Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Oligo-1,6-Glucosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,6-alpha-glucosidic linkages in isomaltose and dextrins produced from starch and glycogen by ALPHA-AMYLASES. EC 3.2.1.10.alpha-Glucosidases: Enzymes that catalyze the exohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages with release of alpha-glucose. Deficiency of alpha-1,4-glucosidase may cause GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE II.Glucosidases: Enzymes that hydrolyze O-glucosyl-compounds. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.2.1.-.1-Deoxynojirimycin: An alpha-glucosidase inhibitor with antiviral action. Derivatives of deoxynojirimycin may have anti-HIV activity.IndolizinesCellulose 1,4-beta-Cellobiosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE and cellotetraose. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing ends of beta-D-glucosides with release of CELLOBIOSE.Cellulose, Oxidized: A cellulose of varied carboxyl content retaining the fibrous structure. It is commonly used as a local hemostatic and as a matrix for normal blood coagulation.Cellulase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.Glycogen Debranching Enzyme System: 1,4-alpha-D-Glucan-1,4-alpha-D-glucan 4-alpha-D-glucosyltransferase/dextrin 6 alpha-D-glucanohydrolase. An enzyme system having both 4-alpha-glucanotransferase (EC 2.4.1.25) and amylo-1,6-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.33) activities. As a transferase it transfers a segment of a 1,4-alpha-D-glucan to a new 4-position in an acceptor, which may be glucose or another 1,4-alpha-D-glucan. As a glucosidase it catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,6-alpha-D-glucoside linkages at points of branching in chains of 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues. Amylo-1,6-glucosidase activity is deficient in glycogen storage disease type III.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.beta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.Gluconacetobacter xylinus: A species of acetate-oxidizing bacteria, formerly known as Acetobacter xylinum.Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Mannosidases: Glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha or beta linked MANNOSE.Electrophoresis, Cellulose Acetate: Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.Glycoside HydrolasesPolysaccharidesCarboxymethylcellulose Sodium: A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.Imino Pyranoses: Six-carbon pyranose sugars in which the OXYGEN is replaced by a NITROGEN atom.Rauwolfia: A plant genus of the APOCYNACEAE or dogbane family. Alkaloids from plants in this genus have been used as tranquilizers and antihypertensive agents. RESERPINE is derived from R. serpentina.GlucosamineCellulases: A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.Cellobiose: A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose.Calnexin: A lectin found in ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM membranes that binds to specific N-linked OLIGOSACCHARIDES found on newly synthesized proteins. It may play role in PROTEIN FOLDING or retention and degradation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Swainsonine: An indolizidine alkaloid from the plant Swainsona canescens that is a potent alpha-mannosidase inhibitor. Swainsonine also exhibits antimetastatic, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activity.Carbohydrate Metabolism, Inborn ErrorsIsomaltose: A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in an alpha (1-6) glycosidic linkage.Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Trichoderma: A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.Microfibrils: Components of the extracellular matrix consisting primarily of fibrillin. They are essential for the integrity of elastic fibers.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Trisaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.Hexosaminidases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.Acarbose: An inhibitor of ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASES that retards the digestion and absorption of DIETARY CARBOHYDRATES in the SMALL INTESTINE.Glycogen Storage Disease Type II: An autosomal recessively inherited glycogen storage disease caused by GLUCAN 1,4-ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE deficiency. Large amounts of GLYCOGEN accumulate in the LYSOSOMES of skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL); HEART; LIVER; SPINAL CORD; and BRAIN. Three forms have been described: infantile, childhood, and adult. The infantile form is fatal in infancy and presents with hypotonia and a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (CARDIOMYOPATHY, HYPERTROPHIC). The childhood form usually presents in the second year of life with proximal weakness and respiratory symptoms. The adult form consists of a slowly progressive proximal myopathy. (From Muscle Nerve 1995;3:S61-9; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp73-4)Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Pectins: High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.Electrophoresis, Starch Gel: Electrophoresis in which a starch gel (a mixture of amylose and amylopectin) is used as the diffusion medium.Xylans: Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Methylcellulose: Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.Mannosyl-Glycoprotein