Cellulase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.Cellulases: A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Trichoderma: A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.Cellulose 1,4-beta-Cellobiosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE and cellotetraose. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing ends of beta-D-glucosides with release of CELLOBIOSE.Cellobiose: A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose.Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium: A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.Hypocrea: A genus of fungus in the family Hypocreaceae, order HYPOCREALES. Anamorphs include TRICHODERMA.Glycoside Hydrolasesbeta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.Clostridium thermocellum: A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.Mitosporic Fungi: A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.DextrinsPolyporaceae: A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.Cellulosomes: Extracellular structures found in a variety of microorganisms. They contain CELLULASES and play an important role in the digestion of CELLULOSE.Clostridium cellulolyticum: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is a cellulolytic, mesophilic species isolated from decayed GRASS.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases: Enzymes which catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in XYLANS.Glucan 1,4-beta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages of 1,4-beta-D-glucans resulting in successive removal of GLUCOSE units.Glucosidases: Enzymes that hydrolyze O-glucosyl-compounds. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.2.1.-.Xylans: Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Isoptera: An order of insects, restricted mostly to the tropics, containing at least eight families. A few species occur in temperate regions of North America.Tylenchida: An order of nematodes consisting of many species which are plant parasites. Female worms lay eggs that hatch either in soil or in the host plant.Aspergillus niger: An imperfect fungus causing smut or black mold of several fruits, vegetables, etc.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Sporangia: A structure found in plants, fungi, and algae, that produces and contains spores.Neocallimastix: A genus of fungi in the family Neocallimasticaceae, order NEOCALLIMASTIGALES. They contain polyflagellate zoospores and grow on a range of simple and complex carbohydrates in the rumen of sheep and cattle.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Clostridium cellulovorans: A species of gram-positive, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It produces CELLULOSOMES which are involved in plant CELL WALL degradation.Panicum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Gossypium: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.Persea: A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. The tree, Persea americana Mill., is known for the Avocado fruit, the food of commerce.Glucan 1,3-beta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for 1,3-beta-D-glucasidic linkages. It catalyzes hydrolysis of beta-D-glucose units from the non-reducing ends of 1,3-beta-D-glucans, releasing GLUCOSE.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.beta-Mannosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-mannose residues in beta-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the lysosomal degradation of the N-glycosylprotein glycans. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme in humans result in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease BETA-MANNOSIDOSIS.Fibrobacter: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria in the family Fibrobacteraceae, isolated from the human GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Endo-1,3(4)-beta-Glucanase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,3- or 1,4-linkages in beta-D-glucans. This enzyme specifically acts on sites where reducing glucose residues are substituted at the 3 position.Polygalacturonase: A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC 3.2.1.15.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Nematoda: A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.Schizophyllum: A genus of fleshy shelf basidiomycetous fungi, family Schizophyllaceae, order POLYPORALES, growing on woody substrata. It is pathogenic in humans.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Lactose: A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.Penicillium: A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Phanerochaete: A genus of fungi in the family Corticiaceae, order Stereales, that degrades lignin. The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is a frequently used species in research.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Gram-Negative Anaerobic Straight, Curved, and Helical Rods: A group of anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.

EndB, a multidomain family 44 cellulase from Ruminococcus flavefaciens 17, binds to cellulose via a novel cellulose-binding module and to another R. flavefaciens protein via a dockerin domain. (1/122)

The mechanisms by which cellulolytic enzymes and enzyme complexes in Ruminococcus spp. bind to cellulose are not fully understood. The product of the newly isolated cellulase gene endB from Ruminococcus flavefaciens 17 was purified as a His-tagged product after expression in Escherichia coli and found to be able to bind directly to crystalline cellulose. The ability to bind cellulose is shown to be associated with a novel cellulose-binding module (CBM) located within a region of 200 amino acids that is unrelated to known protein sequences. EndB (808 amino acids) also contains a catalytic domain belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 44 and a C-terminal dockerin-like domain. Purified EndB is also shown to bind specifically via its dockerin domain to a polypeptide of ca. 130 kDa present among supernatant proteins from Avicel-grown R. flavefaciens that attach to cellulose. The protein to which EndB attaches is a strong candidate for the scaffolding component of a cellulosome-like multienzyme complex recently identified in this species (S.-Y. Ding et al., J. Bacteriol. 183:1945-1953, 2001). It is concluded that binding of EndB to cellulose may occur both through its own CBM and potentially also through its involvement in a cellulosome complex.  (+info)

