腳下目的雷巴齊斯龍，以及生存於南美洲的蜥腳類阿瑪加龍。棘龍的帆狀物也類似異齒龍的背帆；異齒龍是種似哺乳爬行動物，生存於恐龍時代以前的二疊紀，兩者的帆狀物並非同源演化的特徵，而是平行演化的結果。棘龍的背部結構物可能較類似駝峰，而非帆狀物。早在1915年，恩斯特·斯特莫就認為這些背部結構物支撐著脂肪構成的隆肉。在1997年，Jack Bowman Bailey最近提出棘龍、豪勇龍的背棘並非細棒，而是前後軸寬廣，不同於盤龍目的扁平背帆，而是類似巨角犀、水牛的背脊，所以棘龍的背棘應是支撐者較厚、較肥胖的結構物，而非細的帆狀物。 ...
One of the barriers to the production of ethanol from cellulosic biomass is the toughness of the cellulosic structure, and its ... Ethanol from Cellulosic Biomass. Posted in Biofuels , Ethanol Fuel. One of the barriers to the production of ethanol from ... cellulosic biomass is the toughness of the cellulosic structure, and its resistance to chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis and ... Next steps in developing the process would be to attempt it with production-grade biomass waste, and to devise a mechanism for ...
MMGY Cellulosic Ethanol Plant and 6± MW Biomass Plant are going to Auction ... The former INEOS Bio Energy 8± MMGY Cellulosic Ethanol Plant and 6± MW Biomass Plant are going to Auction with Maas Companies. ... The former INEOS Bio Energy 8± MMGY Cellulosic Ethanol Plant and 6± MW Biomass Plant are going to Auction with Maas Companies. ... Former INEOS Cellulosic Ethanol & Biomass Power Plant Surplus Assets Scheduled for Auction. ...
... a Danish cellulosic ethanol technology, signed a license agreement for the Inbicon Biomass Refinery technology. The agreement ... Inbicon biomass refinery. Click to enlarge. Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding (MES), one of Japans leading heavy industries, ... grants Mitsui the right to build a number of biomass refineries in Southeast Asia... ... Mitsui and Inbicon Sign Cellulosic Ethanol Licensing Agreement for Biomass Refineries in Southeast Asia 01 March 2010 ...
... students convert cellulosic biomass sources, such as sawdust, straw, or cardboard into sugars and then ethanol. ... students convert cellulosic biomass sources, such as sawdust, straw, or cardboard into sugars and then ethanol. As biomass ... Ethanol probe, blood glucose meter, centrifuge tubes, water bath or incubator, biomass, cellulase enzyme, coffee or spice ... students can test predictions about which biomass sources and treatment methods will be most effective for producing ethanol. ...
Ethanol plants will come to fruition by 2014. Companies are working out the details of harvesting cellulose without harming the ... Wyman has a long history of research on converting cellulosic biomass to commodity products, including ethanol, with current ... Cellulosic ethanol industry overcoming barriers to bring the tech online. Ethanol plants will come to fruition by 2014. ... there are various challenges in coordinating the harvest and transportation of biomass from the field to the cellulosic ethanol ...
Cellulosic biomass. DSECs commitment on the construction of Bioethanol plants is based on a very specialized technical ... Cellulosic biomass is the structural portion of plants and includes agricultural (e.g. Corn Stover, which is the entire above- ... Bio-Ethanol Production Plants Ethanol production plants construction requires a deep specialization that DSEC processes over ... in this article you will find a more detailed understanding about the process of Cellulosic biomass. ...
Compositions and methods relating to transgenic plants and cellulosic ethanol production Patent Tien, Ming ; Carlson, John ; ... Compositions and methods relating to transgenic plants and cellulosic ethanol production. Title: Compositions and methods ... In particular the present disclosure relates to cellulase variants having reduced binding to non-cellulosic materials. Also ... In particular the present disclosure relates to cellulase variants having reduced binding to non-cellulosic materials. Also ...
... but higher feedstock prices greatly increase the amount of ethanol produced. Farmers will supply much more cellulosic biomass ... 403a) All Biomass Is Local: Paying Farmers More for Cellulosic Biomass Is a Game Changer. ... Current models of cellulosic biofuel systems require that the delivered price of the cellulosic ... The analysis is based on county-level cellulosic feedstock production data projected in the US Billion-Ton Update report. Each ...
A University of Wisconsin-Madison research team has developed a chemical process for the hydrolysis of biomass into sugars for ... Posted on 11 March 2010 in Biomass, Cellulosic ethanol, Fuels , Permalink , Comments (7) ... The prodcution of methanol or ethanol from synthesis gas made from biomass seems to be the most efficient and cheapest way of ... University of Wisconsin Team Develops High-Yielding Chemical Hydrolysis Process to Release Sugars from Biomass for Cellulosic ...
Biomass Plant matter of recent (nongeologic) origin. Cellulase One or more enzymes that catalyze the reaction of water with ... Cellulosic ethanol Ethanol made from lignocellulosic biomass by biological, chemical, or chemo-biological processes. ... Lynd LR, Cushman JH, Nichols RJ, Wyman CE (1991) Fuel ethanol from cellulosic biomass. Science 251:1318-1323CrossRefGoogle ... Wyman CE, Hinman ND, Bain RL, Stevens DJ (1992) Ethanol and methanol from cellulosic biomass. In: Williams RH, Johansson TB, ...
"Alabama town partners with Gulf Coast Energy" Biomass Magazine. August 1, 2008. POET Further Commits to Cellulosic Ethanol Iowa ... Cellulosic ethanol and grain-based ethanol are, in fact, the same product, but many scientists believe cellulosic ethanol ... Ethanol Producer Magazine. Japan firms look to develop cellulosic ethanol Honda Building Cellulosic Ethanol Research Facility ... seen possible for ethanol plants Shell fuels cellulosic ethanol push with new Codexis deal Enerkem to build cellulosic ethanol ...
Making cellulosic ethanol is an involved process. Learn all about making cellulosic ethanol at HowStuffWorks. ... Cellulosic ethanol starts with cellulosic biomass. Almost every stem, leaf and tree trunk in the world qualifies, from farm ... Making cellulosic ethanol thermochemically poses benefits. The thermochemical method converts lignin and gets the most ethanol ... Separations remove the ethanol [source: NREL].. For either method, the ethanol is trucked to special stations to mix with ...
