Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Cellulose 1,4-beta-Cellobiosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE and cellotetraose. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing ends of beta-D-glucosides with release of CELLOBIOSE.Cellulose, Oxidized: A cellulose of varied carboxyl content retaining the fibrous structure. It is commonly used as a local hemostatic and as a matrix for normal blood coagulation.Cellulase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.Gluconacetobacter xylinus: A species of acetate-oxidizing bacteria, formerly known as Acetobacter xylinum.Electrophoresis, Cellulose Acetate: Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium: A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.Cellulases: A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.Cellobiose: A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose.Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Trichoderma: A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.Microfibrils: Components of the extracellular matrix consisting primarily of fibrillin. They are essential for the integrity of elastic fibers.Pectins: High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.Xylans: Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Methylcellulose: Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Acetobacter: A species of gram-negative bacteria of the family ACETOBACTERACEAE found in FLOWERS and FRUIT. Cells are ellipsoidal to rod-shaped and straight or slightly curved.Clostridium thermocellum: A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.beta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.Excipients: Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Cellulosomes: Extracellular structures found in a variety of microorganisms. They contain CELLULASES and play an important role in the digestion of CELLULOSE.Glycoside HydrolasesGlucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.DextrinsClostridium cellulolyticum: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is a cellulolytic, mesophilic species isolated from decayed GRASS.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Clostridium cellulovorans: A species of gram-positive, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It produces CELLULOSOMES which are involved in plant CELL WALL degradation.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Peptococcaceae: A family of bacteria found in the mouth and intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals as well as in the human female urogenital tract. Its organisms are also found in soil and on cereal grains.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Psyllium: Dried, ripe seeds of PLANTAGO PSYLLIUM; PLANTAGO INDICA; and PLANTAGO OVATA. Plantain seeds swell in water and are used as demulcents and bulk laxatives.PolysaccharidesWood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Glucan 1,4-beta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages of 1,4-beta-D-glucans resulting in successive removal of GLUCOSE units.Xylosidases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha- or beta-xylosidic linkages. EC 3.2.1.8 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.32 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.37 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans; and EC 3.2.1.72 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans. Other xylosidases have been identified that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-xylosidic bonds.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Polyporaceae: A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gossypium: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.Xylan Endo-1,3-beta-Xylosidase: A xylosidase that catalyses the random hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-xylans.Ruminococcus: A genus of gram-positive bacteria in the family Lachnospiraceae that inhabits the RUMEN; LARGE INTESTINE; and CECUM of MAMMALS.Fibrobacter: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria in the family Fibrobacteraceae, isolated from the human GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Mitosporic Fungi: A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases: Enzymes which catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in XYLANS.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hypocotyl: The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Cotton Fiber: A TEXTILE fiber obtained from the pappus (outside the SEEDS) of cotton plant (GOSSYPIUM). Inhalation of cotton fiber dust over a prolonged period can result in BYSSINOSIS.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Uridine Diphosphate Glucose: A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.Tetroses

The influence of a diet rich in wheat fibre on the human faecal flora. (1/2543)

The effect on the faecal flora of adding wheat fibre to a controlled diet in four healthy volunteers for a 3-week period has been observed. No change in the concentration of the bacteria in the bacterial groups counted was found, although there was a slight increase in total output associated with increased faecal weight. The predominant organisms in all subjects were non-sporing anaerobes, but the dominant species in each subject was different and was unaffected by changing the diet. Similarly, the concentration of faecal beta-glucuronidase detected in two subjects was unaltered and the concentration of clostridia able to dehydrogenate the steroid nucleus found in one subject was unaltered. It is suggested that the faecal microflora is not primarily controlled by the presence of undigested food residues in the large bowel.  (+info)

Citric acid production from xylan and xylan hydrolysate by semi-solid culture of Aspergillus niger. (2/2543)

Citric acid production from xylan and xylan hydrolysate was done by Aspergillus niger Yang no. 2 cultivated in a semi-solid culture using bagasse as a carrier. Yang no. 2 produced 72.4 g/l and 52.6 g/l of citric acid in 5 d from 140 g/l of xylose and arabinose, respectively. Yang no. 2 produced 51.6 g/l of citric acid in 3 d from a concentrated xylan hydrolysate prepared by cellulase treatment, containing 100 g/l of reducing sugars. Moreover, Yang no. 2 directly produced 39.6 g/l of citric acid maximally in 3 d from 140 g/l of xylan.  (+info)

Lignocellulose degradation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium: purification and characterization of the main alpha-galactosidase. (3/2543)

The main alpha-galactosidase was purified to homogeneity, in 30% yield, from a solid culture of Phanerochaete chrysosporium on 1 part wheat bran/2 parts thermomechanical softwood pulp. It is a glycosylated tetramer of 50 kDa peptide chains, which gives the N-terminal sequence ADNGLAITPQMG(?W)NT(?W)NHFG(?W)DIS(?W)DTI. It is remarkably stable, with crude extracts losing no activity over 3 h at 80 degrees C, and the purified enzyme retaining its activity over several months at 4 degrees C. The kinetics of hydrolysis at 25 degrees C of various substrates by this retaining enzyme were measured, absolute parameters being obtained by active-site titration with 2',4',6'-trinitrophenyl 2-deoxy-2, 2-difluoro-alpha-D-galactopyranoside. The variation of kcat/Km for 1-naphthyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside with pH is bell-shaped, with pK1=1.91 and pK2=5.54. The alphaD(V/K) value for p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside is 1.031+/-0.007 at the optimal pH of 3.75 and 1.114+/-0.006 at pH7.00, indicating masking of the intrinsic effect at optimal pH. There is no alpha-2H effect on binding galactose [alphaD(Ki)=0.994+/-0.013]. The enzyme hydrolyses p-nitrophenyl beta-L-arabinopyranoside approximately 510 times slower than the galactoside, but has no detectable activity on the alpha-D-glucopyranoside or alpha-D-mannopyranoside. Hydrolysis of alpha-galactosides with poor leaving groups is Michaelian, but that of substrates with good leaving groups exhibits pronounced apparent substrate inhibition, with Kis values similar to Km values. We attribute this to the binding of the second substrate molecule to a beta-galactopyranosyl-enzyme intermediate, forming an E.betaGal. alphaGalX complex which turns over slowly, if at all. 1-Fluoro-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl fluoride, unlike alpha-D-galactopyranosyl fluoride, is a Michaelian substrate, indicating that the effect of 1-fluorine substitution is greater on the first than on the second step of the enzyme reaction.  (+info)

The selective isolation of the uterine oestradiol-receptor complex by binding to oligo(dT)-cellulose. The mediation of an essential activator in the transformation of cytosol receptor. (4/2543)

The [3H]oestradiol-receptor complex was selectively isolated from rat uterus cytosol by column chromatography on oligo(dT)-cellulose. Optimal conditions are described for the binding of the complex to oligo(dT)-cellulose, which is shown to be similar to its binding to DNA-cellulose. The cytosol complex has an apparent mol. wt. of 50,000-60,000 in high salt concentrations, as determined by Sephadex G-100 chromatography. This corresponds to the 4S cytoplasmic oestradiol receptor. In binding to oligo(dT)-cellulose the receptor is transformed into a form with an apparent mol.wt. of 100,000-120,000, corresponding to the 5S nuclear receptor complex. This transformation mimics the conversion in vivo of the cytoplasmic oestradiol receptor into the nuclear form. The binding of the complex to oligo(dT)-cellulose as a 5S nuclear form is unequivocally demonstrated to require the mediation of an activating present in the cytosol. The requirement for an activating factor is discussed in relation to reports that nuclear binding of the oestradiol-receptor complex is not dictated solely by the availability of the cytoplasmic oestradiol receptor.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and expression of the novel fungal beta-glucosidase genes from Humicola grisea and Trichoderma reesei. (5/2543)

A novel fungal beta-glucosidase gene (bgl4) and its homologue (bgl2) were cloned from the cellulolytic fungi Humicola grisea and Trichoderma reesei, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of H. grisea BGL4 and T. reesei BGL2 comprise 476 and 466 amino acids, respectively, and share 73.1% identity. These beta-glucosidases show significant homology to plant beta-glucosidases belonging to the beta-glucosidase A (BGA) family. Both genes were expressed in Aspergillus oryzae, and the recombinant beta-glucosidases were purified. Recombinant H. grisea BGL4 is a thermostable enzyme compared with recombinant T. reesei BGL2. In addition to beta-glucosidase activity, recombinant H. grisea BGL4 showed a significant level of beta-galactosidase activity, while recombinant T. reesei BGL2 showed weak beta-galactosidase activity. Cellulose saccharification by Trichoderma cellulases was improved by the addition of recombinant H. grisea BGL4.  (+info)

Cellulolytic enzymes in culture filtrates of Rhizoctonia lamellifera. (6/2543)

During growth in a liquid culture containing a single soluble or an insoluble cellulosic carbon source, Rhizoctonia lamellifera released cellulolytic enzymes into the medium. These enzymes were separated by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography into seven components, three of high and four of low molecular weight. One of the components had the character of a C1 cellulase. When the components were combined they released more reducing sugars from cellulosic substrates than when used singly.  (+info)

Calculus disease of the urinary tract at a district hospital. (7/2543)

At a District General Hospital the organization of a clinic for the investigation and treatment of patients with calculus disease of the urinary tract is described. The way in which such a clinic may be orgainzed is discussed and the results presented. In patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria, sodium cellulose phosphate causes a significant reduction in urinary calcium levels when used in such a clinic.  (+info)

Identification of a nucleic acid binding domain in eukaryotic initiation factor eIFiso4G from wheat. (8/2543)

Higher plants have two complexes that bind the m7G-cap structure of mRNA and mediate interactions between mRNA and ribosomal subunits, designated eIF4F and eIFiso4F. Both complexes contain a small subunit that binds the 5'-cap structure of mRNA, and a large subunit, eIF4G or eIFiso4G, that binds other translation factors and RNA. Sequence-specific proteases were used to cleave native cap-binding complexes into structural domains, which were purified by affinity chromatography. We show here that eIFiso4G contains a central protease-resistant domain that binds specifically to nucleic acids. This domain spans Gln170 to Glu443 and includes four of the six homology blocks shared by eIFiso4G and eIF4G. A slightly shorter overlapping sequence, from Gly202 to Lys445, had no nucleic acid binding activity, indicating that the N-terminal end of the nucleic acid binding site lies within Gln170 to Arg201. The binding of the central domain and native eIFiso4F to RNA homopolymers and double- and single-stranded DNAs was studied. Both molecules had highest affinity for poly(G) and recognized single- and double-stranded sequences.  (+info)

