Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE. Members contain jatrophone and other diterpenes.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.
A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.
An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.
A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose.
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria in the family Thermoanaerobacteriaceae. Cultures consist of rods interspersed with coccoid cells.
Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.
Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.
Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.
A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.
A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
Extracellular structures found in a variety of microorganisms. They contain CELLULASES and play an important role in the digestion of CELLULOSE.
A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.
A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.
Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
An exocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE and cellotetraose. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing ends of beta-D-glucosides with release of CELLOBIOSE.
Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)
Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Enzymes which catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in XYLANS.
An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A cellulose of varied carboxyl content retaining the fibrous structure. It is commonly used as a local hemostatic and as a matrix for normal blood coagulation.
Liquid, solid, or gaseous waste resulting from mining of radioactive ore, production of reactor fuel materials, reactor operation, processing of irradiated reactor fuels, and related operations, and from use of radioactive materials in research, industry, and medicine. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A copper-containing oxidoreductase enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 4-benzenediol to 4-benzosemiquinone. It also has activity towards a variety of O-quinols and P-quinols. It primarily found in FUNGI and is involved in LIGNIN degradation, pigment biosynthesis and detoxification of lignin-derived products.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Yeast-like ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycopsidaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES, isolated from the stomach of rabbits and some other animals.
A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.
"Cosolvent pretreatment in cellulosic biofuel production: effect of tetrahydrofuran-water on lignin structure and dynamics". ... Cosolvents also play an important role in the production of biofuels from assorted biomass. For example, in efforts to convert ... In another example, a tetrahydrofuran-water mixture was found to be incredibly effective in extracting lignin from biomass to ... biofuels, and sorbents. In some cases, the utilization of cosolvents also allows for satisfaction of a broad goal in the field ...
Johnson E (18 Feb 2016). "Integrated enzyme production lowers the cost of cellulosic ethanol". Biofuels, Bioproducts and ... As a result, an effective pretreatment is needed to liberate the cellulose from the lignin seal and its crystalline structure ... Production of cellulosic alcohol is currently uneconomical and not practiced on a commercial scale. Cellulosic ethanol is a ... Commercial production of cellulosic ethanol, which unlike corn and sugarcane would not compete with food production, would be ...
... hemicellulose sugars and lignin. In early 2013 GranBio, a Brazilian pioneer in biofuels and biochemicals, completed the ... announced the start-up of cellulosic sugar production using their patented AVAP® technology at their demonstration plant in ... Cellulosic sugars are used as renewable resources for biochemical and biofuels industries and can be used to produce ... "Cellulosic Biofuels Industry Progress Report Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine", Advanced Ethanol Council, (2012-2013) ...
It is the most abundantly available raw material on the Earth for the production of biofuels, mainly bio-ethanol. It is ... This energy-intensive industry focuses on the separation of the lignin and cellulosic fractions of the biomass. Lignocellulosic ... Carroll, Andrew; Somerville, Chris (June 2009). "Cellulosic Biofuels". Annual Review of Plant Biology. 60 (1): 165-182. doi: ... Even though the production of biocomposites material rely mostly on wood resources, in less forest-covered countries or in ...
... is an ethanol fuel (more precisely cellulosic ethanol) made from trees. The biofuel is a contender in the race to ... Menetrez, MY (2010). "The Potential Environmental Impact of Waste from Cellulosic Ethanol Production". Journal of the Air & ... Rather, the cellulose in wood must be separated from the encapsulating hemicellulose and lignin. There are three types of ... Also, compared to corn ethanol, cellulosic biofuel does not require the same quantity of fertilizers, pesticides, energy, or ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Iogen's advanced cellulosic biofuel technology reaches critical production milestone ... The combustion of lignin provides enough energy to power most of the cellulosic ethanol process. The liquid portion, which ... Iogen's cellulosic biofuels technology converts a wide variety of cellulosic feedstocks into ethanol and other biofuels. The ... 2009 - Iogen becomes the first cellulosic biofuel producer to sell its advanced biofuel at a retail service station. 2006 - ...
The USDA also released a list of advanced biofuel producers who will receive payments to expand the production of advanced ... The plant also produces 13,000 metric tons of lignin pellets per year, used as fuel at combined-heat-and-power plants, and ... DOE Release National Biofuels Action Plan Commercializing Cellulosic Ethanol Cellulosic ethanol output could "explode" Poet ... Cellulosic ethanol commercialization involves converting cellulose-containing organic matter into cellulosic ethanol for use as ...
DSM has an enzyme cocktail for the production of cellulosic ethanol. This cocktail contains thermostable cellulases that ... The plant also produces 13,100 t of lignin pellets and 11,250 t of C5-molasses. In their initial pilot plant they were using ... EU in strategic biofuel partnerships - Inbicon as partner. (Accessed March 31, 2013) Larsen, Jan. Non-sterile fermentation of ... Inbicon has approved three companies' enzymes for their patented cellulosic ethanol production method: Novozymes, Genencor and ...
Cellulosic biofuels are renewable fuels derived from cellulose, hemicellulose, or lignin. This includes cellulosic biomass ... Renewable Diesel Tax credit Credit for Production of Cellulosic Biofuel Special Depreciation Allowance for Cellulosic Biofuel ... section 942 Instructs the Secretary to establish an incentive program for the production of cellulosic biofuels. This section ... advanced biofuels, biomass-based diesel, and cellulosic ethanol-each with its own volume requirement. (3) Biofuels qualifying ...
"First-generation" or conventional biofuels are biofuels made from food crops grown on arable land. With this biofuel production ... Ethanol biofuels (bioethanol)[edit]. Main articles: Ethanol fuel and Cellulosic ethanol commercialization ... Current plant design does not provide for converting the lignin portion of plant raw materials to fuel components by ... "Biofuels - Second Generation Biofuels". biofuel.org.uk. Retrieved 2018-01-18.. *^ Ramirez, Jerome; Brown, Richard; Rainey, ...
It is now being considered for use in several bioenergy conversion processes, including cellulosic ethanol production, biogas, ... In Biofuels, Solar and Wind as Renewable Energy Systems: Benefits and Risks. D. Pimental. (Ed.) Springer Science, Berlin, ... During the bioconversion process, the lignin fraction of switchgrass can be burned to provide sufficient steam and electricity ... Most bioenergy conversion processes for switchgrass, including those for cellulosic ethanol and pellet fuel production, can ...
... worldwide biofuel production reached 105 billion liters (28 billion gallons US), up 17% from 2009, and biofuels provided 2.7% ... Cellulosic biomass, derived from non-food sources, such as trees and grasses, is also being developed as a feedstock for ... Current plant design does not provide for converting the lignin portion of plant raw materials to fuel components by ... This new biomass can be used for biofuels. Biofuels have increased in popularity because of rising oil prices and the need for ...
In 2010 worldwide biofuel production reached 105 billion liters (28 billion gallons US), up 17% from 2009, and biofuels ... Cellulosic biomass, derived from non-food sources such as trees and grasses, is also being developed as a feedstock for ethanol ... Current plant design does not provide for converting the lignin portion of plant raw materials to fuel components by ... But all first generation biofuels ultimately compete with food production for land, water, and other resources. Greater efforts ...
"Plant genetic engineering for biofuel production: towards affordable cellulosic ethanol. , Learn Science at Scitable". www. ... One example are trees have been genetically modified to either have less lignin, or to express lignin with chemically labile ... Genetically modified organisms are also used for the production of biofuels. Biofuels are a type of Carbon-neutral fuel. ... It covers all primary production and economic and industrial sectors that base on use, production or processing biological ...
Conversion of cellulose from energy crops into biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol is under development as a renewable fuel ... "Revealing pyrolysis chemistry for biofuels production: Conversion of cellulose to furans and small oxygenates". Energy Environ ... Energy crops: The major combustible component of non-food energy crops is cellulose, with lignin second. Non-food energy crops ... Production of rayon ("artificial silk") from cellulose began in the 1890s and cellophane was invented in 1912. Hermann ...
Increased biofuel production draws on issues relating to changes in land use, impacts on ecosystem (soil and water resources), ... Two leading non-food crops for the production of cellulosic bioethanol are switchgrass and giant miscanthus. There has been a ... "Suppression of CINNAMOYL-CoA REDUCTASE increases the level of monolignol ferulates incorporated into maize lignins". ... Over the last 5 years, there has been a 109% increase in global biofuel production and this is expected to increase an ...
... from both existing food crops and from cellulosic sources. Lord Ron Oxburgh suggests that responsible production of biofuels ... would be an ideal source of material for biofuels and many other products. Composed of lignin and monomer sugars such as ... A 2007 UN report on biofuel also raises issues regarding food security and biofuel production. Jean Ziegler, then UN Special ... However, above a few percent, there would be direct competition between first generation biofuel production and food production ...
An overview of biomass feedstocks for biofuel production", Biomass to Biofuel Supply Chain Design and Planning Under ... The by-product of this process is lignin. Lignin can be burned as a carbon neutral fuel to produce heat and power for the ... Renewable energy portal Algae fuel Cellulosic ethanol commercialization Food vs fuel IEA Bioenergy Jatropha Renewable Fuel ... The concern is that if these food crops are used for biofuel production that food prices could rise and shortages might be ...
The more popular methods for production of ethanol and cellulosic ethanol use enzymes that must be isolated first to be added ... Drop-in biofuels[edit]. The primary or secondary alcohols obtained as described above may undergo conversion to drop-in ... C6H12O6 (from cellulose) + 6 H2 (from lignin) → 3 CH3CH2OH + 3 H2O (Overall reaction). ... making this front step in the process more economical than in more popular methods for the production of cellulosic ethanol. ...
Plant genetic engineering for biofuel production: towards affordable cellulosic ethanol. *^ van Beilen, Jan B.; Yves Poirier ( ... Some trees have been genetically modified to either have less lignin, or to express lignin with chemically labile bonds. Lignin ... Biofuel[edit]. Algae is under development for use in biofuels.[156] Researchers in Singapore were working on GM jatropha for ... Examples in non-food crops include production of pharmaceutical agents, biofuels, and other industrially useful goods, as well ...
The refinery went online and it was full production by 2014. It was operated by Abengoa Bioenergy Biomass of Kansas, a company ... Abengoa Bioenergy also has a joint venture biofuel plant with Ebro Puleva. The feedstock comprises woody and non-woody ... Pre-treatment consists of contacting the cellulosic biomass feedstock with an acidic liquid medium to form an acid-impregnated ... Steam treatment dissociates cellulose from hemicellulose and lignin for enzymatic hydrolysis to produce fermentable sugars. ...
Many research efforts have explored using bagasse as a biofuel in renewable power generation and in the production of bio-based ... For example, until May 2015 BP was operating a cellulosic ethanol demonstration plant based on cellulosic materials in Jennings ... "Synergistic effect of humic acid on alkali pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse for the recovery of lignin with phenomenal ... It is used as a biofuel for the production of heat, energy, and electricity, and in the manufacture of pulp and building ...
This releases lignin structures within the biomass, where the sugar and acid are separated. The sugar goes into a yeast- ... BlueFire Renewables (previously BlueFire Ethanol) is a biofuel company that produces a cellulose-to-ethanol solution using wood ... In 2009, Bluefire announced a teaming agreement with Solazyme, a renewable oil production company and leading algal synthetic ... per year cellulosic ethanol plant in Fulton, MS. In 2008, the company unveiled plans to create a network of ethanol refineries ...
1], "Production of monomers from lignin during depolymerisation of lignocellulose-containing composition", issued 2017-04-12 " ... The delignification selectively fractionates lignocellulose components into cellulosic fibre, hemicellulose and lignin. Part of ... Recently, due to the popularity of second generation biofuels, the organosolv process has been considered in the context of ... Due to the hydrophobic nature of organosolv lignin, flotation of organosolv lignin is effective without the use of the ...
... the production of palm oil has detrimental effects on the environment and is not considered to be a sustainable biofuel. The ... It is necessary to consider this mode of attack as a white rot involving lignin biodegradation, for integrated control. The ... cellulosic ethanol, biogas, biohydrogen and bioplastic. Thus, by using both the biomass from the plantation as well as the ... "Biofuels and palm oil - why palm oil cannot fuel the biofuels industry" (PDF).[permanent dead link] Danielsen, Finn; Beukema, H ...
In this way biofuels may well be unsustainable if their production contributes to deforestation. Some renewable resources, ... ISBN 978-0-444-53448-4. "Peak Soil: Why cellulosic ethanol, biofuels are unsustainable and a threat to America". Retrieved 2013 ... Bioplastics are a form of plastics derived from renewable biomass sources, such as vegetable fats and oils, lignin, corn starch ... Assessing biofuels: towards sustainable production and use of resources, International Resource Panel, United Nations ...
Enzymes that cleave lignin have occasionally been called cellulases, but this old usage is deprecated; they are lignin- ... Cellulase is used in the fermentation of biomass into biofuels, although this process is relatively experimental at present. ... due to synergism because of the close proximity between the enzyme and the cellulosic substrate. CBM are involved in binding of ... "Isolation, optimization and production of cellulase by Aspergillus niger from agricultural waste". Journal of Pure and Applied ...
Syngas production, automotive fuel[edit]. Like many other sources of carbon, charcoal can be used for the production of various ... Cellulosic ethanol. *Dyes. *Lignin. *Liquid smoke. *Lye. *Methanol. *Pyroligneous acid. *Pine tar ... Biofuels. *Solid fuels. Hidden categories: *CS1: Julian-Gregorian uncertainty. *Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation ... Tar production led to rapid local deforestation. The end of tar production at the end of the 19th century resulted in rapid re- ...
... a significantly lower lignin fraction as well as a higher tear resistance and tensile strength. However, production costs are ... "Biofuels Facts". Hempcar.org. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2011.. ... France ranks second with about a quarter of the world production. Smaller production occurs in the rest of Europe, Chile, and ... The United Kingdom and Germany resumed commercial production in the 1990s. British production is mostly used as bedding for ...
... lignin has been investigated as a feedstock for biofuel production and can become a crucial plant extract in the development of ... "Cellulosic ethanol: what to do with the lignin", Biomass, retrieved 2016-08-10 ... "Lignin and its Properties: Glossary of Lignin Nomenclature". Dialogue/Newsletters Volume 9, Number 1. Lignin Institute. July ... The residue that remains is termed Klason lignin. A part of the lignin, acid-soluble lignin (ASL) dissolves in the acid. ASL is ...
