Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Clostridium thermocellum: A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Cellulases: A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Cellulase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.Cellulosomes: Extracellular structures found in a variety of microorganisms. They contain CELLULASES and play an important role in the digestion of CELLULOSE.Panicum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).Energy-Generating Resources: Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Cellobiose: A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose.Waste Products: Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Xylans: Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.Trichoderma: A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.Cellulose 1,4-beta-Cellobiosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE and cellotetraose. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing ends of beta-D-glucosides with release of CELLOBIOSE.Thermoanaerobacter: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria in the family Thermoanaerobacteriaceae. Cultures consist of rods interspersed with coccoid cells.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases: Enzymes which catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in XYLANS.Xylosebeta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Cellulose, Oxidized: A cellulose of varied carboxyl content retaining the fibrous structure. It is commonly used as a local hemostatic and as a matrix for normal blood coagulation.Radioactive Waste: Liquid, solid, or gaseous waste resulting from mining of radioactive ore, production of reactor fuel materials, reactor operation, processing of irradiated reactor fuels, and related operations, and from use of radioactive materials in research, industry, and medicine. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.FuraldehydeEcosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Glycoside HydrolasesTrees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium: A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.Polyporaceae: A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Saccharomycopsis: Yeast-like ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycopsidaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES, isolated from the stomach of rabbits and some other animals.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Photobioreactors: Devices for generating biological products that use light as the energy source. They are used for controlled BIOMASS production such as growing cyanobacteria, mosses, or algae.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Microalgae: A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.Acetaldehyde: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Salix: A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Members contain salicin, which yields SALICYLIC ACID.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Renewable Energy: Forms of energy that are constantly and rapidly renewed by natural processes such as solar, ocean wave, and wind energy. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carbon Sequestration: Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.FiresCulture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.SmokePopulation Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Yue, Zhengbo; Teater, Charles; Liu, Yan; MacLellan, James; Liao, Wei (2010). "A sustainable pathway of cellulosic ethanol ... "Methods for kinetic analysis of methane fermentation in high solids biomass digesters". Biomass and Bioenergy. 1 (2): 65-73. ... In a batch system, biomass is added to the reactor at the start of the process. The reactor is then sealed for the duration of ... Questions about biomass energy Archived 30 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine., dti.gov.uk. Retrieved 17.08.07. 38% HHV ...
Goettemoeller, Jeffrey; Adrian Goettemoeller (2007). Sustainable Ethanol: Biofuels, Biorefineries, Cellulosic Biomass, Flex- ... Normally this will be in the form of raw biomass, but processed biomass is also an option. If the exported biomass is used to ... of ethanol. The Economist, March 1, 2008, Ethanol and water: don't mix, p. 36 Barnett, Cynthia. "Fueling worries: four ethanol ... At this time, costs of conversion of cellulosic fuels, at $1.46 per gallon, were roughly twice that of corn-based ethanol, at $ ...
Cellulosic ethanol Endoglucanase (EG) Kumar R, Singh S, Singh OV (May 2008). "Bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass: ... May 2008). "Genome sequencing and analysis of the biomass-degrading fungus Trichoderma reesei (syn. Hypocrea jecorina)". Nat. ... a major component of plant biomass, into glucose. T. reesei isolate QM6a was originally isolated from the Solomon Islands ... A Fungal Enzyme Producer for Cellulosic Biofuels". In Dos Santos Bernardes, Marco Aurélio. Biofuel Production-Recent ...
The company is accelerating development and deployment of cellulosic ethanol, which is made from non-food biomass. DDCE plans ... DuPont Danisco Cellulosic Ethanol LLC is a 50/50 joint venture between DuPont and Genencor, a subsidiary of Danisco. ... DuPont Danisco Cellulosic Ethanol, LLC - Frequently asked questions Archived November 20, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. DuPont ... "DuPont-Danisco in Tennessee cellulosic ethanol project". Cleantech Group. Archived from the original on 2008-09-16. Retrieved ...
16 billion shall come from cellulosic ethanol. The remaining 5 billion US gallons (19,000,000 m3) shall come from biomass-based ... Third-generation technologies are still under development and include advanced biomass gasification, biorefinery technologies, ... biomass combustion, geothermal power and heat. These technologies are quite widely used. Second-generation technologies include ...
... is a Danish company that produces cellulosic ethanol. Elsam, a Danish power company, began looking at using biomass for ... L.H. Gerlach "Method and Apparatus for conversion of Cellulosic Material to Ethanol." U.S. Patent 8 123 864, Feb. 28, 2012. ... DSM has an enzyme cocktail for the production of cellulosic ethanol. This cocktail contains thermostable cellulases that ... Inbicon has approved three companies' enzymes for their patented cellulosic ethanol production method: Novozymes, Genencor and ...
