Cellulase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.Cellulases: A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Trichoderma: A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.Cellulose 1,4-beta-Cellobiosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE and cellotetraose. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing ends of beta-D-glucosides with release of CELLOBIOSE.Cellobiose: A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose.Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium: A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.Hypocrea: A genus of fungus in the family Hypocreaceae, order HYPOCREALES. Anamorphs include TRICHODERMA.Glycoside Hydrolasesbeta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.Clostridium thermocellum: A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.Mitosporic Fungi: A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.DextrinsPolyporaceae: A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.Cellulosomes: Extracellular structures found in a variety of microorganisms. They contain CELLULASES and play an important role in the digestion of CELLULOSE.Clostridium cellulolyticum: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is a cellulolytic, mesophilic species isolated from decayed GRASS.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases: Enzymes which catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in XYLANS.Glucan 1,4-beta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages of 1,4-beta-D-glucans resulting in successive removal of GLUCOSE units.Glucosidases: Enzymes that hydrolyze O-glucosyl-compounds. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.2.1.-.Xylans: Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Isoptera: An order of insects, restricted mostly to the tropics, containing at least eight families. A few species occur in temperate regions of North America.Tylenchida: An order of nematodes consisting of many species which are plant parasites. Female worms lay eggs that hatch either in soil or in the host plant.Aspergillus niger: An imperfect fungus causing smut or black mold of several fruits, vegetables, etc.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Sporangia: A structure found in plants, fungi, and algae, that produces and contains spores.Neocallimastix: A genus of fungi in the family Neocallimasticaceae, order NEOCALLIMASTIGALES. They contain polyflagellate zoospores and grow on a range of simple and complex carbohydrates in the rumen of sheep and cattle.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Clostridium cellulovorans: A species of gram-positive, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It produces CELLULOSOMES which are involved in plant CELL WALL degradation.Panicum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Gossypium: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.Persea: A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. The tree, Persea americana Mill., is known for the Avocado fruit, the food of commerce.Glucan 1,3-beta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for 1,3-beta-D-glucasidic linkages. It catalyzes hydrolysis of beta-D-glucose units from the non-reducing ends of 1,3-beta-D-glucans, releasing GLUCOSE.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.beta-Mannosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-mannose residues in beta-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the lysosomal degradation of the N-glycosylprotein glycans. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme in humans result in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease BETA-MANNOSIDOSIS.Fibrobacter: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria in the family Fibrobacteraceae, isolated from the human GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Endo-1,3(4)-beta-Glucanase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,3- or 1,4-linkages in beta-D-glucans. This enzyme specifically acts on sites where reducing glucose residues are substituted at the 3 position.Polygalacturonase: A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC 3.2.1.15.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Nematoda: A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.Schizophyllum: A genus of fleshy shelf basidiomycetous fungi, family Schizophyllaceae, order POLYPORALES, growing on woody substrata. It is pathogenic in humans.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Lactose: A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.Penicillium: A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Phanerochaete: A genus of fungi in the family Corticiaceae, order Stereales, that degrades lignin. The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is a frequently used species in research.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Gram-Negative Anaerobic Straight, Curved, and Helical Rods: A group of anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.

EndB, a multidomain family 44 cellulase from Ruminococcus flavefaciens 17, binds to cellulose via a novel cellulose-binding module and to another R. flavefaciens protein via a dockerin domain. (1/122)

The mechanisms by which cellulolytic enzymes and enzyme complexes in Ruminococcus spp. bind to cellulose are not fully understood. The product of the newly isolated cellulase gene endB from Ruminococcus flavefaciens 17 was purified as a His-tagged product after expression in Escherichia coli and found to be able to bind directly to crystalline cellulose. The ability to bind cellulose is shown to be associated with a novel cellulose-binding module (CBM) located within a region of 200 amino acids that is unrelated to known protein sequences. EndB (808 amino acids) also contains a catalytic domain belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 44 and a C-terminal dockerin-like domain. Purified EndB is also shown to bind specifically via its dockerin domain to a polypeptide of ca. 130 kDa present among supernatant proteins from Avicel-grown R. flavefaciens that attach to cellulose. The protein to which EndB attaches is a strong candidate for the scaffolding component of a cellulosome-like multienzyme complex recently identified in this species (S.-Y. Ding et al., J. Bacteriol. 183:1945-1953, 2001). It is concluded that binding of EndB to cellulose may occur both through its own CBM and potentially also through its involvement in a cellulosome complex.  (+info)

Cloning and overexpression of the avi2 gene encoding a major cellulase produced by Humicola insolens FERM BP-5977. (2/122)

The avi2 gene encoding Avi2, which is a major cellulase produced by Humicola insolens FERM BP-5977, was cloned and sequenced. Avi2 showed high homology with other family 6 cellulases. The expression vector pNCE4 containing the avi2 gene was constructed, and this strain was transformed using a protoplast method. As a result, the pNCE4 transformant secreted 8-fold more Avi2 than the recipient strain.  (+info)

Termite gut symbiotic archaezoa are becoming living metabolic fossils. (3/122)

Over the course of several million years, the eukaryotic gut symbionts of lower termites have become adapted to a cellulolytic environment. Up to now it has been believed that they produce nutriments using their own cellulolytic enzymes for the benefit of their termite host. However, we have now isolated two endoglucanases with similar apparent molecular masses of approximately 36 kDa from the not yet culturable symbiotic Archaezoa living in the hindgut of the most primitive Australian termite, Mastotermes darwiniensis. The N-terminal sequences of these cellulases exhibited significant homology to cellulases of termite origin, which belong to glycosyl hydrolase family 9. The corresponding genes were detected not in the mRNA pool of the flagellates but in the salivary glands of M. darwiniensis. This showed that cellulases isolated from the flagellate cells originated from the termite host. By use of a PCR-based approach, DNAs encoding cellulases belonging to glycosyl hydrolase family 45 were obtained from micromanipulated nuclei of the flagellates Koruga bonita and Deltotrichonympha nana. These results indicated that the intestinal flagellates of M. darwiniensis take up the termite's cellulases from gut contents. K. bonita and D. nana possess at least their own endoglucanase genes, which are still expressed, but without significant enzyme activity in the nutritive vacuole. These findings give the impression that the gut Archaezoa are heading toward a secondary loss of their own endoglucanases and that they use exclusively termite cellulases.  (+info)

Ruminococcus albus 8 mutants defective in cellulose degradation are deficient in two processive endocellulases, Cel48A and Cel9B, both of which possess a novel modular architecture. (4/122)

The cellulolytic bacterium Ruminococcus albus 8 adheres tightly to cellulose, but the molecular biology underpinning this process is not well characterized. Subtractive enrichment procedures were used to isolate mutants of R. albus 8 that are defective in adhesion to cellulose. Adhesion of the mutant strains was reduced 50% compared to that observed with the wild-type strain, and cellulose solubilization was also shown to be slower in these mutant strains, suggesting that bacterial adhesion and cellulose solubilization are inextricably linked. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that all three mutants studied were impaired in the production of two high-molecular-mass, cell-bound polypeptides when they were cultured with either cellobiose or cellulose. The identities of these proteins were determined by a combination of mass spectrometry methods and genome sequence data for R. albus 8. One of the polypeptides is a family 9 glycoside hydrolase (Cel9B), and the other is a family 48 glycoside hydrolase (Cel48A). Both Cel9B and Cel48A possess a modular architecture, Cel9B possesses features characteristic of the B(2) (or theme D) group of family 9 glycoside hydrolases, and Cel48A is structurally similar to the processive endocellulases CelF and CelS from Clostridium cellulolyticum and Clostridium thermocellum, respectively. Both Cel9B and Cel48A could be recovered by cellulose affinity procedures, but neither Cel9B nor Cel48A contains a dockerin, suggesting that these polypeptides are retained on the bacterial cell surface, and recovery by cellulose affinity procedures did not involve a clostridium-like cellulosome complex. Instead, both proteins possess a single copy of a novel X module with an unknown function at the C terminus. Such X modules are also present in several other R. albus glycoside hydrolases and are phylogentically distinct from the fibronectin III-like and X modules identified so far in other cellulolytic bacteria.  (+info)

Dietary lignins are precursors of mammalian lignans in rats. (5/122)

