A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
An exocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE and cellotetraose. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing ends of beta-D-glucosides with release of CELLOBIOSE.
A cellulose of varied carboxyl content retaining the fibrous structure. It is commonly used as a local hemostatic and as a matrix for normal blood coagulation.
An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.
A species of acetate-oxidizing bacteria, formerly known as Acetobacter xylinum.
Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.
A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.
A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.
A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.
Components of the extracellular matrix consisting primarily of fibrillin. They are essential for the integrity of elastic fibers.
High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A species of gram-negative bacteria of the family ACETOBACTERACEAE found in FLOWERS and FRUIT. Cells are ellipsoidal to rod-shaped and straight or slightly curved.
A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.
Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
Extracellular structures found in a variety of microorganisms. They contain CELLULASES and play an important role in the digestion of CELLULOSE.
Glycoside Hydrolases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds, resulting in the breakdown of complex carbohydrates and oligosaccharides into simpler sugars.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
Dextrins are a group of partially degraded and digestible starches, formed through the hydrolysis of starch by heat, acids, or enzymes, consisting of shorter chain polymers of D-glucose units linked mainly by α-(1→4) and α-(1→6) glycosidic bonds.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is a cellulolytic, mesophilic species isolated from decayed GRASS.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
A species of gram-positive, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It produces CELLULOSOMES which are involved in plant CELL WALL degradation.
Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A family of bacteria found in the mouth and intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals as well as in the human female urogenital tract. Its organisms are also found in soil and on cereal grains.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Dried, ripe seeds of PLANTAGO PSYLLIUM; PLANTAGO INDICA; and PLANTAGO OVATA. Plantain seeds swell in water and are used as demulcents and bulk laxatives.
Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates consisting of long, often branched chains of repeating monosaccharide units joined together by glycosidic bonds, which serve as energy storage molecules (e.g., glycogen), structural components (e.g., cellulose), and molecular recognition sites in various biological systems.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
An exocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages of 1,4-beta-D-glucans resulting in successive removal of GLUCOSE units.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha- or beta-xylosidic linkages. EC catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans; and EC catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans. Other xylosidases have been identified that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-xylosidic bonds.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.
A xylosidase that catalyses the random hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-xylans.
A genus of gram-positive bacteria in the family Lachnospiraceae that inhabits the RUMEN; LARGE INTESTINE; and CECUM of MAMMALS.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria in the family Fibrobacteraceae, isolated from the human GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Enzymes which catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in XYLANS.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A TEXTILE fiber obtained from the pappus (outside the SEEDS) of cotton plant (GOSSYPIUM). Inhalation of cotton fiber dust over a prolonged period can result in BYSSINOSIS.
Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.
Tetroses are uncommon sugars (monosaccharides) with four carbon atoms, having an aldehyde functional group at the first carbon atom, and forming ring structures in their cyclic forms, primarily found in complex carbohydrates and certain natural products.

Combined effect of Interceed and 5-fluorouracil on delayed adjustable strabismus surgery. (1/37)

AIMS/BACKGROUND: To discover a more reliable method of performing delayed suture adjustment as a basis to investigate whether delayed adjustment actually provides more stable results. In order to prevent the formation of postoperative adhesions and delay the time of adjustment, an animal study was performed to determine the combined effect of physical barriers, Viscoat and Interceed, and a pharmacological agent, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). METHODS: 38 rabbit eyes were divided into three groups. After recession of the superior rectus muscle (SRM), 5-FU was applied beneath and over the SRM in group 5-FU. Group I-f had Interceed and 5-FU and group I-fv, Interceed, 5-FU, and Viscoat. Delayed adjustment was performed once on each SRM at 1, 2, and 3 weeks postoperatively. The possible length and the necessary force to adjust as well as the degree of adhesions were recorded. RESULTS: 5-FU delayed the adjustment for up to 1 week after surgery in three out of four eyes. Combined use of Interceed and 5-FU could delay the adjustment for up to 1 week after surgery in three out of five eyes. Addition of Viscoat could delay the adjustment for up to 1 week after surgery in four out of five eyes. Adjustment was possible on only one of four eyes thereafter. CONCLUSIONS: Combined use of Interceed, 5-FU, and Viscoat could delay the adjustment in rabbits until 1 week postoperatively.  (+info)

Evidence-based prevention of post-operative adhesions. (2/37)

Despite decades of research, numerous new product ideas and 'carefully considered opinions' of recognized experts, very few products for the prevention of post-operative adhesions have met the requirements for Level 1 evidence of safety and efficacy. Those that have are useable only at laparotomy. Several new liquid products intended for use at laparoscopy are in various stages of development and clinical investigation. Hopefully, some will prove to be both simple to use and efficacious. Even if this occurs, it must be remembered that a reduction in post-operative adhesions does not necessarily produce a better clinical outcome. Our common sense suggests that fewer adhesions should logically result in less pain, more pregnancies, fewer bowel obstructions and less long-term morbidity. We believe that 'fewer adhesions' is a good thing, but we have no controlled human trials to prove this. How much of a reduction in post-operative adhesions is necessary before it is clinically relevant? A single adhesion in the wrong anatomic location may be catastrophic. How do we measure this? Until these and other questions have been answered (if ever), we have nothing more than educated guesses that all these efforts are warranted.  (+info)

Intraspinal oxidised cellulose (Surgicel) causing delayed paraplegia after thoracotomy--a report of three cases. (3/37)

Oxidised regenerated cellulose (Surgicel) is a commonly used haemostatic agent in neurosurgery, thoracic surgery, and orthopaedics. We present three cases of paraplegia after thoracic surgery during which oxidised cellulose had been used during thoracotomy for haemorrhage control, and was later found to have passed through the intervertebral foramen causing spinal cord compression. In all intraspinal and perispinal procedures, the over-liberal use of Surgicel should be avoided, and attempts made to remove all excess Surgicel once adequate haemostasis is obtained.  (+info)

Fibrin sealant improves hemostasis in peripheral vascular surgery: a randomized prospective trial. (4/37)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of an investigational fibrin sealant (FS) in a randomized prospective, partially blinded, controlled, multicenter trial. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Upper extremity vascular access surgery using polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) graft placement for dialysis was chosen as a reproducible, clinically relevant model for evaluating the usefulness of FS. The FS consisted of pooled human fibrinogen (60 mg/mL) and thrombin (500 NIH U/mL). Time to hemostasis was measured, and adverse events were monitored. METHODS: Consenting adult patients (n = 48) undergoing placement of a standard PTFE graft were randomized in a 2:1:1 ratio to the treatment group using FS (ZLB Bioplasma AG, Bern, Switzerland), oxidized regenerated cellulose (Surgicel, Johnson & Johnson, New Brunswick, NJ), or pressure. Patients received heparin (3,000 IU IVP) before placement of vascular clamps. If the treatment was FS, clamps were left in place for 120 seconds after the application of study material to permit polymerization. If treatment was Surgicel, clamps were left in place until the agent had been applied according to manufacturer's instructions. If the treatment was pressure, clamps were released as soon as the investigator was ready to apply compression. Immediately after release of the last clamp, the arterial and venous suture lines were evaluated for bleeding. The time to hemostasis at both the venous and arterial sites was recorded. RESULTS: Significant (P < or =.005) reduction in time to hemostasis was achieved in the FS group. Thirteen (54.2%) patients randomized to FS experienced immediate hemostasis at both suture lines following clamp removal compared to no patients using Surgicel or pressure. Only one patient (7.1%) in the Surgicel group and no patients in the pressure group experienced hemostasis at 120 seconds from clamp removal, compared to 13 (54.2%) patients for FS. Adverse events were comparable in all groups. There were no seroconversions. CONCLUSIONS: FS achieved more rapid hemostasis than traditional techniques in this peripheral vascular procedure. FS use appeared to be safe for this procedure.  (+info)

The use of local agents: bone wax, gelatin, collagen, oxidized cellulose. (5/37)

The use of local agents to achieve hemostasis is an old and complex subject in surgery. Their use is almost mandatory in spinal surgery. The development of new materials in chemical hemostasis is a continuous process that may potentially lead the surgeon to confusion. Moreover, the more commonly used materials have not changed in about 50 years. Using chemical agents to tamponade a hemorrhage is not free of risks. Complications are around the corner and can be due either to mechanical compression or to phlogistic effects secondary to the material used. This paper reviews about 20 animal and clinical published studies with regard to the chemical properties, mechanisms of action, use and complications of local agents.  (+info)

The use of local agents: Surgicel and Surgifoam. (6/37)

There are various electrical, mechanical and chemical methods used to achieve haemostasis in spine surgery. Chemical haemostatic agents are often preferable to bipolar cautery in intraspinal procedures, because these products control bleeding without occluding the vessel lumen and cause no thermal injuries to adjacent structures. A topical haemostat is the often the technique of choice to control bleeding from bone and to diffuse capillary and epidural venous oozing. This paper focuses on technical aspects of the application of absorbable porcine gelatine and regenerated, oxidised cellulose. These haemostats have been used in neurosurgical intraspinal procedures for more than 30 years; however, new application forms like Surgicel fibrillar and Surgifoam powder imply different handling options, which are discussed in this paper.  (+info)

A Stafne's cavity with unusual location in the mandibular anterior area. (7/37)

The typical Stafne's cavity, located on the posterior portion of the mandible, is a relatively uncommon entity. However, when the defect is located in the anterior region of the mandible, it is quite rare, having thus far been described in only 36 cases in the scientific literature. Most of these defects appear in the fifth and sixth decades of life, are localized to the area of the canines and premolars, and have a predilection for males. The inferior dental canal, one of the anatomical-radiographic landmarks that aid in the diagnosis of Stafne's cavity in the posterior region, is rarely present anterior the mental foramen. For this reason, because of its more variable radiographic appearance compared to the posterior defect, its tendency to be superimposed over the apices of the teeth, and the rarity of its localisation to the anterior mandible, it is much more difficult to establish a definitive diagnosis of a Stafne's cavity in this location. It is therefore more likely that a diagnostic error can occur, especially early on. We present a new case in a 68-year-old male in which the diagnosis was serendipitous, and we review in particular the aetiology and pathogenesis, clinical aspects, and differential diagnoses for this condition.  (+info)