Waste to energy technology includes fermentation, which can take biomass and create ethanol, using waste cellulosic or organic ... "Waste Biomass Carbonization Plant - KG Biomass Plant". Field, Christopher B. "Emissions pathways, climate change, and impacts ... Carbon 14 dating can determine with precision the biomass fraction of waste, and also determine the biomass calorific value. ... As of spring 2016 Enerkem expected ethanol production to commence some time ín 2017, and no public confirmation of any actual ...
Biomass and sugarcane ethanol must have 50 percent reductions. Research at Argonne National Laboratory sponsored by the ... Separate quotas and blending requirements are determined for cellulosic biofuels, biomass-based diesel, advanced biofuels, and ... while corn ethanol production continued unabated. "Analysts, including some in the ethanol sector, say ethanol demand adds ... The amount of ethanol used in the United States is capped by a limit of 10% ethanol content for most gasoline and diesel sales ...
States with low cellulosic biomass ethanol production may be rewarded grants for research, development, and application of ... which mandates that 35 billion gallons of ethanol-equivalent biofuels and 1 billion gallons of biomass-based diesel be consumed ... Ethanol critics contend that RFS requirements crowd out production that would go to feed livestock. Advanced Technology ... To be labeled as Biomass-based Diesel, fuel must be able to reduce emissions by 50 percent when compared to petroleum diesel. ...
Ethanol from biomass by enzymatic hydrolysis - JD Wright - Chemical Engineering Progress, 1988 - osti.gov. ... It may be used to help provide renewable energy, as with Cellulosic ethanol. Digestion enzyme Acid hydrolysis Alkaline ...
Also, Biomass to liquids (BTLs) and cellulosic ethanol are still under research. The use of municipal and household waste is on ... Researchers working with cellulosic ethanol are trying to make the extraction of ethanol from sugarcane bagasse and other ... Biomass can be converted to other usable forms of energy like methane gas or transportation fuels like ethanol and biodiesel. ... This is a common misconception, as bioenergy is the energy extracted from the biomass, as the biomass is the fuel and the ...
It also has potential for cellulosic ethanol (biomass ethanol), which is "ethanol made from non-grain plant materials known as ... But if the commercialization of cellulosic ethanol advances enough technologically, biomass ethanol production would use the ... The free accessibility to corn stover makes it a prime candidate for biomass ethanol production. A new DuPont facility in ... biofuels.dupont.com/cellulosic-ethanol/nevada-site-ce-facility/ "DuPont to temporarily halt corn stover program at Nevada plant ...
Cellulosic ethanol is produced using the lignocellulose biomass that comprises much of the mass of plants. Essentially at the ... Treethanol is an ethanol fuel (more precisely cellulosic ethanol) made from trees. The biofuel is a contender in the race to ... They also note that while cellulosic ethanol does not necessarily yield more energy than say, corn based ethanol per unit of ... Hoover, F; Abraham, J (2009). "A comparison of corn-based ethanol with cellulosic ethanol as replacements for petroleum-based ...
Lynd, L. R.; Cushman, J. H.; Nichols, R. J.; Wyman, C. E. (1991). "Fuel Ethanol from Cellulosic Biomass". Science. 251 (4999): ... In contrast, switchgrass cellulosic ethanol and corn ethanol were found to mitigate 5.2 and 1.5 tonnes of CO2 per hectare, ... Thus, switchgrass cellulosic ethanol should give a higher yield of ethanol per hectare at lower cost. However, this will depend ... current technology for herbaceous biomass conversion to ethanol is about 340 liters per tonne. In contrast, corn ethanol yields ...
... has also conducted various ethanol research projects, mainly in the area of cellulosic ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol ... Cellulosic biomass, derived from non-food sources, such as trees and grasses, is also being developed as a feedstock for ... for cellulosic ethanol, corn ethanol, and gasoline are 10.3, 1.36, and 0.81, respectively. Ethanol has roughly one-third lower ... E.ON Bio ethanol fires information bio ethanol fireplace. (2009) see "Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol" ...
Goettemoeller, Jeffrey; Adrian Goettemoeller (2007), Sustainable Ethanol: Biofuels, Biorefineries, Cellulosic Biomass, Flex- ... Ethanol economy Ethanol fuel in Australia Ethanol fuel in Brazil Ethanol fuel in Sweden Ethanol fuel in the Philippines Ethanol ... While the EROEI and economics of corn based ethanol are a bit weak, it paves the way for cellulosic ethanol which should have ... Cellulosic ethanol commercialization is moving forward rapidly. The world's first commercial wood-to-ethanol plant began ...
... and as biomass for fermentation or as a feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production. Stover from various crops can also be used ... Using Corn Stover for Ethanol Production: A Look at the Regional Economic Impacts for Selected Midwestern States (PDF). ...
Goettemoeller, Jeffrey; Adrian Goettemoeller (2007). Sustainable Ethanol: Biofuels, Biorefineries, Cellulosic Biomass, Flex- ... As ethanol fuel economy is lower than gasoline because of ethanol's energy content is close to 34% less per unit volume than ... However, as a result of higher ethanol prices caused by the Brazilian ethanol industry crisis that began in 2009, by November ... The small gasoline reservoir for starting the engine with pure ethanol in cold weather, used in earlier ethanol-only vehicles, ...