Cloning and overexpression of the avi2 gene encoding a major cellulase produced by Humicola insolens FERM BP-5977. (2/122)

The avi2 gene encoding Avi2, which is a major cellulase produced by Humicola insolens FERM BP-5977, was cloned and sequenced. Avi2 showed high homology with other family 6 cellulases. The expression vector pNCE4 containing the avi2 gene was constructed, and this strain was transformed using a protoplast method. As a result, the pNCE4 transformant secreted 8-fold more Avi2 than the recipient strain.  (+info)

Termite gut symbiotic archaezoa are becoming living metabolic fossils. (3/122)

Over the course of several million years, the eukaryotic gut symbionts of lower termites have become adapted to a cellulolytic environment. Up to now it has been believed that they produce nutriments using their own cellulolytic enzymes for the benefit of their termite host. However, we have now isolated two endoglucanases with similar apparent molecular masses of approximately 36 kDa from the not yet culturable symbiotic Archaezoa living in the hindgut of the most primitive Australian termite, Mastotermes darwiniensis. The N-terminal sequences of these cellulases exhibited significant homology to cellulases of termite origin, which belong to glycosyl hydrolase family 9. The corresponding genes were detected not in the mRNA pool of the flagellates but in the salivary glands of M. darwiniensis. This showed that cellulases isolated from the flagellate cells originated from the termite host. By use of a PCR-based approach, DNAs encoding cellulases belonging to glycosyl hydrolase family 45 were obtained from micromanipulated nuclei of the flagellates Koruga bonita and Deltotrichonympha nana. These results indicated that the intestinal flagellates of M. darwiniensis take up the termite's cellulases from gut contents. K. bonita and D. nana possess at least their own endoglucanase genes, which are still expressed, but without significant enzyme activity in the nutritive vacuole. These findings give the impression that the gut Archaezoa are heading toward a secondary loss of their own endoglucanases and that they use exclusively termite cellulases.  (+info)

Ruminococcus albus 8 mutants defective in cellulose degradation are deficient in two processive endocellulases, Cel48A and Cel9B, both of which possess a novel modular architecture. (4/122)

The cellulolytic bacterium Ruminococcus albus 8 adheres tightly to cellulose, but the molecular biology underpinning this process is not well characterized. Subtractive enrichment procedures were used to isolate mutants of R. albus 8 that are defective in adhesion to cellulose. Adhesion of the mutant strains was reduced 50% compared to that observed with the wild-type strain, and cellulose solubilization was also shown to be slower in these mutant strains, suggesting that bacterial adhesion and cellulose solubilization are inextricably linked. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that all three mutants studied were impaired in the production of two high-molecular-mass, cell-bound polypeptides when they were cultured with either cellobiose or cellulose. The identities of these proteins were determined by a combination of mass spectrometry methods and genome sequence data for R. albus 8. One of the polypeptides is a family 9 glycoside hydrolase (Cel9B), and the other is a family 48 glycoside hydrolase (Cel48A). Both Cel9B and Cel48A possess a modular architecture, Cel9B possesses features characteristic of the B(2) (or theme D) group of family 9 glycoside hydrolases, and Cel48A is structurally similar to the processive endocellulases CelF and CelS from Clostridium cellulolyticum and Clostridium thermocellum, respectively. Both Cel9B and Cel48A could be recovered by cellulose affinity procedures, but neither Cel9B nor Cel48A contains a dockerin, suggesting that these polypeptides are retained on the bacterial cell surface, and recovery by cellulose affinity procedures did not involve a clostridium-like cellulosome complex. Instead, both proteins possess a single copy of a novel X module with an unknown function at the C terminus. Such X modules are also present in several other R. albus glycoside hydrolases and are phylogentically distinct from the fibronectin III-like and X modules identified so far in other cellulolytic bacteria.  (+info)