Examination of aqueous oxidized cellulose dispersions as a potential drug carrier. I. Preparation and characterization of oxidized cellulose-phenylpropanolamine complexes. (8/37)

Partially neutralized aqueous dispersions of oxidized cellulose (OC) (COOH content 24.2%; degree of neutralization [DN] 0.22-0.44; solid content 14.4% wt/wt), a biocompatible biodegradable polymer, were prepared and their use to entrap an amine drug was demonstrated. Phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride (PPA.HCl) was used as a model drug. OCA-PPA complexes were prepared by adding the drug solution to the OC dispersion. Light microscopy, powder x-ray diffractometry (PXRD), and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were used to characterize hydrated and dried OC and the OC-PPA complexes. Drug loading and drug-loading efficiency were calculated from high-performance liquid chromatography. Light microscopy revealed the partially neutralized OC to exist as swollen fibers in the dispersion. The degree of swelling increased with increasing DN of the OC. All dispersions, irrespective of DN, showed a pseudo-plastic flow. The drug loading (12.6%-26.7%) and drug-loading efficiency (30%-48%) increased linearly with increasing DN and drug concentration. The PXRD of the OC-PPA complexes showed no diffraction peaks due to PPA, suggesting that the drug exists in the amorphous state. The FT-IR spectra of the complexes revealed the presence of an ionic linkage between OC and PPA. In conclusion, the results show that the aqueous OC dispersions can be used to molecularly entrap amine drugs to produce an OC-drug complex linked via an ionic linkage.  (+info)

Cellulose is a complex carbohydrate that is the main structural component of the cell walls of green plants, many algae, and some fungi. It is a polysaccharide consisting of long chains of beta-glucose molecules linked together by beta-1,4 glycosidic bonds. Cellulose is insoluble in water and most organic solvents, and it is resistant to digestion by humans and non-ruminant animals due to the lack of cellulase enzymes in their digestive systems. However, ruminants such as cows and sheep can digest cellulose with the help of microbes in their rumen that produce cellulase.

Cellulose has many industrial applications, including the production of paper, textiles, and building materials. It is also used as a source of dietary fiber in human food and animal feed. Cellulose-based materials are being explored for use in biomedical applications such as tissue engineering and drug delivery due to their biocompatibility and mechanical properties.

Cellulose 1,4-beta-Cellobiosidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of cellulose, a complex carbohydrate and the main structural component of plant cell walls, into simpler sugars. Specifically, this enzyme breaks down cellulose by cleaving the 1,4-beta-glycosidic bonds between the cellobiose units that make up the cellulose polymer, releasing individual cellobiose molecules (disaccharides consisting of two glucose molecules). This enzyme is also known as cellobiohydrolase or beta-1,4-D-glucan cellobiohydrolase. It plays a crucial role in the natural breakdown of plant material and is widely used in various industrial applications, such as biofuel production and pulp and paper manufacturing.

Oxidized cellulose is a type of modified cellulose that has undergone oxidation, resulting in the introduction of functional groups such as carboxylic acid or aldehyde groups along the cellulose chain. This process can alter the physical and chemical properties of cellulose, making it more soluble in water and capable of forming gels or films.

Oxidized cellulose is used in a variety of applications, including as a wound dressing material, where it can help to promote healing by providing a moist environment that supports tissue regeneration. It can also be used as a thickening or stabilizing agent in food and cosmetic products, or as a component in the manufacture of specialized papers and textiles.

Cellulase is a type of enzyme that breaks down cellulose, which is a complex carbohydrate and the main structural component of plant cell walls. Cellulases are produced by certain bacteria, fungi, and protozoans, and are used in various industrial applications such as biofuel production, food processing, and textile manufacturing. In the human body, there are no known physiological roles for cellulases, as humans do not produce these enzymes and cannot digest cellulose.

*Gluconacetobacter xylinus*, also known as *Acetobacter xylinum*, is a gram-negative, acetic acid-producing bacterium that is commonly found in fermenting fruits, vegetables, and other plant materials. It is an obligate aerobe, which means it requires oxygen to grow. This bacterium is well-known for its ability to produce cellulose, a complex carbohydrate, as a major component of its extracellular matrix. The cellulose produced by *G. xylinus* is pure and highly crystalline, making it an attractive material for various industrial applications, including the production of biodegradable plastics, nanocomposites, and medical materials. In the medical field, the cellulose produced by this bacterium has been studied for its potential use in wound healing, tissue engineering, and drug delivery systems.

Electrophoresis, cellulose acetate is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze proteins or other charged molecules based on their size and charge. The sample is applied to a sheet of cellulose acetate, a type of porous plastic film, and an electric field is applied. The proteins migrate through the film towards the electrode with the opposite charge, with smaller and more negatively charged molecules moving faster than larger and less negatively charged ones. This allows for the separation and identification of different protein components in a mixture. It is a simple and rapid method for routine protein separations and is commonly used in biochemistry and molecular biology research.

Carboxymethylcellulose sodium is a type of cellulose derivative that is widely used in the medical and pharmaceutical fields as an excipient or a drug delivery agent. It is a white, odorless powder with good water solubility and forms a clear, viscous solution.

Chemically, carboxymethylcellulose sodium is produced by reacting cellulose, which is derived from plant sources such as wood or cotton, with sodium hydroxide and chloroacetic acid. This reaction introduces carboxymethyl groups (-CH2COO-) to the cellulose molecule, making it more soluble in water and providing negative charges that can interact with positively charged ions or drugs.

In medical applications, carboxymethylcellulose sodium is used as a thickening agent, binder, disintegrant, and suspending agent in various pharmaceutical formulations such as tablets, capsules, liquids, and semisolids. It can also be used as a lubricant in the manufacture of tablets and capsules to facilitate their ejection from molds or dies.

Carboxymethylcellulose sodium has been shown to have good biocompatibility and low toxicity, making it a safe and effective excipient for use in medical and pharmaceutical applications. However, like any other excipient, it should be used with caution and in appropriate amounts to avoid any adverse effects or interactions with the active ingredients of the drug product.

Cellulases are a group of enzymes that break down cellulose, which is a complex carbohydrate and the main structural component of plant cell walls. These enzymes are produced by various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. They play an important role in the natural decomposition process and have various industrial applications, such as in the production of biofuels, paper, and textiles.

Cellulases work by hydrolyzing the beta-1,4 glycosidic bonds between the glucose molecules that make up cellulose, breaking it down into simpler sugars like glucose. This process is known as saccharification. The specific type of cellulase enzyme determines where on the cellulose molecule it will cleave the bond.

There are three main types of cellulases: endoglucanases, exoglucanases, and beta-glucosidases. Endoglucanases randomly attack internal bonds in the amorphous regions of cellulose, creating new chain ends for exoglucanases to act on. Exoglucanases (also known as cellobiohydrolases) cleave cellobiose units from the ends of the cellulose chains, releasing cellobiose or glucose. Beta-glucosidases convert cellobiose into two molecules of glucose, which can then be further metabolized by the organism.

In summary, cellulases are a group of enzymes that break down cellulose into simpler sugars through hydrolysis. They have various industrial applications and play an essential role in natural decomposition processes.

Cellobiose is a disaccharide made up of two molecules of glucose joined by a β-1,4-glycosidic bond. It is formed when cellulose or beta-glucans are hydrolyzed, and it can be further broken down into its component glucose molecules by the action of the enzyme beta-glucosidase. Cellobiose has a sweet taste, but it is not as sweet as sucrose (table sugar). It is used in some industrial processes and may have potential applications in the food industry.

Glucosyltransferases (GTs) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a glucose molecule from an activated donor to an acceptor molecule, resulting in the formation of a glycosidic bond. These enzymes play crucial roles in various biological processes, including the biosynthesis of complex carbohydrates, cell wall synthesis, and protein glycosylation. In some cases, GTs can also contribute to bacterial pathogenesis by facilitating the attachment of bacteria to host tissues through the formation of glucans, which are polymers of glucose molecules.

GTs can be classified into several families based on their sequence similarities and catalytic mechanisms. The donor substrates for GTs are typically activated sugars such as UDP-glucose, TDP-glucose, or GDP-glucose, which serve as the source of the glucose moiety that is transferred to the acceptor molecule. The acceptor can be a wide range of molecules, including other sugars, proteins, lipids, or small molecules.

In the context of human health and disease, GTs have been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as cancer, inflammation, and microbial infections. For example, some GTs can modify proteins on the surface of cancer cells, leading to increased cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Additionally, GTs can contribute to bacterial resistance to antibiotics by modifying the structure of bacterial cell walls or by producing biofilms that protect bacteria from host immune responses and antimicrobial agents.

Overall, Glucosyltransferases are essential enzymes involved in various biological processes, and their dysregulation has been associated with several human diseases. Therefore, understanding the structure, function, and regulation of GTs is crucial for developing novel therapeutic strategies to target these enzymes and treat related pathological conditions.

Trichoderma is a genus of fungi that are commonly found in soil, decaying wood, and other organic matter. While there are many different species of Trichoderma, some of them have been studied for their potential use in various medical and industrial applications. For example, certain Trichoderma species have been shown to have antimicrobial properties and can be used to control plant diseases. Other species are being investigated for their ability to produce enzymes and other compounds that may have industrial or medicinal uses.

However, it's important to note that not all Trichoderma species are beneficial, and some of them can cause infections in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. These infections can be difficult to diagnose and treat, as they often involve multiple organ systems and may require aggressive antifungal therapy.