The mammalian lignans enterolactone (ENL) and enterodiol, commonly found in human plasma and urine, are phytoestrogens that may contribute to the prevention of breast cancer and coronary heart disease. They are formed by the conversion of dietary precursors such as secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol lignans by the colonic microflora. The identification of lignins, cell-wall polymers structurally related to lignans, as precursors of mammalian lignans is reported here for the first time. In study 1, rats were fed rye or wheat bran (15% diet) for 5 d. Untreated brans and brans extracted with solvents to remove lignans were compared. ENL was estimated in urine samples collected for 24 h by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. ENL urinary excretion was reduced from 18.6 to 5.3 nmol/d (n=8; P<0.001) when lignans were removed from rye bran and from 30.5 to 6.2 nmol/d (P<0.001) when they were removed from wheat bran. These results suggest that lignins, embedded in the cell wall and retained in the bran during solvent extraction, account for 26-32% of the ENL formed from cereal brans. In study 2, rats were fed a deuterated synthetic lignin (0.2% diet) together with wheat bran (15%) for 3 d. The detection of deuterated ENL by LC-tandem MS in urine (20 nmol/d) clearly confirms the conversion of lignin into mammalian lignans. More research is warranted to determine the bioavailability of lignins in the human diet.  (+info)

Heterogeneity of homologously expressed Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei) Cel7B catalytic module. (6/122)

The catalytic module of Hypocrea jecorina (previously Trichoderma reesei) Cel7B was homologously expressed by transformation of strain QM9414. Post-translational modifications in purified Cel7B preparations were analysed by enzymatic digestions, high performance chromatography, mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis. Of the five potential sites found in the wild-type enzyme, only Asn56 and Asn182 were found to be N-glycosylated. GlcNAc(2)Man(5) was identified as the predominant N-glycan, although lesser amounts of GlcNAc(2)Man(7) and glycans carrying a mannophosphodiester bond were also detected. Repartition of neutral and charged glycan structures over the two glycosylation sites mainly accounts for the observed microheterogeneity of the protein. However, partial deamidation of Asn259 and a partially occupied O-glycosylation site give rise to further complexity in enzyme preparations.  (+info)

Fungal cell wall chitinases and glucanases. (7/122)

The fungal cell wall is a complex structure composed of chitin, glucans and other polymers, and there is evidence of extensive cross-linking between these components. The wall structure is highly dynamic, changing constantly during cell division, growth and morphogenesis. Hydrolytic enzymes, closely associated with the cell wall, have been implicated in the maintenance of wall plasticity and may have roles during branching and cross-linking of polymers. Most fungal cell wall hydrolases identified to date have chitinase or glucanase activity and this short article reviews the apparent functions of these enzymes in unicellular and filamentous fungi, and the mechanisms that regulate enzyme activity in yeasts.  (+info)

Structural, thermodynamic, and kinetic analyses of tetrahydrooxazine-derived inhibitors bound to beta-glucosidases. (8/122)

The understanding of transition state mimicry in glycoside hydrolysis is increasingly important both in the quest for novel specific therapeutic agents and for the deduction of enzyme function and mechanism. To aid comprehension, inhibitors can be characterized through kinetic, thermodynamic, and structural dissection to build an "inhibition profile." Here we dissect the binding of a tetrahydrooxazine inhibitor and its derivatives, which display Ki values around 500 nm. X-ray structures with both a beta-glucosidase, at 2 A resolution, and an endoglucanase at atomic (approximately 1 A) resolution reveal similar interactions between the tetrahydrooxazine inhibitor and both enzymes. Kinetic analyses reveal the pH dependence of kcat/Km and 1/Ki with both enzyme systems, and isothermal titration calorimetry unveils the enthalpic and entropic contributions to beta-glucosidase inhibition. The pH dependence of enzyme activity mirrored that of 1/Ki in both enzymes, unlike the cases of isofagomine and 1-deoxynojirimycin that have been characterized previously. Calorimetric dissection reveals a large favorable enthalpy that is partially offset by an unfavorable entropy upon binding. In terms of the similar profile for the pH dependence of 1/Ki and the pH dependence of kcat/Km, the significant enthalpy of binding when compared with other glycosidase inhibitors, and the tight binding at the optimal pH of the enzymes tested, tetrahydrooxazine and its derivatives are a significantly better class of glycosidase inhibitor than previously assumed.  (+info)

*Alkaliphile

... cellulases; lipases; xylanases; pectinases; chitinases and their metabolites, including: 2-phenylamine; carotenoids; ...

*Fungal extracellular enzyme activity

One soft-rot Ascomycete, Trichoderma reesei, is used extensively in industrial applications as a source for cellulases and ... Wilson, David B (2009). "Cellulases and biofuels". Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 20 (3): 295-299. doi:10.1016/j.copbio. ... Extracellular enzymes target macromolecules such as carbohydrates (cellulases), lignin (oxidases), organic phosphates ( ... production of extracellular enzymes and characterization of the major cellulases". Microbiology. 152 (12): 3613-3622. doi: ...

*Arnold Demain

... "was drawn into the cellulase area by some comments I was asked to present at a symposium dealing with cellulase of the fungus ... the inhibitor of cellulase action." An important theory proposed by Demain, which he showed to be valid, was that antibiotics ... "the first demonstration of a true cellulase produced by a bacterium." This enzyme later proved to be "useful in the conversion ... cellulases and ethanologenic clostridia; vitamin B12; amino acids, organic acids and polymers; the immunosuppressant, rapamycin ...

*Harry J. Gilbert

Gilbert, H. J.; Hazlewood, G. P. (1993). "Bacterial cellulases and xylanases". Journal of General Microbiology. 139 (2): 187- ...

*Penicillium verruculosum

Szakács, György; Réczey, Kati; Hernádi, Pál; Dobozi, Mária (1981). "Penicillium verruculosum WA 30 a new source of cellulase". ... "Cellulases of Penicillium verruculosum". Biotechnology Journal. 5 (8): 871-80. doi:10.1002/biot.201000050. PMID 20540109. Shah ... "Cellulases of Penicillium verruculosum". Biotechnology Journal. 5 (8): 871. doi:10.1002/biot.201000050. PMID 20540109. Wigney, ... "Enzymatic hydrolysis of pre-treated lignocellulose with Penicillium verruculosum cellulases". Journal of Molecular Catalysis B ...

*Thermomyces lanuginosus

T. lanuginosis is unable to utilize cellulose because it does not produce a cellulase, but it is well adapted to using other ... Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Rishi; Singh, Ajay (2011-09-07). "Microbial Cellulases and Their Industrial Applications". Enzyme ...

*Exoenzyme

Cellulases and hemicellulases (including xylanases) are also used in the paper and pulp industry to de-ink recycled fibers, ... Cellulases and hemicellulases are used in these industrial applications due to their ability to hydrolyze the cellulose and ... Cellulases, hemicellulases and pectinases are different exoenzymes that are involved in a wide variety of biotechnological and ... In addition to the role they play in food production, cellulases are used in the textile industry to remove excess dye from ...

*Streptomyces viridobrunneus

... produces cellulase. Da Vinha, FN; Gravina-Oliveira, MP; Franco, MN; Macrae, A; da Silva Bon, EP; ... "Cellulase production by Streptomyces viridobrunneus SCPE-09 using lignocellulosic biomass as inducer substrate". Applied ... Nascimento, RP; Coelho, RR (June 2011). "Cellulase production by Streptomyces viridobrunneus SCPE-09 using lignocellulosic ...

*Cellulosic ethanol

The cellulase family of enzymes have a one to two order smaller magnitude of efficiency. Therefore, it requires 40 to 100 times ... For cellulase produced offsite, enzyme production amounts to 36% of cash cost. For enzyme produced onsite in a separate plant, ... Cellulases and hemicellulases used in the production of cellulosic ethanol are more expensive compared to their first ... A recent paper estimates the range at 13-36% of cash costs, with a key factor being how the cellulase enzyme is produced. ...

*Lysobacter

Purification, characterization, and gene analysis of cellulase (Cel8A) from Lysobacter sp. IB-9374. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ...