Endo-beta-N-Acetylglucosaminidase: A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and GLYCOPROTEINS.Alkaloids: Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)GlucosidesCell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Calreticulin: A multifunctional protein that is found primarily within membrane-bound organelles. In the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM it binds to specific N-linked oligosaccharides found on newly-synthesized proteins and functions as a MOLECULAR CHAPERONE that may play a role in PROTEIN FOLDING or retention and degradation of misfolded proteins. In addition calreticulin is a major storage form for CALCIUM and functions as a calcium-signaling molecule that can regulate intracellular calcium HOMEOSTASIS.Acetobacter: A species of gram-negative bacteria of the family ACETOBACTERACEAE found in FLOWERS and FRUIT. Cells are ellipsoidal to rod-shaped and straight or slightly curved.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Maltose: A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Clostridium thermocellum: A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Polyisoprenyl Phosphate Oligosaccharides: These compounds function as activated glycosyl carriers in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins and glycophospholipids. Include the pyrophosphates.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Glycogen Storage Disease: A group of inherited metabolic disorders involving the enzymes responsible for the synthesis and degradation of glycogen. In some patients, prominent liver involvement is presented. In others, more generalized storage of glycogen occurs, sometimes with prominent cardiac involvement.Cyclohexenes: Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons which contain one or more double bonds in the ring. The cyclohexadienes are not aromatic, in contrast to BENZOQUINONES which are sometimes called 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-diones.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Excipients: Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Bacillus cereus: A species of rod-shaped bacteria that is a common soil saprophyte. Its spores are widespread and multiplication has been observed chiefly in foods. Contamination may lead to food poisoning.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Cellulosomes: Extracellular structures found in a variety of microorganisms. They contain CELLULASES and play an important role in the digestion of CELLULOSE.Vinca Alkaloids: A group of indole-indoline dimers which are ALKALOIDS obtained from the VINCA genus of plants. They inhibit polymerization of TUBULIN into MICROTUBULES thus blocking spindle formation and arresting cells in METAPHASE. They are some of the most useful ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.Indole Alkaloids: Group of alkaloids containing a benzylpyrrole group (derived from TRYPTOPHAN)Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Gaucher Disease: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of acid beta-glucosidase (GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE) leading to intralysosomal accumulation of glycosylceramide mainly in cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. The characteristic Gaucher cells, glycosphingolipid-filled HISTIOCYTES, displace normal cells in BONE MARROW and visceral organs causing skeletal deterioration, hepatosplenomegaly, and organ dysfunction. There are several subtypes based on the presence and severity of neurological involvement.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.DextrinsProtein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Clostridium cellulolyticum: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is a cellulolytic, mesophilic species isolated from decayed GRASS.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose: A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.GlycogenFermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Clostridium cellulovorans: A species of gram-positive, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It produces CELLULOSOMES which are involved in plant CELL WALL degradation.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)alpha-Amylases: Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.Peptococcaceae: A family of bacteria found in the mouth and intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals as well as in the human female urogenital tract. Its organisms are also found in soil and on cereal grains.Glucan 1,4-alpha-Glucosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues successively from non-reducing ends of polysaccharide chains with the release of beta-glucose. It is also able to hydrolyze 1,6-alpha-glucosidic bonds when the next bond in sequence is 1,4.Psyllium: Dried, ripe seeds of PLANTAGO PSYLLIUM; PLANTAGO INDICA; and PLANTAGO OVATA. Plantain seeds swell in water and are used as demulcents and bulk laxatives.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Sulfur Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.Glycogen Storage Disease Type III: An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder due to deficient expression of amylo-1,6-glucosidase (one part of the glycogen debranching enzyme system). The clinical course of the disease is similar to that of glycogen storage disease type I, but milder. Massive hepatomegaly, which is present in young children, diminishes and occasionally disappears with age. Levels of glycogen with short outer branches are elevated in muscle, liver, and erythrocytes. Six subgroups have been identified, with subgroups Type IIIa and Type IIIb being the most prevalent.