... and other biomass into cellulosic ethanol. This process is dependent upon microbial consortia(association) that transform the ... Biofuels are fuels derived from biomass conversion, as in the conversion of cellulose contained in corn stalks, switchgrass, ... "An insect herbivore microbiome with high plant biomass-degrading capacity". PLoS Genetics. 6 (9): e1001129. doi:10.1371/journal ... The efficient industrial-scale deconstruction of biomass requires novel enzymes with higher productivity and lower cost. ...
... bio-energy also has the added benefit of not requiring infrastructure changes the way processing biomass for cellulosic ethanol ... "Use of mobile fast pyrolysis plants to densify biomass and reduce biomass handling costs-A preliminary assessment". Biomass & ... Assessment of sustainable energy potential of non-plantation biomass resources in Sri Lanka, 29 Biomass & Bioenergy 199, 204 ( ... If biomass is pyrolyzed to biochar and put back into the soil, rather than being completely burned, this may reduce carbon ...
... www.dupont.com/products-and-services/industrial-biotechnology/advanced-biofuels/cellulosic-ethanol.html. Missing or empty , ... bagasse and biomass. The manufacturing and marketing rights to the patented DiGenter technology were re-licensed to a Hong Kong ... was deployed widely in China and India was one of the first successful commercial scale sustainable cellulosic waste to ethanol ... technologies; a forerunner to the now successful DuPont technologies manufacturing renewable fuel grade Bio-ethanol and ...
He has addressed several important problems in cellulosic biomass to ethanol and other products with particular focus on ... and dehydration of cellulosic biomass to reactive intermediates for biological or catalytic conversion into fuels and chemicals ... He is an authoritative figure in the broad area of ethanol. He has made significant seminal contributions in the specific areas ... "The development of leading biomass pretreatment technologies". Elsevier. August 30, 2016. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2005.01.010. ...
Cellulosic Ethanol Type strain of Clostridium thermocellum at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Biology portal. ... This makes it useful in converting biomass into a usable energy source. The degradation of the cellulose is carried out in the ... being capable of directly converting a cellulosic substrate into ethanol by consolidated bioprocessing. ... However, there are some shortfalls in applying the organism to practical applications due to it having low ethanol yield, at ...
... "biomass-based diesel" category. Cellulosic ethanol and cellulosic diesel met the "cellulosic biofuel" standard. The table ... As of 2008, multiple full life cycle studies had found that corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol and Brazilian sugarcane ethanol ... Goettemoeller, Jeffrey; Adrian Goettemoeller (2007). "Sustainable Ethanol: Biofuels, Biorefineries, Cellulosic Biomass, Flex- ... However, 20 to 30 percent reduction for corn ethanol, and 85 to 85 percent for cellulosic ethanol, both figures estimated by ...
Goettemoeller, Jeffrey; Adrian Goettemoeller (2007). "Sustainable Ethanol: Biofuels, Biorefineries, Cellulosic Biomass, Flex- ... hydrous ethanol fuel (E100). After the neat ethanol fiasco, consumer confidence in ethanol-powered vehicles was restored, ... shifting sugarcane ethanol production from fuel to sugar. By mid-1989, a shortage of ethanol fuel supply in the local market ... neat ethanol vehicles were launched in the Brazilian market. Gasoline engines were modified to support hydrous ethanol ...
In general, each trophic level relates to the one below it by absorbing some of the energy it consumes, and in this way can be regarded as resting on, or supported by, the next lower trophic level. Food chains can be diagrammed to illustrate the amount of energy that moves from one feeding level to the next in a food chain. This is called an energy pyramid. The energy transferred between levels can also be thought of as approximating to a transfer in biomass, so energy pyramids can also be viewed as biomass pyramids, picturing the amount of biomass that results at higher levels from biomass consumed at lower levels. However, when primary producers grow rapidly and are consumed rapidly, the biomass at any one moment may be low; for example, phytoplankton (producer) biomass can be low compared to the ...
The term biomass is especially useful for plants, where some internal structures may not always be considered living tissue, such as the wood (secondary xylem) of a tree. Biofuels include bioethanol, biodiesel & biogas. Biomass is grown from several plants, including switchgrass, hemp, corn, poplar, willow and sugarcane.[2] The particular plant used is usually not very important to the end products, but it does affect the processing of the raw material. Though biomass is a renewable fuel, its use can still contribute to global warming. This happens when the natural carbon equilibrium is disturbed; for example by deforestation or urbanization of green sites. Biomass is part of the carbon cycle. Photosynthesis converts carbon from the atmosphere into plant matter. When the plant rots or burns, the carbon goes back into the atmosphere. This happens somewhat ...