In summary, Trichoderma is a genus of fungi that can have both beneficial and harmful effects on human health, depending on the specific species involved and the context in which they are encountered.

Microfibrils are tiny, thread-like structures that are found in the extracellular matrix (the material that surrounds and supports cells) of many types of biological tissues. They are made up of bundles of long, thin proteins called fibrillins, which are joined together by other proteins such as microfibril-associated glycoproteins (MAGPs).

Microfibrils play an important role in providing structural support and elasticity to tissues. They are particularly abundant in the connective tissue that surrounds blood vessels, where they help to regulate the diameter of the vessels and maintain blood pressure. Microfibrils are also found in the elastic fibers of the lungs, skin, and other tissues, where they contribute to the ability of these tissues to stretch and recoil.

In addition to their structural roles, microfibrils have been shown to play a role in regulating cell behavior and signaling. For example, they can bind to growth factors and other signaling molecules, helping to control the activity of these molecules and influence cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and migration.

Abnormalities in microfibril structure or function have been linked to a number of diseases, including Marfan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, and cutis laxa. These conditions are characterized by problems with connective tissue strength and elasticity, which can lead to a range of symptoms such as skeletal abnormalities, cardiovascular disease, and skin fragility.

Pectins are complex polysaccharides that are commonly found in the cell walls of plants. In the context of food and nutrition, pectins are often referred to as dietary fiber. They have a variety of important functions within the body, including promoting digestive health by adding bulk to stools and helping to regulate bowel movements.

Pectins are also used in the medical field as a demulcent, which is a substance that forms a soothing film over mucous membranes. This can be helpful in treating conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

In addition to their use in medicine, pectins are widely used in the food industry as a gelling agent, thickener, and stabilizer. They are commonly found in jams, jellies, and other preserved fruits, as well as in baked goods and confectionery products.

Xylans are a type of complex carbohydrate, specifically a hemicellulose, that are found in the cell walls of many plants. They are made up of a backbone of beta-1,4-linked xylose sugar molecules and can be substituted with various side groups such as arabinose, glucuronic acid, and acetyl groups. Xylans are indigestible by humans, but they can be broken down by certain microorganisms in the gut through a process called fermentation, which can produce short-chain fatty acids that have beneficial effects on health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Lignin" is not a medical term. It is a term used in the field of biology and chemistry, particularly in botany and wood science. Lignin is a complex organic polymer that binds cellulose fibers together, providing strength and rigidity to the cell walls of plants. It is a major component of wood and bark.

If you have any medical terms you would like defined or any other questions, please let me know!

Methylcellulose is a semisynthetic, inert, viscous, and tasteless white powder that is soluble in cold water but not in hot water. It is derived from cellulose through the process of methylation. In medical contexts, it is commonly used as a bulk-forming laxative to treat constipation, as well as a lubricant in ophthalmic solutions and a suspending agent in pharmaceuticals.

When mixed with water, methylcellulose forms a gel-like substance that can increase stool volume and promote bowel movements. It is generally considered safe for most individuals, but like any medication or supplement, it should be used under the guidance of a healthcare provider.

A cell wall is a rigid layer found surrounding the plasma membrane of plant cells, fungi, and many types of bacteria. It provides structural support and protection to the cell, maintains cell shape, and acts as a barrier against external factors such as chemicals and mechanical stress. The composition of the cell wall varies among different species; for example, in plants, it is primarily made up of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin, while in bacteria, it is composed of peptidoglycan.

'Acetobacter' is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in various environments such as soil, water, and plant surfaces. They are known for their ability to oxidize alcohols to aldehydes and then to carboxylic acids, particularly the oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid. This property makes them important in the production of vinegar and other fermented foods. Some species of Acetobacter can also cause food spoilage and may be associated with certain human infections, although they are not considered primary human pathogens.

'Clostridium thermocellum' is a type of anaerobic, gram-positive bacterium that is known for its ability to produce cellulases and break down cellulose. It is thermophilic, meaning it grows optimally at higher temperatures, typically between 55-70°C. This organism is of interest in the field of bioenergy because of its potential to convert plant biomass into useful products such as biofuels. However, it's important to note that this bacterium can also produce harmful metabolic byproducts and can be potentially pathogenic to humans.

Dietary fiber, also known as roughage, is the indigestible portion of plant foods that makes up the structural framework of the plants we eat. It is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, gums, lignins, and waxes. Dietary fiber can be classified into two categories: soluble and insoluble.

Soluble fiber dissolves in water to form a gel-like material in the gut, which can help slow down digestion, increase feelings of fullness, and lower cholesterol levels. Soluble fiber is found in foods such as oats, barley, fruits, vegetables, legumes, and nuts.

Insoluble fiber does not dissolve in water and passes through the gut intact, helping to add bulk to stools and promote regular bowel movements. Insoluble fiber is found in foods such as whole grains, bran, seeds, and the skins of fruits and vegetables.

Dietary fiber has numerous health benefits, including promoting healthy digestion, preventing constipation, reducing the risk of heart disease, controlling blood sugar levels, and aiding in weight management. The recommended daily intake of dietary fiber is 25-38 grams per day for adults, depending on age and gender.

Beta-glucosidase is an enzyme that breaks down certain types of complex sugars, specifically those that contain a beta-glycosidic bond. This enzyme is found in various organisms, including humans, and plays a role in the digestion of some carbohydrates, such as cellulose and other plant-based materials.

In the human body, beta-glucosidase is produced by the lysosomes, which are membrane-bound organelles found within cells that help break down and recycle various biological molecules. Beta-glucosidase is involved in the breakdown of glycolipids and gangliosides, which are complex lipids that contain sugar molecules.

Deficiencies in beta-glucosidase activity can lead to certain genetic disorders, such as Gaucher disease, in which there is an accumulation of glucocerebrosidase, a type of glycolipid, within the lysosomes. This can result in various symptoms, including enlargement of the liver and spleen, anemia, and bone pain.

Excipients are inactive substances that serve as vehicles or mediums for the active ingredients in medications. They make up the bulk of a pharmaceutical formulation and help to stabilize, preserve, and enhance the delivery of the active drug compound. Common examples of excipients include binders, fillers, coatings, disintegrants, flavors, sweeteners, and colors. While excipients are generally considered safe and inert, they can sometimes cause allergic reactions or other adverse effects in certain individuals.

'Clostridium' is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in nature, including in soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans. Many species of Clostridium are anaerobic, meaning they can grow and reproduce in environments with little or no oxygen. Some species of Clostridium are capable of producing toxins that can cause serious and sometimes life-threatening illnesses in humans and animals.

Some notable species of Clostridium include:

* Clostridium tetani, which causes tetanus (also known as lockjaw)
* Clostridium botulinum, which produces botulinum toxin, the most potent neurotoxin known and the cause of botulism
* Clostridium difficile, which can cause severe diarrhea and colitis, particularly in people who have recently taken antibiotics
* Clostridium perfringens, which can cause food poisoning and gas gangrene.

It is important to note that not all species of Clostridium are harmful, and some are even beneficial, such as those used in the production of certain fermented foods like sauerkraut and natto. However, due to their ability to produce toxins and cause illness, it is important to handle and dispose of materials contaminated with Clostridium species carefully, especially in healthcare settings.

Cellulosomes are large, complex enzymatic structures produced by certain anaerobic bacteria that allow them to break down and consume cellulose, a major component of plant biomass. These structures are composed of multiple enzymes that work together in a coordinated manner to degrade cellulose into simpler sugars, which the bacteria can then use as a source of energy and carbon.

The individual enzymes in a cellulosome are non-covalently associated with a central scaffoldin protein, forming a multi-enzyme complex. The scaffoldin protein contains cohesin modules that bind to dockerin modules on the enzyme subunits, creating a highly organized and stable structure.

Cellulosomes have been identified in several species of anaerobic bacteria, including members of the genera Clostridium and Ruminococcus. They are thought to play a key role in the global carbon cycle by breaking down plant material and releasing carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere.

Glycoside hydrolases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds found in various substrates such as polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, and glycoproteins. These enzymes break down complex carbohydrates into simpler sugars by cleaving the glycosidic linkages that connect monosaccharide units.

Glycoside hydrolases are classified based on their mechanism of action and the type of glycosidic bond they hydrolyze. The classification system is maintained by the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB). Each enzyme in this class is assigned a unique Enzyme Commission (EC) number, which reflects its specificity towards the substrate and the type of reaction it catalyzes.

These enzymes have various applications in different industries, including food processing, biofuel production, pulp and paper manufacturing, and biomedical research. In medicine, glycoside hydrolases are used to diagnose and monitor certain medical conditions, such as carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome, a rare inherited disorder affecting the structure of glycoproteins.

Glucans are polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates) that are made up of long chains of glucose molecules. They can be found in the cell walls of certain plants, fungi, and bacteria. In medicine, beta-glucans derived from yeast or mushrooms have been studied for their potential immune-enhancing effects. However, more research is needed to fully understand their role and effectiveness in human health.

Dextrins are a group of carbohydrates that are produced by the hydrolysis of starches. They are made up of shorter chains of glucose molecules than the original starch, and their molecular weight and physical properties can vary depending on the degree of hydrolysis. Dextrins are often used in food products as thickeners, stabilizers, and texturizers, and they also have applications in industry as adhesives and binders. In a medical context, dextrins may be used as a source of calories for patients who have difficulty digesting other types of carbohydrates.

'Clostridium cellulolyticum' is a species of gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic bacteria found in soil and aquatic environments. It is known for its ability to break down complex carbohydrates such as cellulose and hemicellulose into simple sugars through the process of fermentation. This makes it a potential candidate for biofuel production from plant biomass.