A method for producing an antimicrobial cellulose fiber. The method includes reacting a reactive compound with an antimicrobial agent to prepare a reactive antimicrobial compound, chemically fixing the reactive antimicrobial compound to a cellulose fiber through chemical bonding between the reactive compound and the cellulose fiber, and stabilizing the cellulose fiber structure. Further disclosed is an antimicrobial cellulose fiber produced by the method. The antimicrobial cellulose fiber is a human friendly material that has excellent antimicrobial activity and deodorizing performance. The antimicrobial cellulose fiber can be manufactured in the form of raw cotton, sliver, roving yarn, spun yarn, woven fabric, knitted fabric, non-woven fabric, etc. The antimicrobial cellulose fiber may be blended with other fibers, such as natural fibers and synthetic fibers.
The global cellulose fibers market is expected to reach USD 48.37 billion by 2025, according to a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. The increasing gap between the demand and production of natural cellulose fibers across various end-use industries is the major factor for the growth of the market. In addition, the rise in textile & apparel industries in developing and emerging economies is also anticipated to fuel the global market growth.. Increasing demand for eco-friendly and biodegradable fibers, especially in textile and hygiene industry is driving the cellulose fibers market. The production of synthetic or man-made fibers includes the industrial processing of wood pulp derived from botanical sources. However, the manufacturing of cellulose fibers entails mechanical and chemical processing of wood pulp. Viscose, triacetate, and acetate are the most common variants of rayon, which are man-made cellulose fibers used extensively across end-use industries.. The cellulose fibers market is ...
[50 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Cellulose Fibers Market Study 2016-2026, by Segment (Natural Cellulose Fibers, Man-Made Cellulose Fibers) , by Market (Apparel, Home Textile,) , by Company (Aditya Birla Group, Lenzing,) report by 99Strategy. Summary Cellulose fibers are fibers obtained from the bark, wood...
Figure Picture of Cellulose Fiber Gasket Figure Global Production Market Share of Cellulose Fiber Gasket by Types in 2015 Figure Global Consumption Volume Market Share of Cellulose Fiber Gasket by Applications in 2015 Figure Industry Chain Structure of Cellulose Fiber Gasket Figure Global Major Regions Cellulose Fiber Gasket Development Status in 2016 Figure 2010 to 2020F world GDP Figure Growth of world gross product and gross domestic product by country grouping, 2007-2017 Figure Growth of World Output 2013-2017 Figure Contribution to global growth, 2007-2017 Figure Regional contributions to world import growth Figure Price indices of selected groups of commodities, August 2013-September 2015 Figure Exchange rates of selected emerging-market currencies vis-a-vis the United States dollar, 1 September 2014-23 November 2015 Figure Real effective exchange-rate volatility, January 1996-September 2015 Figure Growth of labor productivity, before and after the crisis Figure Global Cellulose Fiber ...
A professional survey of "Global Cellulose Esters Market Report 2018" serves a in-depth assessment of Cellulose Esters industry containing empowering advances, vital patterns, growth drivers, institutionalised detailing, Cellulose Esters regulatory scenario, administrator definition investigation, Cellulose Esters launching, ultimate assistance, admiration chain, Cellulose Esters leading manufacturers profiles, and systems. Furthermore, the Cellulose Esters industry report provides projections for speculations from 2017 till 2026. SWOT investigation and PESTEL analysis is considered. Also, Forecast CAGR value X.X% further development in revenue XX.XX USD By 2026 is served.. The Cellulose Esters Market report figure out an detailed analysis of key Cellulose Esters market players by referring their company profile, supply/demand study , sales margin, Cellulose Esters gross margin and year-to-year revenue to have Cellulose Esters industry better share over the globe. Cellulose Esters market report ...
Growth prospects of the overall Cellulose Fibers industry have been presented in the report. However, to give an in-depth view to the readers, detailed geographical segmentation within the globe Cellulose Fibers market has been covered in this study. The key geographical regions along with their revenue forecasts are included in the report.. The competitive framework of the Cellulose Fibers market in terms of the Global Cellulose Fibers industry has been evaluated in the report. The top companies and their overall share and share with respect to the Global market have been included in the report. Furthermore, the factors on which the companies compete in the market have been evaluated in the report.. Ask for Sample Report: http://www.fiormarkets.com/report-detail/17151/request-sample. This report also presents product specification, manufacturing process, and product cost structure etc. Production is separated by regions, technology and applications. Analysis also covers upstream raw materials, ...
cellulose fiber manufacturer/supplier, China cellulose fiber manufacturer & factory list, find qualified Chinese cellulose fiber manufacturers, suppliers, factories, exporters & wholesalers quickly on Made-in-China.com.
Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP), a pharmaceutical excipient used for enteric film coating of capsules and tablets, was shown to inhibit infection by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and several herpesviruses. CAP formulations inactivated HIV-1, herpesvirus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) and the major nonviral sexually transmitted disease (STD) pathogens and were effective in animal models for vaginal infection by HSV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus. Enzyme-linked immunoassays and flow cytometry were used to demonstrate CAP binding to HIV-1 and to define the binding site on the virus envelope. 1) CAP binds to HIV-1 virus particles and to the envelope glycoprotein gp120; 2) this leads to blockade of the gp120 V3 loop and other gp120 sites resulting in diminished reactivity with HIV-1 coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5; 3) CAP binding to HIV-1 virions impairs their infectivity; 4) these findings apply to both HIV-1 IIIB, an X4 virus, and HIV-1 BaL, an R5 virus. These results provide support for
Protein-functionalized cellulose fibrils, having various amounts of covalently bonded proteins at their surface, were successfully extracted from the tunic of Pyura chilensis tunicates using successive alkaline extractions. Pure cellulose fibrils were also obtained by further bleaching and were used as reference material. Extraction yields of protein-functionalized cellulose fibrils were within the range of 62-76% by weight based on the dry initial tunic powder. Fourier-transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the preservation of residual protein at the surface of cellulose fibrils, which was then quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The protein-functionalized cellulose fibrils were found to have relatively high crystallinity and their cellulose I crystalline structure was preserved upon applying alkaline treatments. The extracted cellulosic materials were found to be constituted of fibrils having a ribbon-like morphology with widths ranging from 30 nm up to similar to 400 ...
The validity of our approach of inedible cellulose-based resist material derived from woody biomass has been confirmed experimentally for the use of pure water in organic solvent-free water spin-coating and tetramethylammonium hydroxide(TMAH)-free water-developable techniques of eco-conscious electron beam (EB) and extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. The water developable, non-chemically amplified, high sensitive, and negative tone resist material in EB and EUV lithography was developed for environmental affair, safety, easiness of handling, and health of the working people. The inedible cellulose-based biomass resist material was developed by replacing the hydroxyl groups in the beta-linked disaccharides with EB and EUV sensitive groups. The 50-100 nm line and space width, and little footing profiles of cellulose-based biomass resist material on hardmask and layer were resolved at the doses of 10-30 μC/cm2. The eco-conscious lithography techniques was referred to as green EB and EUV ...
Cellulose is a renewable biomass material and natural polymer which is abundantly available on Earth, and includes agricultural wastes, forestry residues, and woody materials. The excellent and smart characteristics of cellulose materials, such as lightweight, biocompatibility, biodegradability, high mechanical strength/stiffness and low thermal expansibility, have made cellulose a high-potential material for various industry applications. Cellulose has recently been discovered as a smart material in the electroactive polymers family which carries the name of cellulose-based electroactive paper (EAPap). The shear piezoelectricity in cellulose polymers is able to induce large displacement output, low actuation voltage, and low power consumption in the application of biomimetic sensors/actuators and electromechanical system. The present study provides an overview of biomass pretreatment from various lignocellulosic cellulose (LC) resources and nanocellulose production via TEMPO-mediated oxidation reaction
A cellulose dope comprising an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution and cellulose dissolved in the solution, wherein the cellulose dope has a sodium hydroxide concentration (CNa) of from 6.5 to 11% by weight, a cellulose content (Cc) of from 5 to 10% by weight, a viscosity average degree of polymerization (DPc) of the cellulose of from 350 to 1,200 and a cellulose dissolution ratio (Sc) of 99.0% by weight or more, and wherein the zero-shear viscosity (η0) and the cellulose content (Cc) of the cellulose dope and the viscosity average degree of polymerization (DPc) of the cellulose in the cellulose dope satisfy the following formula (1): η0 =kCc m DPc p (1) wherein: η0 represents the zero-shear viscosity (mPa s) of the cellulose dope, Cc represents the cellulose content (% by weight) of the cellulose dope, DPc represents the viscosity average degree of polymerization of the cellulose in the cellulose dope, k=3.9 10−11, m is a number of from 5 to 7, and p is a number of from 3 to 4.
The versatile layer-by-layer (LbL) technique, for consecutive adsorption of polyelectrolytes and charged nanoparticles onto a substrate, was used to modify cellulose fibres and model surfaces for improved mechanical and wetting properties. In addition to being used to modify cellulose substrates, the LbL technique was also used to create cellulose surfaces suitable for high resolution adhesion measurements. LbL assembly of cellulose nanofibrils and polyethylenimine was used to prepare cellulose model surfaces on polydimethylsiloxane hemispheres which allowed for the first known Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) adhesion measurements between cellulose and smooth, well-defined model surfaces of cellulose, lignin and glucomannan. The work of adhesion on loading and the adhesion hysteresis were comparable for all three systems which suggest that adhesion between wood constituents is similar. The LbL technique was also used to decrease the hydrophilicity of paper, while improving the dry strength, by ...
A heterogeneous method for the acetylation of cotton cellulose was used for the preparation of high-molecular weight cellulose triacetate. The rates of acetylation and degradation of cellulose using different catalyst (zinc chloride), concentrations at different temperatures were studied. Viscosity-concentration studies for solutions of cellulose triacetate in the solvents chloroform, methylene chloride, tetrachloroethane, formic acid and m-cresol were carried out. Molecular weight determinations were carried out osmometrically (Mechro-lab Model) using chloroform as a solvent, for cellulose triacetate samples in the molecular weight range of 30,000-150,000. The Mark-Houwink viscosity-molecular weight relationship for cellulose triacetate in the above solvents and the Huggins viscosity-concentration relationship were investigated and the respective values of alpha, K and k1 constants were determined. The rate of degradation of cellulose triacetate in chloroform-acetic anhydride solutions for the ...
Cellulose powders from various sources were manufactured and characterized to investigate the influence of their crystallinity index, surface area, and pore volume on sorption phenomena and the relevant pharmaceutical functionality. The influence of the cellulose crystallinity index on moisture sorption was important at low and intermediate relative humidities. At high relative humidities, properties such as surface area and pore volume took precedence in governing the moisture sorption process.. The theory of physical adsorption of gases onto fractal surfaces was useful for understanding the distribution of water in cellulose and the inner nanoscale structure of cellulose particles. It was found that, as a consequence of swelling, moisture induces a fractal nanopore network in cellulose powders that have a low or intermediate degree of crystallinity. On the other hand, no swelling occurs in highly crystalline cellulose powders and moisture sorption is restricted to the walls of the open ...
Cellulose is the richest organic compound in the world mostly produced by plants. It is the most structural component in herbal cells and tissues. Cellulose is a natural long chain polymer that plays an important role in human food cycle indirectly. This polymer has multipurpose uses in many industries such as veterinary foods, wood and paper, fibers and clothes, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries as excipient. Cellulose has semi-synthetic derivatives that are extensively used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Cellulose ethers and cellulose esters are two main groups of cellulose derivatives with different physicochemical and mechanical properties.. Access research report on Cellulose Derivatives Market analysis: http://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/cellulose-derivatives-market. The global cellulose derivatives market is segmented on the basis of derivative type, derivative grades, end-use application, and region. On the basis of derivative type, the global market is ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Preparation and characterization of cellulose derivatives by regioseleclive esterification of biodegradable cyclic esters. AU - Mayumi, Ayaka. AU - Kttaoka, Takuya. AU - Wariishi, Hiroyuki. PY - 2005/12/1. Y1 - 2005/12/1. N2 - New cellulose derivatives were prepared by the regioselective derivatization of cellulose with L-lactide (LA) and ε-caprolactone (CL) in a lithium chloride/N, N-dimethylacetamide solvent system, and investigated for their characteristics by spectroscopic analyses, calorimetry, solvent solubility/enzymatic degradability tests. Fourier transform Raman spectra of cellulose derivatives confirmed that the LA and CL molecules were covalently introduced into cellulose at the hydroxyl groups through the ring-opening esterification catalyzed by LiCl. The 13C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis indicated that the ring-opened LA and CL were regioselectively combined with cellulose C6-OH. Moreover, LA and CL portions were partially grafted on the cellulose backbone, ...
Improved cellulose semipermeable hollow fibers useful in detoxifying blood during hemodialysis or hemofiltration treatments. The cellulose fibers are fine, capillary fibers that are made by melt extrusion of certain cellulose ester polyol melt spin compositions into self-supporting gelled fibers. The cellulose ester gelled fibers are subsequently chemically converted into cellulose fibers by deacetylation, in aqueous alkali solution. The product fibers exhibit improved wet intrinsic tensile strength and higher water permeability characteristics than heretofore known cellulose fibers made from cellulose ester spin compositions. The invention includes the method of making the improved fibers and separatory cells such as hemodialyzers or hemofilters which contain the improved fibers in a gamma ray sterilized condition.
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This invention discloses a new technology related to cellulose fiber reinforced cement composite materials using cellulose fibers that are treated with inorganic and/or organic resins to make the fibers more hydrophobic, as well as other chemical treatments. This invention discloses four aspects of the technology: fiber treatment, formulations, methods and the final product. This technology advantageously provides fiber cement building materials with the desirable characteristics of reduced water absorption, reduced rate of water absorption, lower water migration, and lower water permeability. This invention also impart the final products improved freeze-thaw resistance, reduced efflorescence, and improved rot and UV resistances, compared to conventional fiber cement products. These improved attributes are gained without loss in dimensional stability, strength, strain or toughness. In some cases the physical and mechanical properties are improved. This