"Revealing pyrolysis chemistry for biofuels production: Conversion of cellulose to furans and small oxygenates". 》Energy Environ ... 에너지 작물의 셀룰로스를 셀룰로식 에탄올(cellulosic ethanol)과 같은 바이오 연료로 전환하는 것은 재생 가능한 연료 공급원으로 개발 중에 있다. 산업용 셀룰로스는 주로 목재 펄프 및 면섬유로부터 얻는다.[4] ... Crawford, R. L. (1981). 》Lignin biodegradation and transformation》. New York: John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0-471-05743-6.. ... Holt-Gimenez, Eric (2007). Biofuels: Myths of the Agrofuels Transition. Backgrounder. Institute for Food and Development Policy ...
2) Lignin is the second most abundant biopolymer. Cellulose and lignin are two of the primary natural polymers used by plants ... Examples of emerging bioproducts or biobased products include biofuels, bioenergy, starch-based and cellulose-based ethanol, ... It also deals with studying various biotechnological processes used in industries for large scale production of biological ...
Around the time of World War I, production from biofuels slowed as petroleum production increased and its uses were identified. ... "A sustainable pathway of cellulosic ethanol production integrating anaerobic digestion with biorefining". Biotechnology and ... as most anaerobes are unable to degrade lignin. Xylophalgeous anaerobes (lignin consumers) or using high temperature ... A Technological Overview of Biogas Production from Biowaste, Science Direct *^ Economic Assessment of Anaerobic Digestion ...
However, the presence of lignin hinders this process. Recently, a novel cosolvent based biomass pretreatment method called CELF ... The deconstruction of cellulose is an essential step in the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. ... Cosolvent pretreatment in cellulosic biofuel production: effect of tetrahydrofuran-water on lignin structure and dynamics† ... Cosolvent pretreatment in cellulosic biofuel production: effect of tetrahydrofuran-water on lignin structure and dynamics M. D ...
Production of cellulosic biofuels has reached critical momentum: there are a total of 15 plants being constructed in Europe, ... Brazil - BNDES offers U$1.97 billion in credit to revitalize cane and ethanol production [Registered]. January 14, 2013. 12:57 ... Brazilian ethanol production set to expand [Registered]. January 17, 2013. 5:38 pm ... Biofuels News 14 Jan 2013. Lignin tolerant enzymes developed to enhance cellulosic biofuels production [Registered]. ...
... lignin has been considered a hindrance in cellulosic bioethanol production due to the complexity involved in its separation ... lignin genetic engineering and different biological and chemical means of depolymerization used to convert lignin into biofuels ... Nevertheless, lignin is a potential source of valuable aromatic chemical compounds and upgradable building blocks. Though the ... The absence of specific methodologies for lignin degradation represents an important opportunity for research and development. ...
Cellulosic biomass is more difficult than starch to break down into sugars because of the presence of lignin and the complex ... The energy in cellulosic biomass largely resides in plant cell walls. ... Emerging strategies of lignin engineering and degradation for cellulosic biofuel production. Curr Opin Biotechnol 19: 66-172; ... Chapple C.; Ladisch M.; Melian R. Loosening lignins grip on biofuel production. Nat Biotechnol 25: 746-747; 2007. doi:10.1038/ ...
Cosolvent pretreatment in cellulosic biofuel production: Effect of tetrahydrofuran-water on lignin structure and dynamics ... Biotechnology for Biofuels Background: Cellulase adsorption to lignin is considered a cost barrier for bioethanol production; ... Biotechnology for Biofuels In this study, flowthrough pretreatment of biomass has high potential to valorize lignin derivatives ... while the contents of these lignin subunits in the other two lignin fractions were similar. The lignin fraction obtained after ...
Cosolvent pretreatment in cellulosic biofuel production: Effect of tetrahydrofuran-water on lignin structure and dynamics ... important for understanding lignin role in plant cell wall mechanics and for rationally improving lignin processing. The lignin ... lignin and lignin : lignin interactions are approximately equivalent in strength. Furthermore, under these conditions, polymers ... low-cost carbon fiber and the relocalization of lignin to increase the accessibility of cellulose for production of biofuels. ...
"Cosolvent pretreatment in cellulosic biofuel production: effect of tetrahydrofuran-water on lignin structure and dynamics". ... Cosolvents also play an important role in the production of biofuels from assorted biomass. For example, in efforts to convert ... In another example, a tetrahydrofuran-water mixture was found to be incredibly effective in extracting lignin from biomass to ... biofuels, and sorbents. In some cases, the utilization of cosolvents also allows for satisfaction of a broad goal in the field ...
2008a) Emerging strategies of lignin engineering and degradation for cellulosic biofuel production. Curr Opin Biotechnol 19: ... 2008) Plant genetic engineering for biofuel production: towards affordable cellulosic ethanol. Nat Rev Genet 9: 433-443. ... Coupling of two lignin oligomers is rare in S/G-lignins but relatively common in G-lignins, where 5-5 coupling accounts for ... 2010) NMR of lignins. In Heitner C, Dimmel DR, eds, Lignins. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 137-234. ...
... process to valorise lignin, it is important to consider integration possibilities with existing infrastructures in order to ... Stoklosa RJ, Hodge DB (2014) Chapter 4 -integration of (hemi)-cellulosic biofuels technologies with chemical pulp production. ... The recovery of lignin from kraft pulping is also being pursued actively as a resource from a biopower, biofuels and bio-based ... The lignin used as the feed material in this investigation was a softwood kraft lignin produced by the LignoBoost process at ...
... fuel yields with low enzymatic input and facilitate lignin valorization to co-products extending beyond simply using lignin to ... "Next-generation ammonia pretreatment enhances cellulosic biofuel production". Energy & Environmental Science (2016) [DOI: ... Improving cellulosic biomass deconstruction while extracting lignin.. The Science. Lignocellulosic crop residues are a ... EA preserves extracted lignin functionalities, offering the potential to co-produce lignin-derived fuels and chemicals in the ...
Exploring new strategies for cellulosic biofuels production. A research program has been initiated to formulate new strategies ... by lignin has been identified as a key barrier to reduce cellulase loading for economical sugar and biofuel production from ... Conceptual net energy output for biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass through biorefining. There is a lack of ... Cellulosic ethanol/biofuel, Lignocellulosic biomass, Biorefinery and bioenergy, Life cycle analysis (LCA), Agriculture ...
... of the cost of producing cellulosic biofuels. Most pretreatments do not completely fractionate cellulose and lignin, the latter ... especially through pyrolysis innovations including biomass pretreatments to increase cellulosic sugar production and ... modular energy production systems can reduce carbon intensity in energy production and improve economic, environmental and ... Modular Energy Production Systems configure unit operations as modules sized to fit in standard shipping containers, mass ...
... which is consistent with high holocellulose relative to lignin. By contrast, greater yields of lignin-based pyrolytic products ... Efforts to utilize lignin-based bioproducts are needed. Herein we identify and characterize the composition and pyrolytic ... Feedstocks displaying the highest levels of lignin were identified as drupe endocarp biomass arising as agricultural waste from ... By performing pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we characterized lignin-derived deconstruction ...
... pulp and paper production, and to the generation of cellulosic biofuels. Our objective is to push forward our basic ... Lignin is a cross-linked phenolic polymer that makes the cell walls of specialized plant cells more rigid. Its synthesis ... We are in a unique position to explore how the amount of lignin in a plant is controlled because we have identified two novel ... One of the most significant of these is the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway which leads to the deposition of lignin. ...
... furan derivatives and phenolic compounds are key problems of cellulosic bio-fuels production by fermentation. Most of these ... inhibitors are sugars and lignin degradation compounds, which are almost unavoidable during pretreatment processes. While, most ... R2 α-amylase production optimization: Pasta cooking water as medium of amylase production ... This study aimed to prepare a readily available medium for industrial amylase production. An optimization of amylase production ...
... they also make them difficult to process as feedstock for biofuel production. There are many genes that regulate the secondary ... cell wall biosynthesis, particularly the formation of one of its components: lignin, including microRNAs (miRNAs). As their ... We will characterize target gene expression as well as the cell wall phenotype of mutant plants, including their biofuel ... development defect and altered cell wall properties perhaps resulting in a plant more amenable to conversion to biofuels. ...
... has been a major hurdle in the production of biofuels from switchgrass and other cellulosic plants. In a previous GCEP study, ... This project seeks to develop larger lignin-modified plants that can be cultivated for biofuels at scale. Investigators: Clint ... Optimizing yield and composition in lignin‐modified plants. The inability to process lignin, a cement-like component of plant ... and Scotland also received support for research that could lead to the large-scale conversion of cellulosic plants to biofuels: ...
Conversely, it negatively affects biological energy conversion processes such as bioethanol or biogas production, as it ... Due to the significance of lignin in several agricultural disciplines, the modification of lignin content and composition by ... Lignin from crop residues plays an important role in the soil organic carbon cycling, as it constitutes a recalcitrant carbon ... In animal nutrition, lignin is considered an antinutritive component of forages as it cannot be readily fermented by rumen ...
... upstream regulatory sequences of the Brachypodium distachyon lignin biosynthetic gene BdPMT and the cellulose synthase genes ... upstream regulatory sequences of the Brachypodium distachyon lignin biosynthetic gene BdPMT and the cellulose synthase genes ... Chapple, C., Ladisch, M., and Meilan, R. (2007). Loosening lignins grip on biofuel production. Nat. Biotechnol. 25, 746-748. ... Carroll, A., and Somerville, C. R. (2009). Cellulosic biofuels. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 160, 165-182. doi: 10.1146/annurev. ...
Park, S. -H. Expediting cellulosic biofuels agenda: Production of high value-low volume co-products and lignin down-regulation ... Chen, F., Dixon, R. A. Lignin modification improves fermentable sugar yields for biofuel production. Nature. 25, 759-761 (2007 ... Figur 3. Klason lignin målinger (ACId-uløselig lignin innholdet) av villtype HI-II og ZmCCR1_RNAi mutant. De tre mutant linjer ... Dien, B. S., et al. Enhancing alfalfa conversion efficiencies for sugar recovery and ethanol production by altering lignin ...
This knowledge is critical for individuals interested in the production of biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol. ... For example, it will have the ability to break down the availability of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose from a wood ... As part of CWFCs core research program built around sustainable forest resource production practices and fibre ... range and forest production, terrestrial water and human impact on the environment. This will create a one-stop-shop for a ...
"Enhancing muconic acid production from glucose and lignin-derived aromatic compounds via increased protocatechuate ... "A laboratory-scale pretreatment and hydrolysis assay for determination of reactivity in cellulosic biomass feedstocks," ... Biotechnology for Biofuels (2013) View all NREL Publications for Darren J. Peterson. ... and Pseudomons putida for lignin utilization for muconic acid production. Darren started as an intern at NREL in 2004. His ...
... furan derivatives and phenolic compounds are key problems of cellulosic bio-fuels production by fermentation. Most of these ... inhibitors are sugars and lignin degradation compounds, which are almost unavoidable during pretreatment processes. While, most ... Key words: Bio-fuel, corn stalk, pretreatment, particle size, microbial inhibitors, fermentable sugars. ... high concentration of microbial inhibitors were formed and significantly affected downstream biofuel yield. Thus, a two-stage ...
Park, S. -H. Expediting cellulosic biofuels agenda: Production of high value-low volume co-products and lignin down-regulation ... Chen, F., Dixon, R. A. Lignin modification improves fermentable sugar yields for biofuel production. Nature. 25, 759-761 (2007 ... Dien, B. S., et al. Enhancing alfalfa conversion efficiencies for sugar recovery and ethanol production by altering lignin ... Park, S. H., Ong, R. G., Mei, C., Sticklen, M. Lignin Down-regulation of Zea mays via dsRNAi and Klason Lignin Analysis. J. Vis ...
Johnson E (18 Feb 2016). "Integrated enzyme production lowers the cost of cellulosic ethanol". Biofuels, Bioproducts and ... As a result, an effective pretreatment is needed to liberate the cellulose from the lignin seal and its crystalline structure ... Production of cellulosic alcohol is currently uneconomical and not practiced on a commercial scale. Cellulosic ethanol is a ... Commercial production of cellulosic ethanol, which unlike corn and sugarcane would not compete with food production, would be ...
High-throughput quantification of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents, as well as cellulose and hemicellulose ... High-throughput quantification of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents, as well as cellulose and hemicellulose ... 2013). The potential of C4 grasses for cellulosic biofuel production. Front. Plant Sci. 4:107. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2013.00107 ... lignin content and increased saccharification efficiency is seen as crucial to reduce the production costs of cellulosic ...
Emerging strategies of lignin engineering and degradation for cellulosic biofuel production. Current opinion in biotechnology. ... FOLy has divided lignin degrading enzymes in to two main classes as Lignin Oxidases (LOs) and Lignin Degrading Auxiliary ... Lignin Oxidases (LO): Lignin oxidases are further divided into three main classes as LO1 (represent laccases), LO2 (Lignin ... In order to find the expression of lignin degrading enzymes (lignin oxidases and lignin degrading auxiliary enzymes) in ...
... and cellulosic biofuel production (Li et al., 2008). Accordingly, a number of approaches have been employed to identify or ... Given the potential impact of lignin reduction on biofuel production, this knowledge will have a great impact on future genetic ... Perturbation of lignin biosynthesis by silencing of HCT or mutation of the gene encoding C3′H leads to both decreased lignin ... 1998). The DFRC method for lignin analysis. 2. Monomers from isolated lignins. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46: 547-552. ...
Purdue University scientists have found the last undiscovered gene responsible for the production of the amino acid ... Decreasing phenylalanine could lead to a reduction in lignin, which would improve digestibility of cellulosic materials for ... Gene find could lead to healthier food, better biofuel production. November 22, 2010 ... Phenylalanine is important for plant protein synthesis and for the production of flower scent, anti-oxidants and lignin, a ...
Forage quality and composition measurements may be used to predict cellulosic ethanol yield to guide biofeedstock improvement ... Convertibility was highly correlated with ruminal digestibility and lignin content. There was no relationship between ... Improvement of biofeedstock quality for cellulosic ethanol production will be facilitated by inexpensive and rapid methods of ... Weimer PJ, Dien BS, Springer TL, Vogel KP: In vitro gas production as a surrogate measure of the fermentability of cellulosic ...