Bioenergy global capacity in 2017 was 109 GW.[15]. Biomass is biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms. It most often refers to plants or plant-derived materials which are specifically called lignocellulosic biomass.[69] As an energy source, biomass can either be used directly via combustion to produce heat, or indirectly after converting it to various forms of biofuel. Conversion of biomass to biofuel can be achieved by different methods which are broadly classified into: thermal, chemical, and biochemical methods. Wood remains the largest biomass energy source today;[70] examples include forest residues - such as dead trees, branches and tree stumps -, yard clippings, wood chips and even municipal solid waste. In the second sense, biomass includes plant or ...
Annual catches of wild European bass are relatively modest, having fluctuated between 8,500 and 11,900 tonnes in 2000-2009. Most of the reported catches originate from the Atlantic Ocean, with France typically reporting the highest catches. In the Mediterranean, Italy used to report the largest catches, but has been surpassed by Egypt in recent years.[8]. The fish has come under increasing pressure from commercial fishing and has recently become the focus in the United Kingdom of a conservation effort by recreational anglers.[9] The Republic of Ireland has strict laws regarding bass. All commercial fishing for the species is banned and several restrictions are in place for recreational anglers, a closed season May 15 - June 15 inclusive every year, a minimum size of 400 mm, and a bag limit of two fish per day. In a scientific advice (June 2013), it is stressed that fishing mortality is increasing. The total biomass has been declining since 2005. Total ...
where: C(algal oil) is the price of microalgal oil in dollars per gallon and C(petroleum) is the price of crude oil in dollars per barrel. This equation assumes that algal oil has roughly 80% of the caloric energy value of crude petroleum.[142] With current technology available, it is estimated that the cost of producing microalgal biomass is $2.95/kg for photobioreactors and $3.80/kg for open-ponds. These estimates assume that carbon dioxide is available at no cost.[143] If the annual biomass production capacity is increased to 10,000 tonnes, the cost of production per kilogram reduces to roughly $0.47 and $0.60, respectively. Assuming that the biomass contains 30% oil by weight, the cost of biomass for providing a liter of oil would be approximately $1.40 ($5.30/gal) and $1.81 ($6.85/gal) for photobioreactors and raceways, respectively. Oil recovered from the lower cost ...
The simple proposal that biomass is carbon-neutral put forward in the early 1990s has been superseded by the more nuanced proposal that for a particular bioenergy project to be carbon neutral, the total carbon sequestered by a bioenergy crop's root system must compensate for all the emissions from the related, aboveground bioenergy project. This includes any emissions caused by direct or indirect land use change. Many first generation bioenergy projects are not carbon neutral given these demands. Some have even higher total GHG emissions than some fossil based alternatives.[29][30] [31] Transport fuels might be worse than solid fuels in this regard. [32]. Some are carbon neutral or even negative, though, especially perennial crops. The amount of carbon sequestrated and the amount of GHG (greenhouse gases) emitted will determine if the total GHG life cycle cost of a bio-energy project is positive, neutral or negative. Whitaker et al. estimates that for Miscanthus x giganteus, ...
A snail is a common name for a kind of mollusc. The term is used for a gastropod with a coiled shell.. Snails and slugs which breathe with a kind of lung are members of a group, the Pulmonata, which was a well-known order in traditional taxonomy. Their fossil records extends back into the Carboniferous period.[1]. However, the Pulmonata was found to be polyphyletic in a molecular study.[2] What this means is that, in the course of evolution, the same life-style evolved in a number of different lines. Therefore the pulmonates are polyphyletic, and the Pulmonata is no longer an official term in biological classification.. The term "snail" is also sometimes used for aquatic snail-like gastropods, which usually have gills. Actually, most snail species are marine snails: they have much greater diversity and a greater biomass. Numerous kinds of snail can also be found in fresh water habitats.. Close relatives of the snails are the slugs, which are basically snails without shells. ...
Because of Eustrongylides species' complex life cycle with various host species, preventing infection and controlling outbreaks is difficult. Outbreaks of this disease are closely linked to agricultural runoff and urban development[9] Eutrophication of water bodies supports high population levels of oligochaete worms, which causes increased numbers of infected fish that eat the worms, and then the birds who eat the fish.[10] One way to prevent Eustrongylidosis is to control oligochaete populations. Outbreaks of this parasite are closely linked to high numbers of oligochaete worms in the area's waterways. This is because the worms are essential for Eustrongylides species to reproduce. Oligochaete populations can be controlled by monitoring nutrient levels in the water, because high nutrient levels support oligochaete populations.[10] They can also be controlled by decreasing the level of oxygen in the water. Encouraging responsible farming practices in order to reduce chemical run-off will help ...
In agriculture, a living mulch is a cover crop interplanted or undersown with a main crop, and intended to serve the purposes of a mulch, such as weed suppression and regulation of soil temperature. Living mulches grow for a long time with the main crops, whereas cover crops are incorporated into the soil or killed with herbicides. Other benefits of mulches are slowing the growth of weeds, and protecting soil from water and wind erosion. Some living mulches were found to increase populations of the natural enemies of crop pests. Legumes used as living mulches also provide nitrogen fixation, reducing the need for fertilizer. When cover crops are turned over into the soil, they contribute nutrients to the main crop so that less chemical fertilizer is required. The amount of the contribution depends on the biomass, which varies over time and depends on rainfall and other factors. The greater the biomass, the greater the nutrient turnover of ...