These sugars can then be fermented, leading to bio-ethanol. Carroll, Andrew; Somerville, Chris (June 2009). "Cellulosic ... Lignocellulosic biomass can be broadly classified into virgin biomass, waste biomass and energy crops. Virgin biomass includes ... Biomass is a carbon-neutral source of energy: Since it comes from plants, the combustion of lignocellulosic ethanol produces no ... One barrier to the production of ethanol from biomass is that the sugars necessary for fermentation are trapped inside the ...
... cellulosic ethanol. ... 09 BIOMASS FUELS; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ... v/v ethanol. To our knowledge, this is the first time that titers greater than 10% v/v ethanol in fermentations derived from ... Asmore » a result, the potential cost savings from high sugar and ethanol titers achieved by the DMR process are also reported ... In addition, lower ethanol titers increase the volumes required for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation vessels increase ...
Biomass-to-liquid fuels;. Cellulosic ethanol;. Coal-and-biomass-to-liquid fuels; ...
Alternative Fuels from Coal and Biomass: Biochemical Technologies for Cellulosic Ethanol and Advanced Biofuels. Conference ... This presentation provides a high-level review of the current trends in technology and markets for biomass feedstocks and the ... Inventing the Biofuel Future - We Can Have Biomass for Fuel and Eat it Too. Archived Webinar ... Production of JP-8 Jet Fuel from Coal and Coal/Biomass Mixtures. Conference Presentation ...
"Effect of biomass species and plant size on cellulosic ethanol: A comparative process and economic analysis". Biomass Bioenergy ... or greater for cellulosic ethanol. As well, cellulosic ethanol can reduce carbon dioxide emissions to nearly zero. A major ... while cellulosic ethanol provides 80 percent more energy. Cellulosic ethanol yields 80 percent more energy than is required to ... Biomass costs less, and it makes the resulting cellulosic ethanol a 100% second-generation biofuel, i.e., it uses no food for ...
... which Ethanol Acquisition acquired in April from Panda Ethanol Inc. for a $25 million credit bid in bankruptcy court.READ MORE ... Shell, Iogen announce cellulosic advancements. On June 10, Royal Dutch Shell plc announced one of its Ottawa service stations ... Hereford Biofuels ethanol plant to be mothballed. Competitive Power Ventures Holdings LLC, a North American power industry ... WEBINAR: Explosion Risks and Mitigation Methods for Critical Process Equipment in the Biomass Facility. March 12-12, 2019 - ...
Biomass-based diesel (1.0 billion gallons; 0.91 percent). Advanced biofuels (2.0 billion gallons; 1.21 percent). Cellulosic ... Tagged as: biofuels, cellulosic ethanol, corn ethanol, energy, epa, fuel, oil, petroleum ... Cellulosic Ethanol "Mandate" Downgraded Again. by Brian McGraw on June 21, 2011 ... cellulosic ethanol (meaning zero gallons, of the original 250 million required in 2011) has been produced and blended into our ...
ETHANOL AND CO-PRODUCTS FROM CELLULOSIC BIOMASS (Other) (8-Oct-06) STUDIES OF THE EXTRACELLULAR GLYCOCALYX OF THE ANAEROBIC ... DRYING, HARVESTING AND STORAGE CHARACTERISTICS OF PERENNIAL GRASSES AS BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS (Proceedings) (6-Jul-06) ...
This type of fuel, called cellulosic ethanol, has the potential to be a major source of renewable fuel for Americas ... The wood is sustainably harvested according to the RFS requirements for biomass. ... API), sold its first shipment of cellulosic ethanol with a Renewable Identification Number (RIN), which ensures the fuel meets ... This type of fuel, called cellulosic ethanol, has the potential to be a major source of renewable fuel for Americas ...
The plant uses wheat straw, rice straw and arundo donax as feedstock to produce cellulosic ethanol. READ MORE SHARE ... Commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol refinery opens in Italy. Beta Renewable and Novozymes today marked the official opening in ... providing forecasts for electricity consumption from wood biomass and waste biomass feedstocks.. READ MORE SHARE ... EIA updates forecasts of wood, waste biomass energy consumption The U.S. Energy Information Administration has published the ...
Biomass and Bioenergy 2013, 48, 66-74. * Iye EL, Bilsborrow PE. Cellulosic ethanol production from agricultural residues in ... Biomass and renewable energy from agriculture - biofuels, biomass, AD optimisation.. Esteem Indicators. *January 2008 - ... Biomass and Bioenergy 2018, 112, 61-72. * Scott C, Bilsborrow PE. The impact of the EU neonicotinoid seed‐dressing ban on ...
... offering a new economic leverage for cellulosic ethanol to compete with fossil fuels in the near future. In this study, glucose ... Cellulosic ethanol is a sustainable alternative to petroleum as a transportation fuel, which could be made biologically from ... This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass and Biofuels 2013) Full-Text , PDF [984 KB, uploaded 17 March 2015] ... Cellulosic ethanol is a sustainable alternative to petroleum as a transportation fuel, which could be made biologically from ...
Edeniq secures $16 million for cellulosic sugar production Edeniq announced it has raised $16 million in equity. The investment ... International Biomass Conference & Expo. April 20-22, 2015. Minneapolis Convention Center. Minneapolis, Minnesota ... Commodities: Energy, ethanol prices continue dropping sharply Ethanol and gasoline prices have seen sharp losses over the first ... White paper urges regulators to rethink ethanols carbon value A new white paper written by Ron Alverson of the American ...