Dietary lignins are precursors of mammalian lignans in rats. (5/122)

The mammalian lignans enterolactone (ENL) and enterodiol, commonly found in human plasma and urine, are phytoestrogens that may contribute to the prevention of breast cancer and coronary heart disease. They are formed by the conversion of dietary precursors such as secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol lignans by the colonic microflora. The identification of lignins, cell-wall polymers structurally related to lignans, as precursors of mammalian lignans is reported here for the first time. In study 1, rats were fed rye or wheat bran (15% diet) for 5 d. Untreated brans and brans extracted with solvents to remove lignans were compared. ENL was estimated in urine samples collected for 24 h by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. ENL urinary excretion was reduced from 18.6 to 5.3 nmol/d (n=8; P<0.001) when lignans were removed from rye bran and from 30.5 to 6.2 nmol/d (P<0.001) when they were removed from wheat bran. These results suggest that lignins, embedded in the cell wall and retained in the bran during solvent extraction, account for 26-32% of the ENL formed from cereal brans. In study 2, rats were fed a deuterated synthetic lignin (0.2% diet) together with wheat bran (15%) for 3 d. The detection of deuterated ENL by LC-tandem MS in urine (20 nmol/d) clearly confirms the conversion of lignin into mammalian lignans. More research is warranted to determine the bioavailability of lignins in the human diet.  (+info)

Heterogeneity of homologously expressed Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei) Cel7B catalytic module. (6/122)

The catalytic module of Hypocrea jecorina (previously Trichoderma reesei) Cel7B was homologously expressed by transformation of strain QM9414. Post-translational modifications in purified Cel7B preparations were analysed by enzymatic digestions, high performance chromatography, mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis. Of the five potential sites found in the wild-type enzyme, only Asn56 and Asn182 were found to be N-glycosylated. GlcNAc(2)Man(5) was identified as the predominant N-glycan, although lesser amounts of GlcNAc(2)Man(7) and glycans carrying a mannophosphodiester bond were also detected. Repartition of neutral and charged glycan structures over the two glycosylation sites mainly accounts for the observed microheterogeneity of the protein. However, partial deamidation of Asn259 and a partially occupied O-glycosylation site give rise to further complexity in enzyme preparations.  (+info)

Fungal cell wall chitinases and glucanases. (7/122)

The fungal cell wall is a complex structure composed of chitin, glucans and other polymers, and there is evidence of extensive cross-linking between these components. The wall structure is highly dynamic, changing constantly during cell division, growth and morphogenesis. Hydrolytic enzymes, closely associated with the cell wall, have been implicated in the maintenance of wall plasticity and may have roles during branching and cross-linking of polymers. Most fungal cell wall hydrolases identified to date have chitinase or glucanase activity and this short article reviews the apparent functions of these enzymes in unicellular and filamentous fungi, and the mechanisms that regulate enzyme activity in yeasts.  (+info)

Structural, thermodynamic, and kinetic analyses of tetrahydrooxazine-derived inhibitors bound to beta-glucosidases. (8/122)

The understanding of transition state mimicry in glycoside hydrolysis is increasingly important both in the quest for novel specific therapeutic agents and for the deduction of enzyme function and mechanism. To aid comprehension, inhibitors can be characterized through kinetic, thermodynamic, and structural dissection to build an "inhibition profile." Here we dissect the binding of a tetrahydrooxazine inhibitor and its derivatives, which display Ki values around 500 nm. X-ray structures with both a beta-glucosidase, at 2 A resolution, and an endoglucanase at atomic (approximately 1 A) resolution reveal similar interactions between the tetrahydrooxazine inhibitor and both enzymes. Kinetic analyses reveal the pH dependence of kcat/Km and 1/Ki with both enzyme systems, and isothermal titration calorimetry unveils the enthalpic and entropic contributions to beta-glucosidase inhibition. The pH dependence of enzyme activity mirrored that of 1/Ki in both enzymes, unlike the cases of isofagomine and 1-deoxynojirimycin that have been characterized previously. Calorimetric dissection reveals a large favorable enthalpy that is partially offset by an unfavorable entropy upon binding. In terms of the similar profile for the pH dependence of 1/Ki and the pH dependence of kcat/Km, the significant enthalpy of binding when compared with other glycosidase inhibitors, and the tight binding at the optimal pH of the enzymes tested, tetrahydrooxazine and its derivatives are a significantly better class of glycosidase inhibitor than previously assumed.  (+info)