The elasticity of elastic, absorbent structures, e.g., diapers, is improved without a significant compromise of the absorbency of the structure by the use of bicomponent and/or biconstituent elastic fibers. The absorbent structures typically comprise a staple fiber, e.g., cellulose fibers, and a bicomponent and/or a biconstituent elastic. The bicomponent fiber typically has a core/sheath construction. The core comprises an elastic thermoplastic elastomer, preferably a TPU, and the sheath comprises a homogeneously branched polyolefin, preferably a homogeneously branched substantially linear ethylene polymer. In various embodiments of the invention, the elasticity is improved by preparation techniques that enhance the ratio of elastic fiber:cellulose fiber bonding versus cellulose fiber:cellulose fiber bonding. These techniques include wet and dry high intensity agitation of the elastic fibers prior to mixing with the cellulose fibers, deactivation of the hydrogen bonding between cellulose fibers, and
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International Paper Global Cellulose Fibers has a multi-mill network producing cellulose fibers and fluff pulp used in consumer goods that people depend on every day.
[115 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Cellulose Fibers Market Research Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the global Cellulose Fibers market is valued...
Cellulose is a main component of plant cell walls. Tools to analyze cellulose mainly rely on analytical chemistry, which yields information about cellulose amounts and structure, but cannot be applied to intact tissues. Moreover, these methods measure total cellulose and cannot be used to assay cellulose synthesis per se. Live cell imaging of the catalytic subunits of the cellulose synthesis complex (CSC) conjugated to fluorescent proteins is an important tool to understand the dynamics of the cellulose biosynthesis process (Paredez et al., 2006). This method can be used in various genetic backgrounds (Sorek et al., 2014) or with different chemical inhibitors (Brabham and Debolt, 2012). Here we describe in detail the procedure to visualize the movement of CSCs at the plasma membrane. As the movement of CSCs is likely caused by glucan synthesis and extrusion into the cell wall, live cell analysis of CSC velocity provides a method to directly measure cellulose synthesis in vivo.
Global microcrystalline cellulose market is expected to grow at a significant CAGR in the upcoming period as the scope and its applications are rising enormously across the globe. Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) is a term used for refined wood pulp and is used as a bulking agent, a texturizer, an extender, an anti-caking agent, an emulsifier, and a fat substitute in food production. It is exclusively used in vitamin tablets or supplements and in plaque assays as a substitute to carboxymethyl cellulose. The factors that are playing a major role in the growth of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) industry are the developing processed food industries across the globe, the rising pharmaceutical companies, and the acceptance of microcrystalline cellulose as a pharmaceutical excipient. However, the presence of alternatives for specific pharma and food & beverage applications may restrain the overall market in the years to come. Microcrystalline cellulose market is segmented based on source type, ...
Abstract : Cellulose being an excellent biopolymer has cemented its place firmly in many industries as a coating material, textile,composites, and biomaterial applications. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of biofield treatment onphysicochemical properties of cellulose and cellulose acetate. The cellulose and cellulose acetate were exposed tobiofield and further the chemical and thermal properties were investigated. X-ray diffraction study asserted that thebiofield treatment did affect the crystalline nature of cellulose. The percentage of crystallite size was found increasedsignificantly in treated cellulose by 159.83%, as compared to control sample. This showed that biofield treatment waschanging the crystalline nature of treated cellulose. However treated cellulose acetate showed a reduction in crystallitesize (-17.38%) as compared to control sample. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) of treated cellulose showed noimprovement in melting temperature as compared to ...
Process Parameters for Fermentation in a Rotary Disc Reactor for Optimum Microbial Cellulose Production using Response Surface Methodology
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Cellulose is the most abundant natural product in the biosphere with a variety of functional roles. Despite this abundance, the capacity to synthesize cellulose is restricted to relatively few phyla. Among prokaryotes, soil bacteria of the family Rhizobiaceae (Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Rhizobium spp) use cellulose in anchoring to host plant tissues during infection (Matthysse 1983; Smith et al., 1992). In Acetobacter xilinum, cellulose fibrils maintain bacterial cells in an aerobic environment in liquid and protect the cells from UV radiation (Williams and Cannon, 1989). Within the plant kingdom, cellulose plays a key role in structural support and the oriented deposition of cellulose microfibrils is crucial to patterning through anisotropic growth during development (Smith and Oppenheimer, 2005). The social amoeba, Dictyostelium, requires cellulose for stalk and spore formation (Blanton et al., 2000), and cellulose synthesis is also present in some fungi, although its function remains ...
The in-depth understanding of the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose with heterogeneous morphology (that is, crystalline versus amorphous) may help develop better cellulase cocktail mixtures and biomass pretreatment, wherein cost-effective release of soluble sugars from solid cellulosic materials remains the largest obstacle to the economic viability of second generation biorefineries. In addition to the previously developed non-hydrolytic fusion protein, GC3, containing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) and a family 3 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM3) that can bind both surfaces of amorphous and crystalline celluloses, we developed a new protein probe, CC17, which contained a mono-cherry fluorescent protein (CFP) and a family 17 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM17) that can bind only amorphous cellulose surfaces. Via these two probes, the surface accessibilities of amorphous and crystalline celluloses were determined quantitatively. Our results for the enzymatic hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose
TY - JOUR. T1 - Injection molding of thermoplastic cellulose esters and their compatibility with poly(lactic acid) and polyethylene. AU - Willberg-Keyriläinen, Pia. AU - Orelma, Hannes. AU - Ropponen, Jarmo. PY - 2018/11/23. Y1 - 2018/11/23. N2 - Interest in biobased polymers from renewable resources has grown in recent years due to environmental concerns, but they still have a minimal fraction of the total global market. In this study, the injection molding of thermoplastic cellulose octanate (cellulose C8) and cellulose palmitate (cellulose C16) were studied. The mechanical properties of injection-molded test specimens were analyzed by using tensile testing, and the internal structure of injection-molded objects was studied by using a field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). We showed that thermoplastic cellulose C8 and cellulose C16 were completely processable without the addition of a plasticizer, which is very unusual in the case of cellulose esters. The compatibility of ...
Conference in "Cellulosic material Properties and industrial potential" - Final meeting in COST FP1205. This was hosted by Royal Institute of Technology KTH. The aim of the conference was to provide support on new product area development around the theme Cellulosic materials - processing, properties and promising applications related to COST FP1205 and to spread the knowledge to the wider scientific community on the current and upcoming commercial processes. Over 80 participants took part of the presentations, posters, and discussions. This last day of the meeting a round tour of the KTH campus was given in parallel with the final Management Committee meeting.. ...
Cellulosic materials are used in a wide range of areas of application, and one of these is paperboard for packaging solutions. Paper or paperboard as a packaging material has benefits like low density, low costs, high stiffness, good printability, and paper is environmentally friendly. Compared to other packaging materials, such as plastics, paper has some weaknesses By improving some of its weaknesses, paper as a packaging material, can become more competitive on the market, and knowing how to utilize this resource in a more effective and sustainable way will become increasingly important in the future. One way to decrease the amount of fibers needed in paper and paperboard is by improving the strength properties of cellulose fibers. Greater fiber strength can be achieved by, for example crosslinking the fibers, and crosslinking can be achieved with only a small amount of chemicals. By using electromagnetic radiation, like ultraviolet (UV) radiation, the fibers can be crosslinked with the aid of a UV
The interaction between cellulase enzymes and their substrates is of central importance to several technological and scientific challenges. Here we report that the binding of cellulose binding modules (CBM) from Trichoderma reesei cellulases Cel6A and Cel7A show a major difference in how they interact with substrates originating from wood compared to bacterial cellulose. We found that the CBM from TrCel7A recognizes the two substrates differently and as a consequence shows an unexpected way of binding. We show that the substrate has a large impact on the exchange rate of the studied CBM, and moreover, CBM-TrCel7A seems to have an additional mode of binding on wood derived cellulose but not on cellulose originating from bacterial source. This mode is not seen in double CBM (DCBM) constructs comprising both CBM-TrCel7A and CBM-TrCel6A. The linker length of DCBMs affects the binding properties, and slows down the exchange rates of the proteins and thus, can be used to analyze the differences ...
Background The in-depth understanding of the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose with heterogeneous morphology (that is, crystalline versus amorphous) may help develop better cellulase cocktail mixtures and biomass pretreatment, wherein cost-effective release of soluble sugars from solid cellulosic materials remains the largest obstacle to the economic viability of second generation biorefineries. Results In addition to the previously developed non-hydrolytic fusion protein, GC3, containing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) and a family 3 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM3) that can bind both surfaces of amorphous and crystalline celluloses, we developed a new protein probe, CC17, which contained a mono-cherry fluorescent protein (CFP) and a family 17 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM17) that can bind only amorphous cellulose surfaces. Via these two probes, the surface accessibilities of amorphous and crystalline celluloses were determined quantitatively. Our results for the enzymatic hydrolysis of ...
The biodegradation behavior of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO)-oxidized cellulose fibers (TOCs) suspended in water and TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (TOCNs) dispersed in...
Hydrolysis is widely acknowledged as the rate-limiting step in anaerobic digestion of solid cellulose to biogas, and pretreatment is generally considered to facilitate the process. However, few studies have investigated how such pretreatment may affect the rest of this complex process. The present study compared the solubilization rate in anaerobic digestion of cotton linter (high crystalline cellulose), with that of regenerated cellulose (amorphous cellulose), using pretreatment with NMMO. Batch digestions were performed, with the initial cellulose concentrations ranging between 5 and 40 g/l, and during 30 days of incubation, biogas and VFAs production as well as pH and COD changes were measured. The lag time before digestion started was longer for the high crystalline cellulose than for the amorphous one. The maximum solubilization ratesof treated cellulose were 842 and 517 mg sCOD/g cCOD/day at the initial cellulose concentration of 5 and 30 g/l respectively, while the solubilization rate of
Progress of cellulose-based Biomedical functional compositescellulose-based Functional composites exhibit the functional characteristics, such as light, electric, magnetic func-tionsand catalytic properties, which have been widely applied in pulping and papermaking, fine chemical, tissue en-gineering, BIOmedical and other fields.cellulose-based biomedical composites are typical cellulose materials, com-bining the advantages of both biomass and biomaTerials, which have potential applications in bone repair and re-placement, tissue engineering, drug delivery, Gene CarrieR, protein adsorption, and other fields.In this review, we in-troduced three synthetic methods to composites including hydrothermal (Solvothermal) method, MicrowAve method and ultrasonic method, discussed the advantages and disadvantages of these three kinds of preparation,reviewed the progress of cellulose-based materials, and systematically summarized cellulose-based biomedical compOsites such as Cellulose/hydroxyapatite, ...
Carpita said this let researchers see that the siRNAs - among other things - regulate and shut down primary cell wall development to begin secondary wall growth.. "These secondary stages result in characteristics such as tough rinds of corn stalks, vascular elements to conduct water and fibers for strength," he said. The researchers said that delaying or preventing the shutdown of both primary and secondary cellulose production might enhance total plant biomass.. "Most biofuel researchers believe that cellulose utilization offers the best path to sustainable ethanol production," Scofield said. "Our work uncovered a previously unknown mechanism that suggests a way to increase the amount of cellulose produced in plants.". Other members of the research team were Bryan Penning and Sarah Kessans of Purdue and Amanda Brandt of the USDA/Ag Research Service, Crop Production and Pest Control Research Unit located at Purdue.. The research was funded by a U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Biosciences ...
The successful synthesis of novel cholesteric hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) ester derivatives with pitch heights in the visible range and with functional thioether groups is reported here. The new methylthiopropionated HPC (HPC-MTP) was synthesized by the esterification of hydroxypropyl cellulose with 3-methylthiopropionyl chloride (MTP). Chain degradation and cross-linking of cellulose chains during esterification were avoided and complete esterification of all OH groups was achieved by the use of N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) as the solvent. The structure of HPC-MTP was analyzed by NMR- and IR-spectroscopy and SEC. The physical properties of this new material were measured by TGA, DSC, wide angle X-ray scattering, polarization microscopy and UV/Vis spectroscopy. HPC-MTP products were found to be thermotropic liquid crystalline and formed cholesteric and nematic phases. The formation of lyotropic phases was observed with triglyme as the solvent.. ...
Cellulose is one of the most common polysaccharides in the world and can be found almost in every plant. The scientific team of the Laboratory of Cellulose has more than 30 year experience and high competence in obtaining cellulose fibres from different types of biomass.. In the Laboratory, there is a reactor for Kraft cooking as well as wide spectra of equipment for testing of fibres (e.g. dimensions and composition). Various modifications (chemical - e.g. bleaching; mechanical - e.g. refining, milling) of fibres can be done during the implementation of scientific and industrial projects in order to improve the characteristics of fibres or to produce products of further processing, such as microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) or nanocellulose (NC). A patent for obtaining of MCC has been developed in the Laboratory of Cellulose; the process includes combining the thermocatalytic treatment of cellulose and ball milling.. Researchers have been always following the main trends in cellulose science, and ...
Cellulose is one of the most common polysaccharides in the world and can be found almost in every plant. The scientific team of the Laboratory of Cellulose has more than 30 year experience and high competence in obtaining cellulose fibres from different types of biomass.. In the Laboratory, there is a reactor for Kraft cooking as well as wide spectra of equipment for testing of fibres (e.g. dimensions and composition). Various modifications (chemical - e.g. bleaching; mechanical - e.g. refining, milling) of fibres can be done during the implementation of scientific and industrial projects in order to improve the characteristics of fibres or to produce products of further processing, such as microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) or nanocellulose (NC). A patent for obtaining of MCC has been developed in the Laboratory of Cellulose; the process includes combining the thermocatalytic treatment of cellulose and ball milling.. Researchers have been always following the main trends in cellulose science, and ...