BiofuelsFUELSProduction of ethanolCommercial-scale cellulosic ethanolGallons of cellulosic ethanolSecond-generation ethanolBioenergySwitchgrassSugarcaneFuel ethanolGreenhouse gas emissKnown as biomassEnzymatic hydrolysisBioethanolYieldsCorn based ethanolInternational Biomass ConferenceMade from cellulosic biomassLignocellulosic biomass to ethanolWorld's largest cellulosic ethanolPretreatmentYieldStrawRefineryProcessesEnzymesGrowth of cellulosic ethanolPotential for cellulosic ethanolConvert biomassPlants to produce cellulosicLigninRenewable energyWoody biomassBiofuel productionAgriculturalWaste biomassBillion gallons of ethanolMillion gallonsEnergyMethanolBarriersBiorefineriesCellulose-to-ethanolGasificationMiscanthus
- Key players in the cellulosic biofuels industry are working out the details to get what they need and leave what the soil needs in place. (farmindustrynews.com)
- As of 2013, the first commercial-scale plants to produce cellulosic biofuels have begun operating. (wikipedia.org)
- It is the most abundantly available raw material on the Earth for the production of biofuels, mainly bio-ethanol. (wikipedia.org)
- Commercially practical cellulosic alcohol could also avoid one of the problems with today's conventional (grain-based) biofuels, which is that they set up competition for grain with food purposes, potentially driving up the price of food. (wikipedia.org)
- Absence of production of cellulosic ethanol in the quantities required by the regulation was the basis of a United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia decision announced January 25, 2013, voiding a requirement imposed on car and truck fuel producers in the United States by the Environmental Protection Agency requiring addition of cellulosic biofuels to their products. (wikipedia.org)
- Biomass and renewable energy from agriculture - biofuels, biomass, AD optimisation. (ncl.ac.uk)
- The remaining 1.35 billion gallons will be a combination of biodiesel and other advanced biofuels, including a 6.6 million gallon requirement specifically for cellulosic biofuels which is lower than original targets established when the RFS2 became law. (agri-pulse.com)
- By reducing the standard for cellulosic biofuels, EPA is accurately reflecting the difficulties cellulosic biofuel technologies have encountered in obtaining the capital needed to fully commercialize. (agri-pulse.com)
- N.C. Gov. Pat McCrory and N.C. Commerce Secretary Sharon Decker have announced that Biochemtex will be locating its new cellulosic biofuels production operations in Sampson County, N.C., operating in the state as Carolina Cellulosic Biofuels. (ethanolproducer.com)
- Also, only biomass retains the capacity to produce liquid biofuels and byproducts. (mdpi.com)
- Though all of these biofuels are derived from plant material, the source of raw material (biomass or seeds) and the production processes are different. (mdpi.com)
- The cumulative impacts of these concerns have increased the interest in developing biofuels produced from non-food biomass. (altenergymag.com)
- How Biodiesel Works) Biofuel The History of Biofuels: Present/Future In 2007, the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) required that by 2015, 15 billion gallons of ethanol must be added into the fuel supply and 36 billion gallons by 2022. (prezi.com)
- The future of Biofuels is expected to come from cellulosic ethanol, which might include algae or other organisms. (prezi.com)
- Ethanol) Biofuels are any liquid, solid or gaseous fuel that is produced from some type of organic material. (prezi.com)
- Talks will cover state of the art research on cellulosic ethanol, next generation fermentation of biofuels, algal biofuels, and the development of new biomass feedstocks. (keystonesymposia.org)
- So, the obituary desk has been hard at work the last few months, writing notices on the death of cellulosic biofuels and the RFS. (biofuelsdigest.com)
- Biofuels, most notably corn-based ethanol, have grown significantly in the past few years as a component of U.S. motor fuel supply. (worldcat.org)
- The measure provides $3.5 billion to install E-85 pumps and expand production of cellulosic ethanol - a provision that could help the Bay Area, which has emerged as a biofuels development hub with major research centers at UC Berkeley and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory . (sfgate.com)
- She has also listed many specifics about the gaps between authorization and funding by the federal government, new bioenergy legislation under consideration by the U.S. Congress, the initiative shown by individual states to take the lead in renewable energy, and the surge in biomass/biofuels conferences. (blogspot.com)
- Athmanathan's broad range of experiences in the characterization and fermentation of many cellulosic and advanced feedstocks, including corn stover and sweet sorghum bagasse, as well as his studies under biofuels pioneers like Nathan Mosier, Mike Ladisch and Nancy Ho, have proven an excellent complement to the Center's research division. (siue.edu)
- The BioEnergy Science Center (BESC) has focused on understanding lignocellulosic biomass formation and deconstruction en route to the production of biofuels. (biomedcentral.com)
- Biofuels are said to be carbon neutral because the carbon dioxide they release when they are burned is balanced by that which is absorbed by the growing biomass. (popularmechanics.com)
- biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel from food crops. (coursera.org)
- He also says this year is a big year for cellulosic biofuels. (agriculture.com)
- Meanwhile, a University of Calfornia-Berkeley researcher is also supporting efforts to develop second-generation biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol. (agriculture.com)
- Joule, a developer of drop-in liquid fuels from recycled CO2, has announced the formal completion of its acquisition of Red Rock Biofuels, a project development company of renewable jet and diesel fuel based on waste from biomass or other sources. (biomassmagazine.com)
- Biofuels: Fuels made from cellulosic biomass resources. (slideserve.com)
- Biofuels include ethanol, biodiesel, and methanol. (slideserve.com)
- Such a bioenergy vision has fostered major research and development (R&D) investments in advanced biofuels, utilizing cellulosic biomass and other unconventional feedstocks. (pnas.org)
- LCA studies often conclude that current biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel from grains, sugarcane, and oilseeds, offer at least modest CO 2 reductions compared with the fossil fuels they replace ( 13 , 14 ). (pnas.org)
- GranBio's 2G Ethanol technology converts lignocellulosic, non-food biomass to renewable, low carbon intensity biofuels. (hydrocarbonprocessing.com)
- The alliance combines GranBio's technology and knowledge in second generation biomass and biofuels with NextChem's engineering intelligence, EPC capabilities and Group global presence, to offer integrated services, feasibility studies, integration projects, engineering and construction of manufacturing plants around the world. (hydrocarbonprocessing.com)
- This partnership with GranBio improves our technological portfolio in biofuels with a flexible and profitable solution to produce ethanol, a globally used chemical with many established industrial applications and enormous potential" said Pierroberto Folgiero, CEO of NextChem and Maire Tecnimont. (hydrocarbonprocessing.com)