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Glucan 1,4-beta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages of 1,4-beta-D-glucans resulting in successive removal of GLUCOSE units.Xylosidases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha- or beta-xylosidic linkages. EC 3.2.1.8 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.32 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.37 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans; and EC 3.2.1.72 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans. Other xylosidases have been identified that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-xylosidic bonds.Chromosomes, Human, 6-12 and X: The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.Asparagine: A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Glucosylceramidase: A glycosidase that hydrolyzes a glucosylceramide to yield free ceramide plus glucose. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to abnormally high concentrations of glucosylceramide in the brain in GAUCHER DISEASE. EC 3.2.1.45.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Polyporaceae: A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Acetylglucosaminidase: A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as MUCOLIPIDOSIS and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Glycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Gossypium: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Xylan Endo-1,3-beta-Xylosidase: A xylosidase that catalyses the random hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-xylans.Ruminococcus: A genus of gram-positive bacteria in the family Lachnospiraceae that inhabits the RUMEN; LARGE INTESTINE; and CECUM of MAMMALS.Hydroxyapatites: A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Fibrobacter: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria in the family Fibrobacteraceae, isolated from the human GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Mitosporic Fungi: A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases: Enzymes which catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in XYLANS.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hypocotyl: The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Cotton Fiber: A TEXTILE fiber obtained from the pappus (outside the SEEDS) of cotton plant (GOSSYPIUM). Inhalation of cotton fiber dust over a prolonged period can result in BYSSINOSIS.alpha 1-Antitrypsin: Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Uridine Diphosphate Glucose: A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.TetrosesGenes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
  • Production of β -glucosidase from Fusarium oxysporum was investigated during degradation of some cellulosic substrates (Avicel, α -cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and methylcellulose). (hindawi.com)
  • Optimized production of β -glucosidase using the cellulosic substrate that supported highest yield of enzyme was examined over 192 h fermentation period and varied pH of 3.0-11.0. (hindawi.com)
  • The properties shown by β -glucosidase suggest suitability of the enzyme for industrial applications in the improvement of hydrolysis of cellulosic compounds into fermentable sugars that can be used in energy generation and biofuel production. (hindawi.com)
  • The enzymes required to convert complex sugars into simple sugars account for between 30% and 50% of the cost of cellulosic ethanol," said Mario Tyago Murakami , a researcher at CNPEM and one of the principal investigators for the project. (eurekalert.org)
  • Manipulation of clr-2 orthologs among filamentous fungi may enable regulated cellulosic enzyme production in a wide array of culture conditions and host strains, potentially reducing costs associated with enzyme production for plant cell wall deconstruction. (biomedsearch.com)
  • refers to non-cellulosic polysaccharides that differ from cellulose in their sugar backbone, side chains, and branching. (kenyon.edu)
  • An initial study on N. crassa 's utilization of cellulose yielded promising candidate genes that were subsequently used in engineering strategies for improved cellulosic biofuel production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ( 19 ) and contributed insights into a role for polysaccharide monooxygenases in cellulose deconstruction ( 20 , 21 ). (pnas.org)
  • In this study, we demonstrated the feasibility of constructing a novel cell surface engineered diploid yeast consortium for direct ethanol production from phosphoric acid swollen cellulose (PASC) and steam-exploded corn stover (CS), an important step toward direct ethanol production from insoluble cellulosic materials. (ukessays.com)
  • Termites with their cellulose-decomposing bacteria in the gut can easily digest the cellulosic part of bamboo and as a result, the strength of the bamboo reduced drastically which in turn makes it unfit as a construction material. (scialert.net)
  • 215. Schäfers C., Blank S., Wiebusch S., Elleuche S., Antranikian G. (2017) Complete genome sequence of Thermus brockianus GE-1 reveals key enzymes of xylan/xylose metabolism. (tuhh.de)