The bacterium produces a range of enzymes that can degrade these polysaccharides, including cellulases and xylanases. These enzymes work together in a complex system to break down the cellulose and hemicellulose into monosaccharides, which can then be fermented by the bacterium to produce various end products such as acetate, ethanol, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide.

'Clostridium cellulolyticum' is also known to produce a number of other enzymes and metabolites that have potential applications in industry, including amylases, proteases, and lipases. However, further research is needed to fully understand the biology and potential uses of this organism.

Fermentation is a metabolic process in which an organism converts carbohydrates into alcohol or organic acids using enzymes. In the absence of oxygen, certain bacteria, yeasts, and fungi convert sugars into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and various end products, such as alcohol, lactic acid, or acetic acid. This process is commonly used in food production, such as in making bread, wine, and beer, as well as in industrial applications for the production of biofuels and chemicals.

'Clostridium cellulovorans' is a species of gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic bacteria that is commonly found in soil and aquatic environments. It is known for its ability to break down complex carbohydrates, such as cellulose and xylan, into simpler sugars, which it then ferments to produce various end products, including acetate, ethanol, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide.

The bacterium is of interest in the field of bioenergy, as its ability to efficiently convert plant biomass into useful chemicals has potential applications in the production of biofuels and other bioproducts. Additionally, 'C. cellulovorans' has been studied for its potential use in bioremediation, as it is capable of degrading a variety of pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides.

It is important to note that while 'C. cellulovorans' is generally considered to be a non-pathogenic bacterium, it can cause infections in individuals with compromised immune systems or underlying medical conditions. As with any potential pathogen, appropriate precautions should be taken when handling this organism in the laboratory setting.

In the context of medical terminology, tablets refer to pharmaceutical dosage forms that contain various active ingredients. They are often manufactured in a solid, compressed form and can be administered orally. Tablets may come in different shapes, sizes, colors, and flavors, depending on their intended use and the manufacturer's specifications.

Some tablets are designed to disintegrate or dissolve quickly in the mouth, making them easier to swallow, while others are formulated to release their active ingredients slowly over time, allowing for extended drug delivery. These types of tablets are known as sustained-release or controlled-release tablets.

Tablets may contain a single active ingredient or a combination of several ingredients, depending on the intended therapeutic effect. They are typically manufactured using a variety of excipients, such as binders, fillers, and disintegrants, which help to hold the tablet together and ensure that it breaks down properly when ingested.

Overall, tablets are a convenient and widely used dosage form for administering medications, offering patients an easy-to-use and often palatable option for receiving their prescribed treatments.

Peptococcaceae is a family of obligately anaerobic, non-spore forming, gram-positive cocci that are found as normal flora in the human gastrointestinal tract. These bacteria are commonly isolated from feces and are known to be associated with various human infections, particularly intra-abdominal abscesses, bacteremia, and brain abscesses. The genus Peptococcus includes several species, such as Peptococcus niger and Peptococcus saccharolyticus, which are known to be associated with human infections. However, it is important to note that the taxonomy of this group of bacteria has undergone significant revisions in recent years, and some species previously classified as Peptococcaceae have been reassigned to other families.

Hydrolysis is a chemical process, not a medical one. However, it is relevant to medicine and biology.

Hydrolysis is the breakdown of a chemical compound due to its reaction with water, often resulting in the formation of two or more simpler compounds. In the context of physiology and medicine, hydrolysis is a crucial process in various biological reactions, such as the digestion of food molecules like proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Enzymes called hydrolases catalyze these hydrolysis reactions to speed up the breakdown process in the body.

Psyllium is a type of fiber derived from the seeds of the Plantago ovata plant. It's often used as a bulk-forming laxative to help promote regularity and relieve constipation. When psyllium comes into contact with water, it swells and forms a gel-like substance that helps move waste through the digestive tract. In addition to its laxative effects, psyllium has also been shown to help lower cholesterol levels and control blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. It's available in various forms such as powder, capsules, and wafers, and can be found in many over-the-counter supplements and medications.

Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates consisting of long chains of monosaccharide units (simple sugars) bonded together by glycosidic linkages. They can be classified based on the type of monosaccharides and the nature of the bonds that connect them.

Polysaccharides have various functions in living organisms. For example, starch and glycogen serve as energy storage molecules in plants and animals, respectively. Cellulose provides structural support in plants, while chitin is a key component of fungal cell walls and arthropod exoskeletons.

Some polysaccharides also have important roles in the human body, such as being part of the extracellular matrix (e.g., hyaluronic acid) or acting as blood group antigens (e.g., ABO blood group substances).

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Wood" is not a medical term. It is a common name for various hard, fibrous tissues that make up the trunks and branches of trees and shrubs, as well as a term used for a wide range of items made from these materials. If you have any medical concerns or questions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Glucan 1,4-beta-Glucosidase is an enzyme that breaks down certain types of complex carbohydrates known as beta-glucans. Specifically, this enzyme hydrolyzes the beta-1,4 glycosidic bonds in glucans, releasing individual glucose molecules. It is found in various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and plants. In humans, it plays a role in the digestion of certain dietary fibers and may have potential applications in medical and industrial settings, such as in the treatment of bacterial infections or the production of biofuels.

Xylosidases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of xylosides, which are glycosides with a xylose sugar. Specifically, they cleave the terminal β-1,4-linked D-xylopyranoside residues from various substrates such as xylooligosaccharides and xylan. These enzymes play an important role in the breakdown and metabolism of plant-derived polysaccharides, particularly hemicelluloses, which are a major component of plant biomass. Xylosidases have potential applications in various industrial processes, including biofuel production and animal feed manufacturing.

Pharmaceutical chemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the design, synthesis, and development of chemical entities used as medications. It involves the study of drugs' physical, chemical, and biological properties, as well as their interactions with living organisms. This field also encompasses understanding the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of drugs in the body, which are critical factors in drug design and development. Pharmaceutical chemists often work closely with biologists, medical professionals, and engineers to develop new medications and improve existing ones.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Polyporaceae" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic category in mycology, which is the branch of biology that deals with the study of fungi.

Polyporaceae is a family of fungi that includes various types of polypores, which are characterized by having pores on the underside of their fruiting bodies (the above-ground reproductive structures) instead of gills. These fungi are mostly saprotrophic, meaning they decompose dead or decaying organic matter to obtain nutrients. Some species can also be parasitic and cause diseases in living trees.

Examples of genera within Polyporaceae include Trametes, Ganoderma, Fomes, and Irpex, among others. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, please feel free to ask!

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

"Gossypium" is the scientific name for the cotton plant. It belongs to the Malvaceae family and is native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world. The cotton plant produces soft, fluffy fibers that are used to make a wide variety of textiles, including clothing, bedding, and other household items.

The medical community may use the term "Gossypium" in certain contexts, such as when discussing allergic reactions or sensitivities to cotton products. However, it is more commonly used in botany and agriculture than in medical terminology.

Xylan Endo-1,3-beta-Xylosidase is an enzyme that breaks down xylan, which is a major component of hemicellulose in plant cell walls. This enzyme specifically catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in xylans, resulting in the release of xylose units from the xylan backbone. It is involved in the process of breaking down plant material for various industrial applications and in the natural decomposition of plants by microorganisms.

Ruminococcus is a genus of obligate anaerobic, gram-positive bacteria that are commonly found in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other animals. These bacteria play a crucial role in breaking down complex carbohydrates and fibers in the gut through fermentation, producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as byproducts. Ruminococcus species are particularly abundant in the rumen of ruminants such as cows and sheep, where they help to digest plant material. In humans, Ruminococcus species have been associated with various aspects of health and disease, including gut inflammation, colon cancer, and metabolic disorders. However, more research is needed to fully understand the complex relationship between these bacteria and human health.

Fibrobacter is a genus of anaerobic, gram-negative bacteria that primarily resides in the gastrointestinal tracts of ruminants and other herbivorous animals. These bacteria are specialized in breaking down complex plant fibers, such as cellulose and xylan, into simpler sugars through fermentation. This process plays a crucial role in the digestion and nutrient acquisition from plant-based diets in these animals.

In human medicine, Fibrobacter species have been found in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract, but their significance in human health and disease is not well understood. Some studies suggest that an increased abundance of Fibrobacter may be associated with certain gut disorders like irritable bowel syndrome or inflammatory bowel disease; however, more research is needed to establish a clear relationship and understand the underlying mechanisms.

In the context of medical terminology, "powders" do not have a specific technical definition. However, in a general sense, powders refer to dry, finely ground or pulverized solid substances that can be dispersed in air or liquid mediums. In medicine, powders may include various forms of medications, such as crushed tablets or capsules, which are intended to be taken orally, mixed with liquids, or applied topically. Additionally, certain medical treatments and therapies may involve the use of medicated powders for various purposes, such as drying agents, abrasives, or delivery systems for active ingredients.

Mitosporic fungi, also known as asexual fungi or anamorphic fungi, are a group of fungi that produce mitospores (also called conidia) during their asexual reproduction. Mitospores are produced from the tip of specialized hyphae called conidiophores and are used for dispersal and survival of the fungi in various environments. These fungi do not have a sexual reproductive stage or it has not been observed, making their taxonomic classification challenging. They are commonly found in soil, decaying organic matter, and water, and some of them can cause diseases in humans, animals, and plants. Examples of mitosporic fungi include Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium species.

Arabidopsis proteins refer to the proteins that are encoded by the genes in the Arabidopsis thaliana plant, which is a model organism commonly used in plant biology research. This small flowering plant has a compact genome and a short life cycle, making it an ideal subject for studying various biological processes in plants.

Arabidopsis proteins play crucial roles in many cellular functions, such as metabolism, signaling, regulation of gene expression, response to environmental stresses, and developmental processes. Research on Arabidopsis proteins has contributed significantly to our understanding of plant biology and has provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying various agronomic traits.

