A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
An exocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE and cellotetraose. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing ends of beta-D-glucosides with release of CELLOBIOSE.
A cellulose of varied carboxyl content retaining the fibrous structure. It is commonly used as a local hemostatic and as a matrix for normal blood coagulation.
An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.
A species of acetate-oxidizing bacteria, formerly known as Acetobacter xylinum.
Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.
A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.
A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.
A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.
Components of the extracellular matrix consisting primarily of fibrillin. They are essential for the integrity of elastic fibers.
High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A species of gram-negative bacteria of the family ACETOBACTERACEAE found in FLOWERS and FRUIT. Cells are ellipsoidal to rod-shaped and straight or slightly curved.
A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.
Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
Extracellular structures found in a variety of microorganisms. They contain CELLULASES and play an important role in the digestion of CELLULOSE.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is a cellulolytic, mesophilic species isolated from decayed GRASS.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
A species of gram-positive, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It produces CELLULOSOMES which are involved in plant CELL WALL degradation.
Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A family of bacteria found in the mouth and intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals as well as in the human female urogenital tract. Its organisms are also found in soil and on cereal grains.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Dried, ripe seeds of PLANTAGO PSYLLIUM; PLANTAGO INDICA; and PLANTAGO OVATA. Plantain seeds swell in water and are used as demulcents and bulk laxatives.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
An exocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages of 1,4-beta-D-glucans resulting in successive removal of GLUCOSE units.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha- or beta-xylosidic linkages. EC catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans; and EC catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans. Other xylosidases have been identified that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-xylosidic bonds.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.
A xylosidase that catalyses the random hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-xylans.
A genus of gram-positive bacteria in the family Lachnospiraceae that inhabits the RUMEN; LARGE INTESTINE; and CECUM of MAMMALS.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria in the family Fibrobacteraceae, isolated from the human GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Enzymes which catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in XYLANS.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A TEXTILE fiber obtained from the pappus (outside the SEEDS) of cotton plant (GOSSYPIUM). Inhalation of cotton fiber dust over a prolonged period can result in BYSSINOSIS.
Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.

The influence of a diet rich in wheat fibre on the human faecal flora. (1/2543)

The effect on the faecal flora of adding wheat fibre to a controlled diet in four healthy volunteers for a 3-week period has been observed. No change in the concentration of the bacteria in the bacterial groups counted was found, although there was a slight increase in total output associated with increased faecal weight. The predominant organisms in all subjects were non-sporing anaerobes, but the dominant species in each subject was different and was unaffected by changing the diet. Similarly, the concentration of faecal beta-glucuronidase detected in two subjects was unaltered and the concentration of clostridia able to dehydrogenate the steroid nucleus found in one subject was unaltered. It is suggested that the faecal microflora is not primarily controlled by the presence of undigested food residues in the large bowel.  (+info)

Citric acid production from xylan and xylan hydrolysate by semi-solid culture of Aspergillus niger. (2/2543)

Citric acid production from xylan and xylan hydrolysate was done by Aspergillus niger Yang no. 2 cultivated in a semi-solid culture using bagasse as a carrier. Yang no. 2 produced 72.4 g/l and 52.6 g/l of citric acid in 5 d from 140 g/l of xylose and arabinose, respectively. Yang no. 2 produced 51.6 g/l of citric acid in 3 d from a concentrated xylan hydrolysate prepared by cellulase treatment, containing 100 g/l of reducing sugars. Moreover, Yang no. 2 directly produced 39.6 g/l of citric acid maximally in 3 d from 140 g/l of xylan.  (+info)

Lignocellulose degradation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium: purification and characterization of the main alpha-galactosidase. (3/2543)

The main alpha-galactosidase was purified to homogeneity, in 30% yield, from a solid culture of Phanerochaete chrysosporium on 1 part wheat bran/2 parts thermomechanical softwood pulp. It is a glycosylated tetramer of 50 kDa peptide chains, which gives the N-terminal sequence ADNGLAITPQMG(?W)NT(?W)NHFG(?W)DIS(?W)DTI. It is remarkably stable, with crude extracts losing no activity over 3 h at 80 degrees C, and the purified enzyme retaining its activity over several months at 4 degrees C. The kinetics of hydrolysis at 25 degrees C of various substrates by this retaining enzyme were measured, absolute parameters being obtained by active-site titration with 2',4',6'-trinitrophenyl 2-deoxy-2, 2-difluoro-alpha-D-galactopyranoside. The variation of kcat/Km for 1-naphthyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside with pH is bell-shaped, with pK1=1.91 and pK2=5.54. The alphaD(V/K) value for p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside is 1.031+/-0.007 at the optimal pH of 3.75 and 1.114+/-0.006 at pH7.00, indicating masking of the intrinsic effect at optimal pH. There is no alpha-2H effect on binding galactose [alphaD(Ki)=0.994+/-0.013]. The enzyme hydrolyses p-nitrophenyl beta-L-arabinopyranoside approximately 510 times slower than the galactoside, but has no detectable activity on the alpha-D-glucopyranoside or alpha-D-mannopyranoside. Hydrolysis of alpha-galactosides with poor leaving groups is Michaelian, but that of substrates with good leaving groups exhibits pronounced apparent substrate inhibition, with Kis values similar to Km values. We attribute this to the binding of the second substrate molecule to a beta-galactopyranosyl-enzyme intermediate, forming an E.betaGal. alphaGalX complex which turns over slowly, if at all. 1-Fluoro-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl fluoride, unlike alpha-D-galactopyranosyl fluoride, is a Michaelian substrate, indicating that the effect of 1-fluorine substitution is greater on the first than on the second step of the enzyme reaction.  (+info)

The selective isolation of the uterine oestradiol-receptor complex by binding to oligo(dT)-cellulose. The mediation of an essential activator in the transformation of cytosol receptor. (4/2543)

The [3H]oestradiol-receptor complex was selectively isolated from rat uterus cytosol by column chromatography on oligo(dT)-cellulose. Optimal conditions are described for the binding of the complex to oligo(dT)-cellulose, which is shown to be similar to its binding to DNA-cellulose. The cytosol complex has an apparent mol. wt. of 50,000-60,000 in high salt concentrations, as determined by Sephadex G-100 chromatography. This corresponds to the 4S cytoplasmic oestradiol receptor. In binding to oligo(dT)-cellulose the receptor is transformed into a form with an apparent mol.wt. of 100,000-120,000, corresponding to the 5S nuclear receptor complex. This transformation mimics the conversion in vivo of the cytoplasmic oestradiol receptor into the nuclear form. The binding of the complex to oligo(dT)-cellulose as a 5S nuclear form is unequivocally demonstrated to require the mediation of an activating present in the cytosol. The requirement for an activating factor is discussed in relation to reports that nuclear binding of the oestradiol-receptor complex is not dictated solely by the availability of the cytoplasmic oestradiol receptor.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and expression of the novel fungal beta-glucosidase genes from Humicola grisea and Trichoderma reesei. (5/2543)

A novel fungal beta-glucosidase gene (bgl4) and its homologue (bgl2) were cloned from the cellulolytic fungi Humicola grisea and Trichoderma reesei, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of H. grisea BGL4 and T. reesei BGL2 comprise 476 and 466 amino acids, respectively, and share 73.1% identity. These beta-glucosidases show significant homology to plant beta-glucosidases belonging to the beta-glucosidase A (BGA) family. Both genes were expressed in Aspergillus oryzae, and the recombinant beta-glucosidases were purified. Recombinant H. grisea BGL4 is a thermostable enzyme compared with recombinant T. reesei BGL2. In addition to beta-glucosidase activity, recombinant H. grisea BGL4 showed a significant level of beta-galactosidase activity, while recombinant T. reesei BGL2 showed weak beta-galactosidase activity. Cellulose saccharification by Trichoderma cellulases was improved by the addition of recombinant H. grisea BGL4.  (+info)

Cellulolytic enzymes in culture filtrates of Rhizoctonia lamellifera. (6/2543)

During growth in a liquid culture containing a single soluble or an insoluble cellulosic carbon source, Rhizoctonia lamellifera released cellulolytic enzymes into the medium. These enzymes were separated by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography into seven components, three of high and four of low molecular weight. One of the components had the character of a C1 cellulase. When the components were combined they released more reducing sugars from cellulosic substrates than when used singly.  (+info)

Calculus disease of the urinary tract at a district hospital. (7/2543)

At a District General Hospital the organization of a clinic for the investigation and treatment of patients with calculus disease of the urinary tract is described. The way in which such a clinic may be orgainzed is discussed and the results presented. In patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria, sodium cellulose phosphate causes a significant reduction in urinary calcium levels when used in such a clinic.  (+info)

Identification of a nucleic acid binding domain in eukaryotic initiation factor eIFiso4G from wheat. (8/2543)

Higher plants have two complexes that bind the m7G-cap structure of mRNA and mediate interactions between mRNA and ribosomal subunits, designated eIF4F and eIFiso4F. Both complexes contain a small subunit that binds the 5'-cap structure of mRNA, and a large subunit, eIF4G or eIFiso4G, that binds other translation factors and RNA. Sequence-specific proteases were used to cleave native cap-binding complexes into structural domains, which were purified by affinity chromatography. We show here that eIFiso4G contains a central protease-resistant domain that binds specifically to nucleic acids. This domain spans Gln170 to Glu443 and includes four of the six homology blocks shared by eIFiso4G and eIF4G. A slightly shorter overlapping sequence, from Gly202 to Lys445, had no nucleic acid binding activity, indicating that the N-terminal end of the nucleic acid binding site lies within Gln170 to Arg201. The binding of the central domain and native eIFiso4F to RNA homopolymers and double- and single-stranded DNAs was studied. Both molecules had highest affinity for poly(G) and recognized single- and double-stranded sequences.  (+info)