*Penicillium occitanis

The mutant Pol6 produces a very high amount of cellulase and pectinase. This mutant might be used for industrial use. Belghith ... Ellouz Chaabouni, S.; Belguith, H.; Hassairi, I.; m'Rad, K.; Ellouz, R. (1995). "Optimization of cellulase production by ... Jain, S.; Parriche, M.; Durand, H.; Tiraby, G. (1990). "Production of polysaccharidases by a cellulase-pectinase hyperproducing ... Belghith, H.; Ellouz-Chaabouni, S.; Gargouri, A. (2001). "Biostoning of denims by Penicillium occitanis (Pol6) cellulases". ...

*Non-homologous isofunctional enzymes

Another Popular example of NISE are the Cellulase family of enzymes, particularly Cellulose 1,4-beta-cellobiosidase also ... "Cellulases: ambiguous nonhomologous enzymes in a genomic perspective". Trends in Biotechnology. 29 (10): 473-479. doi:10.1016/j ...

*Glycoside hydrolase family 5

One of these families is known as the cellulase family A or as the glycosyl hydrolases family 5. One of the conserved regions ... Haiech J, Chippaux M, Barras F, Py B, Bortoli-German I (1991). "Cellulase EGZ of Erwinia chrysanthemi: structural organization ... Fungi and bacteria produces a spectrum of cellulolytic enzymes (cellulases) and xylanases which, on the basis of sequence ... Badieyan, S; Bevan DR; Zhang C (January 2012). "Study and design of stability in GH5 cellulases". Biotechnology and ...

*Clostridium cellulovorans

"Degradation of corn fiber by Clostridium cellulovorans cellulases and hemicellulases and contribution of scaffolding protein ... "Properties of cellulosomal family 9 cellulases from Clostridium cellulovorans". Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 71 (5 ...

*Myceliophthora thermophila

Cellulases are rapidly synthesized by M. thermophila and can be used to degrade cellulose into simple carbohydrates as a food ... Coutts, A.D.; Smith, R.E. (1976). "Factors influencing the Production of Cellulases by Sporotrichum thermophile". Appl. Environ ...

*Ulocladium chartarum

Cellulase activities of Ulocladium chartarum were found to be influenced by the mode of incubation as well as by the age of the ... CS1 maint: Extra text (link) Sallam, Lotfy; H.El-Refai, Abdel-Monem; El-Sayed, Samia M. (1988). "Cellulase production by ... The role of some cultural conditions on cellulase production by Ulocladium chartarum". Zentralblatt für Mikrobiologie. 143 (8 ...

*Chaetomium globosum

The cellulase activity of C. globosum functions best at temperatures ranging from 25-32 degrees Celsius and is stimulated by ... Cellulase is inhibited by ethyl malonate. Like many fungal species, C. globosum obtains their energy from carbon sources such ... Like most Chaetomium species, C. globosum decomposes plant cells using hyphal cellulase activity. Even though they are known to ...

*Carbohydrate metabolism

"A cellulase gene of termite origin". Nature. 394 (6691): 330-31. doi:10.1038/28527. PMID 9690469. Retrieved 16 May 2017. ...

*Penicillium echinulatum

It is a source of cellulase. 5-Hydroxymaltol and mycophenolic acid are substances that can be found in P. echinulatum. " ... "Comparison of Penicillium echinulatum and Trichoderma reesei cellulases in relation to their activity against various ...

*Oesophageal pouch

"THE DISTRIBUTION OF CELLULASES AND RELATED ENZYMES IN MOLLUSCA" (PDF). J. Mollus. Stud. (1958) 33 (3): 127-141. Sturm, Charles ...

*Glycoside hydrolase family 10

One of these families is known as the cellulase family F or as the glycosyl hydrolases family 10. Henrissat B, Callebaut I, ... Henrissat B, Claeyssens M, Tomme P, Lemesle L, Mornon JP (September 1989). "Cellulase families revealed by hydrophobic cluster ... cellulases) and xylanases which, on the basis of sequence similarities, can be classified into families. ... These enzymes were formerly known as cellulase family F. The microbial degradation of cellulose and xylans requires several ...

*Streptomyces albaduncus

Harchand, R. K.; Singh, S (1994). "Catabolite repression of cellulase biosynthesis in Streptomyces albaduncus". Journal of ... Harchand, R. K.; Singh, S (1997). "Extracellular cellulase system of a thermotolerant streptomycete: Streptomyces albaduncus". ... "Characterization of cellulase complex of Streptomyces albaduncus". Journal of basic microbiology. 37 (2): 93-103. PMID 9151422 ...

*Assimilation (biology)

Most animals, however, do not produce cellulase; the enzyme needed to digest cellulose. However some animal and species have ... and cellulase. These enzymes improve the overall bioassimilation in the digestive tract but are still not proven to increase ... developed symbiotic relationships with cellulase-producing bacteria (see termites and metamonads.) This allows termites to use ...

*Glycoside hydrolase family 8

Henrissat B, Tomme P, Claeyssens M, Mornon JP, Lemesle L (1989). "Cellulase families revealed by hydrophobic cluster analysis ... These enzymes were formerly known as cellulase family D. Henrissat B, Callebaut I, Mornon JP, Fabrega S, Lehn P, Davies G (1995 ...

*Infologs

2009). "SCHEMA Recombination of a Fungal Cellulase Uncovers a Single Mutation That Contributes Markedly to Stability". Journal ... "A family of thermostable fungal cellulases created by structure-guided recombination". Proceedings of the National Academy of ...