... , or Ming aralia, is a perennial dicot evergreen shrub or dwarf tree native to India. The plant grows fairly slowly but can reach up to 1 to 2 meters in height. The leaves are of a dark green pigment, glossy in texture, and are tripinnate and appear divided. Individual leaves vary from narrowly ovate to lanceolate and are about 10 cm long. The Ming aralia is widely cultivated in several countries of southeastern Asia and the tropical islands of the Pacific region. It was originally located in Polynesia and thrives in environments of medium humidity, with temperatures varying from 16-29⁰C (60-85⁰F). The name Polyscias means many-shaded, in reference to the foliage found on these plants. Their stalks carry compound leaves with up to seven (or more) opposite leaflets. In several species the leaves are deeply lobed. There are about six species of the genus Polyscias which are actively cultivated. The genus contains a variety of tropical plants which include about 80 species ...
In allometric scaling, maximum potential life span (MPLS) is directly related to metabolic rate (MR), where MR is the recharge rate of a biomass made up of covalent bonds. That biomass (W) is subjected to deterioration over time from thermodynamic, entropic pressure. Metabolism is essentially understood as redox coupling, and has nothing to do with thermogenesis. Metabolic efficiency (ME) is then expressed as the efficiency of this coupling, a ratio of amperes[clarification needed] captured and used by biomass, to the amperes available for that purpose. MR is measured in watts, W is measured in grams. These factors are combined in a power law, an elaboration on Kleiber's law relating MR to W and MPLS, that appears as MR = W^ (4ME-1)/4ME.[clarification needed] When ME is 100%, MR = W^3/4; this is popularly known as quarter power scaling, a version of allometric scaling that is premised upon unrealistic ...
The term "Lignin characterization" (or "Lignin analysis") refers to a group of activities within lignin research aiming at describing the characteristics of a lignin by determination of its most important properties. Most often, this term is used to describe the characterization of technical lignins by means of chemical or thermo-chemical analysis. Technical lignins are lignins isolated from various biomasses during various kinds of technical processes such as wood pulping. The most common technical lignins include lignosulphonates (isolated from sulfite pulping), kraft lignins (isolated from kraft pulping black liquor), organosolv lignins (isolated from organosolv pulping), soda lignins (isolated from soda pulping) and lignin residue after enzymatic treatment of biomass. Lignins can be characterized by determination of their purity, molecular structure and thermal properties. For certain applications, other properties such as electrical ...
棘龍擁有獨特的帆狀物,雖然同一時期的該地區其他恐龍也可能發展出類似的背椎結構物,例如鳥腳下目的豪勇龍、蜥腳下目的雷巴齊斯龍,以及生存於南美洲的蜥腳類阿瑪加龍。棘龍的帆狀物也類似異齒龍的背帆;異齒龍是種似哺乳爬行動物,生存於恐龍時代以前的二疊紀,兩者的帆狀物並非同源演化的特徵,而是平行演化的結果。棘龍的背部結構物可能較類似駝峰,而非帆狀物。早在1915年,恩斯特·斯特莫就認為這些背部結構物支撐著脂肪構成的隆肉[4]。在1997年,Jack Bowman Bailey最近提出棘龍、豪勇龍的背棘並非細棒,而是前後軸寬廣,不同於盤龍目的扁平背帆,而是類似巨角犀、水牛的背脊,所以棘龍的背棘應是支撐者較厚、較肥胖的結構物,而非細的帆狀物[8]。 ...
One of the barriers to the production of ethanol from cellulosic biomass is the toughness of the cellulosic structure, and its ... Ethanol from Cellulosic Biomass. Posted in Biofuels , Ethanol Fuel. One of the barriers to the production of ethanol from ... cellulosic biomass is the toughness of the cellulosic structure, and its resistance to chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis and ... Next steps in developing the process would be to attempt it with production-grade biomass waste, and to devise a mechanism for ...
MMGY Cellulosic Ethanol Plant and 6± MW Biomass Plant are going to Auction ... The former INEOS Bio Energy 8± MMGY Cellulosic Ethanol Plant and 6± MW Biomass Plant are going to Auction with Maas Companies. ... The former INEOS Bio Energy 8± MMGY Cellulosic Ethanol Plant and 6± MW Biomass Plant are going to Auction with Maas Companies. ... Former INEOS Cellulosic Ethanol & Biomass Power Plant Surplus Assets Scheduled for Auction. ...