  • By selecting for growth on both cellulose and xylan, 94 strains were isolated. (wur.nl)
  • A screen of a N. crassa transcription factor deletion collection identified two uncharacterized zinc binuclear cluster transcription factors ( clr-1 and clr-2 ) that were required for growth and enzymatic activity on cellulose, but were not required for growth or hemicellulase activity on xylan. (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, Paenibacillus vortex has the ability to degrade xylan, thus contributing its own enzymes to the consortium making it even more effective for degradation of the plant material. (biomassmagazine.com)
  • This set of hydrolases is synergistically working together to attain a complete degradation of biopolymeric substrates, of which cellulose and xylan are predominant. (asm.org)
  • Xylan is the most abundant of the hemicelluloses (14) and its hydrolysis requires a range of xylanases and accessory enzymes (11). (scielo.br)
  • Has endoglucanase activity on carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC), xylan and lichenan, but not Avicel. (mybiosource.com)
  • The β-glucosidase gene bgl3a from Myceliophthora thermophila , member of the fungal glycosyl hydrolase (GH) family 3, was cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris . (peerj.com)
  • 2009 ). A greater understanding of fundamental aspects of fungal enzyme synthesis and secretion is required, including defining regulatory networks that control enzyme production. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A combination of process engineering and random mutagenesis of fungal species has greatly improved hydrolytic enzyme production from industrial strains ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Molecular biological evidence is accumulating that enzymes associated with the fungal cellulosomes from the genera Neocallimastix , Orpinomyces , and Piromyces , like those of anaerobic bacteria, are modular. (asm.org)
  • The process of detecting and verifying exoglucanases (cellobiohydrolases [CBHs] in context of the fungal cellulose systems) has long been controversial. (asmscience.org)
  • The 49 fungal isolates were cultivated on semi-solid milled spruce wood medium for 21 days in order to follow their production of extracellular lignocellulose-converting oxidoreductases and carbohydrate active enzymes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, we may propose a similar phylogrouping approach for prediction of lignocellulose-converting enzyme phenotypes in new fungal species or genetically and biochemically less-studied isolates of the wood-decay Polyporales. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In industry, these enzymes have found novel applications in the production of fermentable sugars and ethanol, organic acids, detergents, and other chemicals. (hindawi.com)
  • Aside from the sugars and starches that meet this vital nutritional role, carbohydrates also serve as a structural material (cellulose), a component of the energy transport compound ATP , recognition sites on cell surfaces, and one of three essential components of DNA and RNA. (msu.edu)
  • The remaining nutrients from enzyme production are available to the yeast in addition to the fermentable sugars produced by saccharification. (typepad.com)
  • Spartan Corn III uses the beta-glucosidase enzyme produced by a gene from the microbe in a cow's rumen to separate pairs of sugar molecules into simple sugars. (greencarcongress.com)
  • The hemicelluloses are more readily hydrolyzed to sugars than is cellulose. (usda.gov)
  • A ) Gas chromatography of alditol acetates of methylated sugars from laminarin (top) and cellulose (middle) standards and from the glucan purified from the ammonium oxalate fraction from shoots of rsw1 grown at 31°C (bottom). (sciencemag.org)
  • The enzyme class of lipase is responsible for breaking down fats to fatty acids, and the carbohydrases break down carbohydrates into simple sugars. (generationrescue.org)
  • Primary among the applications that have been developed for the use of cellulolytic enzymes are those involving degrading (wood)cellulose pulp into sugars for (bio)ethanol production, textile treatments like `stone washing` and `biopolishing`, and in detergent compositions. (google.com.au)
  • In addition, the expression of genes that encode for enzymes is typically regulated by the availability of a given substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The giant panda genome codes for all necessary enzymes associated with a carnivorous digestive system but lacks genes for enzymes needed to digest cellulose, the principal component of their bamboo diet. (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, transcriptional regulation of the major hydrolytic enzyme-encoding genes xyn1 and xyn2 (xylanases 1 and 2), cbh1 and cbh2 (cellobiohydrolases 1 and 2), and egl1 (endoglucanase 1) is strictly dependent on Xyr1. (asm.org)
  • The mechanisms that plants use in synthesis have not yielded to biochemistry or cloning by hybridization to genes encoding prokaryotic cellulose synthases ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Assays of extracellular enzyme activity in environmental samples typically involve exposing the samples to artificial colorimetric or fluorometric substrates and tracking the rate of substrate hydrolysis. (jove.com)