  • Metagenomic analysis at the DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI) of the microbiome helped expose that 70% of the enzymatic activity started from cellulases created by a bunch of uncultivated bacteria in the compost. (azocleantech.com)
  • The aim of this study was to quantify and model the enzymatic degradation involving the decomposition of macrophytes, describing temporal activity of cellulases (EC 3.2.1.4 and EC 3.2.1.91) and xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) during in situ decomposition of three aquatic macrophytes ( Salvinia sp. (scielo.br)
  • Studies Of Thermobifida Fusca Cellulases Cel9A And Cel48A Using A Novel Kinetic Modeling Approach For The Enzymatic Digestion Of Cellulose. (cornell.edu)
  • The results were further validated at a higher scale in a setup consisting of 20 mL of reaction mixture with a substrate concentration of 100 g/L. For all the cellulase preparations, and regardless of the experiment scale, glycerol-pretreated bagasse displayed better enzymatic convertibility than acid-pretreated bagasse. (diva-portal.org)
  • Cellulase-lignophenol complex was available as an immobilized cellulase with 20-60% of enzymatic activity of native cellulase with wider optimum pH range. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Effect of alternating magnetic field treatments on enzymatic parameters of cellulase. (emf-portal.org)
  • To evaluate the enzymatic parameters of cellulase exposed to an alternating magnetic field . (emf-portal.org)
  • At first, however, other commercial applications for cellulases were developed [ 16 - 18 ] as it became clear that efficient and complete saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars requires many more enzymatic activities than initially anticipated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cellulolytic microorganisms produce a wide variety of different catalytic and noncatalytic enzyme modules, which form the cellulases and act synergistically on their substrate. (nih.gov)
  • Electron microscope was used for investigate the impact of the resultant cellulase on corn stover degradation, while batch culture technique was used for investigate impact of different levels of the produced and commercial cellulases on total mixed ration digestibility by rumen microorganisms ( in vitro ). (scialert.net)
  • Researchers at the University of Florida and Purdue University have identified four cellulase genes-one in the Eastern Subterranean Termite ( Reticulitermes flavipes ) and three in microscopic symbionts that live inside the termite digestive system. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Actually you take the cellulase genes out of the termites, evolve them so that the cellulase proteins act only at high temperatures, and insert these genes into the switchgrass that you're growing. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Regulation of the cellulase genes is mediated by the repressor CRE1 and the activator XYR1. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Following nucleotide sequencing, translational analysis and homology searches, two cellulase encoding genes (cel5A and cel5B) belonging to the glycosyl hydrolyse family 5 were identified. (csir.co.za)
  • We also present evidence that intracellular β-glucosidase-mediated lactose induction is further conveyed to XYR1 to ensure the efficiently induced expression of cellulase genes. (asm.org)
  • Although most cellulolytic bacteria have one family 48 cellulase, C. thermocellum has two, Cel48S and Cel48Y. (pnas.org)
  • Cel48Y, which does not have a dockerin domain and therefore is not part of the cellulosome, is believed to form a separate, soluble, cellulolytic system in combination with a handful of other noncellulosomal cellulases ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Cellulase is also utilized in wine making due to its cellulolytic properties. (sbwire.com)
  • The second major group of cellulolytic systems is the complexed systems wherein the cellulases are organized in relation to each other so that their action can be collective. (scielo.br)
  • Five general types of cellulases based on the type of reaction catalyzed: Endocellulases (EC 3.2.1.4) randomly cleave internal bonds at amorphous sites that create new chain ends. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some microbes, several types of cellulases are organized into an elaborate multifunctional supramolecular complex, known as the cellulosome. (nih.gov)
  • Production of cellulase enzyme in large quantities requires understanding and proper controlling of the growth and enzyme production capabilities of T. reesei . (hindawi.com)