A method for producing an antimicrobial cellulose fiber. The method includes reacting a reactive compound with an antimicrobial agent to prepare a reactive antimicrobial compound, chemically fixing the reactive antimicrobial compound to a cellulose fiber through chemical bonding between the reactive compound and the cellulose fiber, and stabilizing the cellulose fiber structure. Further disclosed is an antimicrobial cellulose fiber produced by the method. The antimicrobial cellulose fiber is a human friendly material that has excellent antimicrobial activity and deodorizing performance. The antimicrobial cellulose fiber can be manufactured in the form of raw cotton, sliver, roving yarn, spun yarn, woven fabric, knitted fabric, non-woven fabric, etc. The antimicrobial cellulose fiber may be blended with other fibers, such as natural fibers and synthetic fibers.
The global cellulose fibers market is expected to reach USD 48.37 billion by 2025, according to a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. The increasing gap between the demand and production of natural cellulose fibers across various end-use industries is the major factor for the growth of the market. In addition, the rise in textile & apparel industries in developing and emerging economies is also anticipated to fuel the global market growth.. Increasing demand for eco-friendly and biodegradable fibers, especially in textile and hygiene industry is driving the cellulose fibers market. The production of synthetic or man-made fibers includes the industrial processing of wood pulp derived from botanical sources. However, the manufacturing of cellulose fibers entails mechanical and chemical processing of wood pulp. Viscose, triacetate, and acetate are the most common variants of rayon, which are man-made cellulose fibers used extensively across end-use industries.. The cellulose fibers market is ...
[50 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Cellulose Fibers Market Study 2016-2026, by Segment (Natural Cellulose Fibers, Man-Made Cellulose Fibers) , by Market (Apparel, Home Textile,) , by Company (Aditya Birla Group, Lenzing,) report by 99Strategy. Summary Cellulose fibers are fibers obtained from the bark, wood...
Figure Picture of Cellulose Fiber Gasket Figure Global Production Market Share of Cellulose Fiber Gasket by Types in 2015 Figure Global Consumption Volume Market Share of Cellulose Fiber Gasket by Applications in 2015 Figure Industry Chain Structure of Cellulose Fiber Gasket Figure Global Major Regions Cellulose Fiber Gasket Development Status in 2016 Figure 2010 to 2020F world GDP Figure Growth of world gross product and gross domestic product by country grouping, 2007-2017 Figure Growth of World Output 2013-2017 Figure Contribution to global growth, 2007-2017 Figure Regional contributions to world import growth Figure Price indices of selected groups of commodities, August 2013-September 2015 Figure Exchange rates of selected emerging-market currencies vis-a-vis the United States dollar, 1 September 2014-23 November 2015 Figure Real effective exchange-rate volatility, January 1996-September 2015 Figure Growth of labor productivity, before and after the crisis Figure Global Cellulose Fiber ...
A professional survey of Global Cellulose Esters Market Report 2018 serves a in-depth assessment of Cellulose Esters industry containing empowering advances, vital patterns, growth drivers, institutionalised detailing, Cellulose Esters regulatory scenario, administrator definition investigation, Cellulose Esters launching, ultimate assistance, admiration chain, Cellulose Esters leading manufacturers profiles, and systems. Furthermore, the Cellulose Esters industry report provides projections for speculations from 2017 till 2026. SWOT investigation and PESTEL analysis is considered. Also, Forecast CAGR value X.X% further development in revenue XX.XX USD By 2026 is served.. The Cellulose Esters Market report figure out an detailed analysis of key Cellulose Esters market players by referring their company profile, supply/demand study , sales margin, Cellulose Esters gross margin and year-to-year revenue to have Cellulose Esters industry better share over the globe. Cellulose Esters market report ...
Growth prospects of the overall Cellulose Fibers industry have been presented in the report. However, to give an in-depth view to the readers, detailed geographical segmentation within the globe Cellulose Fibers market has been covered in this study. The key geographical regions along with their revenue forecasts are included in the report.. The competitive framework of the Cellulose Fibers market in terms of the Global Cellulose Fibers industry has been evaluated in the report. The top companies and their overall share and share with respect to the Global market have been included in the report. Furthermore, the factors on which the companies compete in the market have been evaluated in the report.. Ask for Sample Report: http://www.fiormarkets.com/report-detail/17151/request-sample. This report also presents product specification, manufacturing process, and product cost structure etc. Production is separated by regions, technology and applications. Analysis also covers upstream raw materials, ...
cellulose fiber manufacturer/supplier, China cellulose fiber manufacturer & factory list, find qualified Chinese cellulose fiber manufacturers, suppliers, factories, exporters & wholesalers quickly on Made-in-China.com.
Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP), a pharmaceutical excipient used for enteric film coating of capsules and tablets, was shown to inhibit infection by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and several herpesviruses. CAP formulations inactivated HIV-1, herpesvirus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) and the major nonviral sexually transmitted disease (STD) pathogens and were effective in animal models for vaginal infection by HSV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus. Enzyme-linked immunoassays and flow cytometry were used to demonstrate CAP binding to HIV-1 and to define the binding site on the virus envelope. 1) CAP binds to HIV-1 virus particles and to the envelope glycoprotein gp120; 2) this leads to blockade of the gp120 V3 loop and other gp120 sites resulting in diminished reactivity with HIV-1 coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5; 3) CAP binding to HIV-1 virions impairs their infectivity; 4) these findings apply to both HIV-1 IIIB, an X4 virus, and HIV-1 BaL, an R5 virus. These results provide support for
Protein-functionalized cellulose fibrils, having various amounts of covalently bonded proteins at their surface, were successfully extracted from the tunic of Pyura chilensis tunicates using successive alkaline extractions. Pure cellulose fibrils were also obtained by further bleaching and were used as reference material. Extraction yields of protein-functionalized cellulose fibrils were within the range of 62-76% by weight based on the dry initial tunic powder. Fourier-transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the preservation of residual protein at the surface of cellulose fibrils, which was then quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The protein-functionalized cellulose fibrils were found to have relatively high crystallinity and their cellulose I crystalline structure was preserved upon applying alkaline treatments. The extracted cellulosic materials were found to be constituted of fibrils having a ribbon-like morphology with widths ranging from 30 nm up to similar to 400 ...
The validity of our approach of inedible cellulose-based resist material derived from woody biomass has been confirmed experimentally for the use of pure water in organic solvent-free water spin-coating and tetramethylammonium hydroxide(TMAH)-free water-developable techniques of eco-conscious electron beam (EB) and extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. The water developable, non-chemically amplified, high sensitive, and negative tone resist material in EB and EUV lithography was developed for environmental affair, safety, easiness of handling, and health of the working people. The inedible cellulose-based biomass resist material was developed by replacing the hydroxyl groups in the beta-linked disaccharides with EB and EUV sensitive groups. The 50-100 nm line and space width, and little footing profiles of cellulose-based biomass resist material on hardmask and layer were resolved at the doses of 10-30 μC/cm2. The eco-conscious lithography techniques was referred to as green EB and EUV ...
Cellulose is a renewable biomass material and natural polymer which is abundantly available on Earth, and includes agricultural wastes, forestry residues, and woody materials. The excellent and smart characteristics of cellulose materials, such as lightweight, biocompatibility, biodegradability, high mechanical strength/stiffness and low thermal expansibility, have made cellulose a high-potential material for various industry applications. Cellulose has recently been discovered as a smart material in the electroactive polymers family which carries the name of cellulose-based electroactive paper (EAPap). The shear piezoelectricity in cellulose polymers is able to induce large displacement output, low actuation voltage, and low power consumption in the application of biomimetic sensors/actuators and electromechanical system. The present study provides an overview of biomass pretreatment from various lignocellulosic cellulose (LC) resources and nanocellulose production via TEMPO-mediated oxidation reaction
A cellulose dope comprising an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution and cellulose dissolved in the solution, wherein the cellulose dope has a sodium hydroxide concentration (CNa) of from 6.5 to 11% by weight, a cellulose content (Cc) of from 5 to 10% by weight, a viscosity average degree of polymerization (DPc) of the cellulose of from 350 to 1,200 and a cellulose dissolution ratio (Sc) of 99.0% by weight or more, and wherein the zero-shear viscosity (η0) and the cellulose content (Cc) of the cellulose dope and the viscosity average degree of polymerization (DPc) of the cellulose in the cellulose dope satisfy the following formula (1): η0 =kCc m DPc p (1) wherein: η0 represents the zero-shear viscosity (mPa s) of the cellulose dope, Cc represents the cellulose content (% by weight) of the cellulose dope, DPc represents the viscosity average degree of polymerization of the cellulose in the cellulose dope, k=3.9 10−11, m is a number of from 5 to 7, and p is a number of from 3 to 4.
The versatile layer-by-layer (LbL) technique, for consecutive adsorption of polyelectrolytes and charged nanoparticles onto a substrate, was used to modify cellulose fibres and model surfaces for improved mechanical and wetting properties. In addition to being used to modify cellulose substrates, the LbL technique was also used to create cellulose surfaces suitable for high resolution adhesion measurements. LbL assembly of cellulose nanofibrils and polyethylenimine was used to prepare cellulose model surfaces on polydimethylsiloxane hemispheres which allowed for the first known Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) adhesion measurements between cellulose and smooth, well-defined model surfaces of cellulose, lignin and glucomannan. The work of adhesion on loading and the adhesion hysteresis were comparable for all three systems which suggest that adhesion between wood constituents is similar. The LbL technique was also used to decrease the hydrophilicity of paper, while improving the dry strength, by ...
A heterogeneous method for the acetylation of cotton cellulose was used for the preparation of high-molecular weight cellulose triacetate. The rates of acetylation and degradation of cellulose using different catalyst (zinc chloride), concentrations at different temperatures were studied. Viscosity-concentration studies for solutions of cellulose triacetate in the solvents chloroform, methylene chloride, tetrachloroethane, formic acid and m-cresol were carried out. Molecular weight determinations were carried out osmometrically (Mechro-lab Model) using chloroform as a solvent, for cellulose triacetate samples in the molecular weight range of 30,000-150,000. The Mark-Houwink viscosity-molecular weight relationship for cellulose triacetate in the above solvents and the Huggins viscosity-concentration relationship were investigated and the respective values of alpha, K and k1 constants were determined. The rate of degradation of cellulose triacetate in chloroform-acetic anhydride solutions for the ...
Cellulose powders from various sources were manufactured and characterized to investigate the influence of their crystallinity index, surface area, and pore volume on sorption phenomena and the relevant pharmaceutical functionality. The influence of the cellulose crystallinity index on moisture sorption was important at low and intermediate relative humidities. At high relative humidities, properties such as surface area and pore volume took precedence in governing the moisture sorption process.. The theory of physical adsorption of gases onto fractal surfaces was useful for understanding the distribution of water in cellulose and the inner nanoscale structure of cellulose particles. It was found that, as a consequence of swelling, moisture induces a fractal nanopore network in cellulose powders that have a low or intermediate degree of crystallinity. On the other hand, no swelling occurs in highly crystalline cellulose powders and moisture sorption is restricted to the walls of the open ...
Cellulose is the richest organic compound in the world mostly produced by plants. It is the most structural component in herbal cells and tissues. Cellulose is a natural long chain polymer that plays an important role in human food cycle indirectly. This polymer has multipurpose uses in many industries such as veterinary foods, wood and paper, fibers and clothes, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries as excipient. Cellulose has semi-synthetic derivatives that are extensively used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Cellulose ethers and cellulose esters are two main groups of cellulose derivatives with different physicochemical and mechanical properties.. Access research report on Cellulose Derivatives Market analysis: http://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/cellulose-derivatives-market. The global cellulose derivatives market is segmented on the basis of derivative type, derivative grades, end-use application, and region. On the basis of derivative type, the global market is ...
Paper-making needs huge quantities of cellulose, obtained mainly from wood. This chemical process is called cellulolysis, the scientific term for the breakdown of cellulose. The most common hemicelluloses contain xylans (many molecules of the five-carbon sugar xylose linked together), a uronic acid (i.e., sugar acid), and 3) Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) 4) Hydroxy ethyl cellulose (HEC) 5) Anionic state: Carboxymethyl cellulose is unstable in the case of calcium ions. The journal is concerned with the pure and applied science of cellulose and related materials, and also with the development of relevant new technologies. Microcrystalline cellulose is used as a thickener, stabilizer or emulsifiers. In the case of cellulose paints, it is the cellulose that is added as this ingredient that gives the paint its name and qualities. All the cellulose ethers can be made into granules and powders except low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose. Different types of technical cellulose acetates were ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Preparation and characterization of cellulose derivatives by regioseleclive esterification of biodegradable cyclic esters. AU - Mayumi, Ayaka. AU - Kttaoka, Takuya. AU - Wariishi, Hiroyuki. PY - 2005/12/1. Y1 - 2005/12/1. N2 - New cellulose derivatives were prepared by the regioselective derivatization of cellulose with L-lactide (LA) and ε-caprolactone (CL) in a lithium chloride/N, N-dimethylacetamide solvent system, and investigated for their characteristics by spectroscopic analyses, calorimetry, solvent solubility/enzymatic degradability tests. Fourier transform Raman spectra of cellulose derivatives confirmed that the LA and CL molecules were covalently introduced into cellulose at the hydroxyl groups through the ring-opening esterification catalyzed by LiCl. The 13C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis indicated that the ring-opened LA and CL were regioselectively combined with cellulose C6-OH. Moreover, LA and CL portions were partially grafted on the cellulose backbone, ...
A biomimetic approach was taken for studying the adsorption of a model copolymer (pullulan abietate, DS 0.027), representing the lignin-carbohydrate complex, to a model surface for cellulose fibers (Langmuir-Blodgett thin films of regenerated cellulose). Adsorption results were assayed using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Rapid, spontaneous, and desorption-resistant surface modification resulted. This effort is viewed as a critical first step towards the permanent surface modification of cellulose fibers with a layer of molecules amenable to either enzymatic crosslinking for improved wood composites or thermoplastic consolidation.
Improved cellulose semipermeable hollow fibers useful in detoxifying blood during hemodialysis or hemofiltration treatments. The cellulose fibers are fine, capillary fibers that are made by melt extrusion of certain cellulose ester polyol melt spin compositions into self-supporting gelled fibers. The cellulose ester gelled fibers are subsequently chemically converted into cellulose fibers by deacetylation, in aqueous alkali solution. The product fibers exhibit improved wet intrinsic tensile strength and higher water permeability characteristics than heretofore known cellulose fibers made from cellulose ester spin compositions. The invention includes the method of making the improved fibers and separatory cells such as hemodialyzers or hemofilters which contain the improved fibers in a gamma ray sterilized condition.
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Spilfyter® Cellulose-Based Sorbents are an excellent choice for superior absorption. Cellulose Pads, Rolls, Socks, Pillows and Soakers offer a variety of options for all types of non-aggressive spills. ...
This invention discloses a new technology related to cellulose fiber reinforced cement composite materials using cellulose fibers that are treated with inorganic and/or organic resins to make the fibers more hydrophobic, as well as other chemical treatments. This invention discloses four aspects of the technology: fiber treatment, formulations, methods and the final product. This technology advantageously provides fiber cement building materials with the desirable characteristics of reduced water absorption, reduced rate of water absorption, lower water migration, and lower water permeability. This invention also impart the final products improved freeze-thaw resistance, reduced efflorescence, and improved rot and UV resistances, compared to conventional fiber cement products. These improved attributes are gained without loss in dimensional stability, strength, strain or toughness. In some cases the physical and mechanical properties are improved. This
The elasticity of elastic, absorbent structures, e.g., diapers, is improved without a significant compromise of the absorbency of the structure by the use of bicomponent and/or biconstituent elastic fibers. The absorbent structures typically comprise a staple fiber, e.g., cellulose fibers, and a bicomponent and/or a biconstituent elastic. The bicomponent fiber typically has a core/sheath construction. The core comprises an elastic thermoplastic elastomer, preferably a TPU, and the sheath comprises a homogeneously branched polyolefin, preferably a homogeneously branched substantially linear ethylene polymer. In various embodiments of the invention, the elasticity is improved by preparation techniques that enhance the ratio of elastic fiber:cellulose fiber bonding versus cellulose fiber:cellulose fiber bonding. These techniques include wet and dry high intensity agitation of the elastic fibers prior to mixing with the cellulose fibers, deactivation of the hydrogen bonding between cellulose fibers, and
The invention relates to a method for dyeing a yarn containing cellulose fiber by reactive dye. In the method, the following processes are carried out on the yarn which is warped into a beam by a continuous pad dyeing mode: padding with cationic modified solution, drying, padding with staining solution, drying, baking, washing and drying, wherein, a drying cylinder is adopted in the baking process for baking in a contact manner, and the yarn is directly contacted with a high-temperature outer wall of the drying cylinder. By means of the method, continuous pad dyeing of the yarn containing cellulose fiber can be carried out by the reactive dye; the dyeing process has the advantages of relatively low baking temperature, simple baking mode and less broken yarns which are easily handled by an operator; and the adopted dye has the advantages of being free from restriction of K-type reactive dye, comprehensive color spectrum, wide selection range, simple auxiliaries without salt, urea and the like, less