*Inbicon

As of 2012 Novozymes produces Cellic CTec3, which is a cellulase and hemicellulase complex. This is the third generation of ... This cocktail contains thermostable cellulases that perform more efficiently at 60 °C than at 50 °C, which reduces costs of ... This complex consists of exoglucanase, endoglucanase, hemi-cellulases and β-glucosidase. The company's enzyme complex can be ...
Trp22, Trp24, and Tyr8 play a pivotal role in the binding of the family 10 cellulose-binding module from Pseudomonas xylanase A to insoluble ...
As usual, an episode synopsis can be found over at Scotts Polite Dissent. Im Mentioning Cytotoxins Just for the Search Engine Hits Epidermal blistering and tissue necrosis do indeed match the symptoms from cytotoxins, and so this section is designed solely to increase my search engine hits for this Deconstruction review of Fringe. While Im…
Hi all, I want to deconstruct a brep using python. when I use x.Surfaces (x is a brep), it provides untrimmed surfaces. I am interested in getting trimmed sur…
Id like to Cordially Deconstruct just a couple of items from and article I read today titled, Cars: The next hacking frontier by Elinor Mills. The article is about the potential of hacking in todays increasingly computerized and networked automobiles. Its generally a decently written article, but theres a couple points I want to address. …
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More surprisingly, removing the phenyl group from compound 8 produced a molecule with greater affinity and ligand efficiency than the initial compound 2! The researchers determined the crystal structure of this (compound 9) bound to MELK and found that, in contrast to the other molecules, it binds in the DFG-in conformation. The isoquinoline hinge binder actually binds in a similar manner as it does for its DFG-out binding cousins, its just the back pocket that is cut off. The researchers speculate that the DFG-in conformation of the protein may be lower energy, giving the edge to compounds that bind to this state. Whether or not this is the case, it is certainly another reminder of the remarkable plasticity of proteins ...
So, to set up our undoubtedly engaging discussion about Derrida and the politics of community, I hereby post another experpt from my paper for Precarity course. Its not related directly to Derridas politics of the impossible friendship, but does go into the enduring non-individuation of the political movement. I argued in my essay that it…
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Avi convinces Seth to go to a massage parlor where everything might not be on the up and up... but is it cheating if its part of their service?
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These are so beautiful, thanks for sharing! Unfortunately, I have been tearing my hair out trying to figure out how to make a few of these designs, specifically the triangular tetrahedrons and the rhomboid/kite-like octahedron. Ive searched the internet and Ive been to the library to check out several origami books, but I cannot seem to find a way to make them! Ive even tried to deconstruct them on paper to try and see how the units fit together, but that is a mess best left forgotten. In any case, heres a url that has screenshots of the models that Im having trouble with, if you could help clarify how to make them I would be most appreciative!. https://imgur.com/a/Yv1WsLo. The first one I designated the kite-like octahedron, the second the simple triangular tetrahedron, and the third the complex triangular tetrahedron.. ...
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ICS515: ICS Active Defense and Incident Response will help you deconstruct ICS cyber attacks, leverage an active defense to identify and counter threats in your ICS, and use incident response procedures to maintain the safety and reliability of operations.
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To whom it may concern, I am looking for a cDNA expression library of wheat or barley made of reproductive organs, preferably reproductive buds. Please contact. Thanks in advance, Avi. ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Avi Golan ...
He is an Australian trained urologist currently working in London. He has an interest in renal upper tract oncological surgery in particular minimally invasive techniques as well as renal transplantation.. ...
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Disclosed are improved methods for treating cotton-containing fabrics as well as the fabrics produced from these methods. In particular, the disclosed methods are directed to contacting cotton-containing fabrics with a cellulase solution containing a fungal cellulase composition which is substantially,free of all CBH I type cellulase components. Cotton-containing fabrics so treated possess decreased strength loss as compared to fabrics treated with a cellulase solution containing a complete cellulase composition.
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Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. The appeal lies from a decision of the Opposition Division revoking European patent 0 699 248, granted on European application No. 95 913 647.4.. II. The application as filed comprised 8 claims, reading, respectively, as follows:. 1. In a method for enhancing the feel and/or appearance and/or for providing color enhancement to a non-cotton containing cellulosic fabrics during manufacture of the fabric by treatment of the fabric with a composition comprising a naturally complete fungal cellulase composition which comprises exo-cellobiohydrolase type component(s) and endoglucanase type component(s) wherein the improvement comprises modifying the naturally complete fungal cellulase composition to comprise at least 10 weight percent of endoglucanase type components based on the total weight of protein in the fungal cellulase composition and be free of all CBH I type cellulase components.. 2. The method according to Claim 1 wherein said fungal cellulase ...
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Computer deconstruction is perfect preschool STEM play because tinkering with electronic parts helps kids develop creativity and problem solving skills.
[image] In the September issue of the Brooklyn Rail, philosopher Catherine Malabou asks how can Derrida's deconstruction can be renewed today. In her effort to formulate an answer, she suggests that Derrida-along with h…
Cellulose is recalcitrant to deconstruction to glucose for use in fermentation strategies for biofuels and chemicals derived from lignocellulose. In Neurospora crassa, the transcriptional regulator, CLR-2, is required for cellulolytic gene expression
Other articles where Envoy is discussed: diplomacy: Nature and purpose: …negotiation, primarily conducted by accredited envoys (a term derived from the French envoyé, meaning
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Utilization of cellulases as substitute of chemical process gained huge momentum in the field of biotechnology Now there is dire need to find out un explore reveres of fungi possessing greater potential for efficient cellulase production. This boosted isolation of novel thermo tolerant fungal strains capable of producing the targeted product. In this investigation 70 thermophilic cellulolytic fungal strains were isolated. All the strains were screened via submerged fermentation. The strain showing highest CMCase activity was identified by conventional method i.e. based on morphology and microscopic features and confirmed by 18S rDNA gene sequencing, using specific ITS primers. The modified CTAB method was used for rapid extraction of DNA from thermo tolerant strain. The selected strain subsequently subjected to sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The result indicates the selected strain was found to be T. dupontii. For strain improvement the T. dupontii was subjected to random mutagenesis by ...
The present invention provides a novel cellulase composition obtainable from Bacillus sp. CBS 669.93. A preferred cellulase has a calculated molecular weight of approximately 63 kD, a calculated isoelectric point of about 5 and a pH optimum on CMC of about 6 at 40 C. and 60 C.
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Hydrogenation is the process of heating an oil and passing hydrogen bubbles through it. The fatty acids in the oil then acquire some of the hydrogen, which makes it more dense. If you fully hydrogenate, you create a solid (a fat) out of the oil. But if you stop part way, you get a semi-solid partially hydrogenated oil that has a consistency like butter, only its a lot cheaper. Because of that consistency, and because it is cheap, it is a big favorite as a butter-substitute among "food?" producers. It gives their products a richer flavor and texture, but doesnt cost near as much as it would to add butter. Note: Until the 1970s, food producers used coconut oil to get that buttery flavor and texture. The American obesity epidemic began when it was replaced with partially hydrogenated vegetable oil -- most often soybean oil. ...
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Jeralyn Merritt tracks the evolution of a witnesss story from her first 911 call on through various media appearances. This is the mystery witness on Anderson Cooper, who saw little and heard less, but has been getting more emphatic over...
Jeralyn Merritt tracks the evolution of a witnesss story from her first 911 call on through various media appearances. This is the mystery witness on Anderson Cooper, who saw little and heard less, but has been getting more emphatic over...
as did, of course, Baldwin himself). Rufus begins to treat Leona as cruelly as he did Eric, and begins to beat her because of the psychological torment the he believes she is trying to inflict upon him. (A history of her mental illness is hinted at without much detail.) Enter Vivaldo, a white, aspiring novelist, the linchpin of all the central characters, the center of the network. He visits the apartment of the lovers and finds Rufus sitting on the bed, insane, brandishing a knife. Leona, beaten back and blue, is naked in the bathroom, out of her mind. Vivaldo provides sanctuary. Rufus shortly goes AWOL, dropping out of sight for more than six weeks. Things end disastrously for Rufus and Leona. Vivaldo enters into a relationship with Ida, Rufus younger sister, which seems to share many of the negative qualities of the other couple. Richard and Cass are a slightly older white couple, with two small boys, who have been friends of the group for a long time. (Richard was Vivaldos English teacher ...
Special envoys for The Dalai Lama, the exiled Tibetan spiritual leader, have arrived in Beijing for a ninth round of talks with the Chinese authorities over the political status of the Himalayan region.
Spratling, B.M., R.D. Wiedmeier, D.R. ZoBell, C.A. Fitzgerald, and B.A. Kent. 2001. Exogenous cellulase enhances the utilization of ammoniated wheat straw in pregnant and lactating beef cows. Proceedings, Western Section, American Society of Animal Science. Vol. 52:349-352.. ...
A GoFundMe page was set up by Avi Weisfogel to make sure that he had a chance to raise money for his favorite charity. Avi Weisfogel has worked with Operation Smile for a long time, and he wants the charity to have all the resources it needs to make a change in the world. Changing the world one smile at a time costs money, and there are many people who would give to Operation Smile if they could. The GoFundMe page from Avi Weisfogel is easy to set up, and it is easy to donate to. His time working with Operation Smile can continue with the extra money raised, and more people around the world will receive dental care.. There are a lot of disenfranchised communities around the world that have people who do not get dental care, and the only way for them to get dental care is to work with a charity like Operation Smile. Operation Smile sends people like Avi Weisfogel into every community, and he is the person that works with the people of the community to make sure they are getting very good dental ...
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Avi Fogel For now, the hidden kitty sanctuary will remain a secret, only known by those who the cats decide to bring into their home, and into their family. Los Angeles, California December 08, 2017 Its that magical time of year, where true miracles are taking place all over. So what could be more fulfilling…
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Womens musical contributions in rap have been underrepresented due to the "hegemonic discourse" that surround black womens dysfunctional social role in urban culture. The emergence of positive female rap identities like -"Fly Girl," "Queen Mother," "Lesbian"-have created a powerful voice that respectfully represent women in black popular culture. Author Keyes, defines these images "as platforms to refute, deconstruct, and reconstruct alternative visions of their identity;" however, her definition of the "Sista with Attitude" persona contradicts her assertion (274). Although Keyes argues that these women demand the respect from their peers and industry, she describes them as marginal within hip hop because the sistas are seen "running their mouth" and presenting themselves as "highly materialist, violent, lewd" (272). Gaunt argues that black girls childhood play has musically influenced hip hop culture, but she overly emphasizes that such "positive" games reinforce dysfunctional gender role ...
Advertisements are all around us -- and being able to recognize, understand and deconstruct them is a key part of becoming media literate.Understanding the economic contexts of mass meda systems is important for critical thinking in the 21st century. ...
Fee each: $220 members; $240 non-members. Whether youre a complete beginner or an experienced potter primed to push your throwing skills, learn to throw BIGGER AND BETTER. BIGGER: You need technique and a plan, not more muscles. Learn to wedge to center, slap center, center in sections, throw in sections, coil and throw. BETTER: deconstruct teapots into their components and reassemble them to produce a one-of-a-kind, functional finished object.. ...
INSTRUMENT OF DESTRUCTION I pass into the sudden glare. Blink. Blink, blink, blink. My eyes adjust and evaluate the landscape before me. Theres a scurrying. I look down to find a small, white creature standing on its hind legs, sniffing at my body. It intrigues me. What use are you? I analyze the creature. A flash of hot magenta light, a dust pile where it was quivering. Mammalian... Nocturnal... Impeccable hearing. Incredibly weak. Yet they breed so prodigiously. Hmm I mutter to myself. Hopefully there will be more complex things to be found; those fascinate me. Consume and learn: this is my purpose. The others who travel with me are primitive: kill and eat, kill and eat. I need to gather all available information - harvest any valuable resources. Eventually, we come upon a destroyed city, save for one pristine tower. It appears to be protected - or intentionally left standing. I deconstruct the composition of the ruins. My analysis suggests this habitat was a place of great magic; Im not ...