  • The mainly EU-funded DISCO project coordinated by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed sourced cellulases and hemi-cellulases from fungi to hydrolyse lignocellulosic feedstocks to release C5 and C6 sugars for subsequent ethanol production. (internationalsugarjournal.com)
  • Compared to the other cell wall polymers, i.e. , cellulose and hemicelluloses, lignin has been considered a hindrance in cellulosic bioethanol production due to the complexity involved in its separation from other polymers of various biomass feedstocks. (mdpi.com)
  • Reduction of lignin in biofuel crops by genetic engineering is likely one of the most effective ways of reducing costs associated with pretreatment and hydrolysis of cellulosic feedstocks, although some potential fitness issues should also be addressed. (springer.com)
  • article{osti_1376592, title = {Pseudo-lignin Formation during Dilute Acid Pretreatment for Cellulosic Ethanol}, author = {Meng, Xianzhi and Ragauskas, Arthur J.}, abstractNote = {Dilute acid-based pretreatment represents one of the most important pretreatment technologies to reduce biomass recalcitrance and it has been successfully applied to a wide range of feedstocks. (osti.gov)
  • Herein we identify and characterize the composition and pyrolytic deconstruction characteristics of high-lignin feedstocks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Feedstocks displaying the highest levels of lignin were identified as drupe endocarp biomass arising as agricultural waste from horticultural crops. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Differences in product yield, thermal decomposition rates and molecular species distribution among the feedstocks illustrate the potential of high-lignin endocarp feedstocks to generate valuable chemicals by thermochemical deconstruction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Purdue University scientists have found the last undiscovered gene responsible for the production of the amino acid phenylalanine, a discovery that could lead to processes to control the amino acid to boost plants' nutritional values and produce better biofuel feedstocks. (purdue.edu)
  • The challenge is to reduce the cost of production - which is a technical and economic impasse that leaves researchers in the Innovation Valley intrigued with the potential of several cheaper feedstocks, including lignin , a by-product of cellulosic ethanol production and the pulping process used to make paper. (bio-medicine.org)
  • but now GM biofuel feedstocks are on the horizon and they are no protesters & no angry dissent anywhere to be seen, when the same arguments can be applied to GM biofuel feedstock: No one knows how it will behave long-term in the natural environment, and whether or not it hybridize/cross-pollinate with other species, and what the effects of that happening would be. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Evolution improves survival and proliferation - GM can produce better biofuel feedstocks. (greencarcongress.com)
  • While some challenges still need to be overcome, some of advancements led to the development of improved feedstocks to boot sugar release and incorporate functional groups into lignins to support the production of high‐value‐added by‐products. (els.net)
  • He has dedicated most of his career to the development of renewable energy technologies with particular emphasis on the production of biofuels and chemicals from cellulosic biomass feedstocks and other sustainable resources. (aalto.fi)
  • Researchers at Rutgers University-New Brunswick and Michigan State University have demonstrated how to design and genetically engineer enzyme surfaces so they bind less to lignocellulosic feedstocks, reducing enzyme costs in the production of cellulosic biofuels production. (internationalsugarjournal.com)
  • Miscanthus are being considered as a primary source of feedstocks to produce biofuels.Biofuels produced from these sources are called lignocellulosic biofuels,which represent an alternative fuel for future use (Yuan et al. (techylib.com)
  • And he concludes his biofuels primer with today's piece on biofuel feedstocks. (greentechmedia.com)
  • Technologies that use food-based feedstocks are likely viable in the near term but will have increasing costs, poor politics, and feedstock competition unless the production technique is compatible with cellulosic to sugar hydrolysis technology (such as HCl and others in development). (greentechmedia.com)
  • Long, S.P. Feedstocks for lignocellulosic biofuels. (eurekaselect.com)
  • In summary, the test data shows that VIASPACE's proprietary Giant King Grass has essentially the same properties as corn stover and wheat straw, which are current leading candidate feedstocks for making not only cellulosic biofuels but also a wide range of biochemicals. (viaspace.com)
  • The refinements of performance at production scale will set the stage for campaigns to profitably expand the numbers of plants licensed to utilize more elegant technologies to exploit alternative feedstocks. (umn.edu)
  • Capital costs of the first plants are high (perhaps 10X dry grind ethanol) due to the long residence times needed to pretreat and then process the cellulosic feedstocks. (umn.edu)
  • Since the cost of the feedstock is the major cost factor, the ability to use low cost non-food feedstocks is a major challenge to cost effective butanol production and much work is being done to develop microbes that can be used with a variety of feedstocks. (typepad.com)
  • The National Renewable Energy Centre of Spain (CENER) has selected AdvanceBio Systems' SuPR2G Bench Scale Pretreatment Reactor to conduct basic research and development work related to the production of fermentable sugars from lignocellulose rich biomass feedstocks. (renewableenergyfocus.com)
  • The development of technologies for the production of ethanol from biomass feedstocks such as wood dates back to the years leading into the first two world wars. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • There are basically three steps required to overcome this recalcitrance of cellulosic feedstocks. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • U.S. Department of Energy/Phys.Org) … Researchers processed and experimentally measured ethanol production from five different herbaceous feedstocks. (advancedbiofuelsusa.info)
  • They produced multiple breakthroughs in the form of deepened understanding of sustainable biomass production practices, targeted reengineering of biomass feedstocks, development of new methods for deconstructing feedstocks, and engineering of microbes for more effective production of a diverse range of biofuels. (doegenomestolife.org)
  • A major step forward in this goal has now been achieved by researchers with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) who report the first demonstration of a one-pot, wash-free, process for the ionic liquid pretreatment and saccharification of switchgrass, one of the leading potential biofuel feedstocks. (phys.org)
  • Cellulosic ethanol can be produced from a diverse array of feedstocks, such as wood pulp from trees or any plant matter. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has the prospects for intensifying and modularizing biorefineries, especially through pyrolysis innovations including biomass pretreatments to increase cellulosic sugar production and autothermal pyrolysis to simplify design and increase feedstock throughput. (aiche.org)
  • While these abilities are vital to the survival of plants, they also make them difficult to process as feedstock for biofuel production. (umass.edu)
  • We will characterize target gene expression as well as the cell wall phenotype of mutant plants, including their biofuel feedstock quality. (umass.edu)
  • lignocelluloses have recently been identified as an abundant source of feedstock for bioenergy production [ 7 , 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • With the increasing demand for biomass as feedstock for bioenergy conversion, even the production of specialized biomass crops such as Miscanthus spp. (hindawi.com)
  • As a result miscanthus displays a wide adaptation to different soils types and climates, which may allow its exploitation as a second generation biofuel feedstock across a broad range of environments. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, the potential of a lignocellulose feedstock for the production of biofuel is also highly determined by the compositional quality of the biomass. (frontiersin.org)
  • BY Chris Hanson Following multiyear feedstock procurement campaigns and vast investments of capital, resources and time, America's first big cellulosic ethanol plants are nearing startup. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • Lignin, it turns out, can be an inexpensive feedstock in carbon fiber production. (bio-medicine.org)
  • You can use lignin to produce heat and steam," said Sam Jackson, Genera's vice president of feedstock operations. (bio-medicine.org)
  • But using it as a feedstock in carbon fiber production is obviously a much higher end use. (bio-medicine.org)
  • World-class carbon fiber expertise plus production of lignin feedstock come together here," said Jesse Smith, tech director for the Innovation Valley. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Compared to traditional biomass deconstruction approaches, which first isolate lignin from the feedstock before further processing for recovery of sugars, the lignin-first method avoids the cumbersome and destructive lignin extraction process. (warf.org)
  • 2015) Downregulation of GAUT12 in Populus deltoides by RNA silencing results in reduced recalcitrance, increased growth and reduced xylan and pectin in a woody biofuel feedstock. (els.net)
  • Cellulosic biomass, derived from non-food sources, such as trees and grasses, is also being developed as a feedstock for ethanol production. (greenergyexpo.eu)
  • The feedstock used to generate second-generation biofuels should grow on lands which should not be used to grow food and their growing should not consume lots of water or fertilizer. (greenergyexpo.eu)
  • Sharma, M.K. Sweet sorghum as biofuel feedstock: recent advances and available resources. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The emissions calculations must also incorporate indirect land-use changes that may occur due to cultivation of more land to produce the feedstock for the biofuels. (americanprogress.org)
  • Irvine, California, USA-February 14, 2011-VIASPACE Inc. (OTC Bulletin Board: VSPC), and its subsidiary VIASPACE Green Energy Inc. (OTC Bulletin Board: VGREF) reported results of recent independent testing of Giant King Grass as a feedstock for producing second-generation cellulosic biofuels such ethanol and butanol, and biomass-based chemicals. (viaspace.com)
  • This validates Giant King Grass, a nonfood dedicated energy crop, as a competitive feedstock for producing cellulosic biofuels. (viaspace.com)
  • Most importantly, an acre of Giant King Grass yields up to 10 times greater tonnage than an acre of corn stover, which is the stalk and leaves leftover from harvesting an acre of corn,' Kukkonen continued, 'With our high yield, we believe that Giant King Grass can reduce biofuel feedstock costs by up to 40%, even when compared to projected prices for corn straw as agricultural waste. (viaspace.com)
  • This new data on its potential for biofuels places Giant King Grass in a unique position as a low-cost feedstock with universal application in the worldwide push toward clean electricity generation and production of cellulosic ethanol and other liquid biofuels. (viaspace.com)
  • Through its majority-owned subsidiary VIASPACE Green Energy Inc., the Company grows Giant King Grass as a low-carbon fuel for electricity generating power plants, as a feedstock for bio methane production and cellulosic biofuels, and for other low-carbon, renewable energy products. (viaspace.com)
  • The only publicly-traded biofuels pureplay in China, Gushan had endured a rocky road, based on the changing availabilities of feedstock as Chinese biofuels policy evolves. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • Conventional separate pretreatment and saccharification of biofuel feedstock (a) entails water and waste disposal that one-pot system (b) eliminates. (phys.org)
  • Biofuels quality is related to the inherent of feedstock materials (RMs) and operating conditions used in their production. (aiche.org)
  • Miscanthus, a perennial grass, is an attractive biofuel feedstock compared with corn and poplar due to its high energy yield per hectare and low. (aiche.org)
  • All of these characteristics make it desirable as a biofuel feedstock. (earthtechling.com)
  • Although tension wood itself is not considered to be a viable feedstock option, studying its unique characteristics could help scientists select and design bioenergy crops tailored for increased sugar production. (earthtechling.com)
  • The plant also produces 13,000 metric tons of lignin pellets per year, used as fuel at combined-heat-and-power plants, and 11,100 metric tons of C5 molasses which is currently used for biomethane production via anaerobic digestion, and has been tested as a high carbohydrate animal feed supplement and potential bio-based feedstock for production of numerous commodity chemicals including diols, glycols, organic acids, and biopolymer precursors and intermediates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of cellulosic biomass crops as a feedstock for the production of transportation fuel offers significant potential environmental and economic advantages. (hindawi.com)
  • This case study analysis discusses the feedstock availability and its related average yields, the technology used, the biofuel yields, and the biofuel characteristics in comparison to those of the petrol fuel (Sissell 2008, pp. 4-97). (republicmoto.com)
  • The company's feedstock uses the plant cellulosic biomass since the plant matters used contains lignin which comprise of grains, fruits, and vegetables, among others. (republicmoto.com)
  • The feedstock has the lignin that is a complex network of the aromatic compound high energy comprises of 15% to 25%, the hemicelluloses of 23% to 32% of about 6 carbon sugars that are linked together in long chains that are branched arabinose, xylose, glucose, galactose residues, and mannose, and 38% to 50% cellulose formed in semi crystalline structure. (republicmoto.com)
  • The huge expense in making cellulosic ethanol and biofuels is in using enzymes and mechanical methods to break cellulose down," says Nobles. (innovations-report.com)
  • Now that oil has tripled in cost, it's making [cellulosic ethanol] technology look more economical. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • The deconstruction of cellulose is an essential step in the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. (rsc.org)
  • Recently, a novel cosolvent based biomass pretreatment method called CELF (Cosolvent Enhanced Lignocellulosic Fractionation) which employs tetrahydrofuran (THF) in a single phase mixture with water, was found to be highly effective at solubilizing and extracting lignin from lignocellulosic biomass and achieving high yields of fermentable sugars. (rsc.org)
  • By using liquid ammonia to pretreat lignocellulosic biomass under certain conditions, it is possible to convert native cellulose to a highly digestible cellulose allomorph (i.e., cellulose III) and simultaneously extract a lignin fraction for downstream catalytic upgrading. (glbrc.org)
  • In collaboration with researchers at the Joint BioEnergy Institute and Bioenergy Science Center, researchers in the Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center developed a new liquid ammonia pretreatment called Extractive Ammonia (EA) to simultaneously convert native crystalline cellulose I to a highly digestible cellulose III allomorph and selectively extract up to ~45% of the lignin from lignocellulosic biomass with near-quantitative retention of all polysaccharides. (glbrc.org)
  • Nonspecific (nonproductive) binding (adsorption) of cellulase by lignin has been identified as a key barrier to reduce cellulase loading for economical sugar and biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass. (usda.gov)
  • Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to electricity using fuel cell technologies is a promising but challenging research topic for sustainable electricity production. (usda.gov)
  • Deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars is among the major challenges in producing cellulosic biofuels and biobased products. (aiche.org)
  • The goal of this project is to develop a pyrolysis-based Modular Energy Production System (MEPS) for the thermal deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass into cellulosic sugars and other value-added products. (aiche.org)
  • The abundance and availability of lignocellulosic biomass makes the cellulosic ethanol as a significant and immediate alternative for conventional fuels. (ijbs.com)
  • The enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass is influenced by several factors, including lignin and hemicelluloses contents, cellulose crystallinity, degree of polymerization, accessible surface area, and pore volume. (greencarcongress.com)
  • The new HPAC method involves mixing H 2 O 2 and CH 3 COOH to form a reagent that effectively removes lignin from lignocellulosic biomass through partial hydrolysis of lignin bonds. (greencarcongress.com)
  • During the past several years, there has been increasing interest in the development of biofuels derived from environmentally friendly lignocellulosic biomass. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • During the past decade, a significant amount of progress has been made in understanding and improving the production of second‐generation biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. (els.net)
  • Lignocellulosic biomass is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose,and lignin;these are major components of the secondary cell walls of all vascular plants.Cellulose, consisting of glucose (6-carbon sugar) units linked by glycosidic bonds,is the most abundant substance on earth. (techylib.com)
  • Biofuels are the second generation of biofuels, which are made from lignocellulosic biomass or woody crops, which are of agricultural origin or waste material material. (greenergyexpo.eu)
  • A principal obstacle to the saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass for ethanol production is the reduction of lignin content for the more effective action of enzymes on cellulose. (umd.edu)
  • Researchers there will be working through a separate grant to develop the rapid synthesis of next-generation biofuels and bioproducts from lignocellulosic biomass. (biomassmagazine.com)