  • The results showed that NJAU4742 strain could tolerate ambient pH values ranging from 3.0 to 9.0, but had significantly higher growth speed and extracellular enzyme activities under acidic conditions. (springer.com)
  • Both the common and a variant isozyme of acid alpha -glucosidase have been purified from a heterozygous placenta with CM-Sephadex, ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis, Amicon filtration, affinity chromatography by Sephadex G-100, and DEAE-cellulose chromatography. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Rabbit antiacid alpha-glucosidase antibodies produced against the common isozyme were found to cross-react with both peaks of the variant isozyme. (worldwidescience.org)
  • textabstractGlycogen storage disease type II (GSDII) is caused by lysosomal acid alpha -glucosidase deficiency. (worldwidescience.org)
  • While some organisms secrete either endoglucanase or β -glucosidase, in other organisms, β -glucosidase is either lacking or produced in insufficient quantities [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In this study, we evaluated the proximity effect between 3 cellulose-degrading enzymes displayed on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell surface, that is, endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, and β-glucosidase. (asm.org)
  • 224. Schröder C., Eixenberger D., Suleiman M., Schäfers C. and Antranikian G. (2019) Characterization of an extremely thermo-active archaeal β-glucosidase and its activity towards glucan and mannan in concert with an endoglucanase. (tuhh.de)
  • Avicelase (measure of exoenzymes) and xylanase were found to be less stable than CMCase (endoglucanase) and β-glucosidase. (springer.com)
  • Cellulose is the major component of lignocellulosic detritus and its complete hydrolysis needs a multicomponent enzyme system comprised of three major enzymes (endoglucanase, exoglucanase and β -glucosidase) (3). (scielo.br)
  • If purified proteins are available, careful comparisons of reducing-sugar yields and fluidity values from carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) hydrolysis as a function of enzyme concentration can be used to judge whether an enzyme is more endoglucanase-like or CBH-like. (asmscience.org)
  • The CBHI activity in all transformants increased, possibly due to the extra copies of cbh1 gene introduced, while the endoglucanase activity in three transformants also largely increased, which was not observed in any other studies overexpressing a β-glucosidase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 15. The engineered cell of claim 12, wherein the carbohydrate modifying enzyme comprises an endoglucanase selected from endoglucanase from T. reesei, endoglucanase I (EG I), EG II, EG III, or combination thereof. (sumobrain.com)
  • However, more and more modules in carbohydrate-active enzymes that bind carbohydrates other than cellulose are being found. (asm.org)
  • Our study implies that there is a species-level connection of molecular systematics (genotype) to the efficiency in production of both lignocellulose-converting carbohydrate active enzymes and oxidoreductases (enzyme phenotype) on spruce wood. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 6. An enzyme feed additive according to claim 5, wherein the xylanase is the low pl xylanase and/or the high pl xylanase obtainable from Trichoderma longibrachiatum. (google.com)
  • Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei ) is a fungus of noteworthy industrial importance, mainly because of its employment in both fermentative production of native extracellular enzymes and heterologous protein production. (asm.org)
  • The proteolytic susceptibility of the connecting linker between the carbohydrate binding module (CBM) moiety and the enzyme facilitated isolation of the individual domain, leading to the first CBM isolation of the fungus Trichoderma reesei and the bacterium Cellulomonas fimi ( 69 , 194 , 201 ). (asm.org)
  • More than 70 years ago, the filamentous ascomycete Trichoderma reesei was isolated on the Solomon Islands due to its ability to degrade and thrive on cellulose containing fabrics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The crude enzyme had optimum activity at pH 5.0 and 70°C. The enzyme was stable over broad pH range of 4.0-7.0 with relative residual activity above 60% after 180 min of incubation. (hindawi.com)
  • β -glucosidase demonstrated high thermostability with 83% of its original activity retained at 70°C after 180 min of incubation. (hindawi.com)
  • The activity of β -glucosidase was enhanced by Mn 2+ and Fe 2+ with relative activities of 167.67% and 205.56%, respectively, at 5 mM and 360% and 315%, respectively, at 10 mM. (hindawi.com)
  • However, the specific activity of the bound enzyme decreased from 10 to 1% with increasing enzyme-to-chitosan ratio. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Grouped as hydrolases, lyases, oxidoreductases and transferases, these extracellular enzymes control soil enzyme activity through efficient degradation of biopolymers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The obtained isolates were tested for halotolerance, enzyme activity, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation. (nature.com)