Some examples of Arabidopsis proteins include transcription factors, kinases, phosphatases, receptors, enzymes, and structural proteins. These proteins can be studied using a variety of techniques, such as biochemical assays, protein-protein interaction studies, and genetic approaches, to understand their functions and regulatory mechanisms in plants.

Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases are a type of enzyme that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in xylans, which are complex polysaccharides made up of beta-1,4-linked xylose residues. Xylan is a major hemicellulose component found in the cell walls of plants, and endo-1,4-beta Xylanases play an important role in the breakdown and digestion of plant material by various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and animals. These enzymes are widely used in industrial applications, such as biofuel production, food processing, and pulp and paper manufacturing, to break down xylans and improve the efficiency of various processes.

A plant stem is not typically defined in a medical context, but rather in the field of botany. However, I can certainly provide a general biological definition for you.

In plants, stems are organs that serve primarily as support structures, holding leaves, flowers, and fruits aloft where they can receive sunlight and exchange gases. They also act as conduits, transporting water, nutrients, and sugars made during photosynthesis between the roots and shoots of a plant.

The stem is usually composed of three main tissue systems: dermal, vascular, and ground. The dermal tissue system forms the outermost layer(s) of the stem, providing protection and sometimes participating in gas exchange. The vascular tissue system contains the xylem (which transports water and nutrients upward) and phloem (which transports sugars and other organic compounds downward). The ground tissue system, located between the dermal and vascular tissues, is responsible for food storage and support.

While not a direct medical definition, understanding the structure and function of plant stems can be relevant in fields such as nutrition, agriculture, and environmental science, which have implications for human health.

Artificial membranes are synthetic or man-made materials that possess properties similar to natural biological membranes, such as selective permeability and barrier functions. These membranes can be designed to control the movement of molecules, ions, or cells across them, making them useful in various medical and biotechnological applications.

Examples of artificial membranes include:

1. Dialysis membranes: Used in hemodialysis for patients with renal failure, these semi-permeable membranes filter waste products and excess fluids from the blood while retaining essential proteins and cells.
2. Hemofiltration membranes: Utilized in extracorporeal circuits to remove larger molecules, such as cytokines or inflammatory mediators, from the blood during critical illnesses or sepsis.
3. Drug delivery systems: Artificial membranes can be used to encapsulate drugs, allowing for controlled release and targeted drug delivery in specific tissues or cells.
4. Tissue engineering: Synthetic membranes serve as scaffolds for cell growth and tissue regeneration, guiding the formation of new functional tissues.
5. Biosensors: Artificial membranes can be integrated into biosensing devices to selectively detect and quantify biomolecules, such as proteins or nucleic acids, in diagnostic applications.
6. Microfluidics: Artificial membranes are used in microfluidic systems for lab-on-a-chip applications, enabling the manipulation and analysis of small volumes of fluids for various medical and biological purposes.

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a type of electron microscopy that uses a focused beam of electrons to scan the surface of a sample and produce a high-resolution image. In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of a specimen, and secondary electrons are emitted from the sample due to interactions between the electrons and the atoms in the sample. These secondary electrons are then detected by a detector and used to create an image of the sample's surface topography. SEM can provide detailed images of the surface of a wide range of materials, including metals, polymers, ceramics, and biological samples. It is commonly used in materials science, biology, and electronics for the examination and analysis of surfaces at the micro- and nanoscale.

Solubility is a fundamental concept in pharmaceutical sciences and medicine, which refers to the maximum amount of a substance (solute) that can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent (usually water) at a specific temperature and pressure. Solubility is typically expressed as mass of solute per volume or mass of solvent (e.g., grams per liter, milligrams per milliliter). The process of dissolving a solute in a solvent results in a homogeneous solution where the solute particles are dispersed uniformly throughout the solvent.

Understanding the solubility of drugs is crucial for their formulation, administration, and therapeutic effectiveness. Drugs with low solubility may not dissolve sufficiently to produce the desired pharmacological effect, while those with high solubility might lead to rapid absorption and short duration of action. Therefore, optimizing drug solubility through various techniques like particle size reduction, salt formation, or solubilization is an essential aspect of drug development and delivery.

A hypocotyl is not a medical term per se, but it is a term used in the field of botany, which is a branch of biology that deals with the study of plants. Therefore, I'd be happy to provide you with a definition of hypocotyl in a botanical context:

The hypocotyl is the portion of the embryo or seedling of a plant that lies between the cotyledons (the embryonic leaves) and the radicle (the embryonic root). In other words, it is the stem-like structure that connects the shoot and the root systems in a developing plant.

When a seed germinates, the hypocotyl elongates and pushes the cotyledons upward through the soil, allowing the young plant to emerge into the light. The hypocotyl can vary in length depending on the species of plant, and its growth is influenced by various environmental factors such as light and temperature.

While the term "hypocotyl" may not be commonly used in medical contexts, understanding basic botanical concepts like this one can still be useful for healthcare professionals who work with patients who have plant-related allergies or other health issues related to plants.

Cotton fiber is not a medical term, but I can provide you with some information about cotton fibers in a general context.

Cotton fibers are soft, fluffy staple fibers that grow in a protective case called a boll around the seeds of cotton plants. Cotton fibers are primarily composed of cellulose, which is an organic compound and the main structural component of plant cells. These fibers are typically spun into yarn or thread and used to make a wide variety of textiles, including clothing and other soft goods.

Cotton fibers have some unique properties that make them suitable for medical applications as well:

1. Hypoallergenic: Cotton is generally considered hypoallergenic, meaning it is less likely to cause an allergic reaction compared to other materials. This makes cotton a popular choice for medical bandages, swabs, and other products that come into contact with the skin.
2. Absorbent: Cotton fibers are highly absorbent, which can be useful in medical settings for managing wounds, incontinence, or excessive sweating.
3. Breathable: Cotton is a breathable material, allowing air to pass through and helping to maintain a comfortable body temperature. This property makes cotton an excellent choice for medical garments, bedding, and other products that require good ventilation.
4. Comfortable: Cotton fibers are soft, lightweight, and gentle on the skin, making them a preferred material for medical textiles and clothing designed for people with sensitive skin or medical conditions like eczema or dermatitis.
5. Durable: Although cotton fibers can be delicate when wet, they are relatively strong and durable in dry conditions. This makes cotton an appropriate choice for reusable medical products like gowns, scrubs, and linens.

Biofuels are defined as fuels derived from organic materials such as plants, algae, and animal waste. These fuels can be produced through various processes, including fermentation, esterification, and transesterification. The most common types of biofuels include biodiesel, ethanol, and biogas.

Biodiesel is a type of fuel that is produced from vegetable oils or animal fats through a process called transesterification. It can be used in diesel engines with little or no modification and can significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions compared to traditional fossil fuels.

Ethanol is a type of alcohol that is produced through the fermentation of sugars found in crops such as corn, sugarcane, and switchgrass. It is typically blended with gasoline to create a fuel known as E85, which contains 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline.

Biogas is a type of fuel that is produced through the anaerobic digestion of organic materials such as food waste, sewage sludge, and agricultural waste. It is composed primarily of methane and carbon dioxide and can be used to generate electricity or heat.

Overall, biofuels offer a renewable and more sustainable alternative to traditional fossil fuels, helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and decrease dependence on non-renewable resources.

'Arabidopsis' is a genus of small flowering plants that are part of the mustard family (Brassicaceae). The most commonly studied species within this genus is 'Arabidopsis thaliana', which is often used as a model organism in plant biology and genetics research. This plant is native to Eurasia and Africa, and it has a small genome that has been fully sequenced. It is known for its short life cycle, self-fertilization, and ease of growth, making it an ideal subject for studying various aspects of plant biology, including development, metabolism, and response to environmental stresses.

Adsorption is a process in which atoms, ions, or molecules from a gas, liquid, or dissolved solid accumulate on the surface of a material. This occurs because the particles in the adsorbate (the substance being adsorbed) have forces that attract them to the surface of the adsorbent (the material that the adsorbate is adhering to).

In medical terms, adsorption can refer to the use of materials with adsorptive properties to remove harmful substances from the body. For example, activated charcoal is sometimes used in the treatment of poisoning because it can adsorb a variety of toxic substances and prevent them from being absorbed into the bloodstream.

It's important to note that adsorption is different from absorption, which refers to the process by which a substance is taken up and distributed throughout a material or tissue.

Drug compounding is the process of combining, mixing, or altering ingredients to create a customized medication to meet the specific needs of an individual patient. This can be done for a variety of reasons, such as when a patient has an allergy to a certain ingredient in a mass-produced medication, or when a patient requires a different dosage or formulation than what is available commercially.

Compounding requires specialized training and equipment, and compounding pharmacists must follow strict guidelines to ensure the safety and efficacy of the medications they produce. Compounded medications are not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), but the FDA does regulate the ingredients used in compounding and has oversight over the practices of compounding pharmacies.

It's important to note that while compounding can provide benefits for some patients, it also carries risks, such as the potential for contamination or incorrect dosing. Patients should only receive compounded medications from reputable pharmacies that follow proper compounding standards and procedures.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

The rumen is the largest compartment of the stomach in ruminant animals, such as cows, goats, and sheep. It is a specialized fermentation chamber where microbes break down tough plant material into nutrients that the animal can absorb and use for energy and growth. The rumen contains billions of microorganisms, including bacteria, protozoa, and fungi, which help to break down cellulose and other complex carbohydrates in the plant material through fermentation.

The rumen is characterized by its large size, muscular walls, and the presence of a thick mat of partially digested food and microbes called the rumen mat or cud. The animal regurgitates the rumen contents periodically to chew it again, which helps to break down the plant material further and mix it with saliva, creating a more favorable environment for fermentation.

The rumen plays an essential role in the digestion and nutrition of ruminant animals, allowing them to thrive on a diet of low-quality plant material that would be difficult for other animals to digest.