  • Lignocellulosic biomass is a viable source of renewable energy for bioethanol production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • On the other hands, cellulosic ethanol is produced through the use of microbial cellulases that convert crop cellulose into fermentable sugars and via pretreatment processes that either breakdown or remove the lignin component of lignocellulosic biomass to allow the exposure of cellulose of the lignocellulosic matter to cellulase enzymes. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Likewise, this mini-review mainly covers recent advances in understanding the fundamentals of pseudo-lignin formation during dilute acid pretreatment, the impact of its formation on enzymatic hydrolysis, and how to suppress its formation during dilute acid pretreatment. (osti.gov)
  • Most pretreatments do not completely fractionate cellulose and lignin, the latter of which interferes with enzymatic hydrolysis. (aiche.org)
  • In principle, the oxygenates resulting from the oxidative deconstruction of lignin can be either deoxygenated to produce hydrocarbons (for example, by (1) hydrodeoxygenation or hydrolysis and (2) fast pyrolysis [ 4 ]) or first subjected to separation to recover high-value chemicals that are present, such as phenols and cresols. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A drop in lumber production forced the plants to close shortly after the end of World War I. In the meantime, a small but steady amount of research on dilute acid hydrolysis continued at the USFS's Forest Products Laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exploring alternative harvesting techniques, agronomic practices, and on-farm storage methods, as well as developing high-quality crop varieties through plant breeding and transgenic approaches, are ways biofeedstocks could be improved to increase ethanol yield per dollar spent on biofeedstock production, thermochemical pretreatment, and enzymatic hydrolysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, lignin has been believed to be a major hindrance in enzymatic hydrolysis. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Selective lignin removal can minimize cellulose degradation and thus enhance enzymatic hydrolysis. (greencarcongress.com)
  • The researchers evaluated pretreatment efficiency based on observations of lignin removal, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation of rice straw, pine wood, and oak wood. (greencarcongress.com)
  • These advances will ensure an increase in the amount of sugars released by enzyme-mediated hydrolysis of cell wall polysaccharides, while maintaining the structural and vascular integrity of the plants in which lignin deposition has been modified. (stanford.edu)
  • After pretreatment, the solid suspension is exposed to cellulolytic enzymes that digest the cellulosic and hemicellulosic biomass components to release the hydrolysis products, primarily six- and five-carbon sugars, respectively (along with acetic acid and lignin-derived phenolic by-products). (sciencemag.org)
  • Alvira P, Tomás‐Pejó E, Ballesteros M and Negro MJ (2010) Pretreatment technologies for an efficient bioethanol production process based on enzymatic hydrolysis: a review. (els.net)
  • The detailed testing of Giant King Grass included sugar and lignin content, several levels of pretreatment, and enzymatic hydrolysis to sugars. (viaspace.com)
  • Unlike cellulose and hemicellulose, hydrolysis of lignin does not generate fermentable sugars. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, during bioethanol production, plant materials must be pretreated to remove lignin before hydrolysis of cellulose (and fermentation of released sugars to yield alcohol) can proceed, adding significantly to the cost and energy consumption of the process. (stanford.edu)
  • Significant cost savings and improved energy balance could be achieved by reducing the amount of lignin in plants or by tailoring its structure to enable more efficient cellulose hydrolysis. (stanford.edu)
  • These microorganisms can be exploited both for wastes pretreatment, for the removal of lignin and hemicellulose hydrolysis, and for the production of industrially relevant enzymes (oxidative as well as hydolytic activities) for further applications. (unina.it)
  • Imidazolium is the most effective known ionic liquid for breaking down cellulosic biomass for enzymatic hydrolysis into fermentable sugars," Singh says. (phys.org)
  • The use of activated sludge microflora to convert sugars, derived from the hydrolysis of lignocellulose biomass, into lipids for biofuel production. (aiche.org)
  • Many programs that are sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are basically research to develop ethanol fermenting organisms and cellulose hydrolysis enzymes, to co-fund initial ethanol from biomass production facilities. (blogspot.com)
  • During this type of pretreatment, the relative lignin content usually increases partially due to the loss of carbohydrates. (osti.gov)
  • More importantly, it has been reported that the increase of lignin content after dilute acid pretreatment is mainly due to the formation of pseudo-lignin. (osti.gov)
  • Meng, Xianzhi, and Ragauskas, Arthur J. Pseudo-lignin Formation during Dilute Acid Pretreatment for Cellulosic Ethanol . (osti.gov)
  • Sulfite Pretreatment to Overcome Recalcitrance of Lignocelluloses (SPORL) is a relatively new process, but demonstrated robust performance for sugar and biofuel. (usda.gov)
  • Two commercial LSs and one laboratory sulfonated kraft lignin were applied to Whatman paper, dilute acid and SPORL (sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocelluloses) pretreated aspen, and kraft alkaline and SPORL pretreated. (usda.gov)
  • Current pretreatment methods to liberate solid cellulose are expensive, accounting for as much as 30% of the cost of producing cellulosic biofuels. (aiche.org)
  • Most of these inhibitors are sugars and lignin degradation compounds, which are almost unavoidable during pretreatment processes. (ajol.info)
  • While, most of the one stage pretreatment has been conducted at high severity factors of 3.5 or more to get high sugar yield, with increase in severity factor, high concentration of microbial inhibitors were formed and significantly affected downstream biofuel yield. (ajol.info)
  • Thus, a two-stage pretreatment of corn stalk, hydrothermal followed by oxalic acid, under low severity factor and its enzymatic degradability was investigated in this study to identify fermentable sugar production and corresponding microbial inhibitors formation. (ajol.info)
  • The new hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-acetic acid (CH 3 COOH) (HPAC) pretreatment removes lignin without the use of high temperatures or strong acids. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Lignin in biomass crops interferes with the access of hydrolytic enzymes to polysaccharide components in the cell wall, inhibiting their conversion to fermentable monosaccharides, even after pretreatment. (stanford.edu)
  • Gaining access to these sugars requires removing the lignin cement that holds the cellulose in place via an energy-intensive pretreatment process. (stanford.edu)
  • Part of this improvement is due to the ease with which lignin can be removed or depolymerized such that the cell wall literally falls apart after acid pretreatment. (stanford.edu)
  • The GLBRC's research supports the development of a robust pipeline from biomass production through pretreatment and final conversion to fuel, with sustainability providing a unifying theme. (warf.org)
  • However, production of microbial cellulases and pretreatment processes of lignocellulosic matter are very expensive. (alliedacademies.org)
  • In addition, lignin of crop vegetative biomass has been reduced via the RNA interference (RNAi) technology and the lignin structure has been changed in a manner that it can be broken down easily with minimum needs for pretreatment processes. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The first is a pretreatment step using dilute acid or steam explosion to separate the cellulose from lignin and hemicellulose. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • However, imidazolium, like other ionic liquids, can inhibit the commercial enzyme cocktails now used for the saccharification of cellulosic biomass and must therefore be removed by substantial amounts of water after the pretreatment. (phys.org)
  • From left, John Gladden, Seema Singh, Blake Simmons and Jian Shi led the development at JBEI of a one-pot system for the ionic liquid pretreatment and saccharification of switchgrass for biofuel production. (lbl.gov)
  • The joint venture combines DuPont's expertise in bio-refinery design and engineering, pretreatment chemistry, and mixed-sugar fermentation with Genencor's expertise in biomass enzymes and low-cost biocatalyst production. (republicmoto.com)
  • Under these conditions, polymers do not aggregate, thus providing a mechanism for the observed lignin solubilization that facilitates unfettered access of celluloytic enzymes to cellulose. (rsc.org)
  • Although the enzymes of lignin biosynthesis have now been identified, we know relatively little about how their expression is regulated. (purdue.edu)
  • The study is important because lignin-which is critical to the survival of plants in the wild-poses a problem for ethanol production, preventing enzymes from breaking down cellulose into simple sugars for fermentation. (biomassmagazine.com)
  • Beta Renewables, a global leader in cellulosic biofuels and part of the Mossi Ghisolfi Group, and Novozymes, the world's largest producer of industrial enzymes, today marked the official opening in Northern Italy of the world's largest advanced biofuels facility. (biomassmagazine.com)
  • Beta Renewables' PROESA engineering and production technology alongside Novozymes' Cellic enzymes represent the most cost-competitive advanced biofuels platform in existence today. (biomassmagazine.com)
  • This brown rot fungus' capacity to break down the cellulose in wood led to its selection for sequencing by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Genome Institute (JGI) in 2007, with the goal of identifying the enzymes involved in the degradation process and using the information to improve cellulosic biofuels production. (redorbit.com)
  • Intensive research and development in all areas of enzyme production reduced the cost of cellulolytic enzymes by a factor of 10 to 30, down to 20 to 30 cents per gallon of ethanol produced ( 8 , 9 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Longer-range goals include the incorporation of oxidase activity into engineered monolignol binding proteins to create functional enzymes capable of generating a defined suite of lignin precursors. (umd.edu)
  • Cellulosic biofuel researchers are following suit as they seek microbes and enzymes that can break down lignin and cellulose. (whyfiles.org)
  • A further element contributing to soaring biofuels costs, is constituted by enzymes. (unina.it)
  • A valide alternative to purified/commercial enzymes may be the direct production of the enzymes of interest on the lignocellulosic material to be converted through its microbial fermentation. (unina.it)
  • As a matter of fact, lignocellulosic wastes may contain significant concentrations of soluble carbohydrates and inducers of enzyme synthesis ensuring efficient production of lignino-cellulolytic enzymes. (unina.it)
  • Today, we're joined by Angus Ballard, president of Lallemand Biofuels & Distilled Spirits as we explore a breakthrough in one-step yeast and enzymes. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • Recently, I have focused on discovering enzymes capable of degrading lignin (the major barrier in the production of biofuels from cellulosic biomass) or that have applications in greener industrial processes and enzymatic remediation. (qu.edu)
  • Caffeic acid o -methyltransferase (COMT) is one of the important enzymes controlling lignin monomer production in plant cell wall synthesis. (hindawi.com)
  • This review highlights research development in lignin biosynthesis, lignin genetic engineering and different biological and chemical means of depolymerization used to convert lignin into biofuels and bioproducts. (mdpi.com)
  • This review provides background information on lignin biosynthesis and focuses on genetic manipulation of lignin genes in important monocot species as well as the dicot potential biofuel crop alfalfa. (springer.com)
  • Boerjan W. Biosynthesis and genetic engineering of lignin. (springer.com)
  • Our objective is to push forward our basic understanding of lignin biosynthesis while simultaneously adding to our ability to engineer plant metabolism so that it can be modified for the improvement of agriculture. (purdue.edu)
  • There are many genes that regulate the secondary cell wall biosynthesis, particularly the formation of one of its components: lignin, including microRNAs (miRNAs). (umass.edu)
  • Lignin biosynthesis in plants can be divided into three major phases: (i) synthesis of monolignols in the symplastic shikimate and phenylpropanoid pathway, (ii) export of monolignols to the apoplast, and (iii) activation of monolignols by enzyme-mediated formation of monolignol radicals in the apoplast and their polymerization to form complex lignin polymers (Figure 1 ). (hindawi.com)
  • Simplified model of lignin biosynthesis in vascular plants. (hindawi.com)
  • Defects in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis arising from deficiency in hydroxycinnamoyl CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) or p -coumaroyl shikimate 3′-hydroxylase (C3′H) lead to reduced lignin, hyperaccumulation of flavonoids, and growth inhibition in Arabidopsis thaliana . (plantcell.org)
  • Finally, we show that expression of a newly characterized gene bypassing HCT and C3′H partially restores both lignin biosynthesis and growth in HCT-RNAi plants, demonstrating that a biochemical pathway downstream of coniferaldehyde, probably lignification, is essential for normal plant growth. (plantcell.org)
  • In vascular plants, the phenylpropanoid pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of a variety of metabolites, including lignin, a major structural component of secondary cell wall, and flavonoids, a diverse collection of compounds involved in pigmentation, herbivory defense, and plant-microbe interactions ( Figure 1 ). (plantcell.org)
  • Mutations in CHS ( tt4 ) and C3′H ( ref8 ) affect the flavonoids and lignin biosynthesis, respectively. (plantcell.org)
  • Lignin molecules consist of multiple chemical groups made up of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen that are assembled within the cell during a process called biosynthesis. (biomassmagazine.com)
  • Specifically, the Morgan group will analyze the results of mutations to the Arabidopsis thaliana lignin biosynthesis pathway and develop mathematical models to determine the most efficient methods for rerouting phenylalanine to make 2-phenylethanol. (purdue.edu)
  • Using publicly available and in-house generated RNA sequencing data, we provide MYB candidates for conditioning biofuel syndrome by engineering phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and sugar signalling pathways in sorghum. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Our goal in this project is to produce "engineered" lignins in vivo by manipulation and control of precursor availability and biosynthesis. (umd.edu)
  • It is also possible to shift the fatty acid contents of cellulosic oil from biodiesel oil to vegetable oil by overexpressing of certain genes that are associated with lipid biosynthesis. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The overexpression of certain other genes associated with lipid biosynthesis can result in productions of unusual fatty acids such as epoxy fatty acids, and fatty acids of acyl triglycerides, or can result in a shift of fatty acids from one type to another. (alliedacademies.org)
  • In Belgium, scientists are modifying the lignin in poplar trees, through biosynthesis, to more readily extract sugars. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • This enzyme fulfils a central role in lignin biosynthesis, and taking out the CSE gene resulted in 36% less lignin per gram of stem material. (renewableenergyfocus.com)
  • Cellulosic ethanol is a type of biofuel produced from lignocellulose, a structural material that comprises much of the mass of plants and is composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hemicellulose constitutes a significant component in cell wall connecting cellulose and lignin layers, thus totally imparting strength and rigidity to the whole lignocellulose network[ 6 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • Lignocellulose is composed mainly of cellulose , hemicellulose and lignin . (wikipedia.org)
  • Production of ethanol from lignocellulose has the advantage of abundant and diverse raw material compared to sources such as corn and cane sugars, but requires a greater amount of processing to make the sugar monomers available to the microorganisms typically used to produce ethanol by fermentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lignocellulose, the most abundant organic substance on Earth, has three major constituents - cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. (whyfiles.org)
  • Cellulosic biomass is built on a durable structure called lignocellulose that contains cellulose, hemicellulose and a binder called lignin. (whyfiles.org)
  • Plant biomass is mainly composed of lignocellulose, which contains three major components cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The third component of lignocellulose, lignin, is a polymer of phenylpropanoid monomers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The production of ethanol from lignocellulose cannot yet be achieved at the same efficiency and cost as from corn starch, according to a study. (renewableenergyfocus.com)
  • The problem of efficient degradation of lignocellulose, especially the lignin fraction, and the conversion of lignocellulose degradation products into useful end-products are his primary research interests. (utk.edu)
  • Lignocellulose basically is a structural material that consists of mass of plants such as hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin. (blogspot.com)
  • Ethanol production form lignocellulose has advantage of abundant raw materials than other sources which include cane sugars and corn. (blogspot.com)
  • The absence of specific methodologies for lignin degradation represents an important opportunity for research and development. (mdpi.com)