Stejskal, J., Trchová, M. and Sapurina, I. (2005), Flame-retardant effect of polyaniline coating deposited on cellulose fibers. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 98: 2347-2354. doi: 10.1002/app.22144 ...
As a researcher in Uppsala has shown, another advantage of cellulose-based batteries is that they can be quickly recharged. Their one disadvantage is that they are less able to retain their energy compared to conventional metal-based batteries. The technology needs to be developed further to be a real alternative. In the coming years, Sony plans to develop its bio-based batteries for commercial usage. But the application will initially be limited to toys and other products that have limited energy needs. Looking down the road, Sony hopes its bio-batteries could be used in laptops and cell phones, for example.. Hopefully batteries based on cellulose and other biological materials will become real alternatives to todays metal-based batteries.. This article was published in July 2012. ...
Reactive dyes is cellulose fiber with the development of the dyes and the use of a key, outstanding is the following four aspects:
Hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose is the most critical step in bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. Cellulases and homogenous acids are widely used for cellulose hydrolysis. However, cellulases can only be used at moderate conditions and need longer time to achieve satisfactory cellulose hydrolysis. Homogenous acids can tolerate higher temperature, but they have limitations and issues such as equipment corrosion, recycling and wastewater treatment. To address these issues, heterogeneous solid acids have recently drawn a lot of attention for hydrolyzing cellulose. Traditional solid acids such as sulfonated carbon and resins, however, are not as effective as homogenous acids and cellulases in hydrolyzing cellulose because they have poor access/affinity to cellulose. In this study, a series of porous polymeric solid acids were synthesized for cellulose hydrolysis. These cellulase-mimetic solid acids have hydroxyl, halide, or boronic acid as cellulose-binding group in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The antimicrobial reagent role on the degradation of model cellulose film. AU - Jausovec, D.. AU - Angelescu, Daniel. AU - Voncina, B.. AU - Nylander, Tommy. AU - Lindman, Björn. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - The effect of the antimicrobial agent TMPAC (3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride) on the cellulase activity oil model cellulose substrate was investigated by in situ-null ellipsometry. The cellulases used were extracted from Trichoderma virlde and Aspergillus niger, and the model cellulose film was prepared by spin-coating silicon oxide wafers with cellulose solubilized in N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide/dimethyl sulfoxide solution. Upon enzyme addition to the previously equilibrated cellulose film, the initial enzyme adsorption oil the substrate was followed by an overall decrease in film mass owing to enzymatic digestion of the cellulose. The loss of cellulose film mass was associated with a non-monotonously behavior of the cellulose film thickness. The ...
A novel approach in the production of protein based films and composites were performed, using the bovine milk protein casein and regenerated cellulose fibres (lyocell). The films were prepared by first dissolving the casein protein in an aqueous alkaline solution in the presence of glycerol as a plasticizer. Further the composite films were prepared by the addition of fibres on aqueous alkaline solution with casein. The casein films and composites were thereafter prepared by casting the solution mixture on Teflon coated glass plate and drying for 48 hr. The effects of glycerol content and lyocell fibre reinforcements on the mechanical, thermal and physiological properties of the casein films were characterized. The results revealed that the increase in the addition of glycerol content decreases the tensile strength, youngs modulus, thermal stability of the film and increases the elongation percentage. Tensile property and thermal stability of the films was improved by the increase in the ...
Over the past decades, nanoparticles (NP) have received a huge and constantly increasing interest in fundamental and applied research. In addition to
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The present study reports on the development of multifunctional plaster showing superior thermal insulation, ability to control the indoor RH and NOx photocatalytic degradation. The plaster contains TiO2 nanoparticles (1 wt.%) and 0-4 wt.% fibers of two distinct sizes: 1 mm < d < 2 mm (Fb(1-2mm)) and 2 mm < d < 4mm (Fb(2-4mm)). The formulations were adjusted based on flow table and rheometer tests, aiming to assure a desirable workability. Plasters with similar workability (spread on table) showed distinct yield stress values over time and Fb((1-2mm)) plays an important role on the workability control. Rheological behaviour was governed by Fb((2-4mm)). Binary mixture 2.0Fb(1-2mm) + 2.0Fb(2-4mm)2.0Fb(2-4mm) required less water amount to show the same workability of the single formulation 4.0Fb(1-2mm). However, the control of the rheological behavior over time was found difficult. The apparent porosity, water absorption and capillary index were strongly incremented with the rise of cellulose fiber
The combination of organic and inorganic materials provides the opportunity to develop new materials that not only retain the inherent properties of their component precursors but may also exhibit new properties due to the synergistic interaction of the precursors. Of particular interest is the development of new hybrid materials comprising cellulose fibre substrates that have been functionalized by magnetic and photoluminescent nanoparticles or conducting polymers, and exploring their potential applications. Examples of such nanoparticles are the magnetic iron oxides, the photoluminescent zinc sulfide, and the conducting polymer polypyrrole. Such developments and applications include magnetic and photoluminescent paper for the upcoming smart packaging industry, security labels, tuneable electromagnetic shielding papers.
The combination of organic and inorganic materials provides the opportunity to develop new materials that not only retain the inherent properties of their component precursors but may also exhibit new properties due to the synergistic interaction of the precursors. Of particular interest is the development of new hybrid materials comprising cellulose fibre substrates that have been functionalized by magnetic and photoluminescent nanoparticles or conducting polymers, and exploring their potential applications. Examples of such nanoparticles are the magnetic iron oxides, the photoluminescent zinc sulfide, and the conducting polymer polypyrrole. Such developments and applications include magnetic and photoluminescent paper for the upcoming smart packaging industry, security labels, tuneable electromagnetic shielding papers.
Aim of this project is the development of ecological exterior insulation panels for buildings as alternative for commercial insulation materials. Commonly used insulation materials are made of expanded polystyrene, contain problematic substances and are hardly recyclable. Our approach for solving this problem is to reuse dusty, cellulose-based residuals, which are produced during waste paper recycling. This residuals are reused for manufacturing novel paper panels.. ...
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The aim is further to utilize the intrinsic mechanical properties and chemical characteristics for regenerated cellulose fibres,in the reinforcements. Surface modification of the fibres in order to achieve better interfacial adhesion will be done. The targeted composite applications are in automotive industry, building industry as well as the furniture and interior design industry, where there is a great interest for novel sustainable materials,which are based on biobased raw materials,and which can be recycled in a carbon dioxide neutral way.. The project goals are the following: ...
Simultaneous production of bleached cellulose fibers and polyxylosides alkyl through a biorefinery paper (Production simultan e de fibres cellulosiques blanchies et de polyxylosides dalkyle dans le cadre dune bioraffinerie papeti re)
Page contains details about cellulose fiber modified by Gd4O3F6:Eu3+ nanoparticles . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
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Despite the abundance and diversity of species that include living or dead plant tissue in their diets, the ability to digest cellulose is rare in insects and is restricted to a small number of orders and families. In this paper it is argued that cellulolytic capacity is uncommon in insects simply because it is a trait that is rarely advantageous to possess. Although there is a growing body of evidence for the occurrence of symbiont-independent cellulose digestion in cockroaches and in higher termites from the subfamily Nasutitermitinae, cellulose digestion in insects is usually mediated by microorganisms. It is proposed that non-cellulolytic omnivorous scavengers and detritivores may be preadapted to evolve symbiont-mediated cellulolytic mechanisms because of the prevalence of mutualistic associations between such species and the microorganisms that normally reside in their hindguts. A scenario is proposed for the evolution of symbiont-mediated cellulolytic capacity in roaches and lower ...
An optimization study of the preparation of spin-coated cellulose model films from the NMMO/DMSO system on silicon wafers has been made. The study shows that the cellulose concentration in the solution determines the cellulose film thickness and that the temperature of the solution affects the surface roughness. A lower solution temperature results in a lower surface roughness at cellulose concentrations below 0.8%. Using the described method, it is possible to prepare films with thicknesses of 30-90 nm with a constant surface roughness by changing the cellulose concentration, i.e. by dilution with DMSO. On these films, water has a contact angle less than 20degrees and about 50% of the material can, according to CP/MAS C-13-NMR spectroscopy on corresponding fibrous material, be considered to consist of crystalline cellulose II type material. It has further been shown that AFM can be used to determine the thickness of cellulose films, in both dry and wet states. In this method, the difference in ...
Cellulose is an essential material for keeping intestine peristalsis without producing energy, as prebiotics, feeding vegetarian bacteria flora (including Bacteroides, whose appropriate amount has proved important to prevent obesity[1]) of intestine as well. Thus, cellulose help people keep slim and healthy. The developing device aims at transforming glucose into cellulose, thus producing cellulose as well as reducing energy ingestion. To achieve this goal, we cloned genes of enzymes responding for cellulose synthesis from the Escherichia coli str. DH5ɑ, constructing functional expressional elements with these genes respectively downstream of promoter activated by glucose. In this way, cellulose synthetase complex is built artificially under regulation of glucose, repressed under low concentration of glucose and activated under high concentration of glucose. In the future, this device can be integrated to the whole planning artificial bacterium "E. coslim", activated when excess glucose is ...
Cellulose is one of the most widely used natural substances and has become one of the most important commercial raw materials. The major sources of cellulose are plant fibers (cotton, hemp, flax, and jute are almost all cellulose) and, of course, wood (about 42 percent cellulose). Since cellulose is insoluble in water, it is easily separated from the other constituents of a plant. Cellulose has been used to make paper since the Chinese first invented the process around A.D. 100. Cellulose is separated from wood by a pulping process that grinds woodchips under flowing water. The pulp that remains is then washed, bleached, and poured over a vibrating mesh. When the water finally drains from the pulp, what remains is an interlocking web of fibers that, when dried, pressed, and smoothed, becomes a sheet of paper. Raw cotton is 91 percent cellulose, and its fiber cells are found on the surface of the cotton seed. There are thousands of fibers on each seed, and as the cotton pod ripens and bursts ...
Cellulose is the main constituent of biomass, forming approximately 40% to 45% of the dry substance in most lignocellulosic materials and, with an estimated annual production of 1011 to 1012 tons, it is the worlds most abundant biological material [1-3]. Cellulose is a linear, unbranched homopolysaccharide composed of β-D-glucopyranose units which are linked together by β-1,4-glycosidic bonds to form a crystalline material. The cellulose degree of polymerization (DP) ranges from 500 to 15,000. The basic building unit of the cellulose skeleton is an elementary fibril, which is formed from insoluble microfibrils. The microfibrils are oriented along the longitudinal axis of the fibrils and are considered to be a bundle of 36 parallel cellodextrin chains which are held together by intermolecular (interchain and intrachain) hydrogen bonds [4, 5]. Cellulose contains crystalline and amorphous regions, and crystallinity, a measure of the weight fraction of the crystalline regions [6], is one of the ...
An improved method is described for the fusing, joining or seaming of cellulosic materials. The method utilizes a solution of selected organometallic compounds or metal oxides to rapidly crosslink opposing, overlapping cellulosic surfaces to provide secure seams. Enhanced seam strength is achieved by a subsequent moisture treatment. The tubular cellulosic casings are well-suited for the manufacture of sausages and sausage-like products. The seams according to this invention have exceptionally high shear strength and wet strength.
Biomass is constructed of dense recalcitrant polymeric materials: proteins, lignin, and holocellulose, a fraction constituting fibrous cellulose wrapped in hemicellulose-pectin. Bacteria and fungi are abundant in soil and forest floors, actively recycling biomass mainly by extracting sugars from holocellulose degradation. Here we review the genome-wide contents of seven Aspergillus species and unravel hundreds of gene models encoding holocellulose-degrading enzymes. Numerous apparent gene duplications followed functional evolution, grouping similar genes into smaller coherent functional families according to specialized structural features, domain organization, biochemical activity, and genus genome distribution. Aspergilli contain about 37 cellulase gene models, clustered in two mechanistic categories: 27 hydrolyze and 10 oxidize glycosidic bonds. Within the oxidative enzymes, we found two cellobiose dehydrogenases that produce oxygen radicals utilized by eight lytic polysaccharide ...
Despite the recognized physiological importance of transfer cells, little is known about how these specialized cells achieve localized deposition of cell wall material, leading to amplification of plasma membrane surface area and enhanced membrane transport capacity. This study establishes that cellulose synthesis is a key early factor in the construction of reticulate wall ingrowths, an elaborate but common form of localized wall deposition characteristic of most transfer cells. Using field emission scanning electron microscopy, wall ingrowths were first visible in epidermal transfer cells of Faba bean cotyledons as raised patches of disorganized and tangled cellulosic material, and, from these structures, ingrowths emerged via further deposition of wall material. The cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile and isoxaben both caused dramatic reductions in the number of cells depositing wall ingrowths, altered wall ingrowth morphology and visibly disrupted microfibril ...
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Working towards sustainable development within the forest industry, the dewatering of pulp and paper must be fully understood along with the dewatering of other cellulose-based materials. Huge amounts of energy are used during paper manufacturing so there is a potential for making the processes more energy-efficient. This thesis attempts to gain understanding of vacuum dewatering in the forming section of the conventional papermaking process and its connection with energy consumption in order to suggest actions that may be taken not only to improve energy efficiency but also facilitate the introduction of new materials into existing processes. The main objective of this thesis is to develop a deeper understanding of the vacuum dewatering of forest-based cellulosic materials in existing paper manufacturing processes. Aspects of how rewetting, the structure of the forming fabric and additives of cellulosic materials affect vacuum dewatering are discussed in detail throughout. There is also a large ...