  • A spike in β-glucosidase activity (a cellulose-degrading enzyme) was recorded in S. tiburo hindguts. (sicb.org)
  • A major β-glucosidase (Bgl3A) with the apparent molecular weight of ~120 kDa, induced by paper mill waste, was purified 19-fold to homogeneity, with a specific activity of 1,796 U/mg. (chemweb.com)
  • Thus, measurement of the activity of these extracellular enzymes can give insights into the rates of ecosystem level processes, such as organic matter decomposition or nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization. (jove.com)
  • Samples are allowed to react with artificial substrates within 96-well microplates or deep well microplate blocks, and enzyme activity is subsequently determined by absorption or fluorescence of the resulting end product using a typical microplate reader or fluorometer. (jove.com)
  • We expect the proximity effect to further increase when enzyme display efficiency is enhanced, which would further increase cellulose-degrading activity. (asm.org)
  • Conduritol B epoxide (CBE) strongly inhibited the activity of ß-glucosidase. (usda.gov)
  • This crude enzyme presented optimal activity at pH 3.5 and 55 °C (141 U/g). (scielo.br)
  • For β-glucosidase and xylanase the best producer was A. fumigatus SBC4 strain, whose enzymes presented maximum activity at 60 °C and pH 3.5 (54 U/g) and 4.0 (573 U/g), respectively. (scielo.br)
  • 15. An enzyme feed additive according to claim 1, wherein the ratio of the units of xylanase activity to β-glucanase activity is 1:0-0.01. (google.com)
  • 17. An enzyme feed additive according to claim 1, wherein the ratio of the units of xylanase activity per g of the feed additive to the units of protease activity per g of the feed additive is 1:0.001-1,000. (google.com)
  • Laccase and phenol oxidase activities were measured to assess the decomposition potential of recalcitrant carbon while β-glucosidase activity was determined as proxy for cellulose decomposition rate. (springer.com)
  • One Unit of enzyme activity is defined as the amount of enzyme required to release one micromole of p-nitrophenol from p-nitrophenyl b-glucoside in one minute at 40°C and pH 4.0. (creative-enzymes.com)
  • Optimum activity was observed in pH 5.0 at 50°C. The enzyme was a monomer with an apparent molecular mass of 90kDa as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. (ccsenet.org)
  • In fact, the enzyme expressed in S. solfataricus was stable and highly thermoresistant and showed optimal activity at low pH and high temperature. (asm.org)
  • In this particular breakdown process, these enzymes cause hydrolysis to smaller, soluble oligo- and monosaccharides which finally either act directly as low-molecular-weight inducer substances (e.g., xylobiose and xylose) ( 29 , 53 ) or are converted to their respective inducers (e.g., sophorose) via the transglycosylation activity of some of these enzymes ( 46 ). (asm.org)
  • Due to the connection between enzymatic activity and degradation of different fractions of organic matter, enzyme assays can be used to estimate degradation rates of particulate and dissolved organic carbon in freshwater systems. (scielo.br)
  • The role of carboxyl groups in the catalytic activity of β -glucosidase was found chemically modifying it with 1-ethyl-3 (3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide in the present of glycinamide as nucleophile under various conditions. (gov.pk)
  • β -glucosidase when treated with proteases (אּ-chymotrypsin, subtilisin and thermolys gave periodic loss and gain of enzyme activity. (gov.pk)
  • The abundance, availability and activity of enzymes is not only dependent on production but also on the location of soil enzymes in the soil environment. (wardlab.com)
  • One Unit of β-glucosidase activity is defined as the amount of enzyme required to release one µmole of of p -nitrophenol ( p NP) per minute from p -nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (5 mM) in sodium acetate buffer (100 mM), pH 5.0 at 40 o C. (megazyme.com)
  • The presence of subtending galactosyl residues markedly enhance the activities of XyG endotransglucosylases and the accessibility of XyG to their action, indicating a role for this enzyme activity in XyG cleavage and religation in the wall during growth for maintenance of tensile strength. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Three and two activity peaks, from the common and variant isozymes, respectively, were obtained by DEAE-cellulose chromatography using a linear NaCl gradient. (worldwidescience.org)
  • A similar rate of hydrolysis of isomaltose by both isozymes was found indicating that the reduced catalytic activity of the variant isozyme toward glycogen is not the result of a reduced ability of this enzyme to cleave the alpha-1,6 linkages of glycogen. (worldwidescience.org)
  • The thermophilic β-glucosidase Nf Bgl3A from Neosartorya fischeri is chosen for overexpression in T. reesei due to its robust activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ecoenzymatic activity is an intersection of EST and MTE because enzyme expression is a product of cellular metabolism specifically regulated by environmental nutrient availability. (unm.edu)
  • A CBM is defined as a contiguous amino acid sequence within a carbohydrate-active enzyme with a discrete fold having carbohydrate binding activity ( 22 , 23 , 43 ). (asm.org)