  • Transgenic down-regulation of major lignin genes led to reduced lignin content, increased dry matter degradability, and improved accessibility of cellulases for cellulose degradation. (springer.com)
  • Because lignin protects cell wall polysaccharides from microbial degradation, thus imparting decay resistance, it is also one of the most important limiting factors in the conversion of plant biomass to pulp or biofuels. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The whole genome sequence studies reveals high quality information about genes and canonical pathways involved in the lignin and other cell wall components degradation. (ijbs.com)
  • Emerging strategies of lignin engineering and degradation for cellulosic biofuel production. (techylib.com)
  • Importantly, the results highlight that the choice of matrix strongly determines the analytical coverage of molecular species in the complex lignin degradation mixtures. (springer.com)
  • After algal biomass degradation into sugar, there are substances like lignin associated with it, which are toxic to microorganisms. (intechopen.com)
  • Conversely, it negatively affects biological energy conversion processes such as bioethanol or biogas production, as it inhibits microbial fermentation of the cell wall. (hindawi.com)
  • The characteristic feature determining the role of lignin in various applications of lignocelluloses is its resistance to microbial fermentation, whether in living plants, in ruminants' digestive tract, in soils, or in bioenergy reactors. (hindawi.com)
  • Microbial inhibitors including weak acids, furan derivatives and phenolic compounds are key problems of cellulosic bio-fuels production by fermentation. (ajol.info)
  • The biologist are typically screening microorganisms for maximum carbohydrate or lignin utilization to increase fermentation titers. (nrel.gov)
  • Normally these assays mimic the aforementioned steps of cellulosic ethanol production, and then measure either released glucose and xylose, ethanol concentration after fermentation, or both. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An 8000-liter fermentation tank used to start the process of turning cellulosic material into ethanol. (sciencemag.org)
  • Anaerobic fermentation of glycerol: a path to economic viability for the biofuels industry. (techylib.com)
  • Current plant design does not provide for converting the lignin portion of plant raw materials to fuel components by fermentation. (greenergyexpo.eu)
  • The initial metabolism of xylose by the engineered strains facilitated production of cellulases at fermentation temperatures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This has caused the production of industrial butanol by fermentation to be abandoned. (typepad.com)
  • They are also used to control the fermentation process in the production of cultured dairy products such as yogurt and cheese. (1000sciencefairprojects.com)
  • Lignin is also a significant barrier to the use of crops for livestock feed, pulp and paper production, and to the generation of cellulosic biofuels. (purdue.edu)
  • Both mapping of quantitative trait loci and transgenic approaches have been adopted to modify lignin in crops. (hindawi.com)
  • Smith also likes the fact that the Genera facility, which will produce lignin as a by-product, does not compete with food crops for arable land. (bio-medicine.org)
  • However, some of these species also exhibit reduced growth and decreased biomass, or lignin-modification-induced dwarfism (LMID), which makes them unsuitable as commercial crops. (stanford.edu)
  • With the genes required for LMID in hand, the most promising lignin-management strategies can be deployed in field crops for bioenergy production without reducing yield, and may also permit enhancement of lignin deposition in plants designed for atmospheric carbon sequestration. (stanford.edu)
  • With this biofuel production generation, food crops are thus grown for fuel production, and not anything else. (greenergyexpo.eu)
  • Brown and Nobles say their cyanobacteria can be grown in production facilities on non-agricultural lands using salty water unsuitable for human consumption or crops. (innovations-report.com)
  • To this end, researchers at JBEI have already engineered a strain of E. coli bacteria to digest the cellulosic biomass of switchgrass, a perennial grass that thrives on land not suitable for food crops, and convert its sugars into biofuel replacements for gasoline, diesel and jet fuels. (scitechdaily.com)
  • To cut the costs of production of cellulosic ethanol, microbial heterologous cellulases have been produced within the crop vegetative biomass, specifically inside crops vegetative biomass sub-cellular compartments, including the apoplast (i.e. the free space outside of the plasma membrane and the cell wall), chloroplast, vacuole and mitochondria or within multiple number of sub-cellular compartments. (alliedacademies.org)
  • However, proof-of-concept in Arabidopsis can be rapidly followed by cloning and manipulation of the orthologous genes in biofuel crops. (stanford.edu)
  • Examples in non-food crops include production of pharmaceutical agents , biofuels , and other industrially useful goods, as well as for bioremediation . (hitchhikersgui.de)
  • It looks like it could be very useful in trying to manipulate plant biomass to generate biofuels and other chemicals from non-food crops. (renewableenergyfocus.com)
  • Arable soils are grouped according to their limitations for sustained production of common cultivated crops without soil deterioration. (nationalaglawcenter.org)
  • Advanced biofuels made from cellulosic sugars stored in the biomass of grasses and other non- food crops and agricultural waste could substantially reduce the use of the fossil fuels responsible for the release of nearly 9 billion metric tons of excess carbon into the atmosphere each year. (phys.org)
  • Wood chips and other cellulosic materials have several advantages: they're abundant, they don't compete with food crops like corn, and they result in far lower carbon-dioxide emissions than corn ethanol. (technologyreview.com)
  • The content includes biomass renewable energy, prospective renewable resources for bio-based processes, biochemical from biomass, biomass based chemicals, biofuel production from biomass crops, biomass gasification, reuse of bio-genic iron oxides and woody biomass fly ash in cement based materials and agricultural areas, biofuel briquettes from biomass, biomass based activated carbon, environmental aspects. (niir.org)
  • High-throughput quantification of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents, as well as cellulose and hemicellulose conversion rates was achieved by combining near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) and biochemical analysis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Unraveling the tightly wound network of molecules-cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin-that make up the cell wall of plants for easier biofuel processing. (biomassmagazine.com)
  • The plant cell wall is composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin and is the most abundant carbon source on Earth. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin form structures called microfibrils, which are organised into macrofibrils that are load‐bearing in the plant cell wall. (els.net)
  • The word biofuel encompasses a variety of transportation fuels such as bioethanol, butanol, biooil and biodiesel. (mdpi.com)
  • Biooil is produced by pyrolysis of whole plant biomass, particularly high-lignin biomass, to produce energy dense fuels [ 4 ], while biodiesel is produced by the transesterification of vegetable oil or other lipids [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • These efforts are reflected in government mandates and incentives and also in research by the development of technologies for the production of liquid transportation fuels, chemicals and materials from biomass. (springer.com)
  • EA preserves extracted lignin functionalities, offering the potential to co-produce lignin-derived fuels and chemicals in the biorefinery. (glbrc.org)
  • The two most abundantly renewed carbon constituents of the biosphere, cellulose and lignin, represent attractive options for renewable fuels and products. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Despite these challenges, lignin contains structural units that could serve as a source of fuels and high-value chemicals if means can be found to free these structural units from the polymer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • What we have right now with current bioconversion processes often resembles a white rot approach," he said, "attacking lignin to get at carbohydrates and then converting them to fuels, chemicals or paper. (redorbit.com)
  • For fuels, processes that can directly use all components of biomass (cellulose, hemi-cellulose, sugars, starches and lignin) may have an advantage of higher yields per ton and lower costs per ton. (greentechmedia.com)
  • Biofuels are an outstanding instance of renewable energy which can be produced using biological organisms which will ultimately cause a reduction in dependence on fossil fuels. (springer.com)
  • Agarwal AK (2007) Biofuels (alcohols and biodiesel) applications as fuels for internal combustion engines. (springer.com)
  • A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through such biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter. (greenergyexpo.eu)
  • In 2010, worldwide biofuel production reached 105 billion liters (28 billion US gallons), up 17% from 2009, and biofuels provided 2.7% of the world's fuels for road transportation. (greenergyexpo.eu)
  • Li C, Zhao X, Wang A, Huber GW, Zhang T. Catalytic transformation of lignin for the production of chemicals and fuels. (springer.com)
  • These advanced biofuels will help the United States reduce its dependence on carbon-heavy fuels and contribute to its goal of reducing carbon pollution 17 percent below 2005 levels by 2020. (americanprogress.org)
  • Congress also sought to drive investment in the development and production of cellulosic and advanced biofuels that yield significantly less carbon pollution than conventional ethanol, gasoline, and diesel fuels. (americanprogress.org)
  • Corn ethanol must achieve a 20 percent reduction in lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions compared to conventional gasoline, with the exception of grandfathered plants that either existed or began construction before the EISA became law on December 19, 2007, and those plants that use natural gas and/or biofuels as processing fuels and began construction on or before December 31, 2009. (americanprogress.org)
  • Advanced and cellulosic biofuels must achieve lifecycle emissions reductions of 50 percent and 60 percent, respectively, compared to conventional fuels. (americanprogress.org)
  • Because the carbon dioxide released during burning is absorbed in the next crop, biofuels have less greenhouse-gas impact than fossil fuels. (whyfiles.org)
  • RINS values, supported by Renewable Fuels Standards, reward cellulosic and advanced biofuels. (umn.edu)
  • A stated goal for the DOE-funded projects is to help lower the costs of the production of biobased fuels and help the Bioenergy Technologies Office to meet its goal of less than $3 per gallon gasoline equivalent for advanced biofuels. (biomassmagazine.com)
  • Considering controversies around whether governments should allow the conversions of food and feed into fuels or should they put a limit on such conversions, the future market potentials for crop vegetative wastes cellulosic bioethanol and cellulosic biodiesel is enormous. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Such integrated technology can contribute towards replacing of the environmentally harmful and nonrenewable petroleum fuel to cellulosic biofuels without replacing of the food or feed for fuels. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Proponents of cellulosic ethanol seek policies that monetarily reward the environmental performance of cellulosic biofuels (relative to grain-based fuels and gasoline). (api.org)
  • Considering that the production of biomass is seasonal, co-feeding biorefineries with coal emerges as an interesting process choice for the production of clean fuels. (mpg.de)
  • But this was not the only approach to the self-sustaining production of renewable fuels being spearheaded by warring nations. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • Similar advantages would also be realized for the biofuels industry with the development of a "one-pot" processing system in which sugars could be extracted from biomass and turned into fuels in a single vat. (phys.org)
  • If advanced biofuels are to be a commercial success, however, they must be cost-competitive with fossil fuels , which means economic technologies must be developed for extracting fermentable sugars from cellulosic biomass and synthesizing them into fuels as well as other valuable chemical products. (phys.org)
  • The US Federal Government is the key promoter of cellulosic ethanol as an alternative to the petroleum fuels. (blogspot.com)
  • That leaves behind a brown powdery substance called lignin that can be used in wood pellet stoves, or could be used to make other fuels and useful chemicals. (technologyreview.com)
  • The economics get better if the company can sell the lignin as a source for higher-value products, such as liquid fuels or chemicals. (technologyreview.com)
  • This review characterizes the role of lignin from the point of view of analytical chemistry, plant stress physiology, animal nutrition, bioenergy production, soil science, and crop breeding. (hindawi.com)
  • His team's simulation of a genetically modified lignin molecule linked to a hemicellulose molecule adds context to work conducted by researchers at DOE's BioEnergy Science Center , who demonstrated that genetic modification of lignin can boost the amount of biofuel derived from plant material without compromising the structural integrity of the plant. (biomassmagazine.com)
  • One application that Jonathan Schilling, a professor at the University of Minnesota who was not involved in the project, sees for the Serpula genome is that it can teach bioenergy researchers about improving the process by which plant biomass is converted for biofuel production. (redorbit.com)
  • BioEnergy Science Center (BESC), Oak Ridge,TN 37831,USA al.2008).Other obstacles include the lack of infrastructure associated with harvest,transportation and storage of cellulosic biomass. (techylib.com)
  • Researchers with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI), a multi-institutional partnership led by Berkeley Lab, have identified a tropical rainforest microbe that can endure relatively high concentrations of an ionic liquid used to dissolve cellulosic biomass. (scitechdaily.com)
  • From left, Michael Thelen, Hannah Woo and Blake Simmons of the Joint BioEnergy Institute have determined how a rain forest microbe is able to survive in an ionic liquid used to pre-treat cellulosic biomass for the production of advance biofuels. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Phys.org)-Since 2007, researchers at the BioEnergy Science Center, one of three Department of Energy-funded research centers, have partnered to figure out how to break down plants so that they easily release the simple sugars that can be processed into biofuels. (phys.org)
  • As a member of the BioEnergy Science Center, York joins multidisciplinary, multi-institutional research teams pursuing the fundamental scientific breakthroughs needed to make the production of cellulosic biofuels derived from non-food plant fiber cost effective on a national scale. (phys.org)
  • Significant improvements in the efficiency of biomass conversion into bioenergy or biofuels can be envisaged by breeding plant varieties with optimum cell wall properties using conventional or genetic modification approaches. (stanford.edu)
  • The complexity of the three biological grand challenges to be overcome to achieve industrial-scale bioenergy production required the coordinated pursuit of numerous research approaches to ensure timely success. (doegenomestolife.org)
  • Since 2007, researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's BioEnergy Science Center ( BESC ) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been looking for ways to make cost-effective biofuels from nonfood "cellulosic" plant fibers. (earthtechling.com)
  • In a review article in the December 3, 2010, issue of Science , DOE Joint Bioenergy Institute director Jay Keasling discusses advances in metabolic engineering and outlines current efforts to develop economical production of biofuel compounds by microbes. (ornl.gov)
  • Lignin from crop residues plays an important role in the soil organic carbon cycling, as it constitutes a recalcitrant carbon pool affecting nutrient mineralization and carbon sequestration. (hindawi.com)
  • By elucidating the role of lignin from the perspective of several disciplines, synergies and conflicts are identified that need to be addressed in crop management, the utilization of crop products and residues, and in plant breeding schemes. (hindawi.com)
  • A recent study by Bloomberg New Energy Finance concludes that transforming agricultural residues into advanced biofuels could create millions of jobs worldwide, economic growth, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and energy security by 2030. (biomassmagazine.com)
  • Fox RH, Myers RJK, Vallis I. The nitrogen mineralization rate of legume residues in soil as influenced by their polyphenol, lignin, and nitrogen contents. (springer.com)
  • Depending on design, cellulosic biofuel plants can accept residues from cornfields, a dedicated crop called switchgrass, or other high-cellulose materials such as tree trimmings or food factory waste. (whyfiles.org)
  • This Editor believes that it must be possible to produce high density lipids as biodiesel via metabolic engineering, extract the biodiesel oil and then convert the lignocellulosic residues into cellulosic ethanol. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Technologies associated with cellulosic biofuels are not difficult and could be used around the globe especially in countries where abundant crop residues such as rice straws are burned to waste, creating environmental contaminations and human health problems including asthma. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Among the available resources that are exploitable for biofuel production, there are the residues coming from different human activities such as agriculture (i.e.: cereals straws), food processing-industry, forestry, green and organic fractions of urban wastes. (unina.it)