The relationship between environmental variables and the oxygen isotope composition of alpha-cellulose in ringed tropical trees may not be constrained to simple "amount effects." Here I present a 55-year continuous record of delta18O of alpha-cellulose from Pinus kesiya. By comparing the cellulose isotope record to previous data, model theory, and rain amount data it is clear that both amount effects as well as isotopic changes in atmospheric circulation regimes are incorporated in the oxygen isotopic ratio of the alpha cellulose. Regression analysis show most of the variability recorded in the delta18O of cellulose results from changes in total annual rainfall, and large anomalies arise during La Nina and El Nino events. A proxy rainfall reconstruction exhibits poor correlation with rainfall variability and will require further work in order to constrain how best to extract a quantitative estimate of rainfall ...
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Method of preparation and some properties of amorphous cellulose nanoparticles (ANP) have been described in this paper. It was shown that ANP have spherical shape and are characterized by high degree of pantamorphia, low DP and increased content of sulfonic groups. The amorphous nanoparticles of cellulose are completely hydrolyzed by cellulolytic enzymes with forming of glucose. Concentrated paste of ANP has expressed thickening properties and therefore its additive can prevent phase separation of water dispersions of various substances. Low-acidic and soft nanoparticles can be used in cosmetic formulation for gentle skin peeling. Moreover, due to increased content of acidic functional groups, ANP can immobilize various therapeutically-active substances (TAS) containing basic functional groups. The ANP-TAS complexes can be used in remedies aimed for effective care and cure of the skin.
Get Sample PDF of report at @ http://www.360marketupdates.com/enquiry/request-sample/10311263 After the basic information, the report sheds light on the production. Production plants, their capacities, global production and revenue are studied. Also, the Microcrystalline Cellulose(MCC) Market growth in various regions and R&D status are also covered.. Further in the report, the Microcrystalline Cellulose(MCC) Market is examined for price, cost and gross. These three points are analysed for types, companies and regions. In continuation with this data sale price is for various types, applications and region is also included. The Microcrystalline Cellulose(MCC) Industry consumption for major regions is given. Additionally, type wise and application wise consumption figures are also given.. Analysis also include consumption. Import and export data for Regions North America, Europe, China, Japan, Southeast Asia, India.. Purchase this report @ http://www.360marketupdates.com/purchase/10311263 With the ...
Microcrystalline cellulose MCC Microcrystalline cellulose is composed of porous, high compressibility particles. It is obtained by partial hydrolysis...
Using liquid crystalline self-assembly of cellulose nanocrystals, we achieve long-range alignment of anisotropic metal nanoparticles in colloidal nanocrystal dispersions that are then used to deposit thin structured films with ordering features highly dependent on the deposition method. These hybrid films are comprised of gold nanorods unidirectionally aligned in a matrix that can be made of ordered cellulose nanocrystals or silica nanostructures obtained by using cellulose-based nanostructures as a replica. The ensuing long-range alignment of gold nanorods in both cellulose-based and nanoporous silica films results in a polarization-sensitive surface plasmon resonance. The demonstrated device-scale bulk nanoparticle alignment may enable engineering of new material properties arising from combining the orientational ordering of host nanostructures and properties of the anisotropic plasmonic metal nanoparticles. Our approach may also allow for scalable fabrication of plasmonic polarizers and nanoporous
TEGO® Feel C 10 is a natural cellulose fiber without derivatization or chemical modification. Sustainably sourced from forests all over Europe, mainly beech and spruce are processed to cellulose fibers with an average particle size of 30 μm, using a procedure employing renewable energy. BENEFITS AT A GLANCE Natural cellulose from sustainable European forestry Eco-friendly […]. ...
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There are two types of conservation quality mat board--rag cotton and alpha cellulose, and both types meet conservation standards. Alpha cellulose mat board is produced using virgin alpha cellulose purified wood pulp. The virgin alpha cellulose has been chemically treated to eliminate the acids and lignins that can degrade the mat board and the artwork. Available in over 300 colors, this face color on this type of board is created with fade and bleed resistant organic pigments. Research has shown that alpha cellulose boards with MicroChamber technology and zeolite counteract the effects of pollutants over time, including acidic gases such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen. Bainbridges alpha cellulose Artcare mat boards proactively trap and neutralize pollutants and acid by-products that damage artwork. Alpha cellulose mat boards are appropriate for framing valuable art, important or historical documents, and photos or collectibles. ...
... specifications & features from suppliers/manufacturer As the direct cellulose sponge manufacturer (factory) in China, we produce any size, any shape and any color cellulose sponges with skin or without skin, and also produce compressed cellulose sponges with printing logos or without printing. Cellulose
Pyrolysis is estimated to be one of the most promising methods to convert biomass to diverse products (such as syn-gas, liquid fuel and charcoal), while its application has the potential for alleviating the fossil fuel crisis and environmental deterioration. Cellulose, a linear homopolymer of glucopyranose residues linked by β-1, 4-glycosidic bonds, is the most principal component in biomass (accounting for more than 50% by weight). The research on the pyrolytic behavior of cellulose is particularly beneficial for achieving a better understanding of the pyrolytic behavior of biomass, also promoting its direct applications in terms of fuels, chemicals and bio-materials. The studies on pyrolysis of cellulose are extensively reported in the categories of the following four issues: (1) the physico-chemical properties of cellulose in lignocellulosic biomass; (2) the on-line pyrolysis study of cellulose; (3) the off-line pyrolysis study of cellulose; (4) the interactions with other chemical ...
The ETH researchers used the following trick to densify the printed cellulose products: After printing a cellulose-based water ink, they put the objects in a bath containing organic solvents. As cellulose does not like organic solvents, the particles tend to aggregate. This process results into shrinkage of the printed part and consequently to a significant increase in the relative amount of cellulose particles within the material.. In a further step, the scientists soaked the objects in a solution containing a photosensitive plastic precursor. By removing the solvent by evaporation, the plastic precursors infiltrate the cellulose-based scaffold. Next, to convert the plastic precursors into a solid plastic, they exposed the objects to UV light. This produced a composite material with a cellulose content of the aforementioned 27 volume percent. "The densification process allowed us to start out with a 6 to 14 percent in volume of water-cellulose mixture and finish with a composite object that ...
PRODUCTO N-33 Polyamide sizing product. PRODUCTO C-22 Acrylic derivative for sizing cellulose fibres and their blends. PRODUCTO F-175 For sizing cotton and its blends. PRODUCTO V-150 For sizing cotton fibres and blends with synthetic fibres. PRODUCTO MT-10 Sizing compound for cellulose fibres and blends. PRODUCTO VM-8 For sizing cellulose fibres. STARWACHS L Fatty acid-based softener.
The adsorption of three diverse amino acids couples onto the surface of microcrystalline cellulose was studied. Characterisation of modified celluloses included changes in the polarity and in roughness. The amino acids partially break down the hydrogen bonding network of the cellulose structure, leading to more reactive cellulose residues that were easily hydrolysed to glucose in the presence of hydrochloric acid or tungstophosphoric acid catalysts. The conversion of cellulose and selectivity for glucose was highly dependent on the self-assembled amino acids adsorbed onto the cellulose and the catalyst.
Cellulase is any of several enzymes produced chiefly by fungi, bacteria, and protozoans that catalyze cellulolysis, the decomposition of cellulose and of some related polysaccharides. The name is also used for any naturally occurring mixture or complex of various such enzymes, that act serially or synergistically to decompose cellulosic material. Cellulases break down the cellulose molecule into monosaccharides ("simple sugars") such as beta-glucose, or shorter polysaccharides and oligosaccharides. Cellulose breakdown is of considerable economic importance, because it makes a major constituent of plants available for consumption and use in chemical reactions. The specific reaction involved is the hydrolysis of the 1,4-beta-D-glycosidic linkages in cellulose, hemicellulose, lichenin, and cereal beta-D-glucans. Because cellulose molecules bind strongly to each other, cellulolysis is relatively difficult compared to the breakdown of other polysaccharides such as starch. Most mammals have only very ...
The present invention provides a cellulose triacetate which exhibits a satisfactory filtration performance Thus, the present invention provides a cellulose triacetate whose occlusion constant (K) determined by the following method is 70 or less. Method: the cellulose triacetate is dissolved in a solvent mixture of methylene chloride/methanol (9/1 w/w) to form a 16% by weight (as a solid concentration) solution, which is then filtered under a constant pressure at the filtration pressure of 3 kg/cm.sup.2 and the temperature of 25.degree. C. using a muslin filter to determine a filtered volume with the lapse of time, from which the slope of a linear curve represented by t/V-t (wherein t is a filtration time (sec) and V is a filtered volume (ml)) is calculated to obtain an occlusion constant (K) where K=slope.times.2.times.10.sup.4.
Cellulose benzylphosphonate (CBP) and its metal complexes with transition metals such as chromium, iron, copper and zinc have been synthesized as flame-retardant formulations on cellulose and when heated, these compounds give rise to high char yields. Enthalpy changes and char yields suggest that such derivatisation may give rise to novel flame retardant treatments for cellulosic materials. The thermal degradation of cellulose, CBP and metal complexes of CBP has been studied by using TG and DSC from ambient temperature to 600ºC in static air. The FTIR spectra of chars of modified cellulose indicate that dehydration takes place and compounds containing C=O, C=C, P-O-P and P=O groups are formed ...
... - Microcrystalline Cellulose is a purified, partly depolymerised cellulose with shorter, crystalline polymer chains. Its strong binding performance make MCC one of the most commonly used fillers and binders in drug formulations.
Ask for Discount on Hydroxyethyl Cellulose Market Report: https://www.marketexpertz.com/discount-enquiry-form/38027. We can also provide the customized separate regional or country-level reports, for the following regions:. North America, United States, Canada, Mexico, Asia-Pacific, China, India, Japan, South Korea, Australia, Indonesia, Singapore, Rest of Asia-Pacific, Europe, Germany, France, UK, Italy, Spain, Russia, Rest of Europe, Central & South America, Brazil, Argentina, Rest of South America, Middle East & Africa, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Rest of Middle East & Africa. Key elements from table of content:. 1 Hydroxyethyl Cellulose Market Introduction and Market Overview. 2 Industry Chain Analyses. 3 Global Hydroxyethyl Cellulose Market, by Type. 4 Hydroxyethyl Cellulose Market, by Application. 5 Global Hydroxyethyl Cellulose Market Production, Value ($) by Region (2014-2019). 6 Global Hydroxyethyl Cellulose Market Production, Consumption, Export, Import by Regions (2014-2019). 7 Profile of ...
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The production of cellulolytic enzymes by the rot fungus Stereum sanguinolentum has been studied on different carbon sources. When powdered cellulose or carboxymethyl cellulose was used as the carbon source, high yields of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes were obtained, but there was no production of these enzymes with cellobiose as the carbon source. The heterogeneities in the protein structure of the enzymes were studied by the isoelectric focusing method. Also, the separation of two cellulase peaks from culture solutions of the rot fungus Stereum sanguinolentum has been demonstrated on a DEAE-Sephadex A-50 column. After dialysis, when the carbohydrate content of both the enzymes decreased to zero, the mixed enzymes gave one homogeneous cellulase peak upon rechromatography on a DEAE-Sephadex A-50 column as well as on column electrophoresis. The results strongly indicate that S. sanguinolentum only excretes one cellulase enzyme in a culture solution with powdered cellulose as the carbon source.
Millipore™ Mixed Cellulose Esters Hydrophobic Edge Membrane Filter Airflow Rate: 32L/min./cm&superscript_2; Millipore™ Mixed Cellulose Esters...
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The study presents the survey on cellulose derivatives which are capable of formulating gels in aqueous solutions. As based on cellulose they are biocompatible and biodegradable and hence they are widely used.
Cellulose processing[edit]. The dissolution of cellulose by ILs has attracted interest.[37] A patent application from 1930 ... Charles Graenacher, Manufacture and Application of New Cellulose Solutions and Cellulose Derivatives Produced therefrom, US ... The dissolution of cellulose-based materials like tissue paper waste, generated in chemical industries and at research ... E. de Vos (2011). "Synthesis of glucose esters from cellulose in ionic liquids". Holzforschung. 66 (4): 417-425. doi:10.1515/hf ...
Cellulose[edit]. Hydrogen bonds are important in the structure of cellulose and derived polymers in its many different forms in ... A strand of cellulose (conformation Iα), showing the hydrogen bonds (dashed) within and between cellulose molecules ...
Cellulose. E 460. cereals, fruit, vegetables (in all plants in general) Chitin. -. in fungi, exoskeleton of insects and ... Other examples of bulking fiber sources used in functional foods and supplements include cellulose, guar gum and xanthan gum. ... For instance, cellulose and wheat bran provide excellent bulking effects, but are minimally fermented. Alternatively, many ... Dietary fiber consists of non-starch polysaccharides and other plant components such as cellulose, resistant starch, resistant ...
"Water dispersion of cellulose II nanocrystals prepared by TEMPO-mediated oxidation of mercerized cellulose at pH 4.8". ... Cellulose. 17 (2): 279-288. doi:10.1007/s10570-009-9381-2.. *^ "Bromide: Potassium & Sodium". canine-epilepsy.com. Canine- ...
Cellulose dissolves in aqueous solutions of ZnCl2, and zinc-cellulose complexes have been detected.[31] Cellulose also ... Xu, Q.; Chen, L.-F. (1999). "Ultraviolet Spectra and Structure of Zinc-Cellulose Complexes in Zinc Chloride Solution". Journal ... Fischer, S.; Leipner, H.; Thümmler, K.; Brendler, E.; Peters, J. (2003). "Inorganic Molten Salts as Solvents for Cellulose". ... Cellulose. 10 (3): 227-236. doi:10.1023/A:1025128028462.. *^ a b Wiberg, Nils (2007). Lehrbuch der Anorganischen Chemie [ ...
Cellulose propionate, a molded, durable plastic. *3D-printed plastic using super-fine polyamide powder and Selective Laser ... Cellulose acetate. *Optyl, a type of hypoallergenic material made especially for eyeglass frames. It features a type of ...
Cellulose fiber Löblich & Co. Industrials Industrial machinery Vienna 1738 Heating, commercial kitchens ...
One significant issue is that while all these chemical compounds have been approved as additives to food, they were not tested by burning. Burning changes the properties of chemicals. According to the U.S. National Cancer Institute: "Of the more than 7,000 chemicals in tobacco smoke, at least 250 are known to be harmful, including hydrogen cyanide, carbon monoxide, and ammonia. Among the 250 known harmful chemicals in tobacco smoke, at least 69 can cause cancer."[5][1][6] ...
Cellulose composites[edit]. Thiele et al. explored the possibilities of a cellulose-based material that could be responsive to ... Cellulose fibrils combine during the printing process into microfibrils with a high aspect ratio (~100) and an elastic modulus ... Experimenting with this ink, the team created a theoretical model for a print path that dictates the orientation of cellulose ... They developed a bilayer film using cellulose steraroyl esters with different substitution degrees on either side. One ester ...
Methyl cellulose. References[edit]. *^ de Silva DJ, Olver JM (July 2005). "Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) lubricant ... Safety data for hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose[permanent dead link] *^ Example properties and applications of hydroxypropyl ... Since all cellulose ethers are hygroscopic, they will absorb moisture from surroundings if left exposed from original packaging ... Since there are maximum three possible sites of substitution with each cellulose molecule, this average value is a real number ...