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International Paper Global Cellulose Fibers has a multi-mill network producing cellulose fibers and fluff pulp used in consumer goods that people depend on every day.
[115 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Cellulose Fibers Market Research Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the global Cellulose Fibers market is valued...
Cellulose is a main component of plant cell walls. Tools to analyze cellulose mainly rely on analytical chemistry, which yields information about cellulose amounts and structure, but cannot be applied to intact tissues. Moreover, these methods measure total cellulose and cannot be used to assay cellulose synthesis per se. Live cell imaging of the catalytic subunits of the cellulose synthesis complex (CSC) conjugated to fluorescent proteins is an important tool to understand the dynamics of the cellulose biosynthesis process (Paredez et al., 2006). This method can be used in various genetic backgrounds (Sorek et al., 2014) or with different chemical inhibitors (Brabham and Debolt, 2012). Here we describe in detail the procedure to visualize the movement of CSCs at the plasma membrane. As the movement of CSCs is likely caused by glucan synthesis and extrusion into the cell wall, live cell analysis of CSC velocity provides a method to directly measure cellulose synthesis in vivo.
Global microcrystalline cellulose market is expected to grow at a significant CAGR in the upcoming period as the scope and its applications are rising enormously across the globe. Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) is a term used for refined wood pulp and is used as a bulking agent, a texturizer, an extender, an anti-caking agent, an emulsifier, and a fat substitute in food production. It is exclusively used in vitamin tablets or supplements and in plaque assays as a substitute to carboxymethyl cellulose. The factors that are playing a major role in the growth of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) industry are the developing processed food industries across the globe, the rising pharmaceutical companies, and the acceptance of microcrystalline cellulose as a pharmaceutical excipient. However, the presence of alternatives for specific pharma and food & beverage applications may restrain the overall market in the years to come. Microcrystalline cellulose market is segmented based on source type, ...
High quality Sandy Beige Powder Cellulose Cellulase , Industrial Microbial Cellulose 20000 U / g from China, Chinas leading cellulose degrading enzymes product, with strict quality control trichoderma reesei cellulase factories, producing high quality trichoderma reesei cellulase products.
Abstract : Cellulose being an excellent biopolymer has cemented its place firmly in many industries as a coating material, textile,composites, and biomaterial applications. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of biofield treatment onphysicochemical properties of cellulose and cellulose acetate. The cellulose and cellulose acetate were exposed tobiofield and further the chemical and thermal properties were investigated. X-ray diffraction study asserted that thebiofield treatment did affect the crystalline nature of cellulose. The percentage of crystallite size was found increasedsignificantly in treated cellulose by 159.83%, as compared to control sample. This showed that biofield treatment waschanging the crystalline nature of treated cellulose. However treated cellulose acetate showed a reduction in crystallitesize (-17.38%) as compared to control sample. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) of treated cellulose showed noimprovement in melting temperature as compared to ...
Process Parameters for Fermentation in a Rotary Disc Reactor for Optimum Microbial Cellulose Production using Response Surface Methodology
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Cellulose is the most abundant natural product in the biosphere with a variety of functional roles. Despite this abundance, the capacity to synthesize cellulose is restricted to relatively few phyla. Among prokaryotes, soil bacteria of the family Rhizobiaceae (Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Rhizobium spp) use cellulose in anchoring to host plant tissues during infection (Matthysse 1983; Smith et al., 1992). In Acetobacter xilinum, cellulose fibrils maintain bacterial cells in an aerobic environment in liquid and protect the cells from UV radiation (Williams and Cannon, 1989). Within the plant kingdom, cellulose plays a key role in structural support and the oriented deposition of cellulose microfibrils is crucial to patterning through anisotropic growth during development (Smith and Oppenheimer, 2005). The social amoeba, Dictyostelium, requires cellulose for stalk and spore formation (Blanton et al., 2000), and cellulose synthesis is also present in some fungi, although its function remains ...
The in-depth understanding of the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose with heterogeneous morphology (that is, crystalline versus amorphous) may help develop better cellulase cocktail mixtures and biomass pretreatment, wherein cost-effective release of soluble sugars from solid cellulosic materials remains the largest obstacle to the economic viability of second generation biorefineries. In addition to the previously developed non-hydrolytic fusion protein, GC3, containing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) and a family 3 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM3) that can bind both surfaces of amorphous and crystalline celluloses, we developed a new protein probe, CC17, which contained a mono-cherry fluorescent protein (CFP) and a family 17 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM17) that can bind only amorphous cellulose surfaces. Via these two probes, the surface accessibilities of amorphous and crystalline celluloses were determined quantitatively. Our results for the enzymatic hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose
TY - JOUR. T1 - Injection molding of thermoplastic cellulose esters and their compatibility with poly(lactic acid) and polyethylene. AU - Willberg-Keyriläinen, Pia. AU - Orelma, Hannes. AU - Ropponen, Jarmo. PY - 2018/11/23. Y1 - 2018/11/23. N2 - Interest in biobased polymers from renewable resources has grown in recent years due to environmental concerns, but they still have a minimal fraction of the total global market. In this study, the injection molding of thermoplastic cellulose octanate (cellulose C8) and cellulose palmitate (cellulose C16) were studied. The mechanical properties of injection-molded test specimens were analyzed by using tensile testing, and the internal structure of injection-molded objects was studied by using a field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). We showed that thermoplastic cellulose C8 and cellulose C16 were completely processable without the addition of a plasticizer, which is very unusual in the case of cellulose esters. The compatibility of ...
Conference in Cellulosic material Properties and industrial potential - Final meeting in COST FP1205. This was hosted by Royal Institute of Technology KTH. The aim of the conference was to provide support on new product area development around the theme Cellulosic materials - processing, properties and promising applications related to COST FP1205 and to spread the knowledge to the wider scientific community on the current and upcoming commercial processes. Over 80 participants took part of the presentations, posters, and discussions. This last day of the meeting a round tour of the KTH campus was given in parallel with the final Management Committee meeting.. ...
Yeast makes it possible to extract up to 40 percent more ethanol than before from cellulose-based raw materials from agriculture and forestry. After years of tests in laboratories ethanol company Sekab can prove that the new yeast works on a large scale reports the Swedish Science Radio.. SEKAB is one of Europes leading ethanol players. They produce and distribute bio-ethanol as fuel and green chemical products, and develop next-generation ethanol process based on cellulose. It has been difficult to convert cellulose to large amounts of ethanol and the reason is precisely the cellulose structure.. Common yeast can break down sugar molecules that contain six carbon atoms. But cellulose contains a mixture of six carbon sugar and five carbon sugar. The new yeast can break down five carbon sugar and is thus a more efficient way to produce ethanol. Now the researchers managed to do it on a larger scale in Sekab demo plant. The experiments have used residue from corn cobs. But almost anything from ...
Cellulosic materials are used in a wide range of areas of application, and one of these is paperboard for packaging solutions. Paper or paperboard as a packaging material has benefits like low density, low costs, high stiffness, good printability, and paper is environmentally friendly. Compared to other packaging materials, such as plastics, paper has some weaknesses By improving some of its weaknesses, paper as a packaging material, can become more competitive on the market, and knowing how to utilize this resource in a more effective and sustainable way will become increasingly important in the future. One way to decrease the amount of fibers needed in paper and paperboard is by improving the strength properties of cellulose fibers. Greater fiber strength can be achieved by, for example crosslinking the fibers, and crosslinking can be achieved with only a small amount of chemicals. By using electromagnetic radiation, like ultraviolet (UV) radiation, the fibers can be crosslinked with the aid of a UV
Cellulose Hammer Mill , Crusher Mills, Cone Crusher, If you need more information about manufacturer mill grinder cotton cellulose, Hammer Mill Design,spice hammer mill to turn newspaper to cellulose fibre by. ...
In 2018, Top exporters of Tissue, towel, napkin stock or similar; for household or sanitary use, cellulose, wadding webs of cellulose fibres, in rolls exceeding 36cm in width or rectangular sheets with one side more than 36cm in unfolded state to Iceland were Tunisia ($1,791.97K , 1,335,320 Kg), European Union ($1,595.52K , 779,734 Kg), Denmark ($553.91K , 34,374 Kg), Netherlands ($348.90K , 236,132 Kg), Italy ($294.61K , 246,847 Kg ...
In 2018, Top exporters of Tissue, towel, napkin stock or similar; for household or sanitary use, cellulose, wadding webs of cellulose fibres, in rolls exceeding 36cm in width or rectangular sheets with one side more than 36cm in unfolded state to Gabon were Tunisia ($736.46K , 547,435 Kg), European Union ($239.96K , 180,531 Kg), Indonesia ($219.63K , 209,568 Kg), Italy ($209.52K , 172,478 Kg), Turkey ($79.68K , 40,597 Kg ...
Manufacturer of Others - Ethyl Cellulose Powder, Isopropyl Alcohol Liquid, Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose Powder and Dicalcium Phosphate Powder offered by Bioven Ingredients, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh.
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The interaction between cellulase enzymes and their substrates is of central importance to several technological and scientific challenges. Here we report that the binding of cellulose binding modules (CBM) from Trichoderma reesei cellulases Cel6A and Cel7A show a major difference in how they interact with substrates originating from wood compared to bacterial cellulose. We found that the CBM from TrCel7A recognizes the two substrates differently and as a consequence shows an unexpected way of binding. We show that the substrate has a large impact on the exchange rate of the studied CBM, and moreover, CBM-TrCel7A seems to have an additional mode of binding on wood derived cellulose but not on cellulose originating from bacterial source. This mode is not seen in double CBM (DCBM) constructs comprising both CBM-TrCel7A and CBM-TrCel6A. The linker length of DCBMs affects the binding properties, and slows down the exchange rates of the proteins and thus, can be used to analyze the differences ...
With an annual production rate of 180 billion metric tons the renewable resource cellulose is positively the most abundant biopolymer. A novel process for the production of cellulose fibres, the Lyocell-Process, also known as Aminoxide-Process, uses a melt of an aliphatic Amin-N-oxide-Monohydrate instead of environmental hazardous cellulose solvents. In the technical process N-Methylmorpholin-N-oxide (NMMO) is used. However, not all aliphatic aminoxides are solvents for cellulose. Even within a homologous series of aliphatic aminoxides the solubility of cellulose varies dramatically, which cannot be correlated to molecular properties of the aminoxides. The aim of the present work was therefore to study the solubility of cellulose in aliphatic aminoxides using Molecular Dynamics simulations. In a first step a Molecular Dynamics simulation of the crystalline cellulose modification cellulose II in anti-parallel chain arrangement was set up and the elastic modulus along the fiber-axis (Youngs ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Extraction and characterization of natural cellulose fibers from common milkweed stems. AU - Reddy, Narendra. AU - Yang, Yiqi. PY - 2009/11/1. Y1 - 2009/11/1. N2 - Natural cellulose fibers with cellulose content, strength, and elongation higher than that of milkweed floss and between that of cotton and linen have been obtained from the stems of common milkweed plants. Although milkweed floss is a unique natural cellulose fiber with low density, the short length and low elongation make milkweed floss unsuitable as a textile fiber. The possibility of using the stems of milkweed plant as a source for natural cellulose fibers was explored in this research. Natural cellulose fibers extracted from milkweed stems have been characterized for their composition, structure, and properties. Fibers obtained from milkweed stems have about 75% cellulose, higher than the cellulose in milkweed floss but lower than that in cotton and linen. Milkweed stem fibers have low % crystallinity when ...
en] The aim of the present study is to compare the effect of different steam explosion treatments on crystallinity properties of a pure bleached cellulose. Steam explosion process is composed of two distinct stages: vapocracking and explosive decompression. The treatment intensities is determined by a severity factor, established by a correlation between temperature process and retention time. The results show that steam explosion treatment has an impact on the crystallinity properties of pure cellulose fiber. When the severity factor is below 5.2, an increase of the overall crystallinity of the samples is observed with the treatment intensities. For higher intensities, a significant thermal degradation of cellulose lead to an important change in substrate composition, which lead to a further decrease of cellulose ...
Quantification of Endoglucanase Activity based on Carboxymethyl Cellulose in Four Fungi Isolated from an Aerated Lagoon in a Pulp and Paper Mill. Luis A. Ordaz-Díaz,a Juan A. Rojas-Contreras,b Felipe Flores-Vichi,δc Mónica Y. Flores-Villegas,a Carlos Álvarez-Álvarez,a Pryscila Velasco-Vázquez,a and Ana M. Bailón-Salas b,*. The aim of this study was to identify cellulolytic fungal strains capable of degrading cellulose from an aerated lagoon in a pulp and paper mill. Four fungal strains that were found to be highly active were isolated on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and suggested to be CMCase/endoglucanase. The identified strains were Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp.,Aspergillus fumigatus, and Mucor sp. All the strains were studied in terms of cultural morphological characteristics and microscopic examinations. The endoglucanase with the highest isolate production was Penicillium sp., which also showed the highest qualitative endoglucanase activity (1.3 cm), in addition to the main ...
This is a professional and depth research report on Global Carboxymethyl Cellulose industry. The report firstly introduced Carboxymethyl Cellulose basic information included Carboxymethyl Cellulose definition classification application industry chain structure industry overview; international market analysis, China domestic market analysis. Global Regional (such as US Europe Asia China Japan etc regions) Global Leading Suppliers, different type products, different applications etc Carboxymethyl Cellulose production and market share, Carboxymethyl Cellulose industry policy and plan, Carboxymethyl Cellulose product specification, manufacturing process, product cost structure etc. then statistics Global key manufacturers Carboxymethyl Cellulose capacity production cost price profit production value gross margin etc details information, at the same time, statistics these manufacturers Carboxymethyl Cellulose products customers application capacity market position company contact information etc ...
TY - GEN. T1 - The influences of xylan on the properties of bacterial cellulose nanocrystals. AU - Chi, Kai. AU - Catchmark, Jeffrey M.. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - In plant cell wall, cellulose is imbedded in a matrix consisting of cell wall polysaccharides such as hemicelluloses and pectin. The cellulose-cell wall polysaccharides interaction and its effects on cellulose microfibril assembly and crystallization using bacterial cellulose (BC) as a model system have been extensively studied. In this study, the impacts of xylan on the properties of bacterial cellulose nanocrystals (BCNCs) were investigated. G. hansenii (ATCC 23769) was chosen as a model strain to produce BC control and BC/xylan pellicles. The pellicles were subsequently subjected to acid hydrolysis at the same conditions to produce different nanocrytsals. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) observation indicated that xylan could promote BCNCs bundling and tailor the geometrical dimensions of BCNCs.. AB - In plant cell wall, ...
Studies on environmentally friendly flame retardants for cellulose-based materials. Phytic acid is a naturally occurring compound found in the foods we eat, e.g. in nuts and cereals. It is the most important storage of phosphorus in plants, and phytic acid contains 28% phosphorus. Phosphorous compounds have proven to be effective flame retardants for cellulose-based materials such as wood and cotton, so phytic acid has the potential to be a non-toxic and environmentally friendly alternative to the flame retardants used today, which in many cases are hazardous to the environment and health. By mixing phytic acid with various common metal ions which are important nutrients for the body, the flame retarding properties can be modified.. ...
Define carboxymethyl cellulose. carboxymethyl cellulose synonyms, carboxymethyl cellulose pronunciation, carboxymethyl cellulose translation, English dictionary definition of carboxymethyl cellulose. Noun 1. carboxymethyl cellulose - an acid derivative of cellulose cellulose - a polysaccharide that is the chief constituent of all plant tissues and fibers
Cytophaga hutchinsonii can rapidly digest crystalline cellulose without free cellulases or cellulosomes. Its cell-contact cellulose degradation mechanism is unknown. In this study, the four β-glucosidase (bgl) genes in C. hutchinsonii were singly and multiply deleted, and the functions of these β-glucosidases in cellobiose and cellulose degradation were investigated. We found that the constitutively expressed BglB played a key role in cellobiose utilization, while BglA which was induced by cellobiose could partially make up for the deletion of bglB. The double deletion mutant ΔbglA/bglB lost the ability to digest cellobiose and could not thrive in cellulose medium, indicating that β-glucosidases were important for cellulose degradation. When cultured in cellulose medium, a small amount of glucose accumulated in the medium in the initial stage of growth for the wild type, while almost no glucose accumulated for ΔbglA/bglB. When supplemented with a small amount of glucose, ΔbglA/bglB started to
|em|Cytophaga hutchinsonii|/em| and |em|Sporocytophaga myxococcoides|/em| are both Gram-negative, aerobic, mesophilic, cellulose degrading bacterium belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes. Despite both of these organisms being isolated for almost a century, they remain poorly studied with the proteins responsible for cellulose degradation remaining unknown. Both organisms utilize cell associated machinery in order to degrade crystalline cellulose but do not contain any expected scaffoldin or dockerin proteins of the well-known complexed cellulosome system. Therefore, we have employed proteomic analysis in order to identify the abundant proteins present during growth on crystalline cellulose and assess their putative roles in cellulose hydrolysis. Further, we have been able to infer the localization of these proteins based on their abundance in specific cellular fractions. Taken together, the abundance and localization of proteins putatively involved in cellulose degradation led into important