  • Analyzing the composition of materials that contain cellulose (e.g. crop residues, straw, sugarcane bagasse, leaves and wood) reveals that lignin corresponds up to 30 % of plant biomass. (mpg.de)
  • by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) Ensyn produces a biocrude from forest and agricultural residues using its proprietary thermal technology. (advancedbiofuelsusa.info)
  • The plant is able to produce up to 1000 tons of cellulosic ethanol from agricultural residues such as wheat straw, corn stover or sugarcane bagasse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clariant is building a cellulosic ethanol plant to be sourced with agricultural residues and based on their sunliquid® technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the DECC Company, advanced biofuel is based on the biomass residues that normally increase the yields of the biofuel energy. (republicmoto.com)
  • During the production process in the company, the production input used is agricultural wastes and crop residues while the ultimate output is fertilizer and fuel. (republicmoto.com)
  • Lignin is an aromatic biopolymer involved in providing structural support to plant cell walls. (mdpi.com)
  • Nevertheless, lignin is a potential source of valuable aromatic chemical compounds and upgradable building blocks. (mdpi.com)
  • However, it has been proposed that rearrangement of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) or furfural can produce aromatic type of compounds which can further undergo polymerization reactions to from a lignin-like polyphenolic structures termed as pseudo-lignin. (osti.gov)
  • Lignin is a complex aromatic polymer, which is deposited in the secondary cell walls of all vascular plants [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Lignin is a complex polyphenyl aromatic compound which exists in tight associations with cellulose and hemicellulose to form plant primary and secondary cell wall. (ijbs.com)
  • UW-Madison researchers provide the first demonstration of an in vitro enzymatic system that can recycle NAD+ and GSH while releasing aromatic monomers from natural and engineered lignin oligomers, as well as model compounds composed of similar chemical building blocks. (warf.org)
  • Lignin is obtained before or after polysaccharide extraction, depolymerised into aromatic monomers and further converted into value‐added by‐products such as biomaterials and biochemicals. (els.net)
  • Lignin is the most abundant natural resource of aromatic moieties and the second most abundant natural biopolymer. (springer.com)
  • Lignin is the general term used for complex aromatic polymers found in the cell walls of plants, especially in woods and barks. (biomassmagazine.com)
  • In industrial terms, lignin is an aromatic compound made of benzene rings, varied molecular structures that typically have six carbon atoms surrounded by six hydrogen atoms. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • Lignin, however, is a complex, heterogeneous polymer which is difficult to de-polymerize, and its aromatic monomers are not easily metabolized. (utk.edu)
  • The lignocelluloses biomass contains lignin which comprises of aromatic compounds with high energy contents, hemicelluloses. (republicmoto.com)
  • Thus, biofuels are an attractive and feasible source of renewable energy on contrary to the geopolitical instability, finite nature, and deleterious global effects of fossil fuel energy. (springer.com)
  • In addition, we are exploring the use of microorganisms for carbon sequestration and for the production of chemicals using electricity derived from renewable energy sources. (energybiosciencesinstitute.org)
  • Decreasing crude oil reserves and increasing costs of extracting the limited supply of shale gas production through hydraulic fracturing have given increased momentum to finding alternative cost-effective forms of renewable energy sources. (biomedcentral.com)
  • we were joined by Dave Rubenstein the CEO of California Ethanol & Power, an advanced biofuels project based on sugarcane in the Imperial Valley, and Mark Riedy, the dean of renewable energy project finance and a partner at Kilpatrick Townsend Stockton. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • Biofuels are basically the energy-enriched chemicals that are generated either directly through the biological processes or from the chemical conversion of the biomass of prior living organisms. (springer.com)
  • Analytical techniques that obtain as much information as possible on the exact structural content of lignin species are essential for developing efficient processes that transform highly complex lignin wastes into value chemicals and biofuels. (springer.com)
  • by Anne M Stark (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory/Phys.Org) Plant cell walls contain a renewable, nearly limitless supply of sugar that can be used in the production of chemicals and biofuels. (advancedbiofuelsusa.info)
  • While ethanol is no longer LIL's target, the Burnaby, British Columbia-based company remains committed to its vision of building an industrial-scale biorefinery: a plant that would consume wood and turn out large quantities of high-purity lignin and biobased chemicals. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • The name of the game with lignin is to find applications where the product will work with other chemicals in varied formulations. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • The Group's main products are lignin-based products and specialty cellulose, but the product portfolio also includes vanillin, second generation bioethanol, fine chemicals and cellulose fibrils. (biconsortium.eu)
  • This also includes multiple pilot facilities for the scale-up of new technologies for the production of biofuels, biochemicals from cellulosic sugars, bio-based performance chemicals such as lignin and microfibrillated cellulose as well as fine chemicals and pharmaceutical products. (biconsortium.eu)
  • By performing pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we characterized lignin-derived deconstruction products from endocarp biomass and compared these with switchgrass. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By comparing individual pyrolytic products, we document higher amounts of acetic acid, 1-hydroxy-2-propanone, acetone and furfural in switchgrass compared to endocarp tissue, which is consistent with high holocellulose relative to lignin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The inability to process lignin, a cement-like component of plant cell walls, has been a major hurdle in the production of biofuels from switchgrass and other cellulosic plants. (eurekalert.org)
  • Corn stover , Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), Miscanthus grass species, wood chips and the byproducts of lawn and tree maintenance are some of the more popular cellulosic materials for ethanol production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sources being used or considered for ethanol production in the United States include switchgrass and wood (cellulose), corn (glucose) and sugarcane (sucrose). (innovations-report.com)
  • Bozell JJ, O'Lenick CJ, Warwick S. Biomass fractionation for the biorefinery: heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence-nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of lignin isolated from solvent fractionation of switchgrass. (springer.com)
  • When the conversion of cellulose into biofuel becomes routine, switchgrass, a highly productive grass that regrows from the roots, could become a large source of biomass energy. (whyfiles.org)
  • Many critics of cellulosic ethanol say things like, "if all of the cars in the US had to rely on cellulosic ethanol, all of the available farmland would have to be dedicated to switchgrass and this would devastate forests and the farming economy. (issuecounsel.com)
  • The units resulting from the monolignols, when incorporated into the lignin polymer, are called guaiacyl (G), syringyl (S), and p -hydroxyphenyl (H) units ( Figs. 1 and 2 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Lignin is a cross-linked phenolic polymer that makes the cell walls of specialized plant cells more rigid. (purdue.edu)
  • Plant cells are protected with three layers known as middle lamella, primary and secondary cell walls which are made up of carbohydrates (cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin) and lignin [ 1 ] [Figure 1 ] i) Cellulose is a plant polysaccharide and highly abundant organic polymer on the earth, composed of numerous glucose units linked in β (1→4) linkages, occurring in both crystalline and amorphous forms. (ijbs.com)
  • Instead of a hydrophilic alcohol group (an oxygen-hydrogen molecule bound to a hydrogen-saturated carbon atom), the final lignin polymer contained a hydrophobic aldehyde group (a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom). (biomassmagazine.com)
  • Lignin, a polymer extracted from biomass during the ethanol production process, is used at an attached power plant, which generates enough power to meet the facility's energy needs, with any excess green electricity sold to the local grid. (biomassmagazine.com)
  • Lignin is composed of three major phenolic components, namely p ‐coumaryl alcohol (H), coniferyl alcohol (G), and sinapyl alcohol (S). Lignin is synthesised by random polymerisation of these monomers and their ratio within the polymer varies among different plants, wood tissues, and cell wall layers. (els.net)
  • The team of researchers found that the gene GXMT1 is responsible for directing a key step in the development of the plant polymer xylan, a principal component of cell walls in woody biomass that make it resistant to biofuel conversion. (phys.org)
  • In nature, the hydrophobic phenolic polymer, lignin, specifically reduces permeability and porosity in plant cell walls to prevent biological and chemical attack. (stanford.edu)
  • However, the presence of lignin hinders this process. (rsc.org)
  • Cellulosic biomass is more difficult than starch to break down into sugars because of the presence of lignin and the complex structure of cell walls. (springer.com)
  • Algae are tolerant to the presence of lignin, which makes the processing convenient coupled with reduction in the economic cost. (intechopen.com)
  • Though the biosynthetic pathway of lignin has been elucidated in great detail, the random nature of the polymerization (free radical coupling) process poses challenges for its depolymerization into valuable bioproducts. (mdpi.com)
  • Efforts to utilize lignin-based bioproducts are needed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining. (msu.edu)
  • If the thresholds for process intensification proposed here can be achieved, modular energy production systems can reduce carbon intensity in energy production and improve economic, environmental and social well-being. (aiche.org)
  • Several relevant transcription factors have been isolated, but it is unclear how their expression and activity dictate or contribute to the allocation of photosynthate to lignin as opposed to other plant components such as cellulose, starch, or any other sinks for reduced carbon. (purdue.edu)
  • Considering that over 108 gigatons of lignin are synthesized annually in the biosphere, these proteins are important players in the global carbon cycle and represent important new opportunities for the manipulation of lignin synthesis in plants. (purdue.edu)
  • Thus, lignin accounts for a substantial portion of the total organic carbon in the biosphere, surpassed only by cellulose [ 2 , 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • If the transportation systems of the future are to be powered by low carbon biofuels, we need something better. (pearltrees.com)
  • Ethanol made from cellulose and lignin would, in theory, emit no more carbon dioxide than is released naturally, and no more than the plants draw from the atmosphere to grow in the first place. (pearltrees.com)
  • While all carbon fiber does not have to be aerospace grade, production even of materials used in less demanding applications remains costly - often as much as 20 times the price of steel. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Economic developers think the stage is now set for major biofuels and carbon fiber producers to locate in the Innovation Valley. (bio-medicine.org)
  • A natural link is emerging between biofuels and carbon fiber - and we have both. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Understanding the molecular mechanism(s) whereby suppressor mutations can restore the biomass yield of reduced-lignin plants (Figure 2) is of crucial importance, as it will reveal the basic principles whereby plants partition carbon to lignin and other metabolic compartments. (stanford.edu)
  • Just gasify the plant stalks and the lignin turns to biochar carbon to be returned to the land making the soil more fertile and sequestering the carbon in the soil. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Working with Prof. Clint Chapple (PI) and Prof. Natalia Dudareva (co-PI) of the Biochemistry Department, the Morgan group is employing metabolic engineering to reroute carbon that plants currently use to make lignin - a barrier to cellulosic ethanol production - and turn it into phenylethanol - a biofuel. (purdue.edu)
  • Hemicellulose consists of 5-carbon sugars such as xylose or arabinose along with glucose.Hemicellulose forms com- plex cell wall network by cross-linking cellulose micro- fibrils with lignin (Rubin 2008).This complex network should be broken down for efficient biofuel production. (techylib.com)
  • Renewable biofuels generally involves contemporary carbon fixation, such as those that occur in plants or microalgae through the process of photosynthesis. (greenergyexpo.eu)
  • Going forward, we are looking to further expand our research in the areas of carbon sequestration, sustainable chemical production, and water use mitigation. (energybiosciencesinstitute.org)
  • Biofuels produced in this manner will have lower carbon footprints than conventional ethanol. (umn.edu)
  • Lignin will then be readily converted into carbon foams and activated carbons. (biomassmagazine.com)
  • Lignin, which is the second most abundant biomass component and has carbon-rich phenolic content, is a promising renewable raw material for multiple applications, such as carbon fibers, adhesives, and emulsifiers. (diva-portal.org)
  • and calculating, using the data processor, a regulatory value for the biofuel from the first and second sets of carbon flow values. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The invention relates more particularly to methods of accounting for carbon flows and determining a regulatory value for a biofuel, methods of engineering carbon cycles for biofuel production, and methods of manufacturing biofuels, as well as the biofuels and regulatory values derived therefrom. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • For biofuels, carbon intensity measures can include emissions from sources associated with supplying inputs for agricultural production (e.g., fertilizers), fuel combustion, and certain or all process steps in between, which may be used to define a fuel production pathway, or simply a fuel pathway. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • [0005] The effects of using co-products from biofuel production can be reflected in evaluations of biofuel performance against sustainability metrics in methods similar to those used for carbon intensity measures. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • In other words, LCA can reflect emissions credits and debits accrued across the whole fuel production pathway or supply chain, including emissions effects of biomass carbon not converted into biofuels. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • It gives plants their structure, and it's the critical substance needed to make cellulosic ethanol. (biomassmagazine.com)
  • In the search for technology by which economically competitive biofuels can be produced from cellulosic biomass, the combination of sugar-fermenting microbes and ionic liquid solvents looks to be a winner save for one major problem: the ionic liquids used to make cellulosic biomass more digestible for microbes can also be toxic to them. (scitechdaily.com)
  • But, obviously, the idea is only to make cellulosic ethanol a part of a large package of solutions, even within just the transportation industry. (issuecounsel.com)
  • Philippe Lavielle, Virdia's CEO, says the company's technology, when employed at a large scale, could make cellulosic sugars economically competitive with sugar made from corn. (technologyreview.com)
  • Botterman J. Downregulation of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase in transgenic alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) and the effect on lignin composition and digestibility. (springer.com)
  • Optimizing yield and composition in lignin‐modified plants. (eurekalert.org)
  • Due to the significance of lignin in several agricultural disciplines, the modification of lignin content and composition by breeding is becoming increasingly important. (hindawi.com)
  • Forage quality and composition measurements may be used to predict cellulosic ethanol yield to guide biofeedstock improvement through agronomic research and plant breeding. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An alternative to this approach is to determine sample composition, especially structural carbohydrate and lignin concentration, and use this information to predict relative performance for realizable ethanol yield. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Plants with modified lignin will be mutagenized to make secondary genetic changes that may further enhance the plant material for cellulosic saccharification and bioethanol production. (stanford.edu)
  • Their exploitation can contribute to the reduction of the price of the bioethanol production process, raw materials being responsible of almost half of the total production cost. (unina.it)
  • Cellulosic ethanol can reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 85% over reformulated gasoline. (wikipedia.org)
  • These issues, along with many other difficult production challenges, led George Washington University policy researchers to state that "in the short term, [cellulosic] ethanol cannot meet the energy security and environmental goals of a gasoline alternative. (wikipedia.org)
  • A government boost to its biofuel blend gasoline mandate is expected to drive strong growth in ethanol output in Brazil in 2013. (internationalsugarjournal.com)