- During the past several years, there has been increasing interest in the development of biofuels derived from environmentally friendly lignocellulosic biomass. (weizmann.ac.il)
- One aim of our lab is to metabolically engineer L. plantarum to convert biomass into biofuels. (weizmann.ac.il)
- The biofuels industry is at an inflection point with the development of cellulosic ethanol plants at the pilot and demonstration scale," said Jack Huttner, vice president of biorefinery business development. (typepad.com)
- LONDON: BP's decision to scrap plans for a US cellulosic ethanol refinery is a setback for second generation biofuels and opens the door to alternatives including Brazilian sugar ethanol, biodiesel and electric vehicles. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The hope for the future is biofuels produced from cellulosic feedstocks such as corn stover, switchgrass, miscanthus, and woody crops. (thefreedictionary.com)
- U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on Feb. 26 announced that DOE will invest up to $33.8 million, over four years, for four projects that will focus on developing improved enzyme systems to convert cellulosic material into sugars suitable for production of biofuels. (typepad.com)
- Synthesized from the sugars in the lignocellulosic biomass of grasses and other non-food plants, and produced in a sustainable manner, advanced biofuels could be carbon-neutral, meaning their use would not add excess carbon to the atmosphere. (scitechdaily.com)
- Furthermore, unlike ethanol made from corn starch or sugarcane, advanced biofuels, if they could be successfully developed and produced cost-effectively, could be dropped into today's vehicles with presumably with no impact on performance, and used in today's infrastructures with no modifications required. (scitechdaily.com)
- Funding supports development of next-generation biofuels that will help drive down the cost of producing gasoline, diesel and jet fuels from biomass. (renewableenergyfocus.com)
- In his interview with Motor Trend, Woolsey also came out in favor of biofuels, notably cellulosic ethanol (better known as biomass ethanol). (motortrend.com)
- The Biomass Research and Development Initiative (BRDI) provides grants to companies, universities, and government research centers to research and develop (R&D) and demonstrate new ways to refine various types of feedstocks into biofuels or biobased chemicals and products. (taxpayer.net)
- While intended to support the next generation of biofuels derived from non-food sources and other renewable forms of energy, the farm bill energy title has also spent taxpayer dollars on the mature corn ethanol industry, supporting biomass sources with numerous unintended consequences, and even paying for updates to farmers' irrigation equipment and grain dryers. (taxpayer.net)
- AMONG the cellulosic ethanol projects receiving millions of dollars from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and commercialize biofuels production is BlueFire Ethanol. (biocycle.net)
- Second-generation biofuels include new cellulosic technologies , with responsible policies and economic instruments to help ensure that biofuel commercialization is sustainable . (wikipedia.org)
- A University of Wisconsin-Madison research team has developed a chemical process for the hydrolysis of biomass into sugars for subsequent processing into fuels and chemicals that delivers sugar yields approaching those of enzymatic hydrolysis. (greencarcongress.com)
- Aqueous pretreatment of plant biomass for biological and chemical conversion to fuels and chemicals. (springer.com)
- Since the middle of the 20th century, the interest of biomass as a precursor to liquid fuels has increased. (wikipedia.org)
- Aside from ethanol, many other lignocellulose-derived fuels are of potential interest, including butanol, dimethylfuran, and gamma-Valerolactone. (wikipedia.org)
- Instead of putting efforts on steps overcoming the natural resistance of plants to biological breakdown, our study proposes a unique pathway to improve the outcome of the process by co-producing high-value nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC), offering a new economic leverage for cellulosic ethanol to compete with fossil fuels in the near future. (mdpi.com)
- The station held a kickoff event with substantial discounts on 88-octane E15 and E85 ethanol fuels on Jan. 21. (ethanolproducer.com)
- But not all pilot projects are that close, and that's in large part because the market for ethanol is capped by arbitrary regulation in the U.S. What's preventing the growth of cellulosic ethanol in the transportation fuels market is the lack of access to the market - and without that market, we're not drawing the necessary investment. (agri-pulse.com)
- Generating hydrogen gas, Wu explains, is very similar to generating ethanol, and he is employing state-of-the-art genomic approaches to study and enhance the abilities of a microorganism that has the capability to produce both fuels from farm and forest residues. (rochester.edu)
- Biooil is produced by pyrolysis of whole plant biomass, particularly high-lignin biomass, to produce energy dense fuels [ 4 ], while biodiesel is produced by the transesterification of vegetable oil or other lipids [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
- The term 'Biofuel' refers to liquid or gaseous fuels for the transport sector that are predominantly produced from biomass. (altenergymag.com)
- A variety of fuels can be produced from biomass resources including liquid fuels, such as ethanol, methanol, biodiesel, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and gaseous fuels, such as hydrogen and methane. (altenergymag.com)
- A new and somewhat unusual coalition is advocating hybrid vehicles that can also run on plug-in electricity and alternative fuels like ethanol. (loe.org)
- The reduction of US dependency on foreign oil will require the production of domestic renewable transportation fuels from lignocellulosic biomass as alternative energy sources. (frontiersin.org)
- 2007-08-05 04:00:00 PDT Washington -- The House approved an energy bill Saturday that would steer the nation toward cleaner fuels and greater conservation, including a requirement that all electric utilities produce 15 percent of their power from wind, solar, biomass or other renewable sources by 2020. (sfgate.com)
- Two processes that turn woody biomass into transportation fuels have the potential to exceed current Environmental Protection Agency requirements for renewable fuels, according to research published in the Forest Products Journal and currently featured on its publications page. (innovations-report.com)
- The common advantage of these processes over fossil fuels is that trees growing in replanted forests reabsorb the carbon dioxide emitted when woody biomass burns as fuel in cars or other uses, said Elaine Oneil, a University of Washington research scientist in ecological and forest sciences and director of the consortium. (innovations-report.com)
- Only one-third of the electricity generated by the leftovers is needed to make the ethanol, so two-thirds can go to the power grid for other uses, offsetting the need to burn fossil fuels to produce electricity. (innovations-report.com)