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interactions of the complete cellobiohydrolase I from Trichodera reesei with microcrystalline cellulose Iβ. AU - Zhong, Linghao. AU - Matthews, James F.. AU - Crowley, Michael F.. AU - Rignall, Tauna. AU - Talón, César. AU - Cleary, Joseph M.. AU - Walker, Ross C.. AU - Chukkapalli, Giridhar. AU - McCabe, Clare. AU - Nimlos, Mark R.. AU - Brooks, Charles L.. AU - Himmel, Michael E.. AU - Brady, John W.. PY - 2008/4/1. Y1 - 2008/4/1. N2 - We describe the construction of a model complex of the cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I) cellulase from Trichoderma reesei bound to a cellulose microfibril in an aqueous environment for use in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Preliminary characterization from the initial phases of an MD simulation of this complex is also described. The linker sequence between the two globular domains was found to be quite flexible, and the oligosaccharides bound to this linker were found to prefer to be splayed like the spokes in a wheel due to their hydration ...
Extracellular matrices play important, but poorly investigated, roles in morphogenesis. Extracellular cellulose is central to regulation of pattern formation in plants, but among metazoans only tunicates are capable of cellulose biosynthesis. Cellulose synthase (CesA gene products are present in filter-feeding structures of all tunicates and also regulate metamorphosis in the ascidian Ciona. Ciona CesA is proposed to have been acquired by lateral gene transfer from a prokaryote. We identified two CesA genes in the sister-class larvacean Oikopleura dioica. Each has a mosaic structure of a glycoslyltransferase 2 domain upstream of a glycosyl hydrolase family 6 cellulase-like domain, a signature thus far unique to tunicates. Spatial-temporal expression analysis revealed that Od-CesA1 produces long cellulose fibrils along the larval tail, whereas Od-CesA2 is responsible for the cellulose scaffold of the post-metamorphic filter-feeding house. Knockdown of Od-CesA1 inhibited cellulose production in ...
Treated wastewater effluent could be a viable alternative to potable freshwater for cellulosic ethanol production, according to a study by the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. The study, Use of Treated Effluent Water in Cellulosic Ethanol Production, was funded in part by the Illinois Sustainable Technology Center.. The use of non-food cellulosic feedstock for ethanol fuel production has a number of advantages, including lowering greenhouse gas emissions and reducing cost pressure on food and feed markets, the study says. Drought-resistant cellulosic feedstock also can be grown on land unsuitable for row crops.. However, cellulosic ethanol plants consume large amounts of water. Dry grind ethanol plants currently use around three to four gallons of water per gallon of ethanol produced, whereas cellulosic ethanol plants are estimated to consume around six to 10 gallons of water per gallon of ethanol produced, the study says.. The study evaluated the effects of two different types of ...
Trees produce cellulose themselves and use it to build complex structures with impressive mechanical properties, which makes cellulose attractive to materials scientists looking to manufacture sustainable products. Researchers from ETH Zurich have 3D printed objects with higher cellulose content than that of any other additively manufactured cellulose-based parts. In doing so, they have created objects of almost unlimited complexity, including an ear based on a human model. They combined printing via direct ink writing (DIW) method with a subsequent densification process to increase the cellulose content of the printed object to a volume fraction of 27%. There are many potential applications, from customized packaging to cartilage-replacement implants for ears. This kind of cellulose technology also has applications in the automotive industry; Japanese carmakers have already built a prototype of car with body parts made almost exclusively of cellulose-based materials.
The Technology Behind Cellulosic Ethanol:Qteros primary focus when it comes to cellulosic ethanol production is on the Q Microbe, a super-bug microorganism that consumes plant and tree waste and converts these waste products into clean transportation fuel relatively simply. Traditional approaches to cellulosic biomass require intensive pretreatments using enzymes that break down the biomass into simple sugars. These enzymes and pretreatment are the largest cost contributor to cellulosic ethanol production. The Q Microbe, however, breaks down a wide variety of plant materials including corn residues, cane bagasse, woody biomass and cellulose waste, and produces ethanol from its own enzymes. This process reduces overall process time, saves money in pretreatment and eliminates the need to produce ethanol from essential food resources.. ...
A powerful replica molding methodology to transfer on-demand functional topographies to the surface of bacterial cellulose nanofiber textures is presented. With this method, termed guided assembly-based biolithography (GAB), a surface-structured polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold is introduced at the gas-liquid interface of an Acetobacter xylinum culture. Upon bacterial fermentation, the generated bacterial cellulose nanofibers are assembled in a three-dimensional network reproducing the geometric shape imposed by the mold. Additionally, GAB yields directional alignment of individual nanofibers and memory of the transferred geometrical features upon dehydration and rehydration of the substrates. Scanning electron and atomic force microscopy are used to establish the good fidelity of this facile and affordable method. Interaction of surface-structured bacterial cellulose substrates with human fibroblasts and keratinocytes illustrates the efficient control of cellular activities which are ...
Product Name: Hydroxypropyl Methyl Cellulose Sulphate Eye Drops. Common Name: Genteal, Genteal Mild, Gonak, Goniosoft, Goniovisc. Strength: 0.5% Hydroxypropyl Methyl Cellulose Sulphate. Description: Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose belongs to the group of medicines known as artificial tears. It is used to relieve dryness and irritation caused by reduced tear flow.. Indications and Usage:. Used as an ophthalmic surgical aid in anterior segment surgical procedure including cataract surgery and IOL implantation. Also used for gonioscopy in glaucoma and artificial tears. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose may also be used to moisten hard contact lenses and artificial eyes. In addition, it may be used in certain eye examinations.. Pack Size: Hydroxypropyl Methyl Cellulose Sulphate Eye Drops is available in 5ml & 10ml plastic dropper bottle.. Minimum Order Quantity: 3000 packs. Certification: WHO-GMP. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Quaternary ammonium bacterial cellulose for adsorption of proteins. AU - Niide, Teppei. AU - Shiraki, Hikaru. AU - Oshima, Tatsuya. AU - Baba, Yoshinari. AU - Kamiya, Noriho. AU - Goto, Masahiro. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - Bacterial cellulose (BC) has attracted attention for preparing advanced materials due to its microfibrous structure. In this study, quaternary ammonium bacterial cellulose (QABC) as well as quaternary ammonium plant cellulose (QAPC) as adsorbents for proteins have been prepared. Introduction of the quaternary ammonium group was conducted under different conditions to determine the best conditions for modification. The fibrous structures of QABC and QAPC were quite different and determined by the starting material. The adsorption capacities of hemoglobin and an anionic dye, thymol blue, on the adsorbents QABC and QAPC which were prepared under different conditions have been investigated. QABC showed a higher adsorption capacity for hemoglobin compared with QAPC, ...
In converting biomass to bioethanol, pretreatment is a key step intended to render cellulose more amenable and accessible to cellulase enzymes and thus increase glucose yields. In this study, four cellulose samples with different degrees of polymerization and crystallinity indexes were subjected to aqueous sodium hydroxide and anhydrous liquid ammonia treatments. The effects of the treatments on cellulose crystalline structure were studied, in addition to the effects on the digestibility of the celluloses by a cellulase complex. From X-ray diffractograms and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, it was revealed that treatment with liquid ammonia produced the cellulose IIII allomorph; however, crystallinity depended on treatment conditions. Treatment at a low temperature (25°C) resulted in a less crystalline product, whereas treatment at elevated temperatures (130°C or 140°C) gave a more crystalline product. Treatment of cellulose I with aqueous sodium hydroxide (16.5 percent by weight) resulted in
Whatman™ Cellulose Acetate Membranes Type: OE-66; Pore size: 0.2um; Dia.: 110mm Whatman™ Cellulose Acetate Membranes Discs Filtration Membranes
Olefin cross-metathesis has been demonstrated to be a modular pathway for synthesis of a series of functionalized cellulose esters. As a proof of concept, cellulose acetate was acylated with two terminally olefinic acid chlorides, pent-4-enoyl chloride and undec-10-enoyl chloride, providing olefin-terminated cellulose esters with different side-chain lengths. These ω-unsaturated cellulose esters were then reacted with a variety of cross-metathesis partners, including acrylic acid, methyl acrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate, poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate, and allyl alcohols, using Hoveyda-Grubbs 2nd generation catalyst. Complete conversion to cross-metathesis products was achieved in reactions with acrylic acid or acrylates using 3-5 mol% catalyst at 40 °C within 1 h. We further demonstrate successful hydrogenation of these α,β-unsaturated esters and acids, thereby eliminating the potential for radical-induced crosslinking during storage ...
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By 1930, cellulose acetate along with specially designed compression molding equipment was available and began replacing celluloid for plastic crochet hooks. The main advantages of cellulose acetate over celluloid were that molding techniques were much faster and cellulose acetate was not flammable.. Like celluloid, cellulose acetate is naturally clear but can be made in any color or opacity. It is tough and flexible. It is easily machined and easily manipulated by hand when softened to 100 degrees C (212 degrees F, boiling). Because it is nonflammable, cellulose acetate was perfect for compression molding which was introduced in 1929 and, later, injection molding introduced in 1934.. About 1929 Tennessee Eastman, a subsidiary of Eastman Kodak, began selling sheets, rods, tubes, and molding powders of Tenite cellulose acetate. Boye began making injection molded crochet hooks out of Tenite. This is the substance the crochet hooks marked. ...
What is the definition of CELLULOSE ACETATE? What is the meaning of CELLULOSE ACETATE? How do you use CELLULOSE ACETATE in a sentence? What are synonyms for CELLULOSE ACETATE?
Material: As a material for growing of SRCE, microbial cellulose is used. Microbial cellulose is an experimental bio-material, grown in a bioreactor using Gluconacetobacter xylinus bacteria. As a bacterial grow medium, experimental mixture made of household chemicals was used.. Process of making: Live microbial cellulose, that contains living bacteria was cut, shaped and sewn in a shape of real human heart (several layers, 4 internal chambers). Live microbial cellulose was used because as a living tissue it has regenerative ability (tiny holes that where byproduct of sewing where completely regenerated in a period of 2 days). Bioreactor that contained SRCE is filled with diluted growth medium, which enables regeneration and keeps tissue alive (but does not enable larger growth).. Application: Even though SRCE does not contain living cells of human heart muscles, it can be used as a scaffold for them and by doing that theoretically grow replacement human heart (and other organs) relatively ...
In this study the effect of residual coagulation medium (water) on cellulose dissolution in an ionic liquid is discussed. Solubility of dissolving grade pulp; HWP and SWP, and microcrystalline cellulose in binary solvents, mixtures of 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate and water, was investigated by turbidity measurements, light microscopy, rheometry, and CP/MAS 13C-NMR spectroscopy. The viscoelastic properties of the cellulose solutions imply that residual water affect the cellulose dissolution. However, it is not obvious that this always necessarily poses serious drawbacks for the solution properties or that the effects are as severe as previously believed. Turbidity measurements, viscosity data and crystallinity of the regenerated cellulose correlated well and an increased conversion to cellulose II was found at low water and cellulose contents with an apparent maximum of conversion at 2-5 wt% water. At high water content, above 10 wt%, dissolution and conversion was largely inhibited.
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Cellulose degrading rumen bacterium Fibrobacter succinogenes. Fibrobacter succinogenes, also known as Bacteroides succinogenes, is one of the most important cellulolytic bacterium (cellulose degrading bacteria) in animal intestinal tracts (rumen). Herbivorous ruminant animals have a complex stomach divided into chambers. One chamber, the rumen, contains symbiotic bacteria that break down cellulose in plants, making plant matter digestible. F. succinogenes actively adheres to cellulose. F. succinogenes produces both a series of cellulose-binding proteins, some of which have endoglucanase activity and a thin glycoprotein glycocalyx that results in strong adhesion to cellulose. Fibrobacter sp. are rod shaped, obligate anaerobic, gram-negative, saccharolytic bacteria. Magnification: x3,000 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/2319
The aim of this thesis was to prepare an insoluble sulphated polysaccharide and explore its potential as a rapid column chromatographic method for the isolation and separation of lipoproteins directly from serum. Regenerated cellulose crosslinked with formaldehyde was found to be relatively inert towards esterification. A degree of sulphation of 0.5 milliequivalents per gram could be obtained but the product had poor hydraulic properties. Epichlorohydrin crosslinked regenerated cellulose was found to be readily sulphated so long as the matrix was highly crosslinked (50-100% v/w). The reactivity of the matrix was retained at low levels of crosslinking if hydroxypropyl groups were introduced with propylene oxide. The hydroxypropylated regenerated celluloses were readily sulphated up to four milliequivalents per gram with minimal degradation of the cellulose chain. HP-cellulose 8-50 sulphates proved to be very successful in the selective isolation of the beta lipoproteins (VLDL plus LDL) directly ...
Immobilization of collagen peptide on dialdehyde bacterial cellulose nanofibers via covalent bonds for tissue engineering and regeneration Xiaoxiao Wen,1 Yudong Zheng,1 Jian Wu,2 Lu-Ning Wang,1 Zhenya Yuan,1 Jiang Peng,3 Haoye Meng3 1School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Soochow, People’s Republic of China; 3Institute of Orthopedics, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Bacterial cellulose (BC) is an alternative nanostructured biomaterial to be utilized for a wide range of biomedical applications. Because of its low bioactivity, which restricted its practical application, collagen and collagen hydrolysate were usually composited into BC. It is necessary to develop a new method to generate covalent bonds between collagen and cellulose to improve the immobilization of collagen
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The use of lignocellulosic biomass as a substrate in agricultural biogas plants is very popular and yields good results. However, the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, and thus biogas production, is not always satisfactory due to the slow or incomplete degradation (hydrolysis) of plant matter. To enhance the solubilization of the lignocellulosic biomass various physical, chemical and biological pretreatment methods are used.The aim of this study was to select and characterize cellulose-degrading bacteria, and to construct a microbial consortium, dedicated for degradation of maize silage and enhancing biogas production from this substrate.Over one hundred strains of cellulose-degrading bacteria were isolated from: sewage sludge, hydrolyzer from an agricultural biogas plant, cattle slurry and manure. After physiological characterization of the isolates, sixteen strains (representatives of Bacillus, Providencia and Ochrobactrum genera) were chosen for the construction of a Microbial Consortium with High
The market for microcrystalline cellulose is divided into the key regions of U.S., China, South America, Europe, Japan, and India to understand the growth trends globally. A detailed assessment of the current competitive structure and how it is expected to change in the future is presented herein. The comprehensive analysis of growth prospects in the microcrystalline cellulose industry presented in this report serves as a useful source of guidance for existing as well as new players interested in participating in this industry.. Microcrystalline cellulose refers to refined wood pulp and has several uses which include as a texturizer, a fat substitute, an extender, an anti-caking agent, bulking agent, and an emulsifier in food production.. Get free sample copy of the report at: https://www.qyresearchreports.com/sample/sample.php?rep_id=1040615&type=E. The report begins with an outline of terms and terminologies, classifications, industry chain structure, and industry statutes that are relevant in ...
The aims of this investigation explore an efficient way to remove the anionic dye for textile wastewater, and characterize surface thermodynamics of quaternized cellulose fiber by inverse gas chromatography (IGC) using specific gas probes over different temperature, and establish the correlations between the surface characteristics and the adsorption capability of quaternized cellulose. The results of the treatment of cellulose (recycled newsprint) with 3-Chloro-2-Hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-1-Propanaminium Chloride (quaternary ammonium) indicate that the nitrogen contents depend greatly on the pH. The favorable pH is more than 10 and less than 13. The process of dye removal can be completed removing waste dye within a second when the concentration of dye is less than 220 mg/l at room temperature. The saturation value of quaternized cellulose is 10 times higher than that of activated carbon and the quaternized cellulose shows it has the extremely high capability for dye adsorption. Surface energy ...
A computational approach is presented for prediction of cellulose solubilities in ionic liquids (ILs) based on COSMO-RS (Conductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents). Thermodynamically stable molecular structures were optimized from 2D structures of cellulose and ILs following specific force-field based search of conformation lowest in energy and quantum chemical optimizations of molecular geometry. The thermodynamic property of logarithmic activity coefficient (lnγ) and excess enthalpy (HE) were calculated by COSMO-RS based on the COSMO molecular surfaces of cellulose and ILs to qualitatively predict the ability of ILs for cellulose dissolution. To evaluate the method, four sets of ILs were used to calculate lnγ and HE based on four different cellulose models. The goodness-of-fit of linear regressions between the experimental cellulose solubilities and the calculated lnγ and HE shows that lnγ is more reliable than HE for prediction of the dissolving power of ILs to dissolve cellulose. ...
Todays market offers an ever-increasing range of cellulose pulps (derivative pulps) made fromvarious wood types through different delignification processes. Each pulp segment has its uniquecharacteristics, which makes it difficult for the producer of cellulose derivatives to choose the mostsuitable pulp for optimum processability and product quality. The objective of this study was toimprove knowledge of cellulose pulps and to describe how different pulp properties affectprocessability and quality in the production of viscose dope and cellulose ethers.Ten pulp samples were investigated, originating from both sulfite and sulfate processes, with highand low viscosities and with softwood and hardwood as raw material. The pulps were analyzed fortheir properties and then processed to viscose dope and a cellulose ether in two separate pilotfacilities. The intermediates in the viscose process as well as the quality of the viscose dope andcellulose ether were analyzed and the results correlated to pulp ...