... a Danish cellulosic ethanol technology, signed a license agreement for the Inbicon Biomass Refinery technology. The agreement ... Inbicon biomass refinery. Click to enlarge. Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding (MES), one of Japans leading heavy industries, ... grants Mitsui the right to build a number of biomass refineries in Southeast Asia... ... Mitsui and Inbicon Sign Cellulosic Ethanol Licensing Agreement for Biomass Refineries in Southeast Asia 01 March 2010 ...
... students convert cellulosic biomass sources, such as sawdust, straw, or cardboard into sugars and then ethanol. ... students convert cellulosic biomass sources, such as sawdust, straw, or cardboard into sugars and then ethanol. As biomass ... Ethanol probe, blood glucose meter, centrifuge tubes, water bath or incubator, biomass, cellulase enzyme, coffee or spice ... students can test predictions about which biomass sources and treatment methods will be most effective for producing ethanol. ...
Ethanol plants will come to fruition by 2014. Companies are working out the details of harvesting cellulose without harming the ... Wyman has a long history of research on converting cellulosic biomass to commodity products, including ethanol, with current ... Cellulosic ethanol industry overcoming barriers to bring the tech online. Ethanol plants will come to fruition by 2014. ... there are various challenges in coordinating the harvest and transportation of biomass from the field to the cellulosic ethanol ...
Cellulosic biomass. DSECs commitment on the construction of Bioethanol plants is based on a very specialized technical ... Cellulosic biomass is the structural portion of plants and includes agricultural (e.g. Corn Stover, which is the entire above- ... Bio-Ethanol Production Plants Ethanol production plants construction requires a deep specialization that DSEC processes over ... in this article you will find a more detailed understanding about the process of Cellulosic biomass. ...
Compositions and methods relating to transgenic plants and cellulosic ethanol production Patent Tien, Ming ; Carlson, John ; ... Compositions and methods relating to transgenic plants and cellulosic ethanol production. Title: Compositions and methods ... In particular the present disclosure relates to cellulase variants having reduced binding to non-cellulosic materials. Also ... In particular the present disclosure relates to cellulase variants having reduced binding to non-cellulosic materials. Also ...
... but higher feedstock prices greatly increase the amount of ethanol produced. Farmers will supply much more cellulosic biomass ... 403a) All Biomass Is Local: Paying Farmers More for Cellulosic Biomass Is a Game Changer. ... Current models of cellulosic biofuel systems require that the delivered price of the cellulosic ... The analysis is based on county-level cellulosic feedstock production data projected in the US Billion-Ton Update report. Each ...
A University of Wisconsin-Madison research team has developed a chemical process for the hydrolysis of biomass into sugars for ... Posted on 11 March 2010 in Biomass, Cellulosic ethanol, Fuels , Permalink , Comments (7) ... The prodcution of methanol or ethanol from synthesis gas made from biomass seems to be the most efficient and cheapest way of ... University of Wisconsin Team Develops High-Yielding Chemical Hydrolysis Process to Release Sugars from Biomass for Cellulosic ...
Biomass Plant matter of recent (nongeologic) origin. Cellulase One or more enzymes that catalyze the reaction of water with ... Cellulosic ethanol Ethanol made from lignocellulosic biomass by biological, chemical, or chemo-biological processes. ... Lynd LR, Cushman JH, Nichols RJ, Wyman CE (1991) Fuel ethanol from cellulosic biomass. Science 251:1318-1323CrossRefGoogle ... Wyman CE, Hinman ND, Bain RL, Stevens DJ (1992) Ethanol and methanol from cellulosic biomass. In: Williams RH, Johansson TB, ...
"Alabama town partners with Gulf Coast Energy" Biomass Magazine. August 1, 2008. POET Further Commits to Cellulosic Ethanol Iowa ... Cellulosic ethanol and grain-based ethanol are, in fact, the same product, but many scientists believe cellulosic ethanol ... Ethanol Producer Magazine. Japan firms look to develop cellulosic ethanol Honda Building Cellulosic Ethanol Research Facility ... seen possible for ethanol plants Shell fuels cellulosic ethanol push with new Codexis deal Enerkem to build cellulosic ethanol ...
Making cellulosic ethanol is an involved process. Learn all about making cellulosic ethanol at HowStuffWorks. ... Cellulosic ethanol starts with cellulosic biomass. Almost every stem, leaf and tree trunk in the world qualifies, from farm ... Making cellulosic ethanol thermochemically poses benefits. The thermochemical method converts lignin and gets the most ethanol ... Separations remove the ethanol [source: NREL].. For either method, the ethanol is trucked to special stations to mix with ...
These sugars can then be fermented, leading to bio-ethanol. Carroll, Andrew; Somerville, Chris (June 2009). "Cellulosic ... Lignocellulosic biomass can be broadly classified into virgin biomass, waste biomass and energy crops. Virgin biomass includes ... Biomass is a carbon-neutral source of energy: Since it comes from plants, the combustion of lignocellulosic ethanol produces no ... One barrier to the production of ethanol from biomass is that the sugars necessary for fermentation are trapped inside the ...