- In the U.S. last year, some 15 facilities produced about 20,000 gallons of fuels using cellulosic biomass such as wood waste and sugarcane bagasse, according to a U.S. Energy Information Administration website. (innovations-report.com)
- Of all renewable resources, cellulosic ethanol holds the single greatest potential to replace petroleum based transportation fuels. (vecoplanllc.com)
- Advanced bioethanol production technologies: a perspective," Fuels and Chemicals from Biomass , vol. 666, pp. 2-45, 1997. (hindawi.com)
- The first of six new government-supported commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol biorefineries broke ground last week at a green-field site in Soperton, Ga. Owned by Range Fuels in Broomfield, Colo., the facility will produce 40 million gal of ethanol per year. (acs.org)
- Plant cell walls contribute the majority of plant biomass that can be used to produce transportation fuels. (biomedcentral.com)
- A Prius running on 100% fossil fuels is going to have a lower fossil fuel footprint than a Chevy Tahoe running on biodiesel or a Hummer running on ethanol. (theoildrum.com)
- Generally, cellulosic ethanol proponents are aghast because they believe that investor interest will dry up in cellulosic if they perceive that ultimately alcohol fuels will be capped at or near a 10% limit, setting up a catastrophic competition between conventional and cellulosic fuels which, on cost, the cellulosic providers are likely to lose. (biofuelsdigest.com)
- cellulosic ethanol producers report that for the first time they have met and exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency's renewable fuels standard production level. (thefreedictionary.com)
- There are ways of creating ethanol from waste which is pursued in other countries and does not require more fossil fuels then the ethanol contains, but of course those sources of ethanol have embargoes put on them at the behest of the American corn lobby). (thegoodhuman.com)
- One of the barriers to the production of ethanol from cellulosic biomass is the toughness of the cellulosic structure, and its resistance to chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis and insolubility in most solvents. (alternative-energy-news.info)
- The focus in recent years has been on the improvement of the material, energy and life cycle assessment of the production of ethanol. (wikipedia.org)
- Commercial production of ethanol in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. (unt.edu)
- There is authorized to be appropriated, for a resource center to further develop bioconversion technology using low-cost biomass for the production of ethanol at the Center for Biomass -Based Energy at the Mississippi State University and the Oklahoma State University, $4,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2005 through 2007. (cornell.edu)
- Brazil is second behinf the US in production of ethanol, but instead of a corn based they use sugar cane, a cheap cash crop. (prezi.com)
- Brazilian biotechnology company GranBio constructed a commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol production plant in Alagoas, Brazil. (chemicals-technology.com)
- For a full commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol plant (in the 40-50 million gallon per year range) it can be as much as $350 million. (biofuelsdigest.com)
- As part of the agreement, Novozymes will supply enzyme technology to Raizen's first commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol plant in Brazil, scheduled to be operational by end 2014. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Sandia National Laboratory projects that 75 billion gallons of cellulosic ethanol could be produced annually in the U.S. by 2030, more than half of current U.S. gasoline usage. (vecoplanllc.com)
- She thinks we can hit government targets of 350 million gallons of cellulosic ethanol (out of about 15 billion gallons of total ethanol) by 2015. (agriculture.com)
- The investment in venture capital-backed Mascoma includes a deal for Valero to purchase the facility's 40 million gallons of cellulosic ethanol, the companies said in a joint statement. (thefreedictionary.com)
- With the agreement, we have taken an important step towards the establishing of a plant engineering business for the production of second-generation ethanol in Southeast Asia. (greencarcongress.com)
- Stephen JD, Mabee WE, Saddler JN (2012) Will second-generation ethanol be able to compete with first-generation ethanol? (springer.com)
- has received an order to supply the control system and field instruments for the Sao Miguel dos Campos second-generation ethanol plant in Brazil. (ethanolproducer.com)
- The report discusses the prevailing policies that relate to the production and blending of ethanol in general and second generation ethanol in particular in different countries. (marketresearchreports.biz)
- Biomass sourcing and logistics, followed by technology and scale-up issues, have been two of the main stumbling blocks to getting cellulosic ethanol off the ground, says Christopher Standlee, executive vice president of institutional affairs at Abengoa Bioenergy. (farmindustrynews.com)
- The Energy Department's Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) - in partnership with industry, national laboratories, academia and other key stakeholders - is turning this vision into a reality through research, development, and deployment of innovative technologies that make cellulosic ethanol more available and affordable. (energy.gov)
- Biomass and Bioenergy 2013, 48 , 66-74. (ncl.ac.uk)
- Biomass and Bioenergy 2018, 112 , 61-72. (ncl.ac.uk)
- Evaluation of wet air oxidation as a pretreatment strategy for bioethanol production from rice husk and process optimization," Biomass and Bioenergy , vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 1680-1686, 2009. (hindawi.com)
- Chris Standlee, executive vice President at Abengoa Bioenergy New Technologies, began his remarks at the National Ethanol Conference by stating, "I'm thrilled to be able to say that this is the pivotal year in advanced ethanol production. (ethanolproducer.com)
- Claus Fuglsang, head of the bioenergy division of Novozymes ( www.Novozymes.com ), said at a farm media conference this week in California that if crude oil is above $75 a barrel, a system for turning biomass products such as corn stalks or sawdust can be competitive economically. (agriculture.com)
- Heather Youngs, a bioenergy analysis expert at the Energy Biosciences Institute of UC-Berkeley ( www.energybiosciencesinstitute.org/ ), told the same media group that she's encouraged about the potential for cellulosic ethanol. (agriculture.com)
- Offering an authoritative multidisciplinary summary of the opportunities and challenges associated with bioenergy utilization, with international researchers give up-to-date and detailed information on key issues for biomass production and conversion to energy. (wiley.com)
- Farmers also can grow energy crops for cellulosic biomass, including switchgrass, and some trees. (howstuffworks.com)
- Corn stover, Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), Miscanthus grass species, wood chips and the byproducts of lawn and tree maintenance are some of the more popular cellulosic materials for ethanol production. (wikipedia.org)