Thus, cellulosic ethanol provides a unique opportunity in which ethanol is produced not from corn that otherwise is used as food, but from a range of waste biomass, which are normally wasted anyway.. In theory, cellulosic ethanol sounds great. In practice however, cellulosic ethanol has not entered large scale commercial production owing to the high cost of ethanol thus produced. It is hoped that the cellulosic ethanol companies will soon escape from the valley of death phase they are currently in and start producing ethanol from cellulose in a large scale. Ethanol from cellulose raises the interesting question of whether algae could be used as the biomass for ethanol production from cellulose? It appears that some species of algae do have the potential to be considered as a cellulosic feedstock for ethanol production. However, we have not seen many efforts taken in this area of research. In algae, the storage component is starch and the cell wall component is cellulose. Many strains of algae ...
Renewable resources have attracted much attention because of the great importance they have in sustainable development and environmental protection. Cellulose is a nearly inexhaustible raw polymeric material with fascinating structures and properties. It is environmentally friendly and biocompatible.1 Cellulose products2-4 have been successfully synthesized with extensive applications because of their low cost and environmental friendliness. In particular, cellulose aerogels have a promising future for low density and biocompatibility.5 They have received special interest as drug delivery vehicles,6 cell culture growth template,7 superabsorbent polymers,8 etc. Cellulose aerogels are generally prepared from regenerated cellulose via a freeze-drying process or a supercritical carbon dioxide process.9,10 Using these methods, the new ultralight and highly porous cellulose materials have been prepared in recent years. Cellulose aerogels were prepared by regenerated and dried processes from ...
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Through a cascade of chemical derivatizations involving the green Passerini three-component reaction (P-3CR), we describe herein the multifunctionnalization of cellulose microfibrils (MFC) previously subjected to a periodate oxidation step. Not only do MFC constitute a remarkably attractive cellulose substrate from industrial and fundamental standpoints, but their periodate oxidation increases their reactivity while keeping their unique attributes. The Passerini reaction allowed for the successful grafting of two judiciously chosen chemical precursors in aqueous one-pot heterogeneous conditions, thus leading to the generation of dually modified (both functional and reactive) MFCs. Namely, as a proof of concept of this strategy, a tert-butyl isocyanide and a carboxylic acid, the latter bearing either an alkyne or a methacrylate function, were reacted with the aldehyde moieties present at the surface of periodate oxidized cellulose (POC). A thorough characterization evidenced the success of the ...
Republican presidential candidate and former U.S. Senator Rick Santorum visited the site of the first commercial cellulosic ethanol production in the state of Iowa at Quad County Corn Processors (QCCP) Friday.. One of the things thats helped rural small towns and farmers, particularly in Iowa, is the Renewable Fuel Standard, said Santorum, who met with met with plant representatives, including QCCP CEO Delayne Johnson, who share how they recently passed the two-million gallon milestone for cellulosic ethanol production using Syngentas Cellerate™ process technology. We are excited to have achieved our goal of producing 2 million gallons per year of cellulosic ethanol, and are on target to continue, or increase, this production level going forward, Johnson said. Were now focusing on growing alliances and relationships within the industry.. During 2014, QCCP achieved EPA certification to generate D3 Renewable Identification Numbers (RINs) for cellulosic ethanol. According to Johnson, the ...
Cellulosic Ethanol Experiments, Labs, Theses and Dissertations, Patents For Science Fair Projects, Labs, Lesson Plans and Research For Middle School, High School.The Crude Fiber Method Carbohydrates And Vitamin C Biology Essay. Published: 23rd March, 2015 Last Edited: 23rd March, 2015. This essay has been submitted.VTT SCIENCE 31 Cellulose, starch and their derivatives for industrial applications Structure-property studies Lauri Kuutti To be presented with the permission.A STUDY ON THE ADSORPTION PROPERTIES OF QUATERNIZED CELLULOSE Weijun Wang A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of Auburn University.Cellulose nanocrystals J.O. Zoppe et al./Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 369 (2012) 202-209 203. 1.59 cone geometry was used to obtain viscosity.assessment of co-processing of cellulose ii and silicon dioxide as a platform to enhance excipient functionality by jhon jairo rojas camargo an abstract.The cellulose hydrolysis by the isolate was also optimum at these parameters when ...
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Looking for Cellulose insulation with borates? Find out information about Cellulose insulation with borates. Cellulose insulation is made from recycled newspaper. The borates provide fire and vermin protection. Most cellulose insulation now uses chemical fire... Explanation of Cellulose insulation with borates
Cellulose processing[edit]. The dissolution of cellulose by ILs has attracted interest.[37] A patent application from 1930 ... Charles Graenacher, Manufacture and Application of New Cellulose Solutions and Cellulose Derivatives Produced therefrom, US ... The dissolution of cellulose-based materials like tissue paper waste, generated in chemical industries and at research ... E. de Vos (2011). "Synthesis of glucose esters from cellulose in ionic liquids". Holzforschung. 66 (4): 417-425. doi:10.1515/hf ...
Cellulose[edit]. Hydrogen bonds are important in the structure of cellulose and derived polymers in its many different forms in ... A strand of cellulose (conformation Iα), showing the hydrogen bonds (dashed) within and between cellulose molecules ...
Cellulose phosphorylases depolymerize cellulose using phosphates instead of water.. Avicelase has almost exclusively exo- ... "Cellulose". AccessScience, McGraw-Hill.. [permanent dead link] *^ Bignell DE, Roisin Y, Lo N (2011). Biology of termites: a ... Medically, Cellulase is used as a treatment for phytobezoars, a form of cellulose bezoar found in the human stomach, and it has ... Bayer EA, Chanzy H, Lamed R, Shoham Y (October 1998). "Cellulose, cellulases and cellulosomes". Current Opinion in Structural ...
Cellulose. E 460. cereals, fruit, vegetables (in all plants in general) Chitin. -. in fungi, exoskeleton of insects and ... Other examples of bulking fiber sources used in functional foods and supplements include cellulose, guar gum and xanthan gum. ... For instance, cellulose and wheat bran provide excellent bulking effects, but are minimally fermented. Alternatively, many ... Dietary fiber consists of non-starch polysaccharides and other plant components such as cellulose, resistant starch, resistant ...
Cellulose. E 460. cereals, fruit, vegetables (in all plants in general) Chitin. -. in fungi, exoskeleton of insects and ... Other examples of bulking fiber sources used in functional foods and supplements include cellulose, guar gum and xanthan gum. ... Examples are wheat bran, cellulose, and lignin. Coarsely ground insoluble fiber triggers the secretion of mucus in the large ... For instance, cellulose and wheat bran provide excellent bulking effects, but are minimally fermented. Alternatively, many ...
The cellulose molecules are composed of long chains of sugar molecules. In the hydrolysis of cellulose (that is, cellulolysis ... Since cellulose cannot be digested by humans, the production of cellulose does not compete with the production of food, other ... Cellulose References[edit]. *^ "Updated Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Results of Fuel Ethanol" (PDF). Archived from the ... Building Cellulose *^ Matthew L. Wald (July 6, 2011). "U.S. Backs Project to Produce Fuel From Corn Waste". The New York Times ...
"Water dispersion of cellulose II nanocrystals prepared by TEMPO-mediated oxidation of mercerized cellulose at pH 4.8". ... Cellulose. 17 (2): 279-288. doi:10.1007/s10570-009-9381-2.. *^ "Bromide: Potassium & Sodium". canine-epilepsy.com. Canine- ...
Cellulose dissolves in aqueous solutions of ZnCl2, and zinc-cellulose complexes have been detected.[31] Cellulose also ... Xu, Q.; Chen, L.-F. (1999). "Ultraviolet Spectra and Structure of Zinc-Cellulose Complexes in Zinc Chloride Solution". Journal ... Fischer, S.; Leipner, H.; Thümmler, K.; Brendler, E.; Peters, J. (2003). "Inorganic Molten Salts as Solvents for Cellulose". ... Cellulose. 10 (3): 227-236. doi:10.1023/A:1025128028462.. *^ a b Wiberg, Nils (2007). Lehrbuch der Anorganischen Chemie [ ...
Cellulose propionate, a molded, durable plastic. *3D-printed plastic using super-fine polyamide powder and Selective Laser ... Cellulose acetate. *Optyl, a type of hypoallergenic material made especially for eyeglass frames. It features a type of ...
Cellulose fiber Löblich & Co. Industrials Industrial machinery Vienna 1738 Heating, commercial kitchens ...
Cellulose nitrate: A nitrated polymer which can be a high or low explosive depending on nitration level and conditions ...
One significant issue is that while all these chemical compounds have been approved as additives to food, they were not tested by burning. Burning changes the properties of chemicals. According to the U.S. National Cancer Institute: "Of the more than 7,000 chemicals in tobacco smoke, at least 250 are known to be harmful, including hydrogen cyanide, carbon monoxide, and ammonia. Among the 250 known harmful chemicals in tobacco smoke, at least 69 can cause cancer."[5][1][6] ...
Cellulose composites[edit]. Thiele et al. explored the possibilities of a cellulose-based material that could be responsive to ... Cellulose fibrils combine during the printing process into microfibrils with a high aspect ratio (~100) and an elastic modulus ... Experimenting with this ink, the team created a theoretical model for a print path that dictates the orientation of cellulose ... They developed a bilayer film using cellulose steraroyl esters with different substitution degrees on either side. One ester ...
Methyl cellulose. References[edit]. *^ de Silva DJ, Olver JM (July 2005). "Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) lubricant ... Safety data for hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose[permanent dead link] *^ Example properties and applications of hydroxypropyl ... Since all cellulose ethers are hygroscopic, they will absorb moisture from surroundings if left exposed from original packaging ... Since there are maximum three possible sites of substitution with each cellulose molecule, this average value is a real number ...
"Cellulose extraction thimbles". Hahnemuehle. Retrieved 2015-11-21. "Glass Fiber Filters". Glass Fiber Filters. Pall Corporation ...
DEAE Cellulose (Anion exchanger) Weakly basic DEAE (Diethylaminoethyl) 2 QAE Sephadex (Anion exchanger) Strongly basic QAE ( ... CM- Cellulose (Cation exchanger) Weakly acidic CM (Carboxymethyl) 5 SP Sepharose (Cation exchanger) Strongly acidic SP ( ... Cellulose based medium can be used for the separation of large molecules as they contain large pores. Protein binding in this ... This is typically a resin or gel matrix consisting of agarose or cellulose beads with covalently bonded charged functional ...
"A comparison of cellulose nanocrystals and cellulose nanofibres extracted from bagasse using acid and ball milling methods". ... The cellulose-rich bagasse is being widely investigated for its potential for producing commercial quantities of cellulosic ... Xanita, a South African company, mixes 30 percent bagasse cellulose fibres in with recycled kraft paper fibre to make ultra- ... and biodegradability properties of bagasse cellulose whiskers reinforced natural rubber nanocomposites". Industrial Crops and ...
The alkali cellulose is then treated with carbon disulfide to form sodium cellulose xanthate.[3] ... The higher the ratio of cellulose to combined sulfur, the lower the solubility of the cellulose xanthate. The xanthate is ... Cellulose is a linear polymer of β-D-glucose units with the empirical formula (C6H10O5)n.[2] To prepare viscose, dissolving ... The cellulose solution is used to spin the viscose rayon fiber, which may also be called viscose. Viscose rayon fiber is a soft ...
"Cellulose Insulation Manufacturers Association - Cellulose Facts". Cellulose.org. Archived from the original on 2008-07-04. ... Cellulose is classified by OSHA as a dust nuisance during installation, and the use of a dust mask is recommended. Cellulose is ... Wet-spray cellulose is comparable.). Increases structural stability (unlike loose-fill, similar to wet-spray cellulose). Can be ... Cellulose insulation. Cellulose, is denser and more resistant to air flow than fiberglass. Persistent moisture will weaken ...
Cellulose, starch, other organic compounds Carbon. CO2. Cellulose, starch, other organic compounds ...
Wood is largely cellulose and lignin, while paper and cotton are nearly pure cellulose. Cellulose is a polymer made with ... Cellulose[change , change source]. The structural components of plants are formed primarily from cellulose. ... Humans and many other animals do not digest cellulose. Certain animals can digest cellulose, because bacteria possessing the ... Examples include storage polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen and structural polysaccharides such as cellulose and ...
Cellulose[redigér , redigér wikikode]. Cellulosebaserede stoffer: *nitrocellulose (cellulose nitreret med en blanding af ...
Digesting cellulose[change , change source]. Plant cell walls are mostly made up of cellulose. No herbivore can digest ... cellulose by itself. They all make use of gut flora, some of which produce an enzyme called cellulase. This is an example of ...
Jonas, Rainer; Farah, Luiz F. (1998). "Production and application of microbial cellulose". Polymer Degradation and Stability. ...
"Production and application of microbial cellulose". Polymer Degradation and Stability. 59 (1-3): 101-106. doi:10.1016/s0141- ...
Less than 1.5% of microcrystalline cellulose,. *Less than 1% of added edible casein or edible caseinates ...
Using the reagent, cellulose can be extracted from wood pulp, cotton fiber, and other natural cellulose sources. Cellulose ... Schweizer's reagent was once used in production of cellulose products such as rayon and cellophane. Cellulose, which is quite ... Presently, the reagent is used in the analysis of the molecular weight of cellulose samples. These properties of Schweizer's ... Burchard, Walther; Habermann, Norbert; Klüfers, Peter; Seger, Bernd; Wilhelm, Ulf (1994). "Cellulose in Schweizer's Reagent: A ...
Synthesis of cellulose-metal nanoparticle composites: development and comparison of different protocols' cellulose, 2014. ' ... "Synthesis of cellulose-metal nanoparticle composites: development and comparison of different protocols". Cellulose. 21 (1): ...
Specifically, cellulose graft copolymers have various different applications that are dependent on the structure of the polymer ... Some of the new properties that cellulose gains from different monomers grafted onto it include: Absorption of water Improved ... Dhiman, Poonam K.; Kaur, Inderjeet; Mahajan, R. K. (5 April 2008). "Synthesis of a cellulose-grafted polymeric support and its ... Tang, Xinde; Gao, Longcheng; Fan, Xinghe; Zhou, Qifeng (1 May 2007). "Controlled grafting of ethyl cellulose with azobenzene- ...
Mexico's main exports to Saint Vincent and the Grenadines include: cylinders; control units and adapters; pulp; cellulose; and ...
Spray-applied cellulose (wet-spray cellulose)[edit]. Spray-applied cellulose is used for applying cellulose to new wall ... These are generally characterized as dry cellulose, spray applied cellulose, stabilized cellulose, and low dust cellulose. ... History of cellulose insulation[edit]. Cellulose is among the oldest types of building insulation material.[citation needed] ... Advantages of cellulose insulation[edit]. Thermal performance[edit]. The thermal performance of loose filled cellulose compares ...
Methyl cellulose. References[edit]. *^ a b c d Methyl Ethyl Cellulose, monograph prepared at the 17th JECFA (1973), published ... Methyl ethyl cellulose; Ethyl methyl ether of cellulose; E465; INS No. 465 ... Ethyl methyl cellulose is a thickener, vegetable gum, foaming agent and emulsifier. Its E number is E465.[1] ... It can be prepared by treatment of cellulose with dimethyl sulfate and ethyl chloride in the presence of an alkali.[1] ...
Cellulose tape is a transparent adhesive tape that happens to be biodegradable too. It is difficult to find, especially in the ... Cellulose tape is a transparent adhesive tape that happens to be biodegradable too. It is difficult to find, especially in the ...
Cellulose and cellulose derivatives, Volume 5, Part 2. Volume 5 of High polymers. Cellulose and Cellulose Derivatives, Emil Ott ... Malm carbon carboxymethyl cellulose catalyst caustic cellu cellulose acetate cellulose derivatives cellulose ethers Chem ... Cellulose and Cellulose Derivatives, Part 3. Emil Ott,Harold M. Spurlin,Mildred W. Grafflin,Norbert M. Bikales,Leon Segal. ... cellulose_derivatives.html?id=6QXwAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareCellulose and cellulose derivatives. ...
Cellulose acetate, synthetic compound derived from the acetylation of the plant substance cellulose. Cellulose acetate is spun ... Cellulose acetate, synthetic compound derived from the acetylation of the plant substance cellulose. Cellulose acetate is spun ... Cellulose acetate is most commonly prepared by treating cellulose with acetic acid and then with acetic anhydride in the ... Treatment of cellulose with nitric acid had produced cellulose nitrate (also known as nitrocellulose), but the difficulties of ...
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Media in category "Cellulose derivatives". The following 47 files are in this category, out of 47 total. ... Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Cellulose_derivatives&oldid=112680416" ...
Made up of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin polymers, these parts of the plant evolved to protect and preserve the ...
sustainable, brick, masonry, cellulose, postindustrial material Keywords:. sustainable, brick, masonry, cellulose, ... postindustrial cellulose and bentonite clay). This grade of cellulose is no longer suitable for use in the manufacture of ... The described process repurposes this cellulose waste as a component in a structural element that can be worked using standard ... A novel masonry material containing postindustrial cellulose, bentonite clay, and small amounts of other additives (e.g., ...
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Synonym(s): BLEACHED WOOD PULP; CELLULOSE POWDER; CELLULOSE; MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE; WOOD PULP, BLEACHED; ABICEL; ALPHA- ... About CELLULOSE: Cellulose is a natural polysaccharide derived from plant fibers.. Function(s): Absorbent; Bulking Agent; Slip ... CELLULOSE; ARBOCEL; ARBOCEL BC 200; ARBOCELL B 600/30; AVICEL; AVICEL 101 ...
Cellulose degradation in anaerobic environments.. Leschine SB1.. Author information. 1. Department of Microbiology, University ... Products of cellulose hydrolysis are available as carbon and energy sources for other microbes that inhabit environments in ... It considers cellulose decomposing communities in soils, sediments, and aquatic environments, as well as those that degrade ... Because the substrate, cellulose, is insoluble, bacterial and fungal degradation occurs exocellularly, either in association ...
Cellulose definition, an inert carbohydrate, (C6H10O5)n, the chief constituent of the cell walls of plants and of wood, cotton ... Cellulose is an organic molecule (see also organic molecules), composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. ... Straw, in fact, which consists of the dry stem and leaves of the wheat plant, is almost wholly made up of cellulose. ... The cellulose fiber expands in diameter on absorbing moisture, for which it has a great84 affinity. ...
Cellulose Bacterial cellulose Hydrogel Wound healing Dressing This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access ... Huang Y, Zhu C, Yang J, Nie Y, Chen C, Sun D (2014) Recent advances in bacterial cellulose. Cellulose 21(1):1-30CrossRefGoogle ... Along with plant-derived cellulose, the use of bacterial cellulose membranes as wound dressings and skin substitutes is ... Orlando I., Roy I. (2018) Cellulose-Based Hydrogels for Wound Healing. In: Mondal M. (eds) Cellulose-Based Superabsorbent ...