Main (1991-1998) was formed by Robert Hampson and Scott Dawson in 1990. Both members had come from the band Loop (1985-1990). The initial imperative was to deconstruct the "iconic" form of guitars and place them in a different context and change their language. Surrounded by other sounds from field and close / contact mic recordings of found objects, these were then manipulated until the identifiable became unidentifiable. Gradually, since the departure of Dawson in 1996, the use of the guitar has appeared less and the field recordings have become much more the source of the Main sound. ...
Black Tiger. I agree. Though generally the posts on the forum are all grown up. Good point re the origins of P/H kata and I think that is the whole question, Why deconstruct the kata for kids / beginners? Technical reasons, attention span, or maybe (my point) they allow the teacher to deliver the correct tool for the job at hand.. @ Holger, ok take a deep breath were going in.... In terms of child self protection I am talking about anything THEY feel they might need protecting from. The four articles by Jamie Clubb on teaching children self protection (see articles section) are excellent with a great example re your point on adult v child.. As far back as 2005 the Youth Sports Trust developed the Long Term Athletic Development strategy (LTAD). One of the key aims of this policy was to encourage coaches of young people to recognise the physical, psychological and social differences between children and adults. Professional researchers into child sporting development, like Dave Morely took this ...
Black Tiger. I agree. Though generally the posts on the forum are all grown up. Good point re the origins of P/H kata and I think that is the whole question, Why deconstruct the kata for kids / beginners? Technical reasons, attention span, or maybe (my point) they allow the teacher to deliver the correct tool for the job at hand.. @ Holger, ok take a deep breath were going in.... In terms of child self protection I am talking about anything THEY feel they might need protecting from. The four articles by Jamie Clubb on teaching children self protection (see articles section) are excellent with a great example re your point on adult v child.. As far back as 2005 the Youth Sports Trust developed the Long Term Athletic Development strategy (LTAD). One of the key aims of this policy was to encourage coaches of young people to recognise the physical, psychological and social differences between children and adults. Professional researchers into child sporting development, like Dave Morely took this ...
When a dwarf has an overlapping fracture, he is put in a traction bench. After he heals, he will remain in the traction bench; no one will come and release him. To release him, you must deconstruct the table he is on, and immediately afterwards he walks out the hospital ...
Just the other day, DH was attempting to add something to my plate that he wanted me to try. I already had my food items placed just so and his incoming item was gonna mess with my already established order. I immediately felt anxious about it but managed to stall him long enough to make a proper space for the incoming item. Another time, he handed me a bowl of salad with a piece of warm, grilled fish on top. Yikes! So wrong! It actually gave me a stomach cramp. I had to deconstruct the whole thing. My thoughts about it were that a hot thing doesnt belong on a cold thing and that salad dressing and fish cant touch. I had to remove the damaged salad pieces, clean the fish, etc. Yet, oddly, finding a bug in a salad would not bother me. Those things go together ...
My eyes drift open. I blink several times to clear my vision and let my eyes adjust to the brightness of the early sun rising in through my window. Avi rolls over and hovers above me. A few locks of hair fall and drift over my cheek. Avis arms, on either side of my shoulders, are thick and muscular. His lips lower and gently cover mine. I lace my fingers together at the nape of Avis neck. Avis pulls away, his lips wait above mine, waiting to be kissed again. "Hello" Avi says. His voice is as smooth as silk to my ears. His breath slides across my cheeks, warming me.. "Hello" I say.. "Its Friday, right?". "Yep, so I only have to put up with Sophia and the gang for one day than Ill be rewarded with a whole weekend." I say. A wide grin creeps over my lips as I stare into Avis eyes.. "We should go to the pier. I havent been there in ages." Avi says. His eyes beg me to say yes.. I nod my head in agreement. I bring Avis lips to mine and enjoy the blissful perfectness of this moment. Probably ...
Exposure of cellulosic biomass to temperatures of about 120-210°C can remove most of the hemicellulose and produce cellulose-rich solids from which high glucose yields are possible with cellulase enzy
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Helena Danielson - Uppsala U/Beactica: This was a very interesting talk (per usual). One key comment she made was: ease of use of a technology is NOT the same as ease of implementation. In terms of Beacticas fragment library: 2000 compounds (from her slide) that are largely Voldemort Rule compliant. It is enriched in known drug frameworks with diversity and scaffold representation (I am not sure what is meant by that). For her first case study, they only used 930 fragments. She didnt mention why a subset of the entire library was used. She mentioned that they use an early biochemical screen as an orthogonal assay. She spent a lot of time discussing the deconstruction of sensorgrams, in particular, if you have specific and non-specific binding contributing. She also presented a case study against a GABA-A like receptor. She then spent the rest of her talk discussing Chemodynamics: varying sample conditions, like temperature or pH. For BACE, for example, compounds need to bind at neutral and ...
An Audience with Meow Meow has a weighty agenda, including a meta-theatrical deconstruction of the act of performance itself, says Jeremy D. Goodwin
A luxe deconstruction of the authentic shell-toe style. Single-layer leather upper Leather shell toe Unlined Laser-etched leather 3-Stripes and Trefoil logo
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The Fall of New Phoenix, Master Chiefs return to action, and a dark plot by the Office of Naval Intelligence--all in this volume collecting Halo: Escalation issues #7-#12 by Brian Reed (Amazing Spider-Man), Duffy Boudreau (Blackacre ...
$latex {P/NP}&fg=000000$, Efficient computation, Internet security and the limits of human knowledge Dedicated to Philippe Flajolet. One of Clay Mathematical Institute millenium problems. Although it is a mathematical problem, it has a much different flavour than other maths problems, and also far reaching philosophical implications. It is about problems we understand versus problems we want…
You searched for: Author Telly, Nouhoum Remove constraint Author: Telly, Nouhoum Author Coy, Kelsey Remove constraint Author: Coy, Kelsey Author Hakim, Avi J. Remove constraint Author: Hakim, Avi J. Language English Remove constraint Language: English Subject HIV infections--Treatment Remove constraint Subject: HIV infections--Treatment ...
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De : Ecole Doctorale ED3C Objet : [ed3c] Dossier candidature envoyé Date : 29 mai :16:09 HAEC À : 4 pièces jointes, 2,8 Mo Le formulaire dinscription
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An analysis of the recently published genome sequence of Cytophagahutchinsonii revealed an unusual collection of genes for an organism that can attackcrystalline cellulose. Consequently, questions were being raised by cellulase scientists, as towhat mechanism this organism uses to degrade its insoluble substrates. Cellulose, being ahighly polymeric compound and insoluble in water, cannot enter the cell walls ofmicroorganisms. Cellulose-degrading enzymes have therefore to be located on the surface ofthe cell wall or released extracellularly. The location of most cellulase enzymes has beenstudied. However, basic information on C. hutchinsonii cellulases is almost non-existent. Inthe present study, the location, formation and biosynthetic regulation of cellulases in C.hutchinsonii were demonstrated on different substrates. Various fractions isolated from C.hutchinsonii after cell rupture were assayed for carboxymethyl-cellulase activity (CMC).The cellulases were found to be predominantly cell-free during
Direct utilization of untreated oil palm trunk (OPT) for cellulases and xylanase production by Aspergillus fumigatus SK1 was conducted under solid-state fermentation (SSF). The highest activities of extracellular cellulases and xylanases were produced at 80% moisture level, initial pH 5.0, 1 × 108 spore/g (inoculum) with 125 μm of OPT as sole carbon source. The cellulases and xylanase activities obtained were 54.27, 3.36, 4.54 and 418.70 U/g substrates for endoglucanase (CMCase), exoglucanase (FPase), β-glucosidase and xylanase respectively. The crude cellulases and xylanase required acidic condition to retain their optimum activities (pH 4.0). Crude cellulases and xylanase were more stable at 40°C compared to their optimum activities conditions (60°C for FPase and 70°C for CMCase, β-glucosidase and xylanase). SDS-PAGE and zymogram analysis showed that Aspergillus fumigatus SK1 could secrete cellulases (endoglucanase, exoglucanase and β-glucosidase), xylanase and protease. Enzymatic ...
A novel hemicellulase-producing fungal strain was isolated from a local soil sample. The organism is identified as Aspergillus fumigatus based on ribosomal RNA analyses. The Aspergillus strain, designated as 2NB, produces both enzymes acting on xylan backbone (xylanase and β-xylosidase), and those acting on side chains (or accessory enzymes) notably α-arabinofuranosidase and acetyl-xylan esterase. The Asperigillus hemicellulases are characterized as having relatively low xylanase and β-xylosidase activities but high side chain removal activities. The activity ratio of side-chain acting enzymes to xylanase is higher than that of the Multifect enzyme, a commercial hemicellulase product. The potential of the novel hemicellulases in lignocelluloses bioprocessing was demonstrated with alkaline-pretreated switchgrass as lignocellulose substrate with hemicellulase supplemented with a ratio of xylanase activity to filter paper unit of 2:1. Supplement of Aspergillus hemicellulases to commercial ...
The interactions between lignin and cellulase play a major role in enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocelluloses for sugar and biofuel production from biomass [1]. These interactions can be described as (1) lignin physical blockage to limit cellulose accessibility to cellulase [2], and (2) nonspecific adsorption or binding of cellulase enzymes to lignin [3-7]. Reported studies indicate that these two mechanisms produced negative effects on enzymatic saccharification of lignocelluloses. Pretreatment of lignocelluloses such as Organosolv [8, 9] and SPORL [10] is able to partially remove lignin physical blockage by solubilizing a fraction of lignin into the hemicellulosic sugar stream (pretreatment spent liquor). However, further processing lignocelluloses to remove lignin blockage such as by delignification is not only expensive but also may not be necessary in terms of improving cellulose accessibility. It is probably more effective to address the issue of nonspecific binding of cellulase to lignin to ...
phdthesis{a42f4c58-3e50-41b9-87ac-a3c37465f8bc, abstract = {The enzymatic degradation of wood polysaccharides such as cellulose and hemicellulose is an important process in nature. In addition, cellulases and hemicellulases can be used in industrial applications. Fuel ethanol can potentially be produced from wood by enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose followed by yeast fermentation of the formed sugars.,br/,,br, ,br/,,br, In this thesis, fungal glycoside hydrolases, cellulases and hemicellulases were studied with the aim of increasing our knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and lignocellulose. The focus was mainly on cellulases from the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. However, lignocellulose also contains hemicellulose and studies of hemicellulases are included,br/,,br, ,br/,,br, In Paper I-IV the mechanisms involved in cellulose degradation were investigated. Features of enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis such as synergism, decreasing hydrolysis rate ...
Cellulases have diversity of industrial applications and their cost effective production using agroindustrial wastes by solid state fermentation poses an efficient method. Actinomycetes are considered highly valuable due to their secondary metabolites production and in this study, an attempt was made to optimize the use of ragi husk and refine the process of cellulase production by temperature mediated solid state fermentation. Actinomycetes were isolated from paper mill industry soil and cellulase producing |i|Streptomyces|/i| sp was selected for the experiments. Ragi husk was used as substrate for solid state fermentation of cellulase and varying incubation temperatures (20°C, 25°C, 30°C, 35°C and 40°C) was considered to determine its effect on enzyme activity after 6|sup|th|/sup|, 9|sup|th|/sup| and 12|sup|th|/sup| day of fermentation. The carboxymethyl cellualse (CMC-ase) activity was measured and the observations obtained were compared with the standard glucose curve to determine the amount of
Effect of Natural and Pretreated Soybean Hulls on Enzyme Production by Trichoderma reesei. (A. M. Coffman, Q. Li, L.-K. Ju) Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society 91 (8), 1331-1338 (2014). View Article. Promoting Pellet Growth of Trichoderma reesei Rut C30 by Surfactants for Easy Separation and Enhanced Cellulase Production. (N.V. Callow and L.-K. Ju) Enzyme and Microbial Technology 50(6-7), 311-317 (2012). View Article. Cellulase production by continuous culture of Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30 using acid hydrolysate prepared to retain more oligosaccharides for induction. (C.-M. Lo, Q. Zhang, N. V. Callow and L.-K. Ju) Bioresource Technology. 101(2), 717-23 (2010). View Article. Cell immobilization with polyurethane foam for retaining Trichoderma reesei cells during foam fractionation for cellulase collection. (Q. Zhang, C.-M. Lo, and L.-K. Ju) Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 156, 12-23 (2009). View Article. Cellulase production by cocultures of Hypocrea jecorina Rut C30 and Candida ...
Separate binding of several purified cellulolytic components of Trichoderma reesei on to filter paper was studied and concomitant hydrolysis rates evaluated. Enhancement of mass transfer from the bulk liquid to the solid substrate by agitation has two different effects on adsorption depending on the type of enzyme: (i) the fraction of cellobiohydrolase II (CBH II) and endoglucanase III (EG III) bound at equilibrium is increased, whereas (ii) the rate but not the extent of cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I) and endoglucanase I (EG I) adsorption is affected. The adsorption of CBH I core, a component lacking the cellulose-binding domain (CBD), is, however, not significantly influenced by mass transfer. The CBH I interdomain peptide (present in CBH I core b) does not participate in adsorption but enhances stability. The adsorption of CBH I core proteins is a fully reversible process whereas that of the intact CBH I is not. Thus, the interaction of the CBD with filter paper apparently accounts for the ...