Uridine Diphosphate Glucose (UDP-glucose) is a nucleotide sugar that plays a crucial role in the synthesis and metabolism of carbohydrates in the body. It is formed from uridine triphosphate (UTP) and glucose-1-phosphate through the action of the enzyme UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase.

UDP-glucose serves as a key intermediate in various biochemical pathways, including glycogen synthesis, where it donates glucose molecules to form glycogen, a large polymeric storage form of glucose found primarily in the liver and muscles. It is also involved in the biosynthesis of other carbohydrate-containing compounds such as proteoglycans and glycolipids.

Moreover, UDP-glucose is an essential substrate for the enzyme glucosyltransferase, which is responsible for adding glucose molecules to various acceptor molecules during the process of glycosylation. This post-translational modification is critical for the proper folding and functioning of many proteins.

Overall, UDP-glucose is a vital metabolic intermediate that plays a central role in carbohydrate metabolism and protein function.

Tetroses are a type of monosaccharides, which are simple sugars that cannot be broken down into simpler units by hydrolysis. Tetroses have four carbon atoms and are aldotetroses, meaning they contain an aldehyde functional group at the first carbon atom.

There are two naturally occurring tetroses: erythrose and threose. Erythrose has its hydroxyl groups on the second and fourth carbon atoms, while threose has its hydroxyl groups on the second and third carbon atoms. Tetroses can participate in various chemical reactions, including forming glycosidic bonds with other monosaccharides to create disaccharides or polysaccharides. However, tetroses are not as common as other monosaccharides, such as pentoses and hexoses.