  • Decreasing the cost of producing cellulosic biofuels to be competitive with gasoline and grain-based ethanol is a major goal of the US Department of Energy [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Biofuel researchers are working to change that, envisioning a future where cellulosic ethanol, an alcohol derived from plant sugars, is as common and affordable at the gas station as gasoline. (biomassmagazine.com)
  • One of the benefits of cellulosic ethanol is it reduces greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by 85% over reformulated gasoline. (wikipedia.org)
  • The production of biofuels also led to a flourishing automotive industry, where by 2010, 79% of all cars produced in Brazil were made with a hybrid fuel system of bioethanol and gasoline. (greenergyexpo.eu)
  • It's a breakthrough that could make biofuels cost competitive with gasoline. (phys.org)
  • Monthly production of ethanol for gasoline reached 1.1 billion gallons in July, 2012. (whyfiles.org)
  • Pending further reduction in the standard, industry must blend 6 million gallons of cellulosic ethanol into gasoline by June 30, 2014. (whyfiles.org)
  • According to U.S. Department of Energy studies conducted by Argonne National Laboratory of the University of Chicago, one of the benefits of cellulosic ethanol is that it reduces greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by 85% over reformulated gasoline. (issuecounsel.com)
  • According to Cobalt, biobutanol is a next generation biofuel that can be used as a standalone transportation fuel, as an additive to gasoline or diesel fuel and as an additive to improve the properties of ethanol. (typepad.com)
  • Since October 2010, an E5 blend of 95% gasoline and 5% cellulosic ethanol blend has been available at 100 filling stations across Denmark. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the technology ready at commercial scale, it will be vital to create stable and conducive policy conditions worldwide, to harvest better the vast opportunities in cellulosic ethanol and advanced biofuels. (biomassmagazine.com)
  • Success with cellulosic ethanol and advanced biofuels will herald further advances in renewable chemical production. (umn.edu)
  • Abstract: Methods and systems for electrochemical production of urea are disclosed. (wvcoal.com)
  • The energy in cellulosic biomass largely resides in plant cell walls. (springer.com)
  • Plant cell walls can be biologically converted into biofuels. (els.net)
  • Processes of plant cell walls into biofuels and value‐added products need optimisation. (els.net)
  • To identify novel combinations of genes that can be manipulated in order to improve the yield of simple sugars (saccharification) from plant cell walls during biofuel production. (stanford.edu)
  • Plant cell walls are a complex composite structure composed of polysaccharides (cellulose and hemicellulose) that are embedded and crosslinked by other polymers and small molecules (lignin, pectin, and ferulic acid). (hindawi.com)
  • Dixon R. A. Lignin modification improves fermentable sugar yields for biofuel production. (springer.com)
  • To compete with traditional refineries, biorefineries must achieve high carbohydrate-to-fuel yields with low enzymatic input and facilitate lignin valorization to co-products extending beyond simply using lignin to generate heat and power. (glbrc.org)
  • This single-stage EA fractionation process achieves high biofuel yields (18.2 kg Et-OH/100 kg untreated corn stover on a dry weight basis), comparable to those achieved using ionic liquid pretreatments. (glbrc.org)
  • By contrast, greater yields of lignin-based pyrolytic products such as phenol, 2-methoxyphenol, 2-methylphenol, 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol and 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol arising from drupe endocarp tissue are documented. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gene identification in black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.): expressed sequence tag profiling and genetic screening yields candidate genes for production of bioactive secondary metabolites. (umd.edu)
  • Biofuel yields from microalgae [ 27 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • These raw materials for ethanol production have the advantage of being abundant and diverse and would not compete with food production, unlike the more commonly used corn and cane sugars. (wikipedia.org)
  • BY Susanne Retka Schill Sweetwater Energy and Proterro, two companies using widely different approaches, aim for low-cost sugar that may give today's corn ethanol plants a glide path into advanced ethanol production. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • The non "paper or lumber" quality biomass ecosystem, which will include co-feed of wood slash, bagasse or corn stover, will develop quickly in the next 5 years as the first commercial cellulosic biofuels units become operational. (greentechmedia.com)
  • If this can be achieved in the field and on a large scale, only 3.5 percent of the area growing corn could be used for cyanobacterial biofuels. (innovations-report.com)
  • Corn ethanol is a biofuel derived from corn starch. (americanprogress.org)
  • Advanced biofuels" is a broad term used to describe all second-generation biofuels derived from renewable biomass, including cellulosic ethanol, ethanol derived from sugar or non-corn-based starch, ethanol made from waste material, biodiesel, biogas, and butanol, among others. (americanprogress.org)
  • Since 2007, the production of corn ethanol has doubled, keeping pace with the rising annual blending obligations set in the RFS2 and making the United States the number one producer of corn ethanol in the world. (americanprogress.org)
  • In the United States, the biofuel story is all about corn, because the kernels contain sugar that is easily fermented into alcohol. (whyfiles.org)
  • That year, biofuel devoured 39 percent of the giant American corn crop. (whyfiles.org)
  • Similar to the argument above, because cellulosic energy is three times as efficient as corn ethanol, it is only necessary to burn one-third the amount of it to obtain the same amount of energy. (issuecounsel.com)
  • This means that burning cellulosic ethanol emits roughly one-third the greenhouse gases as corn ethanol for the same energy output. (issuecounsel.com)
  • by Jim Lane (Biofuels Digest) D3MAX is a corn fiber-to-ethanol technology provider. (advancedbiofuelsusa.info)
  • Unlike the simple sugars in corn grain, the complex polysaccharides in biomass are deeply embedded within a tough woody material called lignin. (phys.org)
  • Despite years of federal mandates, the cellulosic biofuels industry-which aims to make ethanol from wood chips and similar plant matter instead of corn-has yet to start commercial-scale production. (technologyreview.com)
  • It is commonly accepted that lignin evolved together with the adaptation of plants to a terrestrial life to provide them with the structural support needed for an erect growth habit ( Fig. 3 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Using this method, enzyme loadings can be significantly reduced by removing inhibitors caused by lignin presence in the stream, while increasing the enzyme accessibility to structural carbohydrates and enhancing cellulose activity. (glbrc.org)
  • The cell wall is composed primarily of cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose and pectins as structural biopolymers and an abundance of highly glycosylated proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • iii) Lignin is a complex organic biopolymer mainly present in plants in close association with carbohydrates like cellulose and hemicellulose, its main activity is to provide plants with structural stability, impermeability and resistance towards microbial attack [ 3 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • Our derived picture thus challenges the traditional understanding of cellulosic materials, which neglects the differences between its structural motifs at the surface and in the core. (aalto.fi)
  • If researchers can find ways to capitalize on this mutant version of the plant and alter this gene without compromising the structural integrity of the wood, they can begin the process of developing plants specifically designed for biofuel conversion. (phys.org)
  • Lignin is the main structural component of plants," says Michelle O'Malley, a biofuel researcher at the University of California Santa Barbara. (whyfiles.org)
  • Also, only biomass retains the capacity to produce liquid biofuels and byproducts. (mdpi.com)
  • Efforts are underway to engineer plant vegetative biomass, such as stems and leaves of grasses, to be more easily deconstructed and converted to liquid biofuels such as ethanol ( Carroll and Somerville, 2009 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Production of cellulosic biofuels has reached critical momentum: there are a total of 15 plants being constructed in Europe, the Americas and Asia. (internationalsugarjournal.com)
  • Lignin is a highly abundant biopolymer synthesized by plants as a complex component of plant secondary cell walls. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since secondary cell walls make up most of the vegetative biomass in mature plants, they are the major target for efforts to improve the efficiency of biofuel production. (frontiersin.org)
  • Accordingly, a number of approaches have been employed to identify or engineer plants with low lignin content. (plantcell.org)
  • Natalia Dudareva, a distinguished professor of horticulture, and Hiroshi Maeda, a postdoctoral researcher in Dudareva's laboratory, determined that the gene is one of 10 responsible for phenylalanine production in plants. (purdue.edu)
  • Phenylalanine is important for plant protein synthesis and for the production of flower scent, anti-oxidants and lignin, a principal plant cell wall component that helps plants stand upright and acts as a barrier in the production of cellulosic ethanol. (purdue.edu)
  • The team's conclusion-that hydrophobic, or water repelling, lignin binds less with hydrophilic, or water attracting, hemicellulose-points researchers toward a promising way to engineer better plants for biofuel. (biomassmagazine.com)
  • It plays an important role in regulating microbial cellulose production and biofilm formation, which affects a number of environments, including plants, soil, and the gut. (doe.gov)
  • 1,2,3 LMID had been an insurmountable barrier to the optimal exploitation of cellulosic plants, but the GCEP research team recently discovered that LMID can be prevented in some Arabidopsis mutants, broadening the scope of lignin manipulation strategies that can be implemented. (stanford.edu)
  • The experimental materials, access to metabolites, proteins and transcriptional mechanisms will enable the dissection and control of the biochemical mechanisms that underpin LMID in reduced- lignin, CCR -, C4H - or C3H -deficient plants. (stanford.edu)
  • Figure 3: (Bottom) NMR analysis reveals that the ref4 rfr1 ref8 mutant deposits a different type of lignin (with hydroxyphenyl) than wild type plants (syringyl and guaiacyl). (stanford.edu)
  • 1998) Downregulation of cinnamoyl-CoA reductase induces significant changes of lignin profiles in transgenic tobacco plants. (stanford.edu)
  • There is the small fact that if less lignin or more phenylalanine made plants stronger or more resistant to insects, they'd have evolved those traits already. (greencarcongress.com)
  • If lignin helps plants stand up wouldn't less of it cause plants fall over? (greencarcongress.com)
  • The findings point researchers toward a promising way to engineer better plants for biofuel. (ornl.gov)
  • Biofuels are chiefly produced by photosynthetic organisms, including photosynthetic bacteria, micro- and macroalgae, and vascular land plants. (springer.com)
  • Other renewable biofuels are made using the conversion of biomass (referring to recently living organisms, most often referring to plants or plant-derived materials). (greenergyexpo.eu)
  • The problem with cellulose harvested from plants is that it's difficult to break down because it's highly crystalline and mixed with lignins [for structure] and other compounds," Nobles says. (innovations-report.com)
  • Biophysics, molecular interactions, gene-metabolite relationships in medicinal plants, molecular basis for plant disease resistance, plant metabolic engineering for improved biofuel production. (umd.edu)
  • Professor Eisentein's laboratory is investigating a number of questions involving plants, including their remarkable capacity to produce a complex array of interesting compounds, the way they respond to pathogens and disease, and also the feasibility of engineering their biosynthetic apparatus for applications ranging from human health to biofuel production. (umd.edu)
  • a member of the Ranunculaceae (buttercup) family, in an effort to understand the interplay of genetic and environmental factors that are involved in the production of medicinal metabolites, and to apply that knowledge to improve the phytochemical quality of plants through metabolic engineering. (umd.edu)
  • Among the best candidates are advanced biofuels synthesized from the cellulosic biomass in non-food plants. (scitechdaily.com)
  • The increase in red fluorescence indicates that the xylan in the GXMT1 mutant cell walls has fewer methyl groups, which may make it easier to convert biomass from these plants into biofuels. (phys.org)
  • Now, University of Georgia researchers who are part of the team have taken an important step toward that goal by identifying a previously uncharacterized gene that plays a major role in cell wall development of Arabidopsis plants, a discovery that promises to help turn plants into biofuel more efficiently. (phys.org)
  • Each of these three production plants represents somewhat different approaches to producing biofuels from sources that previously were considered impossible. (umn.edu)
  • This is a great time to speculate at bit on these four factors that will determine if additional cellulosic plants will be built based on any of the three operational pilot models being built in the Midwest. (umn.edu)
  • Lignin provides plants the rigidity they need to grow upward and even keeps them from rotting easily. (biomassmagazine.com)
  • Cellulosic ethanol is a biofuel produced from wood, grasses, or the non-edible parts of plants. (issuecounsel.com)
  • Different types of plants contain different types of lignin," Rushton says. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • Plants with mutations that affect lignin content or structure have already been identified and been shown to perform differently on extraction with pretreatments. (stanford.edu)
  • Lignin embeds the sugar molecules and thereby gives firmness to plants. (renewableenergyfocus.com)
  • Therefore, growing plants with a lower amount of lignin or with lignin that is easier to break down could potentiall revolutionise biofuel production. (renewableenergyfocus.com)
  • This exciting, fundamental discovery provides an alternative pathway for altering lignin in plants and has the potential to greatly increase the efficiency of energy crop conversion for biofuels,' said Sally M. Benson, director of Stanford University's Global Climate and Energy Project . (renewableenergyfocus.com)
  • In the first decade of the 21st century, a lot of companies announced plans to build commercial cellulosic ethanol plants, but most of those plans eventually fell apart, and many of the small companies went bankrupt. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellulosic ethanol which is manufactured using inedible parts of plants, wood and grasses is a biofuel. (blogspot.com)
  • Together with the carbohydrate polymers cellulose and hemicellulose, lignin forms the largest portion of "lignocellulosic" plant materials. (hindawi.com)
  • Currently, industry uses chemical treatments to separate lignin from the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions. (utk.edu)
  • In animal nutrition, lignin is considered an antinutritive component of forages as it cannot be readily fermented by rumen microbes. (hindawi.com)
  • Their discovery may provide a basis for engineering ionic liquid tolerance into strains of fuel-producing microbes for a more efficient biofuel production process. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Our findings represent an important first step in understanding the mechanisms of ionic liquid resistance in bacteria and provide a basis for engineering ionic liquid tolerance into strains of fuel-producing microbes for a more efficient biofuel production process," says Blake Simmons, a chemical engineer who heads JBEI's Deconstruction Division and one of the senior investigators for this research. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Current strategies for processing cellulosic biomass into biofuels involve multiple production steps in which the bulk of ionic liquids used to pretreat biomass can be washed out before the microbes are added. (scitechdaily.com)
  • This strategy requires microbes that can tolerate and grow in ionic liquids used to pretreat cellulosic biomass. (scitechdaily.com)
  • In order to make biofuels, processing facilities use microbes to ferment the naturally occurring plant sugars into ethanol and other valuable products, much in the same way distilleries make alcoholic beverages . (phys.org)
  • As petroleum prices continue to rise, engineering microbes to synthesize next generation biofuels compatible with existing engines and infrastructure has become more feasible economically. (ornl.gov)
  • However, more work is needed to provide low cost starting materials from cellulosic biomass, improve genetic tools that allow introduction of metabolic pathways and control elements into microbial genomes, and develop a broader range of host microbes that can produce tailored biofuel compounds and withstand stresses associated with industrial fuel production. (ornl.gov)
  • Today we're joined by Clariant's Paolo Corvo with some great brand new video and updates on the Clariant first commercial cellulosic ethanol project in Romania, and the new licensee project in Bulgaria. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • Here, we performed molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the segmental (α) relaxation of lignin, the dynamical process that gives rise to the glass transition. (osti.gov)
  • As a part of developing a hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process to valorise lignin, it is important to consider integration possibilities with existing infrastructures in order to obtain an overall positive economic impact. (springer.com)