This brown rot fungus capacity to break down the cellulose in wood led to its selection for sequencing by the U.S. Department ... It has such an aggressive form of cellulose breakdown," said study first author Dan Eastwood of Swansea University. He pointed ... The brown rot fungi have somehow circumvented that step to more efficiently get at the cellulose instead of blasting lignin, ... "This is a step forward into learning more about the processes involved in cellulose degradation," he said. Beyond the interest ...
Cellulose is an international journal devoted to the dissemination of research and scientific and technological progress in the ... field of cellulose and related naturally occurring polymers. The journal is concerned with the pure and ... ... Cellulose is an international journal devoted to the dissemination of research and scientific and technological progress in the ... Cellulose is an international journal devoted to the dissemination of research and scientific and technological progress in the ...
... microfibrillated cellulose (MFC), cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), bacterial cellulose (BC), and electrospun cellulose nanofibers ... A. Abbott and A. Bismarck, "Self-reinforced cellulose nanocomposites," Cellulose, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 779-791, 2010. View at ... J.-F. Sassi and H. Chanzy, "Ultrastructural aspects of the acetylation of cellulose," Cellulose, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 111-127, ... A. Dorris and D. G. Gray, "Gelation of cellulose nanocrystal suspensions in glycerol," Cellulose, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 687-694, ...
Bondwell™ cellulose gum 99.5% purity grades are manufactured in China.. We also offer a number of specialty cellulose gums for ... Cellulose Gum Chemistry: Cellulosics. SDS Link , Cellulose gum, or sodium carboxyethylcellulose (CMC), from Ashland is widely ... Cellulose gum also conforms to the purity criteria of E466 as mentioned in the Annex of EC directive 2008/84/EC and amendments ... "Cellulose Gum", accepted as a common or usual name for purified sodium carboxymethylcellulose, may be used in food label ...
About CELLULOSE ACETATE PROPIONATE: Cellulose Acetate Propionate is a propionic acid ester of a partially acetylated cellulose. ...
... any of a group of acetic esters of cellulose, used to make yarns, textiles, nonflammable photographic films, rubber and ... cellulose acetate in Science Expand. cellulose acetate Any of several compounds obtained by treating cellulose with acetic ... cellulose acetate. noun 1. nonflammable material made by acetylating cellulose: used in the manufacture of film, dopes, ... Cellulose acetate is used in lacquers, photographic film, transparent sheeting, and cigarette filters. Also called acetate, ...
2000) Multiple cellulose synthase catalytic subunits are required for cellulose synthesis in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 12(12): ... CELLULOSE SYNTHASE INTERACTIVE1 Is Required for Fast Recycling of Cellulose Synthase Complexes to the Plasma Membrane in ... Comparison of the Gh506 with the bacterial cellulose synthase. (A) Surface representation of the Rs cellulose synthase (PDB ID ... 2003) Expression of a mutant form of cellulose synthase AtCesA7 causes dominant negative effect on cellulose biosynthesis. ...
Rent a Cellulose-Insulation-Blower from one of our over 1,200 THD rental locations. Call your local store for same day pickup ... This machine is ideal for installation of loose fill cellulose insulation throughout any area of the home. The machine has ... This machine is ideal for installation of loose fill cellulose insulation throughout any area of the home. The machine has ...
Shred newspapers to make cellulose insulation. (Image: old newspapers image by Warren Millar from Fotolia.com). Cellulose ... Install cellulose insulation by blowing it into the cavities in the attic with an blower machine. For an even greener project, ... Measure the area where you plan to install the cellulose using a tape measure to determine how much newspaper you will need. ...
... they 3D printed complex objects with higher cellulose content than that of any other additively manufactured cellulose-based ... Solvent bath densifies cellulose. The ETH researchers used the following trick to densify the printed cellulose products: After ... Printing complex cellulose-based objects. ETH Zurich. Journal. Advanced Functional Materials. Keywords. *CHEMISTRY/PHYSICS/ ... This kind of cellulose technology could also be of interest to the automotive industry. Japanese carmakers have already built a ...
Furthermore, cellulose and cellulose derivatives also have unique properties such as hydrophilicity,... ... Cellulose is an abundant and renewable natural resource with biodegradability and nontoxicity. ... This chapter will introduce the smart applications of cellulose-based hydrogels including native cellulose, cellulose ... Wang Z, Liu S, Matsumoto Y, Kuga S (2012) Cellulose gel and aerogel from LiCl/DMSO solution. Cellulose 19:393-399CrossRefGoogle ...
The same tiny cellulose crystals that give trees and plants their high strength, light weight and resilience, have now been ... crystalline cellulose is still lacking. In this paper, the elasticity matrix for cellulose Iβ with hydrogen bonding network A ... so we could just add another process to use the leftover cellulose to make a composite material," Moon said. "The cellulose ... The same tiny cellulose crystals that give trees and plants their high strength, light weight and resilience, have now been ...
Can you help us develop more sustainable, high performance modified cellulose that replaces oil-based equivalents? Join us and ... the challenge we face is to enhance and elevate the performance of cellulose-based products to a higher level. ... While cellulose products are already used in a range of applications, ... Cellulose-based alternatives to synthetics While cellulose products are already used in a range of applications, the challenge ...
... delivers visible lifting and firming benefits. Learn more. ... The flexible bio-cellulose material gives the mask a unique, face-hugging fit that keeps skin in close contact with the complex ... Bio-cellulose is a plant-based material derived from coconut water.. *Its interlocking fibers form a highly absorbent, three- ... Inspired by the innovative world of Korean beauty, this luxurious TimeWise Repair® Lifting Bio-Cellulose Mask gives your skin ...
2.2 Porphyrin-bound Cellulose Derivatives 31. 2.3 Phthalocyanine-bound Cellulose Derivatives 34. 2.4 Squaraine-bound Cellulose ... 5.2 Cellulose Swelling, Dissolution and Regeneration at the Molecular Level 102. 5.2.1 The "Viewpoint of Cellulose" 109. 5.2.2 ... 15.2 Cellulose I Based Aerogels and Their Composites 373. 15.3 Cellulose II Based Aerogels and Their Composites 378. 15.4 ... 1.2.2 Cellulose-4-(N-methylamino)butyrate (CMABC) 7. 1.3 6-Deoxy-6-amino Cellulose Derivatives 9. 1.3.1 Spontaneous Self- ...
  • The densification process allowed us to start out with a 6 to 14 percent in volume of water-cellulose mixture and finish with a composite object that exhibits up to 27 volume percent of cellulose nanocrystals," says Hausmann. (eurekalert.org)
  • Their findings showed that the cellulose nanocrystals are aligned similarly to those present in natural materials. (eurekalert.org)
  • This illustration depicts structural details of cellulose nanocrystals. (purdue.edu)
  • This transmission electron microscope image shows cellulose nanocrystals, tiny structures that give trees and plants their high strength, light weight and resilience. (purdue.edu)
  • The findings represent a milestone in understanding the fundamental mechanical behavior of the cellulose nanocrystals. (purdue.edu)
  • The cellulose nanocrystals represent a potential green alternative to carbon nanotubes for reinforcing materials such as polymers and concrete. (purdue.edu)
  • Empa researchers have succeeded in developing an environmentally friendly ink for 3D printing based on cellulose nanocrystals. (empa.ch)
  • Empa researchers Gilberto Siqueira and Tanja Zimmermann from the Laboratory for Applied Wood Materials have now succeeded, together with Jennifer Lewis from Harvard University and André Studart from the ETH Zürich, in developing a new, environmentally friendly 3D printing ink made from cellulose nanocrystals (CNC). (empa.ch)
  • Rod-like cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) approximately 120 nanometers long and 6.5 nanometers in diameter under the microscope. (empa.ch)
  • The final product is cellulose nanocrystals, tiny rod-like structures that are 120 nanometers long and have a diameter of 6.5 nanometers. (empa.ch)
  • Multiple cellulose chains arrange to form cellulose fibrils, which can be partially dissolved by acid hydrolysis, producing cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) that are nano-sized and have a rod or whisker shape (length: 100 to 300 nm, diameter: 3 to 5 nm). (nsti.org)
  • A known deterrent to a large scale development and use of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) is their affinity for moisture, which has a profound effect on dispersion, wetting, interfacial adhesion, matrix crystallization and water uptake. (nist.gov)
  • Lignin-based fibers were produced by electrospinning aqueous dispersions of lignin, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). (usda.gov)
  • This paper reports the influence of raw and sonicated cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) on the microstructure of cement paste. (mendeley.com)
  • The deficiencies inherent in cellulose nitrate raised the possibility of producing other esters of cellulose, particularly the esters of organic acids. (britannica.com)
  • Since it is formed by reacting esters of cellulose with acetic acid and butyric acid, this also gives it low moisture absorption and an extremely high level of impact strength. (wisegeek.com)
  • Ethyl methyl cellulose is a thickener , vegetable gum , foaming agent and emulsifier . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemically, it is a derivative of cellulose with ethyl and methyl groups attached by ether linkages. (wikipedia.org)
  • A hydroxyethyl methyl cellulose (HEMC) with a delayed solubility. (dow.com)
  • These polymers are prepared by reacting wood or cotton cellulose fibers with propylene oxide and methyl chloride in the presence of caustic soda. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cellulose is used to make hydrophilic and highly absorbent sponges and water-soluble adhesives and binders such as methyl cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose which are used in wallpaper paste. (bionity.com)
  • Hydroxyethyl cellulose and methyl cellulose are frequently used with hydrophobic drugs in capsule formulations, to improve the drugs' dissolution in the gastrointestinal fluids. (openpr.com)
  • Made up of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin polymers, these parts of the plant evolved to protect and preserve the integrity of plant structures, so they are difficult to break down. (technologyreview.com)
  • The brown rots evolved later from a white rot ancestry and, because they circumvent the lignin and go straight for the hemicellulose and cellulose, they are considered more efficient and is probably why they have been able to dominate boreal forests in more recent times. (redorbit.com)
  • The analyses of the 48.2-million nucleotide genome of S. lacrymans not only allowed the team to compare the gene families involved in the mechanisms by which brown rot break down cellulose and white rot fungi break down both cellulose and lignin, but also how these processes differ within each category. (redorbit.com)
  • The brown rot fungi have somehow circumvented that step to more efficiently get at the cellulose instead of blasting lignin, and it has evolved multiple times in different white rot lineages. (redorbit.com)
  • and (ii) one or more flavoring substances having a logP ow of greater than 1.0 embedded into voids of the cellulose at a molecular level, (iii) an accompanying substance selected from the group consisting of hemicellulose, lignin, and mixtures thereof, wherein the total quantity of hemicellulose in relation to the total weight of the accompanying substance (iii) is in the range of 70 to 100 wt. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Cellulose, along with lignin and hemicellulose, is one of the main constituents of wood. (empa.ch)
  • Basically cellulose is natural materials, purified form of wood, where few compounds such as hemicellulose and lignin are removed," Dipankar Mandal, Assistant Professor of Department of Physics Organic Nano-Piezoelectric Device Laboratory told PTI. (indiatimes.com)
  • The major combustible component of non-food energy crops is cellulose, with lignin second. (bionity.com)
  • In addition, cellulose is represented by the difference between acid detergent fiber (ADF) and acid detergent lignin(ADL). (bionity.com)
  • The high tensile strength of plant stems and of the tree wood also arises from the arrangement of cellulose fibers intimately distributed into the lignin matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanical role of cellulose fibers in the wood matrix responsible for its strong structural resistance, can somewhat be compared to that of the reinforcement bars in concrete, lignin playing here the role of the hardened cement paste acting as the "glue" in between the cellulose fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The forecast period 2019-2025 is expected to to be great for the Carboxymethyl Cellulose Market which will be a turning point for industry. (openpr.com)
  • Carboxymethyl Cellulose Market accounted for USD 1.4 billion in 2017 and is projected to grow at a CAGR of 4.8% during the forecast period of 2018 to 2025. (openpr.com)
  • The Global Carboxymethyl Cellulose Market is fragmented with the presence of a large number of players across different regions. (openpr.com)
  • To study and analyze the Global Carboxymethyl Cellulose (value and volume) by key regions/countries, product type and application, history data from 2014 to 2017, and forecast to 2025. (openpr.com)
  • To understand the structure of Carboxymethyl Cellulose Market by identifying its various sub-segments. (openpr.com)
  • To project the consumption of Carboxymethyl Cellulose submarkets, with respect to key regions (along with their respective key countries). (openpr.com)
  • Focuses on the key Global Carboxymethyl Cellulose manufacturers, to define, describe and analyze the sales volume, value, market share, market competition landscape, SWOT analysis and development plans in next few years. (openpr.com)
  • To analyze the Carboxymethyl Cellulose with respect to individual growth trends, future prospects, and their contribution to the total market. (openpr.com)
  • CELTN activity was examined using sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as substrate (Xiao et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • and greater than 330 at 120 seconds), tetrasodium pyrophosphate, carrageenan, carboxymethyl cellulose , thickening silica and sodium lauryl sulfate surfactant. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In this study, Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was used as test fluid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This new biodegradable barrier coating that the Penn State researchers developed is composed of equal parts treated cellulose pulp ( carboxymethyl cellulose ) and chitosan - both abundant, economical and compostable materials. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Carboxymethyl cellulose from sugar beet pulp cellulose as a Hydrophilic polymer in coating of mandarin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) is a representative cellulose derivative, which is water soluble cellulose ether, manufactured by reacting sodium monochloroacetate with cellulose in alkaline medium. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • demonstrated how the complex additives including sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na) affect the storage property of steamed bread during frozen dough storage. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Yun, " Carboxymethyl cellulose fiber as a fast binding and biodegradable adsorbent of heavy metals," Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The scientists used five polysaccharides--pectin, gum arabic, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), carrageenan and alginate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To overcome this limitation, we used Acton Prolongatum (Corticotrophin Carboxymethyl cellulose ) as intramuscular ACTH stimulation test. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cellulose is an international journal devoted to the dissemination of research and scientific and technological progress in the field of cellulose and related naturally occurring polymers. (springer.com)
  • Siqueira: "Most polymers are water-repellent or hydrophobic, whereas cellulose attracts water - it is hydrophilic. (empa.ch)
  • Polymers CAB tend to be more expensive than their precursor chemical compound of cellulose acetate because additional steps in producing it are necessary. (wisegeek.com)
  • Hydroxypropylmethylcelluloses are water soluble polymers derived from cellulose. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • For example, Eastwood noted that the chemistry Serpula uses is slightly different from the chemistry that goes on in Postia, though in a larger sense between white rot and brown rot, "what we describe here is a refinement of the genes, what genes are absolutely necessary to break down cellulose," he said. (redorbit.com)
  • In Norway, researchers at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU) discovered that the mechanism by which "Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenases" or LPMOs break down cellulose is different from what was previously thought. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • Hydrolytic enzymes break down cellulose better and thus pave the way to competitive biofuels. (eurekalert.org)
  • Recently, oxidative enzymes were discovered which utilize oxygen and work together with hydrolytic enzymes to break down cellulose more efficiently. (eurekalert.org)
  • Engineers have shown that a protein vital to the ability of certain bacteria to break down cellulose, one of the most widespread biochemical processes on earth, speeds up the process by corralling enzymes together and ushering them into action. (rochester.edu)
  • Both fungi and bacteria use a concoction of several cellulase enzymes to break down cellulose, long chains of glucose bound tightly together by hydrogen bonds, like a group of pencils bound tightly with rubber bands. (rochester.edu)
  • This includes the chemistry, biochemistry, physics and materials science of cellulose and its sources, including wood and other biomass resources, and their derivatives. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, cellulose and cellulose derivatives also have unique properties such as hydrophilicity, mechanical strength, biocompatibility, and tunable functionality due to the strong versatile hydrogen bonding. (springer.com)
  • Cellulose-based hydrogels are prepared by physical or chemical cross-linking of cellulose derivatives with various functional molecules, which covalently bind different functional molecules and form a highly porous hydrogel, with three-dimensional network structure consisting of nanofibrillar-regenerated cellulose. (springer.com)
  • This chapter will introduce the smart applications of cellulose-based hydrogels including native cellulose, cellulose derivatives, and cellulose-composite hydrogels. (springer.com)
  • Potential solutions can be in the source of the cellulose we use, in the improvement of our waterborne production process, in the development of new modifications providing improved or completely new functionality, or in the use of alternative cellulose derivatives as modifiers for our products. (akzonobel.com)
  • Nanocrystalline cellulose is made from wood pulp, is light, strong, and even conducts electricity. (kottke.org)
  • Crescent Select Matboards are made from alpha-cellulose wood pulp fibers that have been chemically treated to eliminate the acids and lignins that normally degrade artwork and matboards. (dickblick.com)
  • Noted for its appetite for all things cellulose-including switchgrass, wood pulp and corn plant waste-the bacterium is highly efficient at converting biomass to ethanol. (newswise.com)
  • Cellulose for industrial use is mainly obtained from wood pulp and cotton. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellulose is a naturally occurring polymer obtained from wood fibres or the short fibres (linters) adhering to cotton seeds. (britannica.com)