Cellulase - WikipediaCellulase - Wikipedia

... cellulase A, cellulosin AP, alkali cellulase, cellulase A 3, 9.5 cellulase, and pancellase SS. Enzymes that cleave lignin have ... Cellulose 1,4-beta-cellobiosidase, an efficient cellulase Cellulase unit, a unit for quantifying cellulase activity PDB: 1NLR​ ... Cellulase action is considered to be synergistic as all three classes of cellulase can yield much more sugar than the addition ... Cellulases are produced by a few types of animals, such as some termites. Several different kinds of cellulases are known, ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellulase

Cellulase,  Ig-like domain (IPR004197) | InterPro | EMBL-EBICellulase, Ig-like domain (IPR004197) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

Cellulases (Endoglucanases) EC:3.2.1.4 catalyse the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in cellulose. This is the ... N-terminal ig-like domain of cellulase, enzymes containing this domain belong to family 9 of the glycoside hydrolases (GH9). ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR004197

High Specificity Cellulases - Cellulose Hydrolysis | Sigma-AldrichHigh Specificity Cellulases - Cellulose Hydrolysis | Sigma-Aldrich

Cellulase, thermostable from Clostridium thermocellum recombinant, expressed in E. coli, ≥90% (SDS-PAGE) * pricing ... Cellulase, thermostable from Dictyoglomus turgidum recombinant, expressed in E. coli, ≥90% (SDS-PAGE) * pricing ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/life-science/biochemicals/biochemical-products.html?TablePage=108659045

Cellulase unit - WikipediaCellulase unit - Wikipedia

A cellulase unit (CU) is a unit of measurement for the enzyme cellulase. One cellulase unit is that activity that will produce ... Cellulases enzymatically split cellulose into a variety of hexoses, this is called hydrolysis. Eagle Pack Archived February 21 ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellulase_unit

Deletion of the Cel48S cellulase from Clostridium thermocellum | PNASDeletion of the Cel48S cellulase from Clostridium thermocellum | PNAS