"Cellulose extraction thimbles". Hahnemuehle. Retrieved 2015-11-21. "Glass Fiber Filters". Glass Fiber Filters. Pall Corporation ...
The alkali cellulose is then treated with carbon disulfide to form sodium cellulose xanthate.[3] ... The higher the ratio of cellulose to combined sulfur, the lower the solubility of the cellulose xanthate. The xanthate is ... Cellulose is a linear polymer of β-D-glucose units with the empirical formula (C6H10O5)n.[2] To prepare viscose, dissolving ... The cellulose solution is used to spin the viscose rayon fiber, which may also be called viscose. Viscose rayon fiber is a soft ...
"Cellulose Insulation Manufacturers Association - Cellulose Facts". Cellulose.org. Archived from the original on 2008-07-04. ... Cellulose is classified by OSHA as a dust nuisance during installation, and the use of a dust mask is recommended. Cellulose is ... Wet-spray cellulose is comparable.). Increases structural stability (unlike loose-fill, similar to wet-spray cellulose). Can be ... Cellulose insulation. Cellulose, is denser and more resistant to air flow than fiberglass. Persistent moisture will weaken ...
Cellulose, starch, other organic compounds Carbon. CO2. Cellulose, starch, other organic compounds ...
Jonas, Rainer; Farah, Luiz F. (1998). "Production and application of microbial cellulose". Polymer Degradation and Stability. ...
"Production and application of microbial cellulose". Polymer Degradation and Stability. 59 (1-3): 101-106. doi:10.1016/s0141- ...
Less than 1.5% of microcrystalline cellulose,. *Less than 1% of added edible casein or edible caseinates ...
Synthesis of cellulose-metal nanoparticle composites: development and comparison of different protocols' cellulose, 2014. ' ... "Synthesis of cellulose-metal nanoparticle composites: development and comparison of different protocols". Cellulose. 21 (1): ...
Specifically, cellulose graft copolymers have various different applications that are dependent on the structure of the polymer ... Some of the new properties that cellulose gains from different monomers grafted onto it include: Absorption of water Improved ... Waly, A.; Abdel-Mohdy, F. A.; Aly, A. S.; Hebeish, A. (27 June 1998). "Synthesis and characterization of cellulose ion ... Dhiman, Poonam K.; Kaur, Inderjeet; Mahajan, R. K. (5 April 2008). "Synthesis of a cellulose-grafted polymeric support and its ...
Hardwoods are made up mostly of three materials: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Cellulose and hemicellulose are the ... Cellulose and hemicellulose are aggregate sugar molecules; when burnt, they effectively caramelize, producing carbonyls, which ...
Cellulose acetate was first prepared in 1865. In years 1834-1844 the properties of rubber (polyisoprene) were found to be ... Polysaccharides, such as cellulose, chitin, and starch, are biopolymers derived from sugars. The polynucleic acids DNA and RNA ... In 1884 Hilaire de Chardonnet started the first artificial fiber plant based on regenerated cellulose, or viscose rayon, as a ... A strand of cellulose showing the hydrogen bonds (dashed) within and between the chains. ...
Sporotrichum thermophile, thermophilic cellulose degrader (2010[73]). *Thielavia terrestris, model thermophile/industrial (2010 ...
Products made from cellulose include rayon and cellophane, wallpaper paste, biobutanol and gun cotton. Sugarcane, rapeseed and ... Cellulose, the world's most abundant organic polymer,[96] can be converted into energy, fuels, materials and chemical feedstock ... Plants synthesise a number of unique polymers like the polysaccharide molecules cellulose, pectin and xyloglucan[86] from which ... Klemm, Dieter; Heublein, Brigitte; Fink, Hans-Peter; Bohn, Andreas (September 6, 2005). "Cellulose: Fascinating Biopolymer and ...
The cellulose body wall can be broken down and converted into ethanol, and other parts of the animal are protein-rich and can ... The tunic is composed of proteins and complex carbohydrates, and includes tunicin, a variety of cellulose. The tunic is unique ... The production in animals of cellulose is so unusual that at first some researchers denied its presence outside of plants, but ... Carl Schmidt first announced the presence in the test of some ascidians of a substance very similar to cellulose, he called it ...
Collenchyma cells are usually living, and have only a thick primary cell wall[9] made up of cellulose and pectin. Cell wall ... Their cell walls contain, besides cellulose, a high proportion of lignin. The load-bearing capacity of Phormium tenax is as ... They have thin and flexible cellulose cell walls, and are generally polyhedral when close-packed, but can be roughly spherical ... Their cell walls consist of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Sclerenchyma cells are the principal supporting cells in ...
Spray-applied cellulose (wet-spray cellulose)[edit]. Spray-applied cellulose is used for applying cellulose to new wall ... These are generally characterized as dry cellulose, spray applied cellulose, stabilized cellulose, and low dust cellulose. ... History of cellulose insulation[edit]. Cellulose is among the oldest types of building insulation material.[citation needed] ... Advantages of cellulose insulation[edit]. Thermal performance[edit]. The thermal performance of loose filled cellulose compares ...
Cellulose tape is a transparent adhesive tape that happens to be biodegradable too. It is difficult to find, especially in the ... Cellulose tape is a transparent adhesive tape that happens to be biodegradable too. It is difficult to find, especially in the ...
Citation: NOLLAU, E., "Cellulose-Nitrate Coated Fabrics," SAE Technical Paper 270059, 1927, https://doi.org/10.4271/270059.. ...
Cellulose and cellulose derivatives, Volume 5, Part 2. Volume 5 of High polymers. Cellulose and Cellulose Derivatives, Emil Ott ... Malm carbon carboxymethyl cellulose catalyst caustic cellu cellulose acetate cellulose derivatives cellulose ethers Chem ... Cellulose and Cellulose Derivatives, Part 3. Emil Ott,Harold M. Spurlin,Mildred W. Grafflin,Norbert M. Bikales,Leon Segal. ... cellulose_derivatives.html?id=6QXwAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareCellulose and cellulose derivatives. ...
Cellulose acetate, synthetic compound derived from the acetylation of the plant substance cellulose. Cellulose acetate is spun ... Cellulose acetate, synthetic compound derived from the acetylation of the plant substance cellulose. Cellulose acetate is spun ... Cellulose acetate is most commonly prepared by treating cellulose with acetic acid and then with acetic anhydride in the ... Treatment of cellulose with nitric acid had produced cellulose nitrate (also known as nitrocellulose), but the difficulties of ...
Media in category "Cellulose derivatives". The following 47 files are in this category, out of 47 total. ... Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Cellulose_derivatives&oldid=112680416" ...
sustainable, brick, masonry, cellulose, postindustrial material Keywords:. sustainable, brick, masonry, cellulose, ... postindustrial cellulose and bentonite clay). This grade of cellulose is no longer suitable for use in the manufacture of ... The described process repurposes this cellulose waste as a component in a structural element that can be worked using standard ... A novel masonry material containing postindustrial cellulose, bentonite clay, and small amounts of other additives (e.g., ...
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The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Synonym(s): BLEACHED WOOD PULP; CELLULOSE POWDER; CELLULOSE; MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE; WOOD PULP, BLEACHED; ABICEL; ALPHA- ... About CELLULOSE: Cellulose is a natural polysaccharide derived from plant fibers.. Function(s): Absorbent; Bulking Agent; Slip ... CELLULOSE; ARBOCEL; ARBOCEL BC 200; ARBOCELL B 600/30; AVICEL; AVICEL 101 ...
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... Mark Farmer farmer at emlab.cb.uga.edu Thu Mar 5 11:39:52 EST 1998 *Previous message: cellulose digesters ... Grosovsky and Margulis 1982 and several papers by Michael Yamin explore the cellulose digesting capabilities of these protists ...
Cellulose. ISSN: 0969-0239 (Print) 1572-882X (Online) Description. Cellulose is an international journal devoted to the ... Cellulose. Coverage. Volume 1 / 1994 - Volume 25 / 2018. Print ISSN. 0969-0239. Online ISSN. 1572-882X. Publisher. Springer ... The journal is concerned with the pure and applied science of cellulose and related materials, and also with the development of ... This includes the chemistry, biochemistry, physics and materials science of cellulose and its sources, including wood and other ...
Cellulose degradation in anaerobic environments.. Leschine SB1.. Author information. 1. Department of Microbiology, University ... Products of cellulose hydrolysis are available as carbon and energy sources for other microbes that inhabit environments in ... It considers cellulose decomposing communities in soils, sediments, and aquatic environments, as well as those that degrade ... Because the substrate, cellulose, is insoluble, bacterial and fungal degradation occurs exocellularly, either in association ...
Cellulose definition, an inert carbohydrate, (C6H10O5)n, the chief constituent of the cell walls of plants and of wood, cotton ... Cellulose is an organic molecule (see also organic molecules), composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. ... Straw, in fact, which consists of the dry stem and leaves of the wheat plant, is almost wholly made up of cellulose. ... The cellulose fiber expands in diameter on absorbing moisture, for which it has a great84 affinity. ...
Cellulose Bacterial cellulose Hydrogel Wound healing Dressing This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access ... Huang Y, Zhu C, Yang J, Nie Y, Chen C, Sun D (2014) Recent advances in bacterial cellulose. Cellulose 21(1):1-30CrossRefGoogle ... Along with plant-derived cellulose, the use of bacterial cellulose membranes as wound dressings and skin substitutes is ... Orlando I., Roy I. (2018) Cellulose-Based Hydrogels for Wound Healing. In: Mondal M. (eds) Cellulose-Based Superabsorbent ...
This brown rot fungus capacity to break down the cellulose in wood led to its selection for sequencing by the U.S. Department ... It has such an aggressive form of cellulose breakdown," said study first author Dan Eastwood of Swansea University. He pointed ... The brown rot fungi have somehow circumvented that step to more efficiently get at the cellulose instead of blasting lignin, ... "This is a step forward into learning more about the processes involved in cellulose degradation," he said. Beyond the interest ...
Cellulose is an international journal devoted to the dissemination of research and scientific and technological progress in the ... field of cellulose and related naturally occurring polymers. The journal is concerned with the pure and ... ... Cellulose is an international journal devoted to the dissemination of research and scientific and technological progress in the ... Cellulose is an international journal devoted to the dissemination of research and scientific and technological progress in the ...
Glycerine treated nanofibrillated cellulose (GNFC) was prepared by mixing aqueous nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) suspensions ... Glycerine Treated Nanofibrillated Cellulose Composites. Esra Erbas Kiziltas,1,2 Alper Kiziltas,1,3 Behzad Nazari,4 Douglas J. ...
Definition of microcrystalline cellulose. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... microcrystalline cellulose. Definition: purified, partially depolymerized cellulose, prepared by treating α-cellulose, obtained ...
... microfibrillated cellulose (MFC), cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), bacterial cellulose (BC), and electrospun cellulose nanofibers ... A. Abbott and A. Bismarck, "Self-reinforced cellulose nanocomposites," Cellulose, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 779-791, 2010. View at ... J.-F. Sassi and H. Chanzy, "Ultrastructural aspects of the acetylation of cellulose," Cellulose, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 111-127, ... A. Dorris and D. G. Gray, "Gelation of cellulose nanocrystal suspensions in glycerol," Cellulose, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 687-694, ...
Bondwell™ cellulose gum 99.5% purity grades are manufactured in China.. We also offer a number of specialty cellulose gums for ... Cellulose Gum Chemistry: Cellulosics. SDS Link , Cellulose gum, or sodium carboxyethylcellulose (CMC), from Ashland is widely ... Cellulose gum also conforms to the purity criteria of E466 as mentioned in the Annex of EC directive 2008/84/EC and amendments ... "Cellulose Gum", accepted as a common or usual name for purified sodium carboxymethylcellulose, may be used in food label ...
About CELLULOSE ACETATE PROPIONATE: Cellulose Acetate Propionate is a propionic acid ester of a partially acetylated cellulose. ...
... any of a group of acetic esters of cellulose, used to make yarns, textiles, nonflammable photographic films, rubber and ... cellulose acetate in Science Expand. cellulose acetate Any of several compounds obtained by treating cellulose with acetic ... cellulose acetate. noun 1. nonflammable material made by acetylating cellulose: used in the manufacture of film, dopes, ... Cellulose acetate is used in lacquers, photographic film, transparent sheeting, and cigarette filters. Also called acetate, ...
2000) Multiple cellulose synthase catalytic subunits are required for cellulose synthesis in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 12(12): ... CELLULOSE SYNTHASE INTERACTIVE1 Is Required for Fast Recycling of Cellulose Synthase Complexes to the Plasma Membrane in ... Comparison of the Gh506 with the bacterial cellulose synthase. (A) Surface representation of the Rs cellulose synthase (PDB ID ... 2003) Expression of a mutant form of cellulose synthase AtCesA7 causes dominant negative effect on cellulose biosynthesis. ...
  • Cellulose is a naturally occurring polymer obtained from wood fibres or the short fibres (linters) adhering to cotton seeds. (britannica.com)
  • It consists only of water in which cellulose particles and fibres measuring a few hundred nanometres have been dispersed. (eurekalert.org)
  • Regenerated Cellulose Fibres. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most mammals have only very limited ability to digest dietary fibres such as cellulose by themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thanks to its ability to modify the surface of cellulose fibres, PEI is employed as a wet-strength agent in the paper-making process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hemicelluloses are embedded in the cell walls of plants, sometimes in chains that form a 'ground' - they bind with pectin to cellulose to form a network of cross-linked fibres. (wikipedia.org)
  • In papermaking, a dilute suspension consisting mostly of separate cellulose fibres in water is drained through a sieve-like screen, so that a mat of randomly interwoven fibres is laid down. (wikipedia.org)
  • Borregaard ChemCell also produces cellulose for textile fibres, plastic products and a variety of paper qualities. (wikipedia.org)
  • The densification process allowed us to start out with a 6 to 14 percent in volume of water-cellulose mixture and finish with a composite object that exhibits up to 27 volume percent of cellulose nanocrystals," says Hausmann. (eurekalert.org)
  • Their findings showed that the cellulose nanocrystals are aligned similarly to those present in natural materials. (eurekalert.org)
  • This illustration depicts structural details of cellulose nanocrystals. (purdue.edu)
  • This transmission electron microscope image shows cellulose nanocrystals, tiny structures that give trees and plants their high strength, light weight and resilience. (purdue.edu)
  • The findings represent a milestone in understanding the fundamental mechanical behavior of the cellulose nanocrystals. (purdue.edu)
  • The cellulose nanocrystals represent a potential green alternative to carbon nanotubes for reinforcing materials such as polymers and concrete. (purdue.edu)
  • Empa researchers have succeeded in developing an environmentally friendly ink for 3D printing based on cellulose nanocrystals. (empa.ch)
  • Empa researchers Gilberto Siqueira and Tanja Zimmermann from the Laboratory for Applied Wood Materials have now succeeded, together with Jennifer Lewis from Harvard University and André Studart from the ETH Zürich, in developing a new, environmentally friendly 3D printing ink made from cellulose nanocrystals (CNC). (empa.ch)
  • Rod-like cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) approximately 120 nanometers long and 6.5 nanometers in diameter under the microscope. (empa.ch)
  • The final product is cellulose nanocrystals, tiny rod-like structures that are 120 nanometers long and have a diameter of 6.5 nanometers. (empa.ch)
  • In this work, surface acetylation of cellulose nanocrystals was performed to improve their interfacial adhesion with hydrophobic polymer matrix and to restore their thermal stability by removing the sulfate groups. (springer.com)