... cellulosic ethanol. ... 09 BIOMASS FUELS; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ... v/v ethanol. To our knowledge, this is the first time that titers greater than 10% v/v ethanol in fermentations derived from ... Asmore » a result, the potential cost savings from high sugar and ethanol titers achieved by the DMR process are also reported ... In addition, lower ethanol titers increase the volumes required for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation vessels increase ...
Biomass-to-liquid fuels;. Cellulosic ethanol;. Coal-and-biomass-to-liquid fuels; ...
Alternative Fuels from Coal and Biomass: Biochemical Technologies for Cellulosic Ethanol and Advanced Biofuels. Conference ... This presentation provides a high-level review of the current trends in technology and markets for biomass feedstocks and the ... Inventing the Biofuel Future - We Can Have Biomass for Fuel and Eat it Too. Archived Webinar ... Production of JP-8 Jet Fuel from Coal and Coal/Biomass Mixtures. Conference Presentation ...
"Effect of biomass species and plant size on cellulosic ethanol: A comparative process and economic analysis". Biomass Bioenergy ... or greater for cellulosic ethanol. As well, cellulosic ethanol can reduce carbon dioxide emissions to nearly zero. A major ... while cellulosic ethanol provides 80 percent more energy. Cellulosic ethanol yields 80 percent more energy than is required to ... Biomass costs less, and it makes the resulting cellulosic ethanol a 100% second-generation biofuel, i.e., it uses no food for ...
... which Ethanol Acquisition acquired in April from Panda Ethanol Inc. for a $25 million credit bid in bankruptcy court.READ MORE ... Shell, Iogen announce cellulosic advancements. On June 10, Royal Dutch Shell plc announced one of its Ottawa service stations ... Hereford Biofuels ethanol plant to be mothballed. Competitive Power Ventures Holdings LLC, a North American power industry ... WEBINAR: Explosion Risks and Mitigation Methods for Critical Process Equipment in the Biomass Facility. March 12-12, 2019 - ...
Biomass-based diesel (1.0 billion gallons; 0.91 percent). Advanced biofuels (2.0 billion gallons; 1.21 percent). Cellulosic ... Tagged as: biofuels, cellulosic ethanol, corn ethanol, energy, epa, fuel, oil, petroleum ... Cellulosic Ethanol "Mandate" Downgraded Again. by Brian McGraw on June 21, 2011 ... cellulosic ethanol (meaning zero gallons, of the original 250 million required in 2011) has been produced and blended into our ...
ETHANOL AND CO-PRODUCTS FROM CELLULOSIC BIOMASS (Other) (8-Oct-06) STUDIES OF THE EXTRACELLULAR GLYCOCALYX OF THE ANAEROBIC ... DRYING, HARVESTING AND STORAGE CHARACTERISTICS OF PERENNIAL GRASSES AS BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS (Proceedings) (6-Jul-06) ...
This type of fuel, called cellulosic ethanol, has the potential to be a major source of renewable fuel for Americas ... The wood is sustainably harvested according to the RFS requirements for biomass. ... API), sold its first shipment of cellulosic ethanol with a Renewable Identification Number (RIN), which ensures the fuel meets ... This type of fuel, called cellulosic ethanol, has the potential to be a major source of renewable fuel for Americas ...
The plant uses wheat straw, rice straw and arundo donax as feedstock to produce cellulosic ethanol. READ MORE SHARE ... Commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol refinery opens in Italy. Beta Renewable and Novozymes today marked the official opening in ... providing forecasts for electricity consumption from wood biomass and waste biomass feedstocks.. READ MORE SHARE ... EIA updates forecasts of wood, waste biomass energy consumption The U.S. Energy Information Administration has published the ...
Biomass and Bioenergy 2013, 48, 66-74. * Iye EL, Bilsborrow PE. Cellulosic ethanol production from agricultural residues in ... Biomass and renewable energy from agriculture - biofuels, biomass, AD optimisation.. Esteem Indicators. *January 2008 - ... Biomass and Bioenergy 2018, 112, 61-72. * Scott C, Bilsborrow PE. The impact of the EU neonicotinoid seed‐dressing ban on ...
... offering a new economic leverage for cellulosic ethanol to compete with fossil fuels in the near future. In this study, glucose ... Cellulosic ethanol is a sustainable alternative to petroleum as a transportation fuel, which could be made biologically from ... This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass and Biofuels 2013) Full-Text , PDF [984 KB, uploaded 17 March 2015] ... Cellulosic ethanol is a sustainable alternative to petroleum as a transportation fuel, which could be made biologically from ...
Edeniq secures $16 million for cellulosic sugar production Edeniq announced it has raised $16 million in equity. The investment ... International Biomass Conference & Expo. April 20-22, 2015. Minneapolis Convention Center. Minneapolis, Minnesota ... Commodities: Energy, ethanol prices continue dropping sharply Ethanol and gasoline prices have seen sharp losses over the first ... White paper urges regulators to rethink ethanols carbon value A new white paper written by Ron Alverson of the American ...