... is a water-insoluble derivative of cellulose. It can be produced from cellulose by the action of an ... "Oxidized cellulose". Oto A, Remer EM, O'Malley CM, Tkach JA, Gill IS (June 1999). "MR characteristics of oxidized cellulose ( ... Oxidized cellulose may contain carboxylic acid, aldehyde, and/or ketone groups, in addition to the original hydroxyl groups of ... "Oxidised Cellulose". Advanced Medical Solutions Group plc. Resnik, Randolph R. (2018). "Intraoperative Complications". Misch's ...
Subsequently, pectin and cellulose are digested. Finally, waxes are degraded and lignin oxidized. The staggering of energy ... As a consequence, fungi specifically target the breakdown of the cellulose in their environment, and do not waste energy on the ... On depletion of primary sources of glucose, enzymes to degrade more complex molecules such as cellulose and starch, are then ... The most common complex carbohydrate available in the environment is cellulose. In the absence of glucose, detection of ...
... the cellulose was completely and suddenly oxidized. Schönbein recognized the possibilities of the new compound. Ordinary black ... Schönbein, in fact, had converted the cellulose of the apron, with the nitro groups (added from the nitric acid) serving as an ...
"The Use Of Local Agents: Bone Wax, Gelatin, Collagen, Oxidized Cellulose." European Spine Journal 2004; 13.: S89-S96. Smith ...
The nerve can be surrounded in oxidized regenerated cellulose to prevent further scarring. Sciatic nerve palsy can also result ...
Shani N, Shani Z, Shoseyov O, Mruwat R, Shoseyov D (January 2011). "Oxidized cellulose binding to allergens with a carbohydrate ... Cellulose Plant cell wall Acid growth Cosgrove DJ (September 2000). "Loosening of plant cell walls by expansins" (PDF). Nature ... Hemicelluloses can tether cellulose microfibrils together, forming a strong load-bearing network. Expansin is thought to ... By loosening the linkages between cellulose microfibrils, expansins allow the wall to yield to the tensile stresses created in ...
Cellulose nitrate can be identified with a chemical spot test using diphenylamine. This ivory can degrade and produce acidic ... and oxidizing nitrogen. Oxide gases have been known to spontaneously combust so if this type of ivory shows any deterioration ... Because it is usually composed of cellulose nitrate, it is potentially flammable and must be kept away from heat or other ... A proprietary plastic of cellulose nitrate and camphor that was developed in the mid-19th century as an ivory substitute. Other ...
The SCOBY creates a bacterial cellulose film, like what is seen in mother of vinegar. The bacteria also oxidizes the alcohol to ... Mother of vinegar is a biofilm composed of a form of cellulose, yeast, and bacteria that sometimes develops on fermenting ... The veil is nontoxic and is composed of cellulose and AAB. The raw materials and other manufacturing features determine what ... After the fermentation process, the AAB oxidizes the ethanol into acetic acid. The main difference between mother of vinegar ...
A. clavatus has the properties to oxidize tryptamine to indole acetic acid. It can absorb and collect hydrocarbons from fuel ... Substantial degree of lipid synthesis occurs, whereas cellulose and usnic acid are degraded. A. clavatus also produces ...
It works as a redox catalyst by oxidizing cellulose and reducing lignin. This protects the cellulose from degradation and makes ... Acidic sulfite processes degrade cellulose more than the kraft process, which leads to weaker fibers. Kraft pulping removes ... The hydrophobic nature of lignin interferes with the formation of the hydrogen bonds between cellulose (and hemicellulose) in ... cellulose fibers containing approximately 5% residual lignin) produced by the pulping is first washed to remove some of the ...
Dental practitioners usually have absorbent gauze, hemostatic packing material (oxidized cellulose, collagen sponge), and ... and the use of oxidized cellulose (gelfoam) and fibrin sealant. ...
Brodbelt AR, Miles JB, Foy PM, Broome JC (March 2002). "Intraspinal oxidised cellulose (Surgicel) causing delayed paraplegia ...
It reacts violently with oxidizing materials and it attacks many plastics. Isopropyl acetate is quite flammable in both its ... It is used as a solvent for cellulose, plastics, oil and fats. It is a component of some printing inks and perfumes. Isopropyl ...
Some common examples are carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), cationic and anionic hydroxyethyl cellulose (EHEC), modified starch, ... Styrene butadiene latex, Styrene acrylic, dextrin, oxidized starch are used in coatings to bind the filler to the paper. Co- ... Starch has a similar chemical structure as the cellulose fibre of the pulp, and the surface of both the starch and fibre are ... Chemical pulping involves dissolving lignin in order to extract the cellulose from the wood fiber. The different processes of ...
... like protein specifically oxidizes cellulose oligomers and plays a role in immunity". The Plant Journal. 98 (3): 540-554. doi: ... Other example of carbohydrate oxidizing BBE-like enzyme is nectarin V (Nec5) from tobacco. Its function is to convert glucose ... fragments of cellulose) as DAMPS. Berberine bridge enzyme (BBE) is a central enzyme in the biosynthesis of berberine, a ...
Not only cellulose, but also the lignin contained in the paper is oxidized, which leads to the yellowing of the paper. The ... Parallel to the degradation under the influence of water, the cellulose chains react with oxygen, in result of oxidation the ... The aluminum sulphate remaining in the paper form, in reaction with water, acids that catalyze the decomposition of cellulose ( ... I. Kinetic analysis of the aging Process". Cellulose. 3: 243-267. doi:10.1007/BF02228805. S2CID 136945352. Barański, Andrzej ( ...
In oxidative desizing, the risk of damage to the cellulose fiber is very high, and its use for desizing is increasingly rare. ... Oxidative desizing uses potassium or sodium persulfate or sodium bromite as an oxidizing agent. Cold solutions of dilute ... this has the disadvantage of also affecting the cellulose fiber in cotton fabrics. Fabrics containing water-soluble sizes can ...
The group of Isogai reported fibril widths of 3-5 nm for TEMPO-oxidized cellulose having a charge density of 1.5 meq./g. Pulp ... Cellulose Cellulose fiber Microcrystalline cellulose Composite material Zhu, Hongli; Luo, Wei; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Fang, ... This may be either cellulose nanocrystal (CNC or NCC), cellulose nanofibers (CNF) also called nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC), ... Nanocellulose, which is also called cellulose nanofibers (CNF), microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) or cellulose nanocrystal (CNC ...
The effects of hydrogen peroxide and bleach on cellulose in oxidised sugar beet pulp. 9th IUPAC International Conference on ... Its cellulose content is approximately 20%. Curran composites have a tensile strength of 5 gigapascals. Curran has a 5% strain ... The word curran means "carrot" in Scottish Gaelic, a reference to the fact that cellulose fibres from carrots were used to ... They began researching carrot-derived cellulose fibres in 2002. In 2004, they founded Cellucomp, Ltd. in Fife with funding from ...
It causes white rot, a type of wood decay in which lignin is degraded and cellulose remains as a light-colored residue. The ... oxidized lignin. Daedaleopsis confragosa is a lignicolous fungus that produces a decay of sapwood. ...
Next to cellulose hemicellulose is the second most abundant source of carbohydrates in a plant. cellulose is a homopolymer of ... Ester linkages arise between oxidized sugars, the uronic acids, and the phenols and phenylpropanols functionalities of the ... This extraction is made easier by the fact that the strands of cellulose are integrated into, but not covalently attached to ... It is composed of two kinds of carbohydrate polymers, cellulose and hemicellulose, and an aromatic-rich polymer called lignin. ...
These bacteria are chemo-organotrophs, meaning they create energy by oxidizing organic matter, making them versatile in terms ... However, T. roseus is unable to utilize mannitol, carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium acetate, sodium pyruvate or monomers of ... T. roseus was found to oxidize glucose, fructose, galactose, mannose, xylose, sucrose, maltose, arabinose, cellobiose, and many ...
All mycofactocins share a precursor in the form of premycofactocin (PMFT); they differ by the cellulose tail added. Being redox ... active, both PMFT and MFT have an oxidized dione (mycofactocinone) form and a reduced diol (mycofactocinol) form, respectively ... cellulose), sometimes substituting derivatives such as 2-O-methylglucose. Mycofactocin, therefore, is not a single compound, ...
Chloric acid Oxidizing acid Fomon, S. (1920). Medicine and the Allied Sciences. D. Appleton. p. 148. "Safety (MSDS) data for ... Organic compounds were added to the overheating bath when an iron rack was replaced with one coated with cellulose ... Given its strong oxidizing properties, perchloric acid is subject to extensive regulations as it can react violently with ... only showing strong acid features and no oxidizing properties. Perchloric acid is useful for preparing perchlorate salts, ...
... is a hemostatic agent (blood-clot-inducing material) made of an oxidized cellulose polymer (polyanhydroglucuronic acid ...
It is a solvent for cellulose acetate and ethyl cellulose, textile printing dyes, in dewaxing, refining of rosin, extraction of ... The alcohol is then further oxidized via chloroacetaldehyde to chloroacetate. This metabolic pathway is topical since billions ...
The reaction mechanism may involve single electron transfer (SET). The anthraquinone oxidizes the reducing end of ... polysaccharides in the pulp, i.e., cellulose and hemicellulose, and thereby protecting it from alkaline degradation (peeling). ...
Other genera, such as Gluconobacter, do not oxidize ethanol, as they do not have a full set of Krebs cycle enzymes. As these ... Acetobacter xylinum is able to synthesize cellulose, something normally done only by plants. Raspor P; Goranovic D (2008). " ... Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are a group of Gram-negative bacteria which oxidize sugars or ethanol and produce acetic acid during ... Indian Journal of Microbiology 53, 377-384 (2013). Kaushal, R.; Walker, T. K. (May 1951). "Formation of cellulose by certain ...
They break down proteins (e.g. in blood and egg stains), starch, fats, cellulose (e.g. in vegetable puree), and mannans (e.g. ... and the presence of surfactants or oxidizing agents. The five classes of enzymes found in laundry detergent include proteases, ...
The compound can also be produced if halothane is oxidized using CYP2E1. This is also done with CYP2A6 instead of CPY2E1, but ... Trifluoroacetyl chloride also reacts with soil, cellulose-based absorbents, and clay-based absorbents. When the compound reacts ...
Oxidized cellulose is a water-insoluble derivative of cellulose. It can be produced from cellulose by the action of an ... "Oxidized cellulose". Oto A, Remer EM, OMalley CM, Tkach JA, Gill IS (June 1999). "MR characteristics of oxidized cellulose ( ... Oxidized cellulose may contain carboxylic acid, aldehyde, and/or ketone groups, in addition to the original hydroxyl groups of ... "Oxidised Cellulose". Advanced Medical Solutions Group plc. Resnik, Randolph R. (2018). "Intraoperative Complications". Mischs ...
The role of oxidised regenerated cellulose/collagen in wound repair: effects in vitro on fibroblast biology and in vivo in a ... Use of Oxidized Regenerated Cellulose (ORC)/Collagen/Silver-ORC Dressing Alone or Subsequent to Advanced Wound Therapies in ... Oxidized regenerated cellulose (ORC)/collagen/silver-ORC dressings have been shown to help optimize the wound environment and ... use_of_oxidized_regenerated_cellulose_orc-collagen-silverorc_dressing_alone_or_subsequent_to_advanced_wound_therapies_in_ ...
Recent exploration of nanoparticles has resulted in the creation of Oxone Mediated TEMPO-Oxidized Nano Cellulose which has ... However, traditional filters, such as cellulose triacetate, used during dialysis can be inefficient in terms of separation ... leading to the belief that it would not be much better than the traditional cellulose triacetate filters. The third membrane, ... Recent exploration of nanoparticles has resulted in the creation of Oxone Mediated TEMPO-Oxidized Nano Cellulose which has ...
Carbon/ZnO nanorods composites templated by TEMPO-oxidized cellulose and photocatalytic activity for dye degradation *He Xiao ... Small molecular contaminants and the remaining salts were removed through dialysis using a cellulose ester dialysis membrane ... Anatase-Titania Templated by Nanofibrillated Cellulose and Photocatalytic Degradation for Methyl Orange *He Xiao ...
The project is an opportunity to bring together an expert in neutron scattering and well renowned scientist in cellulose area ... Physico-chemical properties of oxidised xylan and its interaction with cellulose for film applications Research Project, 2019 ... Polysaccharide thin film studies - Adsorption of oxidized xylan on cellulose Licentiate thesis ... The project is an opportunity to bring together an expert in neutron scattering and well renowned scientist in cellulose area ...
An Investigation of the Effects of Borohydride Treatments of Oxidized Cellulose Textiles. / Ringgaard, Maj Gudrun; Brooks, Mary ... "An Investigation of the Effects of Borohydride Treatments of Oxidized Cellulose Textiles". Changing Views of Textile ... title = "An Investigation of the Effects of Borohydride Treatments of Oxidized Cellulose Textiles", ... An Investigation of the Effects of Borohydride Treatments of Oxidized Cellulose Textiles. ...
Determination of length distribution of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils by field-flow fractionation/multi-angle laser- ... Polymorphism of Cellulose I Family: Reinvestigation of Cellulose IV I journal, July 2004 * Wada, Masahisa; Heux, Laurent; ... Polymorphism of Cellulose I Family: Reinvestigation of Cellulose IV I journal, July 2004 * Wada, Masahisa; Heux, Laurent; ... Cellulose synthase complex organization and cellulose microfibril structure journal, December 2017 * Turner, Simon; Kumar, ...
Surgiclean Solubable Absorbable Hemostatic Gauze Oxidized Regenerated Cellulose Gauze US$4.5~5.5 / Box ...
Reinforced collagen with oxidized microcrystalline cellulose shows improved hemostatic effects. Li H, Cheng W, Liu K, Chen L, ...
Oxidized regenerated cellulose gauze (Surgicel™, Johnson & Johnson, Piscataway, New Jersey, USA) is a haemostatic packing agent ... To enhance haemostasis, Surgicel™ (oxidized cellulose) gauze was sometimes used in the tooth socket in patients who were ... Oxidized cellulose mesh. I. Biogradable membrane in periodontal surgery. Biomaterials, 1990, 11(8):561-4. ... A comparative animal study using collagen fleece and oxidized cellulose. Neurosurgery, 1987, 20(5):702-9. ...