  • Some additional studies on cellulase from T. longibrachiatum (reesei) have been submitted and are presented in this monograph together with the previously-reviewed studies. (inchem.org)
  • Eleven of the cellulases tested were of T. reesei or T. viride origin and two were from A. niger. (springer.com)
  • Due to its enhancing effect on cellulase activity, HAX1 was shown to be not only interesting for basic research, but also a promising candidate for expanding the set of biotechnological tools for industrial application of T. reesei . (springer.com)
  • An important step towards applying T. reesei cellulases industrially was the development of efficient strain mutagenesis and screening procedures in the 1970s. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, there are also cellulases (mostly endoglucanases) that lack cellulose binding domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellulases (Endoglucanases) EC:3.2.1.4 catalyse the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in cellulose. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The bacterial population, Candidatus Reconcilibacillus cellulovorans, produced cellulases that were arranged in extraordinarily robust carbohydrate-protein complexes, a structure never before seen in isolates. (azocleantech.com)
  • Here, we report on two plastid-engineered tobacco lines expressing the bacterial cellulase Cel6A. (nature.com)
  • These properties of cellulase made this bacterial strain become potential to be used in the biorefining process. (ejbiotechnology.info)
  • Cellulase and polyphenol oxidase production were analyzed for three beetle associated fungi. (usda.gov)
  • However, most of these fungi apparently lack processive (exo-acting) cellulases, such as cellobiohydrolases, which are generally required for efficient cellulolysis. (usda.gov)
  • Compositions of cellulase-hemicellulase systems of aerobic fungi (hyphomycetes, ascomycetes, and basidiomycetes), aerobic bacteria, actinomycetes, as well as anaerobic fungi and bacteria, are considered in the context of the modern structural classification of glycosyl hydrolases. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In many herbivorous animals such as ruminants like cattle and sheep and hindgut fermenters like horses, cellulases are produced by symbiotic bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellulase-producing bacteria were isolated from soil and identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens , Bacillus subtilIs , E. coli , and Serratia marcescens . (hindawi.com)
  • Among bacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens is the best cellulase producer among the four followed by Bacillus subtilis , E. coli , and Serratia marscens . (hindawi.com)
  • With the double digit growth in the global healthcare industry and the struggle against anti-biotic resistant bacteria, we can expect the cellulase market to witness a healthy CAGR throughout our forecast period. (sbwire.com)
  • Therefore, a study was undertaken to isolate Bacillus bacteria having the potential to produce cellulase from soil samples. (nepjol.info)
  • This functional model accounts for the mobility and action of a single cellulase enzyme as well as the synergy of multiple endo- and exo-cellulases on a cellulose surface. (nih.gov)
  • Such HAX1 overexpression on the one hand was suitable for regaining the function in hax1 disruption strains, and on the other hand resulted in notably higher cellulase activities in QM6a, especially by the expression of longer HAX1 versions. (springer.com)
  • Nucleic acid sequences encoding chimeric polypeptides that exhibit enhanced cellulase activities are disclosed herein. (patents.com)
  • Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP), featuring cellulase production, cellulose solubilization, and fermentation in a single, integrated step, is a promising strategy for reducing processing costs ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Read user comments about the side effects, benefits, and effectiveness of amylase-lipase-protease-cellulase oral. (webmd.com)
  • Bromelain (Pineapple) Papain (Payapa) Pepsin Trypsin Chymotrypsin Betaine HCl L-Glutamic Acid Lactase Cellulase Pancreatin Protease Amylase Lipase FUNCTION: Bromelain has anti-inflammatory and wound healing effects due to. (chinacsw.com)
  • Lin YS, Yang CC, Hsu CC, Hsu JT, Wu SC, Lin CJ, Cheng WT (2015) "Establishment of a novel, eco-friendly transgenic pig model using porcine pancreatic amylase promoter-driven fungal cellulase transgenes. (cosmobio.co.jp)
  • It appears likely that P. placenta employs a combination of oxidative mechanisms and endo-acting cellulases to degrade cellulose efficiently in the absence of a significant processive component. (usda.gov)