  • This action is lost, however, when foods are cooked or heat processed destroying the natural catalytic activity of food digestive enzymes. (appliedhealth.com)
  • A variety of health conditions can adversely affect the body's ability to produce its own digestive enzymes resulting in production of poorly functional enzymes or diminished secretion of enzymes by the salivary glands, stomach or pancreas or reduced enzyme activity in the intestinal brush border. (appliedhealth.com)
  • 5. The engineered cell of claim 1, wherein the modification comprises altered expression or activity of a carbohydrate modifying enzyme. (sumobrain.com)
  • 7. The engineered cell of claim 5, wherein the expression or activity of a carbohydrate modifying enzyme is increased by overexpression. (sumobrain.com)
  • Lokapirnasari WP, Nazar DS, Nurhajati T, Supranianondo K, Yulianto AB (2015) Production and assay of cellulolytic enzyme activity of Enterobacter cloacae WPL 214 isolated from bovine rumen fluid waste of Surabaya abbatoir, Indonesia, Veterinary World 8 (3): 367-371. (veterinaryworld.org)
  • 90% activity after incubation for 2 h at pH 5-8 and 40-60°C. Finally, the purified enzyme was run on Native-PAGE and subsequently incubated in phosphate buffer containing 5 mM of 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-glucoside (4-MUG) for 15 min at 50°C and visualized by UV light as white band. (sciepub.com)
  • Shows relatively high activity toward barley beta-glucan and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and lower activity toward lichenan, wheat arabinoxylan and other xylans. (mybiosource.com)
  • The mutant allele causes a specific reduction in cellulose synthesis, accumulation of noncrystalline β-1,4-glucan, disassembly of cellulose synthase, and widespread morphological abnormalities. (sciencemag.org)
  • In contrast to cellulose, hemicelluloses are easily hydrolysable polymers and do not form aggregates (27). (scielo.br)
  • Although a shortening of XyGs that normally accompanies cell elongation appears to be slightly reduced, galactosylation of the XyGs is not strictly required for cell elongation, for lengthening the polymers that occurs in the wall upon secretion, or for binding of the XyGs to cellulose. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The mature β-glucosidase gene, which results after the excision of one intron and the secreting signal peptide, was placed under the control of the strong alcohol oxidase promoter ( AOX1 ) in the plasmid pPICZαC. (peerj.com)
  • Gene expression profiling results showed that the expression of some transcripts encoding key enzymes involved in starch biosynthesis was up-regulated, while the expression of transcripts encoding enzymes involved in starch consumption were down-regulated, the expression of some photosynthesis-related transcripts were down-regulated during the first 24 h, and the expression of some transporter transcripts were up-regulated within the first 2 h. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Relative expression levels of a ß-glucosidase gene were examined among different castes and digestive tissues of Coptoterms formosanus. (usda.gov)
  • Quantitative RT-PCR analyses indicated that the gene transcript was relatively more abundant in the foraging worker caste than in other castes and salivary glands were the major expression sites, suggesting that the ß-glucosidase was a digestive enzyme. (usda.gov)
  • In Neurospora crassa, the transcriptional regulator, CLR-2, is required for cellulolytic gene expression and cellulose deconstruction. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The fact that we can take a gene that makes an enzyme in the stomach of a cow and put it into a plant cell means that we can convert what was junk before into biofuel. (greencarcongress.com)
  • The gene product, which is closely related to the putative cellulose synthase catalytic subunit from cotton fibers ( 3 ), can therefore be used to manipulate the production and physical properties of cellulose, while the mutant links plant morphogenesis and cellulose production. (sciencemag.org)
  • The largely different β-glucosidase activities in the transformants may be ascribed to the gene copy numbers of NfBgl3A or its integration loci. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Enzymes are essential for energy production, synthesis of biological molecules, gene repair and replication, maintenance of cellular and tissue structural integrity, and normal physiological function. (appliedhealth.com)
  • 13. The engineered cell of claim 12, wherein the carbohydrate modifying enzyme comprises an α-galactosidase encoded by RafA gene from E. coli. (sumobrain.com)
  • β-glucosidase production was maximum on untreated kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca) compared to other substrates (wheat bran and sigma cell-20 cellulose). (gov.pk)
  • Some enzymes, known as intracellular enzymes, exist primarily within the cell or within the cytoplasm of the cell and act on substrates that are small enough to pass through the cell but require additional processing prior to being used by the cell. (wardlab.com)
  • The presence of putative cellulose-digesting microbes, in combination with adaptations related to feeding, physiology, and morphology, show that giant pandas have evolved a number of traits to overcome the anatomical and physiological challenge of digesting a diet high in fibrous matter. (pnas.org)