Oxidized Cellulose: Chemistry, Processing and Medical Applications *Gelatin *Collagen: Characterization, Processing and Medical ...
Achieve hemostasis with spot electrodesiccation, suture ligatures, oxidized cellulose (eg, Surgicel, Oxycel), pressure, or ...
Figure 1 (A) Oxidized regenerated cellulose (Interceed®). (B) Absorbable surgical mesh (Polyglactin 910, Vicryl). ...
The tetrapeptide-cellulose analog on DCNC is contrasted with an analogous derivative of TEMPO-oxidized wood cellulose ... Interpretive Summary: Cotton nanocrystalline cellulose possesses a very high surface area that has many potential uses in ... A deep eutectic solvent (DES) was utilized to mediate formation of cotton cellulose nanocrystals (DCNCs) employed to prepare a ... XRD models revealed the higher crystallinity and larger crystallite sizes of DCNCs, indicating the well-arranged cellulose ...
Use of an oxidized, regenerated cellulose absorbable adhesion barrier at laparoscopy. J Reprod Med. 1991;36(7):479-482. ... Use of oxidized regenerated cellulose (TC&) to prevent postoperative adhesions in laparoscopic herniorrhaphy. Surg Endosc. 1994 ...
Application of nano oxidized cellulose in heavy metal contaminated soil remediation CN115181866A (en) * 2022-07-25. 2022-10-14 ... Application of nano oxidized cellulose in heavy metal contaminated soil remediation CN115181866A (en) * 2022-07-25. 2022-10-14 ... 403 may be selected from an oxidized cellulose material or a humus material having a high CEC value to fill the inner space of ... Thus, the use of nanoparticles of soluble forms and/or humic and/or oxidized cellulose materials is very effective for removing ...
... this oil proved efficient in enriching packaging with anti-oxidizing qualities. This effect helps to keep food fresh for longer ... The dried seagrass fibre is bound together using a cellulose-based extract from the plant. Once mixed, the seagrass is pressed ... Researchers from Kaunas University of Technology (KTU) are examining a way to produce food packaging from cellulose composites ... To achieve antimicrobial effect, we added ionic silver particles to the cellulose based packaging," Danilovas said. "The ...
Global Hemostats Market by Type (Thrombin, Oxidized Regenerated Cellulose, Combination, Gelatin, Collagen), Formulation (Matrix ... Global Adhesion Barrier Market by Product (Regenerated Cellulose, Hyaluronic Acid, PEG), Type (Film, Gel, Liquid), Procedure ( ...
SURGICEL Powder (oxidized regenerated cellulose) is used adjunctively in surgical procedures to assist in the control of ...
Promogran is a sterile, freeze-dried matrix made up of collagen and oxidised regenerated cellulose (ORC). This treatment is ... A randomized, controlled trial of Promogran (a collagen/oxidized regenerated cellulose dressing) vs standard treatment in the ...
Abstract: A method of treatment includes agitating a thixotropic oxidized cellulose solution; administering the agitated ... thixotropic oxidized cellulose solution to a target tissue site; and allowing the agitated thixotropic oxidized cellulose ...
... graft TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofiber blends Author(s): Zhang, Jiaqi; Fujizawa, Shuji; Isogai, Akira; et al.. Source: ...
The environmental safety of cellulose nanofibers (CNF) and TEMPO-oxidized CNF (TOCNF) was here investigated in terms of ... ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY OF CELLULOSE NANOFIBERS: AN IN VIVO STUDY WITH MARINE MUSSEL Mytilus galloprovincialis ... Recent findings on the presence of micro and nanofibers (NF) in Mediterranean species, mostly of cellulose-based composition, ...
Cellulose acetate polymer is used to make a variety of consumer products including textiles, plastic films, and cigarette ... Besides hydrolases like cellulases and acetylesterases, many microorganisms produce cellobiose oxidizing enzymes like quinone ... Cellulose acetate is prepared by acetylating cellulose, the most abundant natural polymer. Cellulose is readily biodegraded by ... Cellulose acetate is made from raw materials with a high content of α-cellulose, but still contains some impurities which might ...
Lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose contribute to C2 (C-O) and C3 (C=O or O-C-O). C4 (O=C-O) peak is due to oxidized groups in ... the content of cellulose and lignin being the most significant difference, i.e., vessel elements were richer in cellulose ... Atalla, R. H. Cellulose and the Hemicelluloses: Patterns for the Assembly of Lignin. ACS Symp. Ser. 697, 172-179 (1998). ... Nakamura, K., Hatakeyama, T. & Hatakeyama, H. Studies on bound water of cellulose by differential scanning calorimetry. Textile ...
Oxidized regenerated cellulose is supplied as a powder or as a fabric. The powder formulation is ideal for epistaxis control ... Compressed nasal sponges can be wrapped in a layer of resorbable oxidized regenerated cellulose fabric prior to insertion to ...
Cellulose aerogels were produced by gas-phase pH induced gelation of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (CNF) and ... Cellulose aerogels are potential alternatives to silica aerogels with advantages in cost, sustainability and mechanical ... However, the density dependence of thermal conductivity (lambda) for cellulose aerogels remains controversial. ...
  • Oxidized regenerated cellulose (ORC)/collagen/silver-ORC dressings have been shown to help optimize the wound environment and promote the development of granulation tissue. (woundsource.com)
  • The role of oxidised regenerated cellulose/collagen in wound repair: effects in vitro on fibroblast biology and in vivo in a model of compromised healing. (woundsource.com)
  • Reinforced collagen with oxidized microcrystalline cellulose shows improved hemostatic effects. (nih.gov)
  • Both in vitro and in vivo studies on the use of oxidized regenerated cellulose/collagen dressing have demonstrated their efficacy in modulating the microenvironment of non-healing wounds by restoring the balance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). (footankleinstitute.com)
  • Oxidized regenerated cellulose gauze (Surgicel™, Johnson & Johnson, Piscataway, New Jersey, USA) is a haemostatic packing agent that accelerates the clotting mechanism [25]. (who.int)
  • Oxidized regenerated cellulose gauze existing pericoronitis were excluded from (SurgicelTM, Johnson & Johnson, Piscata- this study. (who.int)
  • The process, depicted in Figure 1, allows metal ion-exchange for functionalization of the fibers, while incorporating a nanofibrillation of the cellulose fibers, which amplifies the effect of the exchanged metal ions per unit mass. (yet2.com)
  • The hash brown structure triggered this idea that widespread bleeding could be stopped using a small aggregate composed of oxidized regenerated cellulose fibers that break apart after contacting blood. (jhu.edu)
  • Fabrication of the electrodes begins with porous cotton fiber composed of multiple hydrophilic microfibrils-cellulose fibers containing hydroxyl groups. (phys.org)
  • To enhance haemostasis, Surgicel™ (oxidized cellulose) gauze was sometimes used in the tooth socket in patients who were operated under general anaesthesia. (who.int)
  • Pour améliorer l'hémostase, le pansement Surgicel® (cellulose oxydée) a parfois été utilisé dans l'alvéole dentaire chez des patients opérés sous anesthésie générale. (who.int)
  • SURGICEL Powder (oxidized regenerated cellulose) is used adjunctively in surgical procedures to assist in the control of capillary, venous, and small arterial hemorrhage when ligation or other conventional methods of control are impractical or ineffective. (ethicon.com)
  • A deep eutectic solvent (DES) was utilized to mediate formation of cotton cellulose nanocrystals (DCNCs) employed to prepare a peptide-cellulose conjugate as a protease sensor of HNE. (usda.gov)
  • Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), also known as nanowhiskers, have recently gained much attention due to their biodegradable nature, advantageous chemical and mechanical properties, economic value and renewability thus making them attractive for a wide range of applications. (cdc.gov)
  • The tetrapeptide-cellulose analog on DCNC is contrasted with an analogous derivative of TEMPO-oxidized wood cellulose nanofibrils (WCNFs). (usda.gov)
  • At present research areas in the group include self-assembly in deep eutectic solvents, the impact of solvent structures on solvation and nanoparticle growth, gels and emulsions prepared using partially oxidised cellulose nanofibrils and their interactions with other biopolymers, novel bio-derived surfactants, mesoporous inorganic materials and polymer-stabilised lipid nanodiscs for membrane protein supports. (lu.se)
  • Cellulose aerogels were produced by gas-phase pH induced gelation of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (CNF) and supercritical drying. (stanford.edu)
  • Zeon has developed a proprietary ion-exchange and nanodispersion process for producing aqueous solutions of cellulose nanofibers modified for antimicrobial, deodorizing, and heat dissipation functionalities. (yet2.com)
  • Figure 1: Incorporating both metal ion-exchange and fibrillation, Zeon's method of producing functionalized, aqueous solutions of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose (TOC) nanofibers increases surface area and thus amplifies the effect of the metal ions and improves dispersion. (yet2.com)
  • Oxidized cellulose may contain carboxylic acid, aldehyde, and/or ketone groups, in addition to the original hydroxyl groups of the starting material, cellulose, depending on the nature of the oxidant and reaction conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aldehydes can also be oxidized to the corresponding carboxylic acid with the same catalyst, even with substrates that do not self-oxidize under air. (figshare.com)
  • It possessed a value of 118 mg/g at pH 9 and 25 °C. To enhance the adsorption, CNC was oxidized with TEMPO reagent to convert primary hydroxyl groups to carboxyl groups that provides more negative charge. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Background: SurgiGuard® is an absorbent hemostatic agent based on oxidized regenerated cellulose. (bvsalud.org)
  • The high surface area and the presence of permanent negative charge on the surface makes cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) an excellent candidate for the adsorption of basic (cationic) dyes. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Initially the assessments of the biodegradability of CA reached the incorrect conclusion that the polymer is not biodegradable, due to evaluations being performed only with cellulose degrading organisms like fungi [ 3 ]. (springer.com)
  • His PhD subject was looking at ways of producing and using renewable biomaterial (nano-oxidised cellulose) as a replacement of polymers from petrochemical sources and non-biodegradable materials, such as silicones. (rsc.org)
  • Oxidized cellulose is a water-insoluble derivative of cellulose. (wikipedia.org)
  • A six-lobed membrane spanning cellulose synthesis complex (CSC) containing multiple cellulose synthase (CESA) glycosyltransferases mediates cellulose microfibril formation. (osti.gov)
  • Recent exploration of nanoparticles has resulted in the creation of Oxone Mediated TEMPO-Oxidized Nano Cellulose which has properties that are believed to increase hydrophilicity, increase tensile capacity, decrease membrane resistance and lower fouling, making it an ideal filter for dialysis. (uark.edu)
  • The second membrane, Form II, showed slight improvement in each property, but it was very similar to the control, leading to the belief that it would not be much better than the traditional cellulose triacetate filters. (uark.edu)
  • Analysis suggested that the oxidized ZVI nanoparticles will experience a 10 −19 N maximum shear force in pore channels, much lower than the imaging forces in AFM, suggesting the mechanical stability of the particles during water remediation. (rsc.org)
  • Additional quartz crystal microbalance experiments were performed to confirm the mechanical stability of the oxidized iron nanoparticles in the flow environments of ultrafiltration. (rsc.org)
  • Using quartz crystal microbalance, atomic force microscopy, and modeling techniques, we demonstrate that zero valent iron nanoparticles become oxidized after exposure to water yet remain mechanically robust at flow rates comparable to those used in filtration applications. (rsc.org)
  • Cotton nanocrystalline cellulose possesses a very high surface area that has many potential uses in sensor technology. (usda.gov)
  • Upon brief exposure to microwave irradiation, Ag and Fe 3 O 4 NPs formed directly within carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), an inexpensive, biobased polymer support. (figshare.com)
  • Various studies have been conducted on the biodegradability of cellulose acetate, but no review has been compiled which includes biological, chemical, and photo chemical degradation mechanisms. (springer.com)
  • Vesta Navikaitė-Snipaitienė, a chemical engineering Ph.D. student at KTU and one of the research team members, explained that by testing the efficiency of various ethereal oils when added to the cellulose-based film they could produce a better packaging. (plastemart.com)
  • Cellulose aerogels are potential alternatives to silica aerogels with advantages in cost, sustainability and mechanical properties. (stanford.edu)
  • Specifically, recommended digestion methods include the use of chemicals, such as perchloric acid, which are typically unavailable in most accredited industrial hygiene laboratories due to highly corrosive and oxidizing properties. (cdc.gov)
  • The catalytic oxidation of biomass to new materials focusing on starch, cellulose and lignin" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, traditional filters, such as cellulose triacetate, used during dialysis can be inefficient in terms of separation performance and reduction of fouling. (uark.edu)
  • Cellulose acetate polymer is used to make a variety of consumer products including textiles, plastic films, and cigarette filters. (springer.com)
  • The dried seagrass fibre is bound together using a cellulose-based extract from the plant. (plastemart.com)
  • Yun did that when he met his current employer after making a presentation at a conference in the US and is now a Senior Scientist at FiberLean Technologies, a leading global producer of Microfibrillated Cellulose (MFC). (rsc.org)
  • Cellulose is readily biodegraded by organisms that utilize cellulase enzymes, but due to the additional acetyl groups cellulose acetate requires the presence of esterases for the first step in biodegradation. (springer.com)
  • Approach and implementation: The project is an opportunity to bring together an expert in neutron scattering and well renowned scientist in cellulose area as well as interact and disseminate our results but also experiences of using neutron with the industrial partner. (chalmers.se)