Family 48 cellulases are a prominent component of many bacterial cellulase systems and, due to their ubiquity, are thought to ... Deletion of the Cel48S cellulase from Clostridium thermocellum. Daniel G. Olson, Shital A. Tripathi, Richard J. Giannone, ... Deletion of the Cel48S cellulase from Clostridium thermocellum. Daniel G. Olson, Shital A. Tripathi, Richard J. Giannone, ... 1993) Cellulase Ss (CelS) is synonymous with the major cellobiohydrolase (subunit S8) from the cellulosome of Clostridium ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/107/41/17727

Deletion of the Cel48S cellulase from Clostridium thermocellum | PNASDeletion of the Cel48S cellulase from Clostridium thermocellum | PNAS

Family 48 cellulases are a prominent component of many bacterial cellulase systems and, due to their ubiquity, are thought to ... Deletion of the Cel48S cellulase from Clostridium thermocellum. Daniel G. Olson, Shital A. Tripathi, Richard J. Giannone, ... Deletion of the Cel48S cellulase from Clostridium thermocellum. Daniel G. Olson, Shital A. Tripathi, Richard J. Giannone, ... 1993) Cellulase Ss (CelS) is synonymous with the major cellobiohydrolase (subunit S8) from the cellulosome of Clostridium ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/107/41/17727?ijkey=fc2d41b731e81805e4616de3833aff59989a40b5&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Prediction of Optimal pH and Temperature of Cellulases Using Neur...: Ingenta ConnectPrediction of Optimal pH and Temperature of Cellulases Using Neur...: Ingenta Connect

Enzymatic function of cellulase is closely related to pH, temperature, substrate concentration, etc. For newly found cellulase ... Cellulase is an important enzyme widely used in various industries, and now in fermentation of biomass into biofuels. ... Keywords: Amino-Acid Distribution; Cellulase; HIV protease; Prediction Model; Statistics; backpropagation; cross-validation; ... The results show that the amino-acid distribution probability representing the primary structure of cellulase can predict both ...
more infohttps://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ben/ppl/2012/00000019/00000001/art00006

Optimization of Cellulase Production from Bacteria Isolated from SoilOptimization of Cellulase Production from Bacteria Isolated from Soil

... and coconut cake stimulates the production of cellulase. Among bacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens is the best cellulase producer ... Cellulase-producing bacteria were isolated from soil and identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus subtilIs, E. coli, and ... Optimization of Cellulase Production from Bacteria Isolated from Soil. Sonia Sethi, Aparna Datta, B. Lal Gupta, and Saksham ... The optimum conditions found for cellulase production were 40°C at pH 10 with glucose as carbon source and ammonium sulphate as ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2013/985685/abs/

What Are the Functions of the Enzyme Cellulase? | Reference.comWhat Are the Functions of the Enzyme Cellulase? | Reference.com

Cellulase is used in many places, primarily the agricultural sector. Its often used as a food additive and to produce juices ... The primary role of the enzyme cellulase is to split cellulose.. ... Cellulase is found in all plants and is quite abundant. In fact ... The primary role of the enzyme cellulase is to split cellulose.. Cellulase is used in many places, primarily the agricultural ... Cellulase naturally occurs in plant tissues; there, it acts as a reinforcing material. It is thick and viscous in its physical ...
more infohttps://www.reference.com/science/functions-enzyme-cellulase-5120d31a24f1eac8

cellulase | Dye | Hydrolysiscellulase | Dye | Hydrolysis

NOTERelationship Between Cellulase Treatment and Direct Dye Dyeing for Cotton INTRODUCTION ... ... treated with cellulase for 24 h and then the WL was ex- could be attacked by cellulase with more difficulty. amined. The dyeing ... with Cellulase by cellulase-catalyzed hydrolytic cleavage. If the cleavage causes a change in -Ape, -Apo would monotonously WL ... rics caused by cellulase treatment. Voand V, are effective volume terms of dyeing for untreated and cellulase-treated We would ...
more infohttps://www.scribd.com/document/23114373/cellulase

258b) Kinetic Modeling of Cellulose Hydrolysis with First Order Inactivation of Adsorbed Cellulases | AIChE258b) Kinetic Modeling of Cellulose Hydrolysis with First Order Inactivation of Adsorbed Cellulases | AIChE

258b) Kinetic Modeling of Cellulose Hydrolysis with First Order Inactivation of Adsorbed Cellulases. ... a model based on Langmuir binding kinetics that also incorporates first order inactivation of adsorbed cellulase was developed ...
more infohttps://www.aiche.org/conferences/aiche-annual-meeting/2011/proceeding/paper/258b-kinetic-modeling-cellulose-hydrolysis-first-order-inactivation-adsorbed-cellulases

Cellulase / hyoscyamine / pancrelipase / phenyltoloxamine and Zymine HC Drug Interactions - Drugs.comCellulase / hyoscyamine / pancrelipase / phenyltoloxamine and Zymine HC Drug Interactions - Drugs.com

A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between cellulase / hyoscyamine / pancrelipase / phenyltoloxamine and Zymine HC. View ... Drug Interactions between cellulase / hyoscyamine / pancrelipase / phenyltoloxamine and Zymine HC. This report displays the ... Applies to: cellulase / hyoscyamine / pancrelipase / phenyltoloxamine and Zymine HC (hydrocodone / pseudoephedrine / ... Applies to: Zymine HC (hydrocodone / pseudoephedrine / triprolidine) and cellulase / hyoscyamine / pancrelipase / ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/drug-interactions/cellulase-hyoscyamine-pancrelipase-phenyltoloxamine-with-zymine-hc-561-0-1281-11223.html

Enhanced Production of Cellulase from Pineapple Waste by Response Surface MethodologyEnhanced Production of Cellulase from Pineapple Waste by Response Surface Methodology

The maximum cellulase activity was observed at 4.59 g/L of KH2PO4. Figures 6 and 7 show the dependency of cellulase activity on ... were found to be significant for the production of cellulase. The coefficient of determination for cellulase activity was ... The maximum cellulase activity (8.61 IU/mL) was obtained from experiments which was very close to the cellulase production ( ... The effect of carbon source (avicel) on cellulase production has been shown in Figure 2 in which the cellulase activity is ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2013/979547/

Patent US6063611 - Alkaline cellulase and method of producing same - Google PatentsPatent US6063611 - Alkaline cellulase and method of producing same - Google Patents

A preferred cellulase has a calculated molecular weight of approximately 63 kD, a calculated isoelectric point of about 5 and a ... The present invention provides a novel cellulase composition obtainable from Bacillus sp. CBS 669.93. ... Thus cellulase with an identical amino acid sequence to the 63 kD cellulase of the invention derived from a different Bacillus ... A cellulase is "obtainable from" Bacillus 668.93 if such cellulase has an amino acid sequence which corresponds to the amino ...
more infohttp://www.google.com.au/patents/US6063611

Cellulase / hyoscyamine / pancrelipase / phenyltoloxamine and Ricobid-D Drug Interactions - Drugs.comCellulase / hyoscyamine / pancrelipase / phenyltoloxamine and Ricobid-D Drug Interactions - Drugs.com

A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between cellulase / hyoscyamine / pancrelipase / phenyltoloxamine and Ricobid-D. View ... Drug interactions between cellulase / hyoscyamine / pancrelipase / phenyltoloxamine and Ricobid-D. Edit this list ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/drug-interactions/cellulase-hyoscyamine-pancrelipase-phenyltoloxamine-with-ricobid-d-561-0-1853-1725.html

Cellulases | Springer for Research & DevelopmentCellulases | Springer for Research & Development

The chapters in this book explore topics such as the role of cellulases in lignocellulose deconstruction for ge ... This volume discusses the latest research and techniques used to study novel cellulases. ... Cutting-edge and thorough, Cellulases: Methods and Protocols is a valuable resource for biochemists, molecular biologists, ... Cloning and Expression of Heterologous Cellulases and Enzymes in Aspergillus niger Morgann C. Reilly, Saori Amaike Campen, ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-1-4939-7877-9

Degradation of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose fibers and nanofibrils by crude cellulase | SpringerLinkDegradation of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose fibers and nanofibrils by crude cellulase | SpringerLink