  • Biomass sourcing and logistics, followed by technology and scale-up issues, have been two of the main stumbling blocks to getting cellulosic ethanol off the ground, says Christopher Standlee, executive vice president of institutional affairs at Abengoa Bioenergy. (farmindustrynews.com)
  • The Energy Department's Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) - in partnership with industry, national laboratories, academia and other key stakeholders - is turning this vision into a reality through research, development, and deployment of innovative technologies that make cellulosic ethanol more available and affordable. (energy.gov)
  • Biomass and Bioenergy 2013, 48 , 66-74. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Biomass and Bioenergy 2018, 112 , 61-72. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Evaluation of wet air oxidation as a pretreatment strategy for bioethanol production from rice husk and process optimization," Biomass and Bioenergy , vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 1680-1686, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • Chris Standlee, executive vice President at Abengoa Bioenergy New Technologies, began his remarks at the National Ethanol Conference by stating, "I'm thrilled to be able to say that this is the pivotal year in advanced ethanol production. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • Claus Fuglsang, head of the bioenergy division of Novozymes ( www.Novozymes.com ), said at a farm media conference this week in California that if crude oil is above $75 a barrel, a system for turning biomass products such as corn stalks or sawdust can be competitive economically. (agriculture.com)
  • Heather Youngs, a bioenergy analysis expert at the Energy Biosciences Institute of UC-Berkeley ( www.energybiosciencesinstitute.org/ ), told the same media group that she's encouraged about the potential for cellulosic ethanol. (agriculture.com)
  • Offering an authoritative multidisciplinary summary of the opportunities and challenges associated with bioenergy utilization, with international researchers give up-to-date and detailed information on key issues for biomass production and conversion to energy. (wiley.com)
  • Waste biomass is produced as a low value byproduct of various industrial sectors such as agriculture (corn stover, sugarcane bagasse, straw etc.) and forestry (saw mill and paper mill discards). (wikipedia.org)
  • Could be ethanol from corn, from sugarcane or any cellulosic material. (loe.org)
  • Current energy cane breeding strategies have focused on selecting high biomass hybrids from wide crosses between commercial sugarcane cultivars and S. spontaneum, which is characterized by high stalk counts and fiber content, excellent ratooning ability, and tolerances to abiotic and biotic pressures. (usda.gov)
  • The use of ethanol can reduce our dependency on foreign oil and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. (prezi.com)
  • Experts from India think these principles and requirements converge in a technology known as biomass gasification, in an electrification concept that has become commercially feasible and reliable (in-depth discussion of the technology, here , or see the image showing a downdraft biomass gasifier, click to enlarge). (blogspot.com)
  • Many people do not know that corn based ethanol was actually the source of fuel that was used to power Henry Fords Model T car back in the 1800's. (prezi.com)
  • Due to the concerns with significant expansion in corn-based ethanol supply, interest has grown in expanding the market for biodiesel produced from soybeans and other oil crops. (worldcat.org)
  • Youngs herself is not so strident in her views, saying the economics of corn-based ethanol are good and we have corn in surplus now. (agriculture.com)
  • Though it requires a more complex refining process, cellulosic ethanol contains more net energy and results in lower greenhouse emissions than traditional corn-based ethanol. (typepad.com)
  • BBI International has announced the agenda for the technical sessions of the 8th annual International Biomass Conference & Expo, North America's largest and fastest growing biomass conference, taking place April 20-22 in Minneapolis. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • This generally-recognized-as-safe (GRAS) bacterium is an attractive candidate for bioprocessing of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol or higher alcohols, owing to is natural characteristics, which include high ethanol and acid tolerance and the ability to metabolize both pentose and hexose. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • There's no question that the potential for cellulosic ethanol remains on track and that is why it is so important to have real targets to give confidence that there will be a market for those who are investing in the industry. (agri-pulse.com)
  • It's an exciting possibility that we may be able to convert biomass we would have otherwise discarded, directly into usable liquid or gas fuel at will. (rochester.edu)
  • The special Forest Products Journal issue does just that for energy produced in various ways from woody biomass. (innovations-report.com)
  • About two-thirds of the $140.5 million awarded from 2009 to 2016 through BRDI subsidized the following types of biomass: general R&D for multiple types of biomass, woody biomass, and sorghum. (taxpayer.net)
  • Based on analysis of market availability, EPA is proposing a 2012 cellulosic volume that is lower than the EISA target for 2012 of 500 million gallons. (globalwarming.org)
  • Because gasification also forms tar and sulfur, which interfere with making ethanol, the gases go to a tar reformer , which chemically converts these obstructions into more syngas. (howstuffworks.com)
  • We typically think of "biomass gasification" as an elegant but expensive alternative to co-firing or fossil fuel combustion. (blogspot.com)
  • Several community-operated experiments with decentralised biomass gasification and electrification are now underway in India, and it looks like the technology can literally turn marginalised communities into thriving and prosperous societies (see the case-study). (blogspot.com)