  • In the past twenty years, much attention has been devoted to the study and development of polymer nanocomposites using various nanofillers including clay, silica, carbon nanotubes, and cellulose nanofibers [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Cellulose is the most frequently occurring natural polymer on Earth", says Siqueira. (empa.ch)
  • Cellulose is the most common organic polymer, with an estimated annual natural production of 1.5x10 12 tonnes. (bionity.com)
  • [1] [4] Cellulose was used to produce the first thermoplastic polymer, celluloid, by Hyatt Manufacturing Company in 1870. (bionity.com)
  • Hermann Staudinger determined the polymer structure of cellulose in 1920. (bionity.com)
  • Cellulose is a straight chain polymer: unlike starch, no coiling occurs, and the molecule adopts an extended rod-like conformation. (bionity.com)
  • The importance of cellulose as a potential material to replace petrochemical-based polymer is mainly attributed to its free hydroxyls present in the cellulose structure. (scirp.org)
  • Cellulose is the most abundant organic polymer on Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellulose is a straight chain polymer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many properties of cellulose depend on its chain length or degree of polymerization, the number of glucose units that make up one polymer molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Canada, Fortress Paper Ltd. announced a strategic supplement to the already announced birch usage project at the Fortress Specialty Cellulose Mill aimed at extracting hemicellulose from underutilized species such as birch. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • Although the giant panda can use noncellulosic material from the bamboo diet using enzymes coded in its own genome, digestion of cellulose and hemicellulose is impossible based on the panda's genetic composition, and must be dependent on gut microbiome. (pnas.org)
  • LACRISERT (hydroxypropyl cellulose ophthalmic insert) is a sterile, translucent, rod-shaped, water soluble, preservative-free, slow-release, prescription lubricant which is placed into the inferior cul-de-sac of the eye to treat moderate to severe dry eye syndromes. (bausch.com)
  • LACRISERT (hydroxypropyl cellulose ophthalmic insert) is indicated in patients with moderate to severe dry eye syndromes, including keratoconjunctivitis sicca. (bausch.com)
  • LACRISERT (hydroxypropyl cellulose ophthalmic insert) is contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to hydroxypropyl cellulose. (bausch.com)
  • Please see full Prescribing Information for LACRISERT (hydroxypropyl cellulose ophthalmic insert) . (bausch.com)
  • Hydroxypropyl cellulose is also commonly known as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) or hypromellose which is a coating agent and film-former and used as an inactive ingredient in the pharmaceutical industry. (ipl.org)
  • There are no evaluations for Hydroxypropyl cellulose. (patientslikeme.com)
  • With this in mind, cellulose nanomaterials are inherently renewable, sustainable, biodegradable and carbon-neutral like the sources from which they were extracted," Moon said. (purdue.edu)
  • Cellulose nanomaterials review: structure, properties and nanocomposites. (nih.gov)
  • National and international meetings of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Society of Wood Science Technology, Forest Products Society, American Chemical Society, and Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry have covered the subject of cellulose nanocomposites. (hindawi.com)
  • Cellulose degradation in anaerobic environments. (nih.gov)
  • Because the substrate, cellulose, is insoluble, bacterial and fungal degradation occurs exocellularly, either in association with the outer cell envelope layer or extracellularly. (nih.gov)
  • This brown rot fungus' capacity to break down the cellulose in wood led to its selection for sequencing by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Genome Institute (JGI) in 2007, with the goal of identifying the enzymes involved in the degradation process and using the information to improve cellulosic biofuels production. (redorbit.com)
  • Accordantly, complete cellulose dissolution generally required long residue time or a rise in temperature which can give rise to a degradation of the ILs and/or cellulose. (nature.com)
  • Fungal organisms are considered to be major players in cellulose degradation, but that's because they produce so much more protein. (rochester.edu)
  • Pound for pound, certain bacteria are the real giants of the cellulose-degradation world: They can be 50 times as effective at breaking down cellulose per protein base, says Wu, associate professor of chemical engineering and microbiology and immunology at the University of Rochester. (rochester.edu)
  • Perhaps we can learn from these efficient bacteria and use genetic engineering to endow fungi with the same advantage, so that we'd have both a high volume and a high efficiency of cellulose degradation in one organism. (rochester.edu)
  • The degradation of cellulose nitrate with light and heat, and the products of degradation, are discussed. (mendeley.com)
  • Calculations using precise models based on the atomic structure of cellulose show the crystals have a stiffness of 206 gigapascals, which is comparable to steel, said Pablo D. Zavattieri , a Purdue University assistant professor of civil engineering. (purdue.edu)
  • Though alkalis, acetones in paint remover , and alcohols can break down the chemical structure of cellulose acetate butyrate, it is otherwise resistant to common household chemicals. (wisegeek.com)
  • In Washington state, researchers at Washington State University Tri-Cities and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have found a new way to define the molecular structure of cellulose, which could lead to cheaper and more efficient ways to make a variety of crucial bioproducts. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • In modern society, the applications of cellulose have expanded considerably as the understanding of the chemistry of cellulose has increased, and researchers have been able to alter the structure of cellulose to obtain new properties to meet new requirements. (kth.se)
  • Cellulose fibrils within plant cell walls provide the foundation for plant structure and are renewable biomaterials that account for most of the world's biomass. (pnas.org)
  • In some places the cellulose fibrils exhibit a more ordered structure. (empa.ch)
  • The researchers turned to cellulose, the most abundant biopolymer on Earth, and mixed it in a simple process with a kind of silicone called polydimethylsiloxane - the stuff of breast implants - and carbon nanotubes. (indiatimes.com)
  • Cellulose is the world's most abundant biopolymer and is present in virtually all plants. (nsti.org)
  • Cellulose is a natural polysaccharide derived from plant fibers. (ewg.org)
  • The major sources of cellulose are plant fibers (cotton, hemp, flax, and jute are almost all cellulose) and, of course, wood (about 42 percent cellulose). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cellulose is the major constituent of paper and textiles made from cotton, linen, and other plant fibers. (bionity.com)
  • cotton and other plant fibers as well as bacterial cellulose have chain lengths ranging from 800 to 10,000 units. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interest is also reflected through the increasing number of review papers which provide detailed information on the production of cellulose nanofibers, processing, and characterization of cellulose nanocomposites and new developments, with particular emphasis on their applications [ 3 - 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Cellulose-Based Graft Copolymers: Structure and Chemistry discusses the synthesis, characterization, and properties of multifunctional cellulose-based graft copolymers. (routledge.com)
  • Cellulose acetate is spun into textile fibres known variously as acetate rayon , acetate , or triacetate. (britannica.com)
  • However, upon acetylation, the hydrogen in the hydroxyl groups is replaced by acetyl groups (CH 3 -CO). The resultant cellulose acetate compound can be dissolved in certain solvents or softened or melted under heat, allowing the material to be spun into fibres, molded into solid objects, or cast as a film. (britannica.com)
  • Cellulose acetate was developed in the late 19th century as part of an effort to design industrially produced fibres based on cellulose. (britannica.com)
  • It consists only of water in which cellulose particles and fibres measuring a few hundred nanometres have been dispersed. (eurekalert.org)
  • Partly to blame is cellulose, a polysaccharide and plant constituent which is not water soluble and thus difficult to process. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula (C 6 H 10 O 5 ) n , a polysaccharide derived from β-1,4 linked D-glucose units. (bionity.com)
  • Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula (C 6H 10O 5) n, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units. (wikipedia.org)
  • This confers tensile strength in cell walls where cellulose microfibrils are meshed into a polysaccharide matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellulose nanofibril/phenol formaldehyde (CNF/PF) composite films with high work of fracture were prepared by filtering a mixture of 2,2,6,6tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) oxidized wood nanofibers and water-soluble phenol formaldehyde with resin contents ranging from 5 to 20 wt%, followed by hot pressing. (usda.gov)
  • We introduce a new breed of self-assembled nematogels formed by an orientationally ordered network of thin cellulose nanofibers infiltrated with a thermotropic nematic fluid. (osti.gov)
  • Shred newspapers to make cellulose insulation. (ehow.com)
  • A plant uses glucose to make cellulose when it links many simple units of glucose together to form long chains. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Along with plant-derived cellulose, the use of bacterial cellulose membranes as wound dressings and skin substitutes is attracting considerable interest due to their innate hydrogel structure as well as their high chemical purity and mechanical properties. (springer.com)
  • Comparison of the predicted plant CESA structure with the solved structure of a bacterial cellulose-synthesizing protein validates the overall fold of the modeled glycosyltransferase (GT) domain. (pnas.org)
  • Recent years, in particular, have seen a large global interest regarding cellulose nanocomposites. (hindawi.com)
  • Remarkably, the work of fracture ranged from 20 to 27 MJ/m 3 , making these films among the toughest reported for cellulose nanocomposites. (usda.gov)
  • CHEMISTRY HPC is an ether of cellulose. (ipl.org)
  • Install cellulose insulation by blowing it into the cavities in the attic with an blower machine. (ehow.com)
  • How Do You Install Cellulose Insulation? (reference.com)
  • Glycerine treated nanofibrillated cellulose (GNFC) was prepared by mixing aqueous nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) suspensions with glycerine. (hindawi.com)
  • 4. A process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the water-soluble benzylated resin is applied onto the cellulose fiber material by padding with an aqueous solution which contains from 1 to 50 g/l of the resin. (google.com)
  • Cellulose Acetate Propionate is a propionic acid ester of a partially acetylated cellulose. (ewg.org)
  • Show all 3 recent products that contain CELLULOSE ACETATE PROPIONATE. (ewg.org)
  • By comparison, some imidazolium carboxylate ILs displayed better dissolution performance for cellulose including 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolim acetate and propionate ILs, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, propionate and butyrate ILs, and 1, 3-diallylmethylimidazolium acetate, butyrate, acrylate, methoxyacetate and ethoxyacetate ILs. (nature.com)
  • 4. A process in accordance with claim 1 wherein said cellulose ester includes cellulose acetate propionate. (google.com)
  • Klemm D, Heublein B, Fink HP, Bohn A (2005) Cellulose: fascinating biopolymer and sustainable raw material. (springer.com)
  • However, manipulating the physical properties of cellulose through biochemical engineering of CESA structure offers many prospects for improved biomaterials. (pnas.org)
  • Biomaterials manufacturing could be a natural extension of the paper and biofuels industries, using technology that is already well-established for cellulose-based materials. (purdue.edu)
  • This review paper aims to showcase biomaterials, namely starch, and cellulose, in the adhesive field. (scirp.org)
  • Cellulose could come from a variety of biological sources including trees, plants, algae, ocean-dwelling organisms called tunicates, and bacteria that create a protective web of cellulose. (purdue.edu)
  • However, previous research using culture methods and small-scale sequencing identified three predominant bacteria from the panda gut- Escherichia coli , Streptococcus , and Enterobacteriaceae-none of which aids in cellulose digestion ( 11 - 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • Cellulose cannot be digested by the human gastrointestinal tract or the bacteria present in it. (reference.com)
  • Since humans are not ruminants and do not harbor bacteria that are capable of breaking down the cellulose structure, the ingested cellulose tends to be excreted. (reference.com)
  • Cellulose biosynthesis has recently been established for a variety of bacteria of diverse origin at the phenotypic and genetic levels. (nih.gov)
  • The biological significance of cellulose production in environmental, commensal and pathogenic bacteria is only punctually resolved. (nih.gov)
  • Cellulose produced by bacteria and algae is enriched in Iα while cellulose of higher plants consists mainly of Iβ. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellulose insulation is plant fiber used in wall and roof cavities to insulate, draught proof and reduce free noise. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cellulose fiber expands in diameter on absorbing moisture, for which it has a great84 affinity. (dictionary.com)
  • Cellulose fiber has been exploited in commercial use since the mid-1800s to produce common items such as paper and textiles. (triplepundit.com)
  • The 1970s saw initial research into nano-cellulose fiber. (triplepundit.com)
  • The University's unique advancements stem from its focus on using fruit fiber rather than wood fiber (the traditional base source of nano-cellulose fiber). (triplepundit.com)
  • For humans, cellulose is also a major source of needed fiber in our diet. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cellulose is not digestible by humans and is often referred to as 'dietary fiber' or 'roughage', acting as a hydrophilic bulking agent for feces . (bionity.com)
  • Rayon is an important fiber made out of cellulose and has been used for textiles since the beginning of the 20th century. (bionity.com)
  • Cellulose can be assayed using a method described by Updegraff in 1969, where the fiber is dissolved in acetic and nitric acid, and allowed to react with anthrone in sulfuric acid. (bionity.com)
  • Fiber materials which contain cellulose fibers and have been dyed with reactive dyes are in practice generally subjected to an alkaline boil wash in the presence of a surfactant in order to remove dye which has not been fixed on the fabric. (google.com)
  • This procedure gives dyed cellulose fiber materials which possess adequate fastness to laundering but unsatisfactory fastness to water, to plating and to perspiration. (google.com)
  • German Laid-Open Application No. DOS 2,747,358 discloses a process for the aftertreatment of cellulose fiber materials which have been dyed with reactive dyes, in which the fiber materials are treated with an aqueous solution of polyamines, nylons, polyurethanes and/or polyureas containing secondary and/or tertiary amino groups. (google.com)
  • While cellulose is of very little nutritional value to humans, it provides the fiber necessary for the process of defecation. (reference.com)
  • In human nutrition, cellulose is a non-digestible constituent of insoluble dietary fiber, acting as a hydrophilic bulking agent for feces and potentially aiding in defecation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This critical review provides a processing-structure-property perspective on recent advances in cellulose nanoparticles and composites produced from them. (nih.gov)
  • The methodology of composite processing and resulting properties are fully covered, with an emphasis on neat and high fraction cellulose composites. (nih.gov)
  • Additionally, advances in predictive modeling from molecular dynamic simulations of crystalline cellulose to the continuum modeling of composites made with such particles are reviewed (392 references). (nih.gov)
  • With this strategy of structure alteration, this work demonstrated new methods of hydrophobization of cellulose to prepare emerging materials with new or improved properties.Cellulose is commonly used for reinforcement in composites. (kth.se)
  • In this study, a new type of microcellulose, cellulose oxalate (COX), was used to prepare polymeric composites. (kth.se)
  • Cellulose is among the oldest types of building insulation material . (wikipedia.org)
  • The full exploitation on a commercial scale of the acetone-soluble material was accomplished by two Swiss brothers, Henri and Camille Dreyfus , who during World War I built a factory in England for the production of cellulose diacetate to be used as a nonflammable dope for the coating of fabric airplane wings. (britannica.com)
  • A novel masonry material containing postindustrial cellulose, bentonite clay, and small amounts of other additives (e.g., antifungal, desiccant and water proofing agents) was made and characterized. (astm.org)
  • The overall mechanical properties of the composite material are controlled and tailored by varying the ratio of the primary constituents (postindustrial cellulose and bentonite clay). (astm.org)
  • In anaerobic environments rich in decaying plant material, the decomposition of cellulose is brought about by complex communities of interacting microorganisms. (nih.gov)
  • The new 3D printing technology makes it possible to print filigree and robust structures from a cellulose composite material. (eurekalert.org)
  • This process results into shrinkage of the printed part and consequently to a significant increase in the relative amount of cellulose particles within the material. (eurekalert.org)
  • This produced a composite material with a cellulose content of the aforementioned 27 volume percent. (eurekalert.org)
  • Some of the byproducts of the paper industry now go to making biofuels, so we could just add another process to use the leftover cellulose to make a composite material," Moon said. (purdue.edu)
  • Bio-cellulose is a plant-based material derived from coconut water. (marykay.com)
  • The flexible bio-cellulose material gives the mask a unique, face-hugging fit that keeps skin in close contact with the complex during your 20 to 30 minutes of pampering "me" time. (marykay.com)
  • The material, which is essentially regular cellulose that has been very finely ground and processed, had already been heavily examined and commercially used prior to Sao Paulo State University's research. (triplepundit.com)
  • This cellulose sound absorber and thermal insulator can be covered with fabric or other decorative material. (archdaily.com)
  • Through an innovative manufacturing process, ecocell is produced as a cellulose-based product made primarily from post-consumer and post-industrial paper, with recycled newspaper as the main raw material. (archdaily.com)
  • Meanwhile, we also presented the affecting factors of the cellulose material fabrication including preparation approach, [A 2 im][CH 3 OCH 2 COO] and cellulose solution concentration. (nature.com)
  • In addition, the new kind of ink from the Empa lab is made from a renewable material - cellulose. (empa.ch)
  • Now, scientists from Department of Physics at Jadavpur University in Kolkata have built a flexible nanogenerator out of cellulose, an abundant natural material, that could potentially harvest energy from the body -- its heartbeats, blood flow and other almost imperceptible but constant movements. (indiatimes.com)
  • Aside from being the primary building material for plants, cellulose has many others uses. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Thus while some of the food that a plant makes when it converts light energy into chemical energy (photosynthesis) is used as fuel and some is stored, the rest is turned into cellulose that serves as the main building material for a plant. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cellulose is ideal as a structural material since its fibers give strength and toughness to a plant's leaves, roots, and stems. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Since cellulose is the main building material out of which plants are made, and plants are the primary or first link in what is known as the food chain (which describes the feeding relationships of all living things), cellulose is a very important substance. (encyclopedia.com)