  • The morphological, chemical, and thermal characteristics of the surface-modified cellulose nanocrystals (ACNs) were confirmed by field emission-transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. (springer.com)
  • Cellulose is an international journal devoted to the dissemination of research and scientific and technological progress in the field of cellulose and related naturally occurring polymers. (springer.com)
  • Siqueira: "Most polymers are water-repellent or hydrophobic, whereas cellulose attracts water - it is hydrophilic. (empa.ch)
  • Hydroxypropylmethylcelluloses are water soluble polymers derived from cellulose. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This includes the chemistry, biochemistry, physics and materials science of cellulose and its sources, including wood and other biomass resources, and their derivatives. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, cellulose and cellulose derivatives also have unique properties such as hydrophilicity, mechanical strength, biocompatibility, and tunable functionality due to the strong versatile hydrogen bonding. (springer.com)
  • Cellulose-based hydrogels are prepared by physical or chemical cross-linking of cellulose derivatives with various functional molecules, which covalently bind different functional molecules and form a highly porous hydrogel, with three-dimensional network structure consisting of nanofibrillar-regenerated cellulose. (springer.com)
  • This chapter will introduce the smart applications of cellulose-based hydrogels including native cellulose, cellulose derivatives, and cellulose-composite hydrogels. (springer.com)
  • Potential solutions can be in the source of the cellulose we use, in the improvement of our waterborne production process, in the development of new modifications providing improved or completely new functionality, or in the use of alternative cellulose derivatives as modifiers for our products. (akzonobel.com)
  • The deficiencies inherent in cellulose nitrate raised the possibility of producing other esters of cellulose, particularly the esters of organic acids. (britannica.com)
  • Since it is formed by reacting esters of cellulose with acetic acid and butyric acid, this also gives it low moisture absorption and an extremely high level of impact strength. (wisegeek.com)
  • For example, Eastwood noted that the chemistry Serpula uses is slightly different from the chemistry that goes on in Postia, though in a larger sense between white rot and brown rot, "what we describe here is a refinement of the genes, what genes are absolutely necessary to break down cellulose," he said. (redorbit.com)
  • This book addresses concepts and novel developments in the rapidly evolving field of cellulose chemistry, providing an emphasis on the fundamental aspects of nanocellulose and microfibrillated cellulose. (wiley-vch.de)
  • Addressing three main topics (chemistry, analysis and novel applications of cellulosic materials), this book provides a panoramic snapshot of state-of-the-art cellulose research. (wiley-vch.de)
  • The mission of the company is to develop and market new cellulose-based materials with high functionality, including water-resistance, dry- wet-strength and flame retardance etc., using green chemistry as the fundamental pillar. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellulose insulation is plant fiber used in wall and roof cavities to insulate, draught proof and reduce free noise. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cellulose fiber expands in diameter on absorbing moisture, for which it has a great84 affinity. (dictionary.com)
  • For humans, cellulose is also a major source of needed fiber in our diet. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Yun, " Carboxymethyl cellulose fiber as a fast binding and biodegradable adsorbent of heavy metals," Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Nakagaito AN, Yano H (2004) The effect of morphological changes from pulp fiber towards nano-scale fibrillated cellulose on the mechanical properties of high-strength plant fiber based composites. (springer.com)
  • In Oberbruch in 1898 they established the first factory in Germany to economically produce artificial fiber, using a patent for manufacture of rayon made from cellulose in a copper-ammonia solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1884 Hilaire de Chardonnet started the first artificial fiber plant based on regenerated cellulose, or viscose rayon, as a substitute for silk, but it was very flammable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media Rayon is a manufactured fiber made from regenerated cellulose fiber. (wikipedia.org)
  • The xanthate is then converted back to a cellulose fiber in a subsequent step. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arrieta also diversified the company, establishing a cellulose and paper plant based on insourced sugar cane fiber. (wikipedia.org)
  • Near 3.5 miles (5.6 km) later, Carson Road intersects Weyerhaeuser Road, that leads to cellulose fiber mills. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cellulose solution is used to spin the viscose rayon fiber, which may also be called viscose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monogastrics cannot digest the fiber molecule cellulose as efficiently as ruminants, though the ability to digest cellulose varies amongst species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Schweizer's reagent finds use in production of cellulose products such as rayon and cellophane, because wood pulp, cotton fiber, and other natural cellulose sources are soluble in the solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the past twenty years, much attention has been devoted to the study and development of polymer nanocomposites using various nanofillers including clay, silica, carbon nanotubes, and cellulose nanofibers [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Recent years, in particular, have seen a large global interest regarding cellulose nanocomposites. (hindawi.com)
  • National and international meetings of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Society of Wood Science Technology, Forest Products Society, American Chemical Society, and Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry have covered the subject of cellulose nanocomposites. (hindawi.com)
  • Interest is also reflected through the increasing number of review papers which provide detailed information on the production of cellulose nanofibers, processing, and characterization of cellulose nanocomposites and new developments, with particular emphasis on their applications [ 3 - 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Cellulose nanomaterials review: structure, properties and nanocomposites. (nih.gov)
  • Remarkably, the work of fracture ranged from 20 to 27 MJ/m 3 , making these films among the toughest reported for cellulose nanocomposites. (usda.gov)
  • Favier V, Chanzy H, Cavaille JY (1995) Polymer nanocomposites reinforced by cellulose whiskers. (springer.com)
  • Glucosyl is the glycosyl of glucose, a chain of (1→4)-β-D-glucosyl residues is cellulose, and enzymes of this class therefore play an important role in the synthesis of cellulose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzymatic hydrolysis is the process in which cellulose (an insoluble substance) is converted to glucose by the addition of enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within a cellulosome, multiple endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases, xylanases and other degradative enzymes work synergistically to attack heterogeneous, insoluble cellulose substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • These enzymes degrade complex organic matter such as cellulose and hemicellulose into simple sugars that enzyme-producing organisms use as a source of carbon, energy, and nutrients. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, presence of a low-molecular weight soluble substrate such as glucose will inhibit enzyme production by repressing the transcription of associated cellulose-degrading enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another Popular example of NISE are the Cellulase family of enzymes, particularly Cellulose 1,4-beta-cellobiosidase also consisting of three distinct forms possessing endonuclease activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • GH-6 family enzymes attacks the non reducing end of cellulose while GH-7 family enzymes attack the reducing end. (wikipedia.org)
  • GH-48 family enzymes are bacterial family enzymes only and attack the reducing end of cellulose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tanks receive feed slurry from pretreatment, and with the use of added enzymes, the cellulose is then broken down to produce six-carbon sugars. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nanocrystalline cellulose is made from wood pulp, is light, strong, and even conducts electricity. (kottke.org)
  • This new biodegradable barrier coating that the Penn State researchers developed is composed of equal parts treated cellulose pulp ( carboxymethyl cellulose ) and chitosan - both abundant, economical and compostable materials. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Carboxymethyl cellulose from sugar beet pulp cellulose as a Hydrophilic polymer in coating of mandarin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Rayon is made from purified cellulose, primarily from wood pulp, which is chemically converted into a soluble compound. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bracell produces both specialty-grade and rayon-grade dissolving wood pulp from its subsidiary in Brazil, Bahia Specialty Cellulose (BSC) using wood resources grown from its own eucalyptus plantations. (wikipedia.org)
  • To prepare viscose, dissolving pulp is treated with aqueous sodium hydroxide (typically 16-19% w/w) to form "alkali cellulose," which has the approximate formula [C6H9O4-ONa]n. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1865 Paul Schützenberger and Laurent Naudin of the Collège de France in Paris discovered the acetylation of cellulose by acetic anhydride, and in 1894 Charles F. Cross and Edward J. Bevan, working in England, patented a process for preparing chloroform-soluble cellulose triacetate. (britannica.com)
  • Ashori A, Babaee M, Jonoobi M, Hamzeh Y (2014) Solvent-free acetylation of cellulose nanofibers for improvingcompatibility and dispersion. (springer.com)
  • CESA is a membrane-bound Glycosyltransferase Family 2 (GT-2) enzyme ( 2 ) that catalyzes β-1,4-glucan (cellulose) chain polymerization using UDP-glucose as substrate ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Uridine diphosphate-glucose (UDP), which is produced by the enzyme sucrose synthase (SuSy) that produces and transports UDP-glucose to the plasma membrane is the substrate used by cellulose synthase to produce the glucan chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Attachment of the cellulosome to its substrate is mediated by a scaffoldin-borne cellulose-binding module (CBM) that comprises part of the scaffoldin subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extending beyond the cross-kingdom similarities related to cellulose polymerization, the predicted structure of cotton CESA reveals that plant-specific modules (plant-conserved region and class-specific region) fold into distinct subdomains on the periphery of the catalytic region. (pnas.org)
  • Malburg SR, Malburg LM Jr, Liu T, Iyo AH, Forsberg CW (1997) Catalytic properties of the cellulose-binding endoglucanase F from Fibrobacter succinogenes S85. (springer.com)
  • Most fungal cellulases have a two-domain structure, with one catalytic domain and one cellulose binding domain, that are connected by a flexible linker. (wikipedia.org)
  • Much of our understanding of its catalytic components, architecture, and mechanisms of attachment to the bacterial cell and to cellulose, has been derived from the study of Clostridium thermocellum. (wikipedia.org)
  • An important commercial contribution was made by British chemist George Miles in 1903-05 with the discovery that, when the fully acetylated cellulose was subjected to hydrolysis , it transformed into a less highly acetylated compound (cellulose diacetate) that was soluble in cheap organic solvents such as acetone. (britannica.com)
  • Without these support structures, cell growth would cause a cell to swell and spread in all directions, thus losing its shape viability Plant cellulose synthases belong to the family of glycosyltransferases, which are proteins involved in the biosynthesis and hydrolysis of the bulk of earth's biomass. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Hydrolysis of (1->4)-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in cellulose and cellotetraose, releasing [cellobiose] from the non-reducing ends of the chains Berghem, L.E.R. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Hydrolysis of (1->4)-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in cellulose and similar substrates, releasing cellobiose from the reducing ends of the chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The specific reaction involved is the hydrolysis of the 1,4-beta-D-glycosidic linkages in cellulose, hemicellulose, lichenin, and cereal beta-D-glucans. (wikipedia.org)
  • While cellulose is crystalline, strong, and resistant to hydrolysis, hemicellulose has a random, amorphous structure with little strength. (wikipedia.org)
  • Worldwide, 2 × 1011 tons of cellulose microfibrils are produced, which serves as a critical source of renewable biofuels and other biological-based products, such as lumber, fuel, fodder, paper and cotton. (wikipedia.org)
  • Costs were higher than with viscose rayon due to the need to use copper salts and cotton for the cellulose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Schweizer published a paper in 1857 (Das Kupferoxid-Ammoniak, ein Auflösungsmittel für die Pflanzenfaser) in which he reported that cotton, linen cellulose and silk could be dissolved in a cuprammonium solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using it proprietary technology OrganoClick has developed a new product, OrganoTex which is used to make cellulose-based fabrics (e.g. cotton) hydrophobic (i.e. water resistant). (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples are focused on cellulose and its derivative uses. (springer.com)
  • The process built on the reaction of cellulose with a strong base, followed by treatment of that solution with carbon disulfide to give a xanthate derivative. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monticello was insulated with a form of cellulose. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has such an aggressive form of cellulose breakdown," said study first author Dan Eastwood of Swansea University. (redorbit.com)
  • A 3D atomistic model of a plant cellulose synthase (CESA) has remained elusive despite over forty years of experimental effort. (pnas.org)
  • This deficiency arose due to experimental barriers in purification of active enzyme, recombinant expression, and crystallization of any plant cellulose synthase (CESA). (pnas.org)
  • Although CESA proteins typically arrange themselves into multimeric cellulose synthase complexes (CSC), which are required for the production of multichain cellulose microfibrils, the CSCs of land plants and related algae are uniquely organized as six-lobed circular "rosettes" containing a still-undefined number (e.g., 18-36 in number) of CESAs ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • In enzymology, a cellulose synthase (GDP-forming) (EC 2.4.1.29) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction GDP-glucose + (1,4-beta-D-glucosyl)n ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } GDP + (1,4-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1 Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are GDP-glucose and (1,4-beta-D-glucosyl)n, whereas its two products are GDP and (1,4-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other names in common use include cellulose synthase (guanosine diphosphate-forming), cellulose synthetase, guanosine diphosphoglucose-1,4-beta-glucan glucosyltransferase, and guanosine diphosphoglucose-cellulose glucosyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • A similar enzyme utilizes GDP-glucose, cellulose synthase (GDP-forming) (EC 2.4.1.29). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellulose is synthesized by large cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs), which consist of synthase protein isoforms (CesA) that are arranged into a unique hexagonal structure known as a "particle rosette" 50 nm wide and 30-35 nm tall. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the importance of plant cellulose to nature and industry, we have little insight into the 3D structure of proteins required for plant cellulose biosynthesis. (pnas.org)
  • Cellulose biosynthesis is the process during which separate homogeneous β-(1→4)-glucan chains, ranging from 2,000 to 25,000 glucose residues in length, are synthesized and then immediately hydrogen bond with one another to form rigid crystalline arrays, or microfibrils. (wikipedia.org)
  • We also offer a number of specialty cellulose gums for specific purposes. (ashland.com)
  • Aquacel™ specialty cellulose gum grades are designed for guar gum supplementation and replacement. (ashland.com)
  • Aquacel™ WS specialty cellulose gum grade is designed for tartaric acid stabilization in white and rosé wines. (ashland.com)