  • Various measures and integration investments have been carried out in recent years in pulp mills [ 2 ] to ensure an energy-efficient process which makes it possible to integrate new biorefinery concept with the present pulp mills and thereby allowing hemicellulose, extractives and/or lignin to be valorised further to form high-value products. (springer.com)
  • The kraft process is the most common pulping process currently employed, accounting for more than 85% of the global lignin production: it amounts to approximately 63 × 10 4 tons annually [ 8 ], making this type of process of great interest as an obvious part in an integrated forest biorefinery (IFB). (springer.com)
  • In this process, lignin is available in the black liquor, but is usually used as fuel to meet the steam and power needs of the pulping processes. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, the resulting hydrolysate from this process are readily fermentable due to the removal of lignin-derived inhibitors. (glbrc.org)
  • In terms of energy yield from biomass, the role of lignin depends on the conversion process. (hindawi.com)
  • And it helps the overall economics of the cellulosic ethanol process. (bio-medicine.org)
  • An open-access paper on the process is published in the journal Biotechnology for Biofuels . (greencarcongress.com)
  • UW-Madison researchers have developed a two-step process to synthesize paracetamol (acetaminophen) from p -hydroxybenzamide, from a compound easily isolated from lignin sourced from a number of biomass species including poplar, aspen, willow and palm. (warf.org)
  • Figure 1 shows the basic features of a biomass-to-biofuels (B2B) process ( 6 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • His major research interests include understanding the fundamental mechanism of bioprocessing technologies for the advanced biofuels, advancing cutting-edge technologies, and facilitating the commercialization process as well as improving our knowledge of emerging technologies to meet near and long-term needs worldwide. (aalto.fi)
  • Rushton calls the company's process its "big differentiator" because it allows lignin to emerge as a pure product that's distinct from lignins produced through conventional pulp and paper milling and even other biorefinering techniques. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • The appearance and consistency of lignin are also quite variable and highly contingent on process. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • Its particle size is typically around 20 microns, so it's quite fine," Rushton says, adding that the so-called organosolv lignin that results from LIL's process is also a brown powder. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • Our activities on lignin chemistry cover the extraction of lignin by the organosolv process, characterization of lignin and development of catalysts for lignin hydrogenolysis, oxidation and depolymerization. (mpg.de)
  • The similarity between the chemical structures of low ranking coals and lignin encourages us to develop integrated strategies to process coal and biomass together. (mpg.de)
  • In the midst of rising oil prices, the economics of producing cellulosic ethanol are becoming increasingly favorable and several companies are steadfastly moving to commercialize various process technologies. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • The remaining DOE-funded biorefineries will use a thermochemical process to produce cellulosic ethanol or a hybrid of the biochemical and thermochemical approaches. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • Iogen Corporation is a developer of cellulosic ethanol process technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Utilizing process and pre-treatment technology from SunOpta Inc., Abengoa is building a 5 million US gallons (19,000 m3) cellulosic ethanol facility in Spain and have recently entered into a strategic research and development agreement with Dyadic International, Inc. (AMEX: DIL), to create new and better enzyme mixtures which may be used to improve both the efficiencies and cost structure of producing cellulosic ethanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • SEKAB has developed an industrial process for production of ethanol from biomass feed-stocks, including wood chips and sugar cane bagasse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Speaking in Parliament Tuesday, Premier Annastacia Palaszczuk announced that an Expression of Interest process to attract biofuels proponents to Queensland would start Wednesday. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • Cellulosic ethanol commercialization is a process in which an industry is build out of methods of turning cellulose containing organic matter into fuel. (blogspot.com)
  • The biofuel production process entails the wastes being converted to biofuel, pure water, and refined fertilizers. (republicmoto.com)
  • Biobutanol (C 4 H 10 O) or butyl alcohol is a second generation biofuel that can be produced from biomass and can be used either as an industrial chemical or as a transportation fuel. (typepad.com)
  • Emphasis in the company's production technology is laid on the second generation biofuel. (republicmoto.com)
  • The El Yunque National Forest in Puerto Rico is a tropical rainforest where a strain of the microbe Enterobacter lignolyticus was found that can tolerate an ionic liquid used to dissolve cellulosic biomass for microbial-based biofuel production. (scitechdaily.com)
  • The other key research challenge that must be resolved is that butanol production inhibits microbial growth even at low concentrations. (typepad.com)
  • Removal of lignin is, thus, essential to promote further microbial growth leading to processing of sugar. (intechopen.com)
  • Keasling points to recent improvements in DNA sequencing, bioinformatics, and systems biology approaches as key elements enabling recent breakthroughs in microbial production of high value products such as pharmaceuticals. (ornl.gov)
  • Improving cellulosic biomass deconstruction while extracting lignin. (glbrc.org)
  • Recently, the focus within the biofuels community has begun to shift from alcohol production to the production of hydrocarbon biofuels by thermochemical deconstruction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nonspecific adsorption of cellulases to lignin hinders enzymatic biomass deconstruction. (internationalsugarjournal.com)
  • We are in a unique position to explore how the amount of lignin in a plant is controlled because we have identified two novel plant-specific proteins (REF4 and RFR1) that are components of Mediator, a large multi-protein complex that facilitates interactions between DNA-bound transcription factors and RNA polymerase II to activate or repress the expression of downstream genes. (purdue.edu)
  • A reduced amount of lignin or an adapted lignin structure can contribute to a more efficient conversion of biomass to energy. (renewableenergyfocus.com)
  • Biotechnology for Biofuels 2013, Volume 6, Number 1. (usda.gov)
  • Biotechnology for Biofuels 9 (May): 106. (els.net)
  • Biotechnology for Biofuels 8 (March): 41. (els.net)
  • The Biotechnology Innovation Organization (BIO) reports nearly $9 billion was spent on cellulosic ethanol production between 2004 and 2015, and this does not include public costs for additional incentives and tax credits. (api.org)
  • The future trend of white biotechnology is the seek of renewable resources for the production of goods, traditionally obtained from petrol. (unina.it)
  • One of the most significant of these is the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway which leads to the deposition of lignin. (purdue.edu)
  • Using high-performance computing, a group of researchers at the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory provided insight into how this might be accomplished, simulating a well-established genetic modification to the lignin of an aspen tree in atomic-level detail. (biomassmagazine.com)
  • BESC scientists created lots of different lignins randomly through genetic modification," Smith said. (biomassmagazine.com)
  • The combination of multiple genetic engineering strategies for optimizing the biofuels production will surely be useful. (springer.com)
  • Plant genetic engineering for biofuel production: towards affordable cellulosic ethanol. (springer.com)
  • UW-Madison researchers have developed a one-step, "lignin-first" method for generating lignin-derived aromatics from raw biomass. (warf.org)
  • The researchers have also determined how the microbe is able to do this, a discovery that holds broad implications beyond the production of advanced biofuels. (scitechdaily.com)
  • What has stumped researchers is taking this crude biomass that is complexed with lignin and other biopolymers, and gaining access to the cellulose. (whyfiles.org)
  • Researchers with the University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture continue to be at the forefront of the development of commercial applications for biofuels as well as biobased energy and biobased products. (biomassmagazine.com)
  • The UT researchers will lead the development of the lignin products. (biomassmagazine.com)
  • In North Carolina, researchers have developed an inexpensive technique for removing lignin from plant material used to make ethanol. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • Researchers from the James Hutton Institute, the University of Dundee, VIB and Ghent University (Belgium) and the University of Wisconsin (USA) have identified a new lignin gene which could improve the conversion of biomass to energy. (renewableenergyfocus.com)
  • Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory researchers have developed a technology that provides a simplified and economical production of hydrocarbon fuel from renewable resources with higher energy potential compared to ethanol or biodiesel. (energy.gov)
  • Biofuels are the need of today, and researchers around the globe are exploring the options for biological fuel production. (intechopen.com)
  • Vast quantities of cellulose and lignin produced by grasses rot around the world every day. (pearltrees.com)
  • Secondary cell walls of both grasses and dicots are composed of cellulose, glucuronoarabinoxylans, and lignin. (hindawi.com)
  • EPA mandated that 311 million gallons of cellulosic biofuels be blended into the U.S. fuel supply in 2017. (api.org)
  • In plant tissues where we want to lower lignin content, we may be able to block these pathways,' Maeda said. (purdue.edu)
  • The team found that tension wood contains higher numbers of woody cells, thicker cell walls, more crystalline forms of cellulose and lower lignin levels than normal wood. (earthtechling.com)
  • They monitored the expression activity of nine genes in the research plant Arabidopsis that were known to be involved in phenylalanine production and looked for other genes that became active at the same time. (purdue.edu)
  • a severely lignin-deficient mutant of Arabidopsis. (stanford.edu)
  • 2002a) Changes in secondary metabolism and deposition of an unusual lignin in the ref8 mutant of Arabidopsis. (stanford.edu)
  • 2014) Disruption of mediator rescues the stunted growth of a lignin‐deficient Arabidopsis mutant. (els.net)
  • Their use roughly doubles the cost of cellulosic ethanol production and lessens the economic advantages of using waste materials. (unina.it)
  • Cobalt Biofuels , Mountain View, California, recently announced that it has raised $25 million in equity to accelerate the commercialization of biobutanol. (typepad.com)
  • To jump-start the commercialization of technologies for the production of ethanol from lignocellulosics, the U.S. DOE announced in early 2007, a $385 million plan to fund the construction of six large-scale biorefineries. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • After spending 2010 largely in "stealth mode" on its technology development and advancement on commercialization, the Canadian advanced biofuels pioneer has become highly active over the past six months. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • Cellulosic ethanol commercialization involves converting cellulose-containing organic matter into cellulosic ethanol for use as a biofuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • The US government actively supports the development and commercialization of cellulosic ethanol through a variety of mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Commercialization of cellulosic biofuel industry is energizing global economy and reaching the untapped global supply of renewable biomass. (blogspot.com)
  • In addition, commercialization of cellulosic biofuels is driving innovations, supporting farmers and creating jobs. (blogspot.com)
  • Cosolvents find applications also in environmental chemistry and are known as effective countermeasures against pollutant non-aqueous phase liquids, as well as in the production of functional energy materials and synthesis of biodiesel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Afify AE-MM, Shalaby EA, Shanab SM (2010) Enhancement of biodiesel production from different species of algae. (springer.com)
  • Akoh CC, Chang SW, Lee GC, Shaw JF (2007) Enzymatic approach to biodiesel production. (springer.com)
  • Biodiesel is produced from oils or fats using transesterification and is the most common biofuel in Europe. (greenergyexpo.eu)
  • The world's largest biodiesel producer is the European Union, accounting for 53% of all biodiesel production in 2010. (greenergyexpo.eu)
  • True algae are also being developed for biodiesel production. (innovations-report.com)
  • Brookhaven National Laboratory/Biodiesel Magazine) Scientists studying plant biochemistry at the U.S. DOE's Brookhaven National Laboratory have discovered new details about biomolecules that put the brakes on oil production. (advancedbiofuelsusa.info)
  • The diverse algal biofuels range from biodiesel, straight vegetable oil (SVO), lipids, ethanol and hydrogen. (intechopen.com)
  • The refinery has not fully reopened in full production since damaged by Hurricane Ike, as well as being affected by the loss of the biodiesel tax credit and loss of its European markets. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • Though all of these biofuels are derived from plant material, the source of raw material (biomass or seeds) and the production processes are different. (mdpi.com)
  • The analyses of the 48.2-million nucleotide genome of S. lacrymans not only allowed the team to compare the gene families involved in the mechanisms by which brown rot break down cellulose and white rot fungi break down both cellulose and lignin, but also how these processes differ within each category. (redorbit.com)
  • To speed up and increase cellulosic sugar cost reduction, HCL CleanTech has developed a number of front end extraction processes that, while contributing to the purity of the sugars, increase the potential of co-product value: their de-acidified lignin is unadulterated (27 percent of the wood dry basis) and tall oils and resins (5 to 7 percent of the wood) are pre-extracted from the wood. (greentechmedia.com)
  • PF resin possesses many advantages, such as readily available raw materials, simple production processes, and good mechanical and hygroscopic strength. (ncsu.edu)
  • The lignin we make is quite different from other lignins that are out there," he says, explaining that most lignins produced from the kraft and sulfite pulping processes contain sulfur and inorganic materials-sodium, magnesium and calcium-that are baked into the product. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • Rushton says there are, in fact, sulfur-free lignins on the market today that are exclusively made by pulp and paper mills using sulfite processes. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • Lignosulfonates-a product that comes out of sulfite pulping processes-is water soluble and the type of lignin sold in the largest volumes globally. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • Moreover, as one of the most significant results of this study, the developed P. ostreatus SSF processes provide the production of two laccase isoforms not detected in any other liquid culture conditions analysed so far. (unina.it)
  • In these integrated and collaborative environments, the BRCs pursued the necessary fundamental research to improve the processes needed for large-scale, cost-effective production of advanced biofuels from cellulosic biomass. (doegenomestolife.org)
  • Additionally, as each center approached biofuel production challenges from different angles, the types of knowledge gained were multiplied, new questions opened up, and new avenues of research pursued, ultimately accelerating the pathway to improving and scaling up biofuel production processes. (doegenomestolife.org)
  • Using systems biology approaches, the BRCs focused on new strategies to reduce the impact of key cost-driving processes in the overall production of cellulosic biofuels from biomass. (doegenomestolife.org)
  • Maurilio Biagi Filho, CEO of ethanol producer Grupo Maubisa, said production in Brazil's Centre South, the world's largest sugar cane producing region, will rise 14% this year. (internationalsugarjournal.com)
  • Believed to be the world's largest cellulosic ethanol plant as of early 2011, the facility runs on about 30,000 metric tons (33,000 tons) of straw per year and the plant employs about 30 people. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some instances, the BioFuel A/S technology which is mainly dedicated to the production of biofuel based on various biomass wastes is employed. (republicmoto.com)
  • As side products the company, Kirov Biochemical Works, is offering dry fodder yeast (20 tons/month) and Lignin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversion of biomass to biofuel can be achieved by different methods which are broadly classified into: thermal, chemical, and biochemical methods. (niir.org)
  • A transgenic lignin-hemicellulose molecule. (ornl.gov)
  • Lignin valorization: improving lignin processing in the biorefinery. (springer.com)
  • Also this month, the company announced the development and trials of its first renewable chemical product, a resin adhesive formulation, and completed an engineering design package for a commercial-scale biorefinery that would produce up to 80 million litres of cellulosic ethanol (approximately 20 million US Gallons) and 55,000 tonnes of High Performance Lignin derivatives annually. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • Still, when EPA revised its volume requirements in June, the cellulosic mandate for 2018 was lowered only slightly to 288 million gallons, and the 2019 mandate increased significantly to 381 million gallons. (api.org)