  • Consequently, questions were being raised by cellulase scientists, as towhat mechanism this organism uses to degrade its insoluble substrates. (mdpi.com)
  • The organism utilizes two-thirds of the carbohydrate in feedlot waste while elaborating cellulase in quantities comparable to commercial preparations. (asm.org)
  • Thus, the interaction of the CBD with filter paper apparently accounts for the mass-transfer-limited binding rate and also for the irreversible adsorption of intact CBH I. Adsorption isotherms at 50 degrees C indicate very similar relative association constants for the intact cellulases (0.24-0.30 l/g of cellulose), but drastically reduced values for CBH I core proteins (0.03 l/g of cellulose). (biochemj.org)
  • The quantitative description of cellulose degradation is calculated on a spatial model by including free and bound states of both endo- and exo-cellulases with explicit reactive surface terms (e.g., hydrogen bond breaking, covalent bond cleavages) and corresponding reaction rates. (nih.gov)
  • The results show that the amino-acid distribution probability representing the primary structure of cellulase can predict both optimal pH and temperature, whereas various properties of amino acids related to the primary structure cannot do so. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • 2. A cellulase composition which comprises an amino acid sequence having a sequence identity of at least 80% to SEQ ID NO:1, wherein the sequence identity is determined according to TFASTA, as described in Pearson & Lipman, Proc. (google.com.au)
  • All addition levels of the produced cellulase increased dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), cellulose and hemicellulose degradability of the treated diets, but the maximum produced cellulase efficiency% for dry matter degradability was obtained at 1200 IU kg 1 DM reached 23.19% over the control. (scialert.net)
  • When preparing enzyme-treated substrates, care must be taken to employ phenolic acid esterase-free cellulases. (asmscience.org)
  • This product is a kind of acid cellulase by fermentation of nonpathogenic microbe. (creative-enzymes.com)
  • After the use of this acid cellulase, the fuzziness and the pilling is reduced, the feeling of fabric is more softer and smoother and the color is more lustrous. (creative-enzymes.com)
  • Optimizing cellulase usage for improved mixing and rheological properties of acid-pretreated sugarcane bagasse. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Rather than being an exact representation of the saccharification process that occurs in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), diafiltration saccharification assay (DSA) data were useful for comparison with SSF data in efforts to identify the influences of factors other than product inhibition on the performance of cellulases in SSF. (asmscience.org)
  • MSL2 strain, obtained from rice paddy field soil was isolated based on screening of cellulase assay. (ejbiotechnology.info)
  • The biodegradation behavior of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO)-oxidized cellulose fibers (TOCs) suspended in water and TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (TOCNs) dispersed in water by a commercial crude cellulase was studied. (springer.com)
  • Products crude cellulase-treated for 0-7 days were separated into water/ethanol-insoluble and -soluble fractions. (springer.com)
  • Weight recovery ratios and viscosity-average degrees of polymerization of the water/ethanol-insoluble fractions clearly decreased with crude cellulase-treatment time, showing that both TOCs and TOCNs have biodegradability. (springer.com)
  • Both TOCs and TOCNs having sodium carboxyl groups are thus biodegradable, but TOCN having free carboxyl groups had clearly low biodegradability by the crude cellulase. (springer.com)
  • Through the use of ion-exchange chromatography and non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, crude cellulase was found to contain no fewer than 18 endo-$\beta$-1,4-glucanase components and present in two cellulase complexes. (illinois.edu)
  • MAb S1 recognized few components in crude cellulase demonstrating its specificity for Exoglucanase A. MAb S1 was used to investigate the cellular location of the Exoglucanase A. Thin-sectioning of R. flavefaciens followed by immunolabelling, and examination using a transmission electron microscope showed a non-specific interaction of the monoclonal antibody for the embedding resin. (illinois.edu)
  • A was found to produce cellulases and polyphenol oxidase. (usda.gov)