  • In Canada, Fortress Paper Ltd. announced a strategic supplement to the already announced birch usage project at the Fortress Specialty Cellulose Mill aimed at extracting hemicellulose from underutilized species such as birch. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • Bracell (formerly Bracell Limited) is one of the largest specialty cellulose producers in the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • It produces different grades of specialty cellulose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, advances in predictive modeling from molecular dynamic simulations of crystalline cellulose to the continuum modeling of composites made with such particles are reviewed (392 references). (nih.gov)
  • Because cellulose is very crystalline, HPC must have an MS about 4 in order to reach a good solubility in water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellulose fibrils within plant cell walls provide the foundation for plant structure and are renewable biomaterials that account for most of the world's biomass. (pnas.org)
  • Cellulose is the substance that makes up most of a plant's cell walls. (encyclopedia.com)
  • He named this new substance "cellulose" because he had obtained it from the cell walls of plants. (encyclopedia.com)
  • As the chief constituent (or main ingredient) of the cell walls of plants, cellulose performs a structural or skeletal function. (encyclopedia.com)
  • There are two well studied mechanisms that are used by cellulolytic microorganisms to degrade the cellulose present in plant cell walls and a third less well studied oxidative mechanism used by brown rot fungi. (springer.com)
  • Cellulose is an aggregation of unbranched polymer chains made of β-(1→4)-linked glucose residues that makes up a large portion of primary and secondary cell walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since cellulose is made in all cell walls, CesA proteins are present in all tissues and cell types of plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • DCBN adapted cell walls use minimal amounts of cellulose, instead relying on Ca2+-bridge pectates. (wikipedia.org)
  • They have thin but flexible cellulose cell walls, and are generally polyhedral when close-packed, but can be roughly spherical when isolated from their neighbours. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Norway, researchers at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU) discovered that the mechanism by which "Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenases" or LPMOs break down cellulose is different from what was previously thought. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • In anaerobic environments rich in decaying plant material, the decomposition of cellulose is brought about by complex communities of interacting microorganisms. (nih.gov)
  • Computational results support the importance of the plant-conserved region and/or class-specific region in CESA oligomerization to form the multimeric cellulose-synthesis complexes that are characteristic of plants. (pnas.org)
  • Relatively high sequence conservation between plant CESAs allowed mapping of known mutations and two previously undescribed mutations that perturb cellulose synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana to their analogous positions in the modeled structure. (pnas.org)
  • Bio-cellulose is a plant-based material derived from coconut water. (marykay.com)
  • A plant uses glucose to make cellulose when it links many simple units of glucose together to form long chains. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Thus while some of the food that a plant makes when it converts light energy into chemical energy (photosynthesis) is used as fuel and some is stored, the rest is turned into cellulose that serves as the main building material for a plant. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The innovation comes in the form of bio-cellulose, a pure, plant-based material derived from coconut water. (marykay.com)
  • These linear cellulose chains are bundled together as microfibril spiralled together in the walls of plant cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The core of the cellulose insulating material plant is a Whirlwind Mill. (wikipedia.org)
  • They developed the necessary plant and "British Cellulose and Chemical Manufacturing Co" was registered on March 18, 1916. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aside from ruminants, most animals (including humans) do not produce cellulase in their bodies and can only partially break down cellulose through fermentation, limiting their ability to use energy in fibrous plant material. (wikipedia.org)
  • This plant can be used for cellulose production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Borregaards has a Cellulose plant in Sarpsborg, Norway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both plant utilizes a calcium sulphite based digesting proses which gives high viscosity cellulose with high purity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shred newspapers to make cellulose insulation. (ehow.com)
  • Some beetles can digest cellulose. (wikipedia.org)
  • the enzyme needed to digest cellulose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Herbivores with monogastric digestion can digest cellulose in their diets by way of symbiotic gut bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monogastric herbivores which can digest cellulose nearly as well as ruminants are called hindgut fermenters, while ruminants are called foregut fermenters. (wikipedia.org)
  • The costs incurred by increasing fire testing made cellulose more expensive and the bad publicity helped decrease demand. (wikipedia.org)
  • A novel masonry material containing postindustrial cellulose, bentonite clay, and small amounts of other additives (e.g., antifungal, desiccant and water proofing agents) was made and characterized. (astm.org)
  • Through an innovative manufacturing process, ecocell is produced as a cellulose-based product made primarily from post-consumer and post-industrial paper, with recycled newspaper as the main raw material. (archdaily.com)
  • As such, many efforts have been made to develop novel and efficient solvents of cellulose. (nature.com)
  • In addition, the new kind of ink from the Empa lab is made from a renewable material - cellulose. (empa.ch)
  • Since our biomedical device ( Cellulose nanogenerator ) is made with cellulose, thus major importance/significance of our research work is it is naturally abundant. (indiatimes.com)
  • Since cellulose is the main building material out of which plants are made, and plants are the primary or first link in what is known as the food chain (which describes the feeding relationships of all living things), cellulose is a very important substance. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Since cellulose is made from newspaper, it obviously will burn if ignited. (doityourself.com)
  • The cellulose-based photoresist can be applied to generate two- and three-dimensional hierarchical structures and clears the way to the design and fabrication of biomimetic architectures solely made from biopolymers. (springer.com)
  • Cellulose insulation is often made by hammer milling waste newspaper. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viscose" can mean: A viscous solution of cellulose, which can be made into rayon or cellophane A synonym for rayon A specific term for viscose rayon-rayon made using the viscose (cellulose xanthate) process The viscose process dissolves pulp with aqueous sodium hydroxide in the presence of carbon disulfide. (wikipedia.org)
  • The thread made from the regenerated cellulose is washed to remove residual acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The individual fibre cells are narrow and hollow, with thick walls made of cellulose. (wikipedia.org)
  • It considers cellulose decomposing communities in soils, sediments, and aquatic environments, as well as those that degrade cellulose in association with animals. (nih.gov)
  • It is widespread as well because it replaced common cellulose nitrate compounds, which were known to be highly flammable and to degrade over time more than CAB does. (wisegeek.com)
  • Streptomyces nitrosporeus can degrade cellulose. (wikipedia.org)
  • In enzymology, a cellulose-polysulfatase (EC 3.1.6.7) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction of cleaving off the 2- and 3-sulfate groups of the polysulfates of cellulose and charonin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is cellulose-sulfate sulfohydrolase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extracellular enzyme system utilized by the fungus Sporotrichum pulverulentum (Chrysosporium lignorum) for the breakdown of cellulose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellulose 1,4-beta-cellobiosidase (reducing end) (EC 3.2.1.176, CelS, CelSS, endoglucanase SS, cellulase SS, cellobiohydrolase CelS, Cel48A) is an enzyme with systematic name 4-beta-D-glucan cellobiohydrolase (reducing end). (wikipedia.org)
  • HPC is an ether of cellulose in which some of the hydroxyl groups in the repeating glucose units have been hydroxypropylated forming -OCH2CH(OH)CH3 groups using propylene oxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycerine treated nanofibrillated cellulose (GNFC) was prepared by mixing aqueous nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) suspensions with glycerine. (hindawi.com)
  • Cellulose insulation is often blown into building spaces through hoses from special blowing equipment in this case mounted inside a truck. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellulose is among the oldest types of building insulation material . (wikipedia.org)
  • While in 1976 there were roughly 100 cellulose insulation firms with 125 plants, by 1978 there were more than 350 firms with more than 500 plants 1 . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellulose insulation was produced locally by small manufacturers who purchased ready-to-operate machines and offered a cheap and easy low-tech production process. (wikipedia.org)
  • There was a great concern that the growth in cellulose manufactures was leading to improperly or insufficiently treating insulation against the threat of fire even though reliable statistics on a national basis did not exist. (wikipedia.org)
  • This led to the Federal Consumer Products Safety Commission passing 16 CFR Part 1209, which sets safety standards covering four product attributes for cellulose insulation only: settled density, corrosiveness, critical radiant flux and smoldering combustion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effect of regulations by the CPSC put most of the small producers of cellulose insulation out of business. (wikipedia.org)
  • The heavy lobbying by the more centralized fiberglass and mineral insulation manufacturers helped pass the tough fire standards for cellulose insulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • These standards were reinforced by technical bulletins published by the Mineral Insulation Manufacturers Association (currently known as the North American Insulation Manufacturers Association) that promoted fire hazard claims against cellulose insulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently cellulose insulation has increased again in use in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellulose insulation, an eco-friendly alternative to conventional insulation, primarily comprises newspaper shreds. (ehow.com)
  • Install cellulose insulation by blowing it into the cavities in the attic with an blower machine. (ehow.com)
  • For an even greener project, make your own cellulose insulation by reusing old newspaper. (ehow.com)
  • This makes cellulose insulation a sustainable, alternative to traditional fiberglass and synthetic acoustical and thermal panels . (archdaily.com)
  • The open design and density of CFAB™ cellulose insulation panels increase sound absorption to control and deaden sound reverberation and echo. (archdaily.com)
  • Blown Insulation - Fiberglass or Cellulose? (doityourself.com)
  • Cellulose and fiberglass are the two most popular types of blown insulation, and they each have some pros and cons. (doityourself.com)
  • cellulose has an R-value of approximately 3.0 per inch while fiberglass ranges from R-2.1 to R-2.7), cellulose will settle over time, potentially leaving some areas (in walls particularly) with little or no insulation. (doityourself.com)
  • This concern can actually be avoided in both cases if the insulation is more densely packed in the spaces, but fiberglass will require special training and tools to do so and even then, it proves more difficult than cellulose. (doityourself.com)
  • Loose-fill, or blown, cellulose insulation is manufactured primarily from recycled newspapers, a very benign product, so it poses virtually no ongoing health risk. (doityourself.com)
  • Fiberglass insulation has proven over the years to provide effective temperature and sound insulation while more recently, cellulose has established itself as a viable alternative . (doityourself.com)
  • Cellulose has the highest recycled content of any insulation material and also has less embodied energy than fiberglass and other furnace-produced mineral insulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellulose insulating material plants are used for the production of a natural building insulation material known as cellulose insulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The compounds found their first widespread application during World War I, when they began to replace highly flammable cellulose nitrate coatings on aircraft wings and bodies. (wisegeek.com)
  • British scientists Charles Frederick Cross and Edward John Bevan took out British patent no. 8,700, "Improvements in Dissolving Cellulose and Allied Compounds" in May, 1892. (wikipedia.org)
  • They found that 10 wt% of cellulose solubility in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolim chloride could be obtained at 100 °C, and the cellulose solubility (25 wt%) was markedly improved via microwave heating 18 . (nature.com)
  • C6H9O4-ONa]n + nCS2 → [C6H9O4-OCS2Na]n The higher the ratio of cellulose to combined sulfur, the lower the solubility of the cellulose xanthate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In unaltered cellulose, the X in the molecular structure represents hydrogen (H), indicating the presence in the molecule of three hydroxyl (OH) groups. (britannica.com)
  • A group of researchers at ETH Zurich and Empa have now found a way to process cellulose using 3D printing so as to create objects of almost unlimited complexity that contain high levels of cellulose particles. (eurekalert.org)
  • The ETH and Empa researchers are admittedly not the first to process cellulose with the 3D printer. (eurekalert.org)
  • Study senior author Sarah Watkinson of the University of Oxford emphasized the role of brown rot fungi in the global carbon cycle, noting that a third of the carbon sequestered in the soil of boreal forests are composed of the wood residues after the fungi break down the cellulose. (redorbit.com)
  • Cellulose nanofibril/phenol formaldehyde (CNF/PF) composite films with high work of fracture were prepared by filtering a mixture of 2,2,6,6tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) oxidized wood nanofibers and water-soluble phenol formaldehyde with resin contents ranging from 5 to 20 wt%, followed by hot pressing. (usda.gov)
  • A wide range of cellulose gum grades with different viscosities, molecular weights, degrees of substitution and particle sizes are available and products can be customized to meet specific applications. (ashland.com)
  • In Washington state, researchers at Washington State University Tri-Cities and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have found a new way to define the molecular structure of cellulose, which could lead to cheaper and more efficient ways to make a variety of crucial bioproducts. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • The average molecular weight is lower than that of cellulose at less than 30,000, as opposed to the 100,000 average molecular weight reported for cellulose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellulose is an abundant and renewable natural resource with biodegradability and nontoxicity. (springer.com)
  • Now, scientists from Department of Physics at Jadavpur University in Kolkata have built a flexible nanogenerator out of cellulose, an abundant natural material, that could potentially harvest energy from the body -- its heartbeats, blood flow and other almost imperceptible but constant movements. (indiatimes.com)
  • The researchers turned to cellulose, the most abundant biopolymer on Earth, and mixed it in a simple process with a kind of silicone called polydimethylsiloxane - the stuff of breast implants - and carbon nanotubes. (indiatimes.com)
  • The ETH researchers used the following trick to densify the printed cellulose products: After printing a cellulose-based water ink, they put the objects in a bath containing organic solvents. (eurekalert.org)
  • As cellulose does not like organic solvents, the particles tend to aggregate. (eurekalert.org)
  • Oxidized cellulose may contain carboxylic acid, aldehyde, and/or ketone groups, in addition to the original hydroxyl groups of the starting material, cellulose, depending on the nature of the oxidant and reaction conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because water is a polar liquid, the free hydroxyl groups in cellulose attract and hold water by hydrogen bonding. (wikipedia.org)