... dispersed in water by a commercial crude cellulase was studied. Products crude cellulase-treated for 0-7 days were separated ... Biodegradation Cellulase Hydrolase Nanofibril TEMPO-oxidized cellulose This is a preview of subscription content, log in to ... newly exposed on the microfibril surfaces were rapidly hydrolyzed by cellulases predominantly present in the crude cellulase to ... but TOCN having free carboxyl groups had clearly low biodegradability by the crude cellulase. Thus, biodegradation behavior may ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10570-013-9872-z

Interrelationships between cellulase activity and cellulose particle morphology (Journal Article) | DOE PAGESInterrelationships between cellulase activity and cellulose particle morphology (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES

Accepted Manuscript: Interrelationships between cellulase activity and cellulose particle morphology. Title: Interrelationships ... plays a major role in the ubiquitous rate loss observed for cellulases.« less ...
more infohttps://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1289432-interrelationships-between-cellulase-activity-cellulose-particle-morphology

Novel Aspergillus hemicellulases enhance performance of commercial cellulases in lignocellulose hydrolysis - Shin - 2011 -...Novel Aspergillus hemicellulases enhance performance of commercial cellulases in lignocellulose hydrolysis - Shin - 2011 -...

Novel Aspergillus hemicellulases enhance performance of commercial cellulases in lignocellulose hydrolysis. Authors. *. Hyun- ... Supplement of Aspergillus hemicellulases to commercial cellulases significantly enhanced the hydrolysis of lignocellulose, ...
more infohttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/btpr.547/abstract

amylase-lipase-protease-cellulase oral Reviews and User Ratings: Effectiveness, Ease of Use, and Satisfactionamylase-lipase-protease-cellulase oral Reviews and User Ratings: Effectiveness, Ease of Use, and Satisfaction

Find user ratings and reviews for amylase-lipase-protease-cellulase oral on WebMD including side effects and drug interactions ... Read user comments about the side effects, benefits, and effectiveness of amylase-lipase-protease-cellulase oral. ...
more infohttps://www.webmd.com/drugs/drugreview-64171-amylase-lipase-protease-cellul-tablet.aspx?drugid=64171&drugname=amylase-lipase-protease-cellul-tablet

Study Reveals New Source of Robust Cellulases in CompostStudy Reveals New Source of Robust Cellulases in Compost

The cellulases were cultured from a microbiome. Using a microbial community deviates from the approach normally taken of using ... The study, just published in the journal Nature Microbiology, talks about the discovery of new types of cellulases, enzymes ... This stability is a main advantage compared to other cellulases that degrade more quickly at high temperature, the researchers ... Study Reveals New Source of Robust Cellulases in Compost. *Download PDF Copy ...
more infohttps://www.azocleantech.com/news.aspx?newsID=24336

Cellulase Y-C (From Trichoderma Viride)Cellulase Y-C (From Trichoderma Viride)

Cellulase Y-C enzyme retains very high filter paper decomposing activity and showed an appreciable amount of hemicellulase. ... Cellulase Y-C (From Trichoderma Viride). Synonyms 1,4-(1,3:1,4)-β-D-Glucan 4-glucano-hydrolase ... Cellulase is used for protoplast preparations. This enzyme shows a very high filter paper decomposing activity, as well as, ... Cellulase is used for protoplast preparations. This enzyme shows a very high filter paper decomposing activity, as well as, ...
more infohttps://www.mpbio.com/08320961-cellulase-y-c-from-trichoderma-viride

748. Cellulase derived from Trichoderma longibrachiatum (WHO Food Additives Series 30)748. Cellulase derived from Trichoderma longibrachiatum (WHO Food Additives Series 30)

CELLULASE FROM TRICHODERMA LONGIBRACHIATUM First draft prepared by Dr D.L. Grant and Dr E. Vasavour Health and Welfare Canada ... Some additional studies on cellulase from T. longibrachiatum (reesei) have been submitted and are presented in this monograph ... OSBORNE, B.E., RUSHTON, A.K.A. & DENT, N.J. (19777) Cellulase SP-122, toxicity study in beagle dogs (oral administration for 13 ... Cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Trichoderma longibrachiatum. Unpublished report from Toxicol Laboratories Ltd., ...
more infohttp://www.inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/v30je03.htm

Catalysts  | Free Full-Text | Cellulases in Ionic Liquids-The Long Term Stability of Aspergillus sp. Cellulase | NotesCatalysts | Free Full-Text | Cellulases in Ionic Liquids-The Long Term Stability of Aspergillus sp. Cellulase | Notes

Nevertheless, in the presence of high IL concentrations, cellulase activity and, even more so, cellulase stability are still ... Thereby the cellulase from Aspergillus sp. (Sigma-Aldrich) was not only remarkably active (up to 28 U/mg in 30% (v/v) IL ([ ... Therefore four fungal cellulase preparations were assayed in the presence of 30% (v/v) of five different ILs. ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/2073-4344/3/2/584/notes

IJMS | Free Full-Text | Location, formation and biosynthetic regulation of cellulases in the gliding bacteria Cytophaga...IJMS | Free Full-Text | Location, formation and biosynthetic regulation of cellulases in the gliding bacteria Cytophaga...

The location of most cellulase enzymes has beenstudied. However, basic information on C. hutchinsonii cellulases is almost non- ... Relatively little CM-cellulase was formed when cells were grown on glucose and cellobiose. Apparently glucoseor labile ... Consequently, questions were being raised by cellulase scientists, as towhat mechanism this organism uses to degrade its ... Inthe present study, the location, formation and biosynthetic regulation of cellulases in C.hutchinsonii were demonstrated on ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/7/1/1
  • Metagenomic analysis at the DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI) of the microbiome helped expose that 70% of the enzymatic activity started from cellulases created by a bunch of uncultivated bacteria in the compost. (azocleantech.com)
  • Production of cellulase enzyme in large quantities requires understanding and proper controlling of the growth and enzyme production capabilities of T. reesei . (hindawi.com)
  • Some additional studies on cellulase from T. longibrachiatum (reesei) have been submitted and are presented in this monograph together with the previously-reviewed studies. (inchem.org)
  • Its abundance and ease of acquisition make cellulase an ideal additive to foods and drinks, as it is cheap and easy to extract. (reference.com)
  • The present invention further relates to the use of the novel cellulase in compositions recognized in the art as advantageously having cellulase added thereto, including, as an additive in a detergent composition, in the treatment of cellulose containing fabrics, in the treatment of pulp and paper and in the treatment of starch for the production of high fructose corn-syrup or ethanol. (google.com.au)
  • It has been used in a study to assess the differential regulation of the cellulase transcription factors XYR1, ACE2, and ACE. (mpbio.com)
  • Inthe present study, the location, formation and biosynthetic regulation of cellulases in C.hutchinsonii were demonstrated on different substrates. (mdpi.com)
  • Our results indicate that solubilization of crystalline cellulose by C. thermocellum can proceed to completion without expression of a family 48 cellulase. (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, cellulases are widely used in textile industry and in laundry detergents. (thomassci.com)
  • A preferred cellulase has a calculated molecular weight of approximately 63 kD, a calculated isoelectric point of about 5 and a pH optimum on CMC of about 6 at 40 C. and 60 C. (google.com.au)
  • Untreated fabric and cellulase treated fabrics where [ NaIi is the N a + concentration in the effective vol- with WL above were dyed to equilibrium with Congo Red ume of the fiber. (scribd.com)
  • The biodegradation behavior of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO)-oxidized cellulose fibers (TOCs) suspended in water and TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (TOCNs) dispersed in water by a commercial crude cellulase was studied. (springer.com)
  • Cellulase is used for commercial food processing in coffee. (thomassci.com)
  • Disruption of CipA by random integration of insertion elements has been reported in C. thermocellum ( 16 ), and targeted gene inactivation mediated by group II introns has been used to evaluate family 9 cellulase function in the mesophile C. phytofermentans ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • The Thermotoga maritima species make cellulases consisting of 2 beta-sheets (protein structures) surrounding a central catalytic region which is the active-site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Weight recovery ratios and viscosity-average degrees of polymerization of the water/ethanol-insoluble fractions clearly decreased with