  • While the fiberglass industry does a good job of recycling and uses approximately 35 percent recycled material, cellulose manufacturers average over 75 percent recycled content. (doityourself.com)
  • Cellulose insulation material is retailed in easy-to-use spray packages that homeowners can use without any professional help. (doityourself.com)
  • Cellulose insulation material is essentially a recycled product. (doityourself.com)
  • Given a cellulose-containing material, the portion that does not dissolve in a 17.5% solution of sodium hydroxide at 20 °C is α cellulose , which is true cellulose. (bionity.com)
  • Surface hydroxyl groups in cellulose act as sites for functionalization, making it material for the adhesive sector. (scirp.org)
  • It is an object of the present invention to provide a process for the aftertreatment of reactive dyeings on textile materials containing cellulose fibers, in which dyed textile materials are obtained which possess good wetfastness and whose lightfastness and fastness to crocking are in practice not inferior to a dyed material washed in a conventional manner. (google.com)
  • Because cellulose is one of the most abundant commercially available compounds, material scientists have been trying to find ways to use it in additive manufacturing. (upi.com)
  • This reproduction and manufacturing with the material composition found in the oomycete wall, namely unmodified cellulose, small amounts of chitosan -- the second most abundant organic molecule on earth -- and low concentrated acetic acid, is probably one of the most successful technological achievements in the field of bioinspired materials," Javier Gomez Fernandez, an assistant professor at SUTD, said in a news release. (upi.com)
  • Buoyed by their success, scientists developed a unique additive manufacturing method to accompany their new cellulose material. (upi.com)
  • Wu's team and an MIT group headed by renowned industrial microbiologist Arnold Demain discovered that a protein called CipA in the bacterium Clostridium thermocellum organizes several cellulase enzymes into a cohesive unit which it leads to the cellulose material, like a platoon of soldiers following its commander. (rochester.edu)
  • Humans obtain cellulose by ingesting plant material. (reference.com)
  • The sample collected in the truck revealed a total dust concentration of 7.1 mg/m3, and the HAM measured relative particulate concentration peaks greater than 60 mg/m3, with the highest relative concentrations occurring during work activities that involved dumping bags of cellulose material in a hopper. (cdc.gov)
  • The highest relative particulate concentrations were observed when the worker was blowing cellulose material into the small spaces of the attic (the edge) and in close proximity to his body. (cdc.gov)
  • Cellulose was firstly used as an insulation material in Skandinavia in the 1920s of building insulation material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellulose has the highest recycled content of any insulation material and also has less embodied energy than fiberglass and other furnace-produced mineral insulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reactive dyeings on textile materials containing cellulose fibers are aftertreated with aqueous solutions of benzylated resins which are obtainable (a) by condensation of methylamine and epichlorohydrin or (b) by heating triethanolamine and/or triisopropanolamine in the presence of acidic catalysts and. (google.com)
  • That makes cellulose attractive to materials scientists who are seeking to manufacture sustainable products with special functions. (eurekalert.org)
  • Can you help us develop more sustainable, high performance modified cellulose that replaces oil-based equivalents? (akzonobel.com)
  • Cellulose is a sustainable natural resource and one which can play an increasingly important role in making us less dependent on synthetic products derived from oil. (akzonobel.com)
  • Can you help us develop new cellulose sources, new chemical modifications or new methods of sustainable processing? (akzonobel.com)
  • This makes cellulose insulation a sustainable, alternative to traditional fiberglass and synthetic acoustical and thermal panels . (archdaily.com)
  • The utilization of cellulose in industrial applicat is of great significance to sustainable development of human society and reducing dependence on dwindling fossil resources. (nature.com)
  • A turbine blade built using 3D manufacturing and a new sustainable, cellulose-based biomaterial. (upi.com)
  • Fiberglass or Cellulose? (doityourself.com)
  • One of most commonly-argued topics among attic insulation experts is whether fiberglass or cellulose attic insulation is better. (doityourself.com)
  • The costs incurred by increasing fire testing made cellulose more expensive and the bad publicity helped decrease demand. (wikipedia.org)
  • An important commercial contribution was made by British chemist George Miles in 1903-05 with the discovery that, when the fully acetylated cellulose was subjected to hydrolysis , it transformed into a less highly acetylated compound (cellulose diacetate) that was soluble in cheap organic solvents such as acetone. (britannica.com)
  • The first cellulose-based panel in the industry, CFAB™ cellulose panels are made from recycled and renewable fibers, consisting of 65-75% recycled content. (archdaily.com)
  • As such, many efforts have been made to develop novel and efficient solvents of cellulose. (nature.com)
  • Since our biomedical device ( Cellulose nanogenerator ) is made with cellulose, thus major importance/significance of our research work is it is naturally abundant. (indiatimes.com)
  • The cell wall has been likened to the way reinforced concrete is made, with the cellulose fibers acting as the rebars or steel rods do in concrete (providing extra strength). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Since cellulose is made from newspaper, it obviously will burn if ignited. (doityourself.com)
  • Made with cellulose fibers, it is very absorbent and cleans well without being too abrasive. (materialicious.com)
  • Cellulose insulation is more effective because it is made of natural fibers that are inherently equipped with better insulation properties. (doityourself.com)
  • Cellulose can be converted into cellophane , clear rolling papers made from Viscose film, rayon , and more recently cellulose has been used to make Modal, a bio-based textile derived from beechwood cellulose. (bionity.com)
  • The cellulose fibers are fine, capillary fibers that are made by melt extrusion of certain cellulose ester polyol melt spin compositions into self-supporting gelled fibers. (google.com)
  • The product fibers exhibit improved wet intrinsic tensile strength and higher water permeability characteristics than heretofore known cellulose fibers made from cellulose ester spin compositions. (google.com)
  • If you've always wondered how paper cellulose insulation was manufactured, then check out this interesting "How it's Made" segment. (techeblog.com)
  • Cellulose insulation is often made by hammer milling waste newspaper. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellulose has no taste, is odorless, is hydrophilic with the contact angle of 20-30 degrees, is insoluble in water and most organic solvents, is chiral and is biodegradable. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can be prepared by treatment of cellulose with dimethyl sulfate and ethyl chloride in the presence of an alkali . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellulose gum, or sodium carboxyethylcellulose (CMC), from Ashland is widely used as a cost-effective thickener and stabilizer in food and beverages. (ashland.com)
  • Cellulose Gum", accepted as a common or usual name for purified sodium carboxymethylcellulose, may be used in food label ingredient statements. (ashland.com)
  • Cellulose insulation manufacturers have responded to that concern by treating it with fire-retarding chemicals such as boric acid, ammonium sulfate, or sodium borate in the manufacturing process. (doityourself.com)
  • This 100 percent bio-cellulose mask infused with sake, sodium hyaluronate, and antioxidants instantly brightens and revives the skin around the delicate eye area. (sephora.com)
  • In contrast to starch , cellulose is also much more crystalline. (bionity.com)
  • Whereas starch undergoes a crystalline to amorphous transition at 60 -70 °C in water (as in cooking), cellulose requires 320 °C and 25 MPa to become amorphous in water. (bionity.com)
  • Monticello was insulated with a form of cellulose. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has such an aggressive form of cellulose breakdown," said study first author Dan Eastwood of Swansea University. (redorbit.com)
  • This book addresses concepts and novel developments in the rapidly evolving field of cellulose chemi. (wiley-vch.de)
  • This book addresses concepts and novel developments in the rapidly evolving field of cellulose chemistry, providing an emphasis on the fundamental aspects of nanocellulose and microfibrillated cellulose. (wiley-vch.de)
  • A low amount of cellulose can result in constipation. (reference.com)
  • Examined under a powerful microscope, fibers of cellulose are seen to have a meshed or criss-cross pattern that looks as if it were woven much as cloth. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Researchers introduced small amounts of chitin, a derivative of glucose, to fibers of cellulose. (upi.com)
  • The analysis not only allowed researchers to understand the chemical reactions involved in the mechanism by which Serpula breaks down cellulose, it also sheds light on the role of brown rot fungi in the development of the largest terrestrial ecosystem "" the subarctic cool climate boreal forest "" and therefore the fungi's role in the global carbon cycle. (redorbit.com)
  • It breaks down cellulose with ease, the notoriously tough molecule that's the primary component of plant biomass. (newswise.com)
  • Now scientists are eyeing the process as one way to satiate our future energy demands: The breakdown of cellulose into simpler, useful materials such as cellobiose and glucose is one step in the conversion of biomass materials like trees, waste paper and crops into renewable energy products such as ethanol. (rochester.edu)
  • Also described are the self-assembly and rheological properties of cellulose nanoparticle suspensions. (nih.gov)
  • Mechanical properties of cellulose in primary plant cell wall are correlated with growth and expansion of plant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellulose is an abundant and renewable natural resource with biodegradability and nontoxicity. (springer.com)
  • Conversion of cellulose from energy crops into biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol is under development as a renewable fuel source. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cellulose ester gelled fibers are subsequently chemically converted into cellulose fibers by deacetylation, in aqueous alkali solution. (google.com)
  • Treatment of cellulose with nitric acid had produced cellulose nitrate (also known as nitrocellulose ), but the difficulties of working with this highly flammable compound encouraged research in other areas. (britannica.com)
  • It is widespread as well because it replaced common cellulose nitrate compounds, which were known to be highly flammable and to degrade over time more than CAB does. (wisegeek.com)
  • The compounds found their first widespread application during World War I, when they began to replace highly flammable cellulose nitrate coatings on aircraft wings and bodies. (wisegeek.com)
  • The instability of cellulose nitrate adhe. (mendeley.com)
  • A method for identification of cellulose nitrate is given together with the trade names of several common conservation materials which contain it. (mendeley.com)
  • Abstractor's note: The conclusions of the article that cellulose nitrate cannot be regarded as a stable compound and that more research into adhesives for conservation is needed are not new. (mendeley.com)
  • In unaltered cellulose, the X in the molecular structure represents hydrogen (H), indicating the presence in the molecule of three hydroxyl (OH) groups. (britannica.com)
  • A wide range of cellulose gum grades with different viscosities, molecular weights, degrees of substitution and particle sizes are available and products can be customized to meet specific applications. (ashland.com)
  • 6. A process in accordance with claim 1 wherein said melt/spin composition consists essentially of a blend, by weight, of 43% cellulose diacetate and 57% of polyethylene glycol having an average molecular weight of 400 Daltons. (google.com)
  • 7. A process in accordance with claim 1 wherein said malt/spin composition consists essentially of a mixture, by weight, of 43% cellulose diacetate and 57%, by weight, of a mixture of polyethylene glycols of molecular weights 400 and 1450 Daltons and having an average molecular weight of 713 Daltons. (google.com)
  • 8. A process in accordance with claim 1 wherein said melt/spin composition consists essentially of a blend, by weight, of 43% cellulose diacetate and 57% of a mixture of polyethylene glycol of molecular weight 400 Daltons and glycerine of molecular weight 92 Daltons to give a polyol blend having an average molecular weight of 362 Daltons. (google.com)
  • Cellulose acetate is most commonly prepared by treating cellulose with acetic acid and then with acetic anhydride in the presence of a catalyst such as sulfuric acid . (britannica.com)
  • Cellulose acetate butyrate is a thermoplastic with many common uses from trim for automobiles to tool handles, pens, blister packaging , and more. (wisegeek.com)
  • Other common names for cellulose acetate butyrate are CAB or just butyrate. (wisegeek.com)
  • However, all cellulose acetate butyrate is derived from cellulose acetate, which itself has widespread use as a photographic film base, a component of glues, and more. (wisegeek.com)
  • One of the unique features of cellulose acetate butyrate is its ultraviolet resistance, which gives it applications where high surface gloss is needed, such as in the production of lacquers for outdoor surfaces, for lenses, and for various forms of plastic film. (wisegeek.com)
  • Derivative screenings for possible use in filtration of pollutants and in absorption of dyes: (a) determination of the influence of the synthetic approaches on the structural properties of the derivatized cellulose materials. (ct-si.org)
  • Addressing three main topics (chemistry, analysis and novel applications of cellulosic materials), this book provides a panoramic snapshot of state-of-the-art cellulose research. (wiley-vch.de)
  • Cellulose-Based Graft Copolymers: Structure and Chemistry tackles several critical issues and provides suggestions for future work, supplying deeper insight into the state of the art of advanced cellulose-based graft copolymers. (routledge.com)
  • A group of researchers at ETH Zurich and Empa have now found a way to process cellulose using 3D printing so as to create objects of almost unlimited complexity that contain high levels of cellulose particles. (eurekalert.org)
  • To do this, the researchers combined printing via direct ink writing (DIW) method with a subsequent densification process to increase the cellulose content of the printed object to a volume fraction of 27 percent. (eurekalert.org)
  • The ETH and Empa researchers are admittedly not the first to process cellulose with the 3D printer. (eurekalert.org)
  • The ETH researchers used the following trick to densify the printed cellulose products: After printing a cellulose-based water ink, they put the objects in a bath containing organic solvents. (eurekalert.org)
  • Since cellulose is non-toxic, the researchers said the device could potentially be implanted in the body and harvest its internal stretches, vibrations and other movements. (indiatimes.com)
  • Liao's direct cellulose-to-butanol process, developed in collaboration with researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory , promises to simplify things by expanding the capabilities of fermentation microbes. (technologyreview.com)
  • In Sweden, a Swedish research team involving researchers from KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm and the Karolinska Institute has developed an efficient, accurate and non-destructive way to detect the occurrence and purity of cellulose. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • Using atomic force microscopy, the researchers were able to observe enzymes at work on the surface of cellulose particles for the first time and provide direct evidence of their activity. (eurekalert.org)
  • Nano-Cellulose Fibers: The Magical Fruit? (triplepundit.com)
  • A group of scientists in Brazil have recently developed a more efficient way of introducing small fibers from bananas and other fruits ("nano-cellulose fibers") into plastics production. (triplepundit.com)
  • The nano-cellulose fibers also offer greater resistance to damage from heat, spilled gasoline, water, and oxygen . (triplepundit.com)
  • Leão believes that pineapple leaves and stems, rather than wood, may be the most promising source for nano-cellulose materials in the future. (triplepundit.com)
  • The production process begins by mixing nano-cellulose with certain chemicals. (triplepundit.com)
  • In the end, the Sao Paulo process uses one pound of nano-cellulose to create 100 pounds of altered plastic. (triplepundit.com)
  • This fundamental difference between the two insulation materials makes cellulose a more affordable choice. (doityourself.com)
  • Some animals, particularly ruminants and termites, can digest cellulose with the help of symbiotic micro-organisms (see methanogen ). (bionity.com)
  • The giant panda genome codes for all necessary enzymes associated with a carnivorous digestive system but lacks genes for enzymes needed to digest cellulose, the principal component of their bamboo diet. (pnas.org)
  • We detected 13 operational taxonomic units closely related to Clostridium groups I and XIVa, both of which contain taxa known to digest cellulose. (pnas.org)
  • Some animals, particularly ruminants and termites, can digest cellulose with the help of symbiotic micro-organisms that live in their guts, such as Trichonympha. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2. A process in accordance with claim 1 wherein said melt spin composition contains about 36 to about 43 percent cellulose ester. (google.com)
  • Although the chemical formula of cellulose was determined in 1838, human beings have been using cellulose to produce daily necessities, such as textiles and paper, for thousands of years. (kth.se)
  • Cellulose insulation is often blown into building spaces through hoses from special blowing equipment in this case mounted inside a truck. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though cellulose insulation is often regarded as a budgeted form of attic insulation, it has been proven to offer better thermal resistance than the fiberglass alternative. (doityourself.com)
  • The preparation of novel membranes based on cellulose acetate and polymethylmethacrylate blends in the absence and presence of the pore former by solution blending and ultrafiltration set up was carried out. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Cellulose tape is a transparent adhesive tape that happens to be biodegradable too. (treehugger.com)
  • 1840, from French cellulose , coined c.1835 by French chemist Anselme Payen (1795-1871) and confirmed 1839, from noun use of adjective cellulose "consisting of cells," 18c. (dictionary.com)
  • Cellulose was discovered in 1838 by the French chemist Anselme Payen, who isolated it from plant matter and determined its chemical formula. (bionity.com)
  • Computational results support the importance of the plant-conserved region and/or class-specific region in CESA oligomerization to form the multimeric cellulose-synthesis complexes that are characteristic of plants. (pnas.org)
  • Relatively high sequence conservation between plant CESAs allowed mapping of known mutations and two previously undescribed mutations that perturb cellulose synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana to their analogous positions in the modeled structure. (pnas.org)
  • Optimized synthesis of new cellulose-GMA materials via radical and physical chemical activation, their chemical composition determination and derivatization quantification. (ct-si.org)
  • Global Hydroxyethyl Cellulose (HEC) Market Outlook 2016-2021, has been prepared based on the synthesis, analysis, and interpretation of information about the global Hydroxyethyl Cellulose (HEC) market collected from specialized sources. (openpr.com)