- Switchgrass and Miscanthus are the major biomass materials being studied today, due to their high productivity per acre. (wikipedia.org)
- For years, cellulosic ethanol made from crops like switchgrass (which can grow on marginal land) or agricultural waste has held promise on this front… though it also presents a number of challenges that have prevented producers from efficiently scaling up its production. (sustainablog.org)
- Comparison of dilute acid and ionic liquid pretreatment of switchgrass: biomass recalcitrance, delignification and enzymatic saccharification," Bioresource Technology , vol. 101, no. 13, pp. 4900-4906, 2010. (hindawi.com)
- Q. Corn stover and switchgrass are most often mentioned by companies aiming for cellulosic ethanol production. (biofuelsdigest.com)
- Cellulosic ethanol can be made from a wide variety of non-food materials, including agricultural wastes such as corn stover and cereal straws, industrial plant waste like saw dust and paper pulp, and energy crops such as switchgrass, specifically for fuel production. (typepad.com)
- Switchgrass ethanol base case results (2.8 g CO 2 e/MJ) were the most influenced by assumptions regarding converted forestlands and the fate of carbon in harvested wood products. (biomedcentral.com)
- Waste biomass is produced as a low value byproduct of various industrial sectors such as agriculture (corn stover, sugarcane bagasse, straw etc.) and forestry (saw mill and paper mill discards). (wikipedia.org)
- Could be ethanol from corn, from sugarcane or any cellulosic material. (loe.org)
- Current energy cane breeding strategies have focused on selecting high biomass hybrids from wide crosses between commercial sugarcane cultivars and S. spontaneum, which is characterized by high stalk counts and fiber content, excellent ratooning ability, and tolerances to abiotic and biotic pressures. (usda.gov)
- Lynd LR, Cushman JH, Nichols RJ, Wyman CE (1991) Fuel ethanol from cellulosic biomass. (springer.com)
- 1999). Production of fuel ethanol from biomass seems to be an interesting alternative to traditional fossil fuel, which can be blended with petrol or used as neat alcohol in dedicated engines (Hahn-Hagerdal et al, 2006). (thefreelibrary.com)
- Fuel Ethanol in Brazil) Recent statistics on biofuel production and consumption in Europe are showing that between 2010 and 2011 biofuel consumption increased by 3%, which converts into 13.6 million tonnes of oil equivalent used in 2011 compared to 13.2 million toe in 2010. (prezi.com)
- Most of the large-scale production of fuel ethanol is typically accomplished in large-scale yeast fermentations operated at high glucose concentrations, elevated ethanol titers, and high temperatures, all conditions that cause stress for the yeast cells ( 3 - 5 ). (asm.org)
- Optimizing on-farm pretreatment of perennial grasses for fuel ethanol production," Bioresource Technology , vol. 101, no. 14, pp. 5305-5314, 2010. (hindawi.com)
- Experts from India think these principles and requirements converge in a technology known as biomass gasification, in an electrification concept that has become commercially feasible and reliable (in-depth discussion of the technology, here , or see the image showing a downdraft biomass gasifier, click to enlarge). (blogspot.com)
- To release the sugars locked into the cellulose polymers in biomass, producers use both physical and chemical methods, with physical chemical pretreatment processes followed by enzymatic hydrolysis being the most common, note Raines and Binder. (greencarcongress.com)
- By balancing cellulose solubility and reactivity with water, we produce sugars from lignocellulosic biomass in yields that are severalfold greater than those achieved previously in ionic liquids and approach those of enzymatic hydrolysis. (greencarcongress.com)
- Variations in biomass composition based on genetic differences or environmental effects have a significant impact on the degree of accessibility accomplished by pretreatment and subsequent sugar release by enzymatic hydrolysis. (frontiersin.org)
- Another barrier is low efficiency in conversion of cellulose to fermentable sugar (pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis are two major conversion processes), causing high cost in pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass. (k-state.edu)
- High-throughput microplate technique for enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. (semanticscholar.org)
- Technological Processes for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Bioethanol. (thefreelibrary.com)
- This paper aims to summarize the various methods for conversion of lignocllusoic biomass to bioethanol. (thefreelibrary.com)
- The objective of this study was to evaluate the integration of winter cereal cover crops with corn stover to improve biomass and potential bioethanol yield. (omicsonline.org)
- Many people do not know that corn based ethanol was actually the source of fuel that was used to power Henry Fords Model T car back in the 1800's. (prezi.com)
- Due to the concerns with significant expansion in corn-based ethanol supply, interest has grown in expanding the market for biodiesel produced from soybeans and other oil crops. (worldcat.org)
- Youngs herself is not so strident in her views, saying the economics of corn-based ethanol are good and we have corn in surplus now. (agriculture.com)
- Though it requires a more complex refining process, cellulosic ethanol contains more net energy and results in lower greenhouse emissions than traditional corn-based ethanol. (typepad.com)
- This generally-recognized-as-safe (GRAS) bacterium is an attractive candidate for bioprocessing of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol or higher alcohols, owing to is natural characteristics, which include high ethanol and acid tolerance and the ability to metabolize both pentose and hexose. (weizmann.ac.il)
- Inbicon uses a three-stage pretreatment process: mechanical, hydrothermal, and enzymatic treatment of biomass. (greencarcongress.com)
- Mechanical pretreatment use shearing force to reduce biomass particle size, change the lignocellulose structure, and reduce degree of polymerization and crystallinity of cellulose (Kumar et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
- At the high severity pretreatment 'SV1' was the least recalcitrant with sugar release representing as much as 60% of total biomass. (frontiersin.org)
- These results suggest that structural, as well as chemical characteristics of the biomass may influence pretreatment and hydrolytic efficiency. (frontiersin.org)
- Sun and J. J. Cheng, "Dilute acid pretreatment of rye straw and bermudagrass for ethanol production," Bioresource Technology , vol. 96, no. 14, pp. 1599-1606, 2005. (hindawi.com)
- Athmanathan will present a poster titled "Assessing the Scale-Up Potential of Aqueous Ammonia Pretreatment of Maize Stover" at the DOE's Biomass 2014: Growing the Future Bioeconomy conference July 29-30. (siue.edu)
- In other words, each batch has a less water and more ethanol, further increasing yield and efficiency. (greencarcongress.com)
- This work, for the first time, demonstrates a chemo-catalytic approach for high yield and high concentration of ethanol production from biomass using non noble metal catalyst. (cas.cn)
- Chapter 11 presents an investigation on effects of UV-A pelleting on sugar yield and chemical composition of cellulosic biomass. (k-state.edu)
- cellulosic ethanol technologies are projected to yield 4 Ð 6 MJ. (popularmechanics.com)
- Mean dry biomass yield of UFCP 87-0053 was approximately 5% greater than L 79-1002. (usda.gov)
- DONG Energy will use Inbicon s demonstration facility in Kalundborg in Denmark to optimize the yield and performance of the biomass pre-treatment to perfectly match Neste Oil s microbial oil process. (webwire.com)
- When only considering a single harvest system, incorporation of a winter cereal did improve ethanol yield by 242 L ha-1 at spring harvest. (omicsonline.org)
- The two-harvest sequential system of a fall stover harvest followed by a spring, winter cereal harvest was the most productive with 41.8% greater ethanol yield when compared to the single harvest. (omicsonline.org)
- 2017. Improving biomass and ethanol yield by intercropping a winter cereal with corn. (omicsonline.org)
- Biomass production a stronger driver of cellulosic ethanol yield than biomass quality. (omicsonline.org)
- Inbicon biomass refinery. (greencarcongress.com)
- Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding (MES), one of Japan's leading heavy industries, and Inbicon, a Danish cellulosic ethanol technology, signed a license agreement for the Inbicon Biomass Refinery technology. (greencarcongress.com)
- The refinery would then make ethanol either biochemically or thermochemically . (howstuffworks.com)
- According to the National Academy of Sciences in 2011, there is no commercially viable bio-refinery in existence to convert lignocellulosic biomass to fuel. (wikipedia.org)
- Ethanol production plants construction requires a deep specialization that DSEC processes over years. (dsengineers.com)
- In comparison to extant enzymatic and chemical processes to biomass hydrolysis, ours has several attractive features. (greencarcongress.com)
- Ethanol made from lignocellulosic biomass by biological, chemical, or chemo-biological processes. (springer.com)
- Coupled with its preference to grow at high temperature, the microorganism promises distinct advantages as a candidate for developing industrial hydrogen and ethanol production processes from cellulosic biomass. (rochester.edu)
- Our study shows that thermal adaptation of yeast is suitable for improving yeast resistance to inhibitory conditions found in industrial ethanol production processes. (asm.org)
- Using this approach, we showed that TTSs exhibited evolutionary trade-offs in the ancestral thermal niche, as well as reduced numbers of growth functions and preadaptation to other stresses found in ethanol production processes. (asm.org)
- For the publication, researchers from the 17 research institutions that make up the Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials determined the life-cycle emissions of 15 processes where woody biomass was turned into liquid fuel, burned directly to create heat, steam or electricity, or processed into pellets for burning. (innovations-report.com)
- The basic engineering package, also include all biotech software, microorganisms for producing enzymes, downstream processing, for producing the ethanol, and also help with the start up. (biofuelsdigest.com)
- For example, he says, the cost of the enzymes is 3 to 4 cents per gallon of ethanol produced from corn. (agriculture.com)
- But it may take 50 cents of enzymes to convert cellulose to ethanol. (agriculture.com)
- His company has developed a new product called a cellulosic enhancer, GH61, that will break down the cellulose before the enzymes are added, gaining efficiency in the process. (agriculture.com)
- Accellerase™ 1000 contains a potent complex of enzymes that reduces complex lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars -- an indispensable step for the production of cellulosic ethanol. (typepad.com)
- Genencor has been developing its biomass enzymes for well over 10 years. (typepad.com)
- see cellulosic ethanol category for more information ) One of the major cost constraints on the process is the cost of the enzymes used to convert these materials into sugars. (typepad.com)
- DSM Innovation Center Inc. (Parsippany, NJ): Development of a Commercial Enzymes System for Lignocellulosic Biomass Saccharification. (typepad.com)
- Also known as lignocellulosic biomass, the structural part of plants that is not edible by humans and contains cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, and lignin. (springer.com)
- This energy-intensive industry focuses on the separation of the lignin and cellulosic fractions of the biomass. (wikipedia.org)
- Lignin, which is the second most abundant natural polymer and currently not directly used in ethanol production, is partially linked to polysaccharides in the cell wall (Zhu et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Past research on biomass conversion has focused largely on acid based pre-treatment technologies that fractionate lignin and hemicellulose from cellulose. (semanticscholar.org)
- Extracting sugar from cellulose is more difficult than it is with grain because of the presence of lignin, an organic polymer within the cell walls of biomass. (farmprogress.com)
- The material is treated with concentrated sulfuric acid to separate the cellulose and hemicellulose portions of the biomass from the lignin. (biocycle.net)
- Biomass is one of the most promising Renewable Energy sources on earth. (dsengineers.com)
- Alternatively, solar, wind, hydroelectric and biomass could stand as eminent sources for producing renewable energy, while reducing the amount of greenhouse gases produced by petroleum based resources. (mdpi.com)
- Jetta Wong of Renewable Energy Access has done a nice job characterizing the strong advance made by biomass into the national dialog on renewable fuel options in 2006. (blogspot.com)
- The special Forest Products Journal issue does just that for energy produced in various ways from woody biomass. (innovations-report.com)
- About two-thirds of the $140.5 million awarded from 2009 to 2016 through BRDI subsidized the following types of biomass: general R&D for multiple types of biomass, woody biomass, and sorghum. (taxpayer.net)
- Together, these steps comprise an integrated process for chemical hydrolysis of biomass for biofuel production. (greencarcongress.com)
- Distilling and purifying ethanol and other products from second generation lignocellulosic biorefineries adds significant capital and operating costs to biofuel production. (osti.gov)
- Cellulosic biomass is the structural portion of plants and includes agricultural (e.g. (dsengineers.com)
- One question that came to me: how would shifting crop waste to ethanol affect no-till farming methods which rely, in part, on leaving agricultural waste on the ground to break down and add carbon to the soil. (sustainablog.org)
- surplus biomass from existing agricultural or forestry systems. (coursera.org)
- PI xxxx) was released by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Services (USDA-ARS), Canal Point (CP), Florida, and the University of Florida (UF) for its potential use in cellulosic ethanol production. (usda.gov)
- Lignocellulosic biomass can be broadly classified into virgin biomass, waste biomass and energy crops. (wikipedia.org)
- University of Rochester Professor David Wu has received a $1.75 million grant to investigate a way to turn waste biomass, such as grass clippings, cornstalks, and wood chips, into usable hydrogen or ethanol. (rochester.edu)
- Mitsui intends to apply the technology in the palm oil industry, where wastes from palm oil production can be converted into ethanol, solid biofuel for energy production, and animal feed. (greencarcongress.com)
- Inbicon A/S, a subsidiary of DONG Energy A/S, develops technology for conversion and refining of soft ligno-cellulosic biomass into fuel, feed, and green chemistry products. (greencarcongress.com)
- Lignocellulosic biomass, in the form of wood fuel, has a long history as a source of energy. (wikipedia.org)
- Biomass is a carbon-neutral source of energy: Since it comes from plants, the combustion of lignocellulosic ethanol produces no net carbon dioxide into the earth's atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
- Connecticut's Department of Energy & Environmental Protection announced that it will issue a Request for Proposals later this month for electric power produced by biomass, landfill gas, and run-of-river hydropower facilities. (biomassmagazine.com)
- On Oct. 9, the National Research Council of Canada announced the launch of a new research program that aims to help industry capitalize on the market opportunities offered the production of energy from biomass. (biomassmagazine.com)
- Recently the U.S. Department of Energy has identified this species as a promising biomass fuel crop (Lynd et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
- of loan guarantees issued under title XIV of the Energy Policy Act to carry out commercial demonstration projects for celluosic biomass and sucrose-derived ethanol. (cornell.edu)
- The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the grant to Wu, a professor of chemical engineering, because he is one of the foremost scientists working to derive ethanol from biological waste products. (rochester.edu)
- Deriving these energy sources from cellulosic biomass makes them renewable, eliminates competition with food supplies, and reduces carbon dioxide. (rochester.edu)
- The report deeply explores the recent significant developments by the leading vendors and innovation profiles in the Global Biomass Power Generation Market including Alfagy Ltd., Ameresco, Inc., Bilfinger, Drax Group Plc, Engie, Eon, Forth Energy Ltd., Helius Energy Plc, Indus Green Bio Energy Pvt. (reportlinker.com)
- In reality, ethanol is a minor player in Brazilian energy supply. (motherjones.com)
- First is that ethanol, with current technology, will do little to sever our dependence on imported energy. (motherjones.com)
- A research team led by Prof. MA Longlong from the Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion (GIEC) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) developed a one-pot way for direct cellulose hydrogenolysis into ethanol using graphene layers encapsulated nickel ([email protected]) catalysts with the aid of phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ) in water. (cas.cn)
- Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol: A joint Research Agenda," Department of Energy, SC-0095. (hindawi.com)
- The US Department of Energy is making $17 million available to companies to work on developing new organisms for use in producing ethanol from from cellulosic biomass. (autoblog.com)
- Even though there is no magic solution to the age-old development problem of bringing electricity to the rural poor, some elements and factors have been identified as key: decentralisation, reliance on locally available energy resources (water, wind, the sun or biomass) and, crucially, the need for low-cost systems. (blogspot.com)
- Even with appropriation woes, large venture capital investments, new leadership, increased acceptance from the environmental community, national security threats and unstable energy markets sparked the country's enthusiasm for biomass. (blogspot.com)
- The industry's capacity to ramp up production and the ability of this renewable resource to provide a considerable quantity of power, not just liquid fuel, has made biomass a significant player in the U.S. energy future. (blogspot.com)
- While cellulosic ethanol-made from wood or grasses-is more complex to refine than corn, it contains more energy than corn, emits fewer greenhouse gases, and is not a food source. (acs.org)
- Perhaps the biggest plus for biochar is that it may be localized to fit the biomass and energy profile of a given area. (popularmechanics.com)
- To maximize the role of the biosphere in mitigation, we must focus on and start with measurably raising rates of net carbon uptake on land-rather than seeking to use biomass for energy. (pnas.org)
- But rather that is actually takes more than 1 gallon of oil in the form of fertilizer and genetically modified corn, farm machines, transport, processing etc. to make one gallon of ethanol, and then on top of it, the one gallon of ethanol has less energy in it! (thegoodhuman.com)
- Ethanol is not an energy solution for America, especially while we continue to create it in a wasteful manner. (thegoodhuman.com)
- Another point agains them is the energy balance, think about all of the energy that is put into growing/harvesting/processing corn for ethanol and compare that to the amout of energy that ethanol will release. (thegoodhuman.com)
- The program was originally created in the Biomass Research and Development Act of 2000 and was later modified and extended in the 2002, 2008, and 2014 farm bill energy titles. (taxpayer.net)
- Other types of biomass receiving grants include perennial grasses, vegetable oil, energy crops, algae, corn starch and corn oil, and municipal solid waste. (taxpayer.net)
- 2017. Cellulosic Biofuel Contributions to a Sustainable Energy Future: Choices and Outcomes. (omicsonline.org)
- questions abound concerning the efficiency of corn ethanol as a renewable source of energy, the possibility of widespread deforestation for the purpose of creating tillable land, and the rising cost of food due to the diversion of grains from human or animal consumption into a fuel additive. (licor.com)
- The new DOE grant comes in addition to a $430,000 DOE grant Wu received last year to study the cellulose-to-ethanol conversion properties of the same organism. (rochester.edu)
- In contrast to the bio-production of cellulosic ethanol, the direct conversion of cellulose to ethanol by chemical approach may tune the reaction pathway during the cellulose transformation through catalyst design, avoiding CO 2 formation to achieve high atom efficiency. (cas.cn)
- Because gasification also forms tar and sulfur, which interfere with making ethanol, the gases go to a tar reformer , which chemically converts these obstructions into more syngas. (howstuffworks.com)
- We typically think of "biomass gasification" as an elegant but expensive alternative to co-firing or fossil fuel combustion. (blogspot.com)
- Several community-operated experiments with decentralised biomass gasification and electrification are now underway in India, and it looks like the technology can literally turn marginalised communities into thriving and prosperous societies (see the case-study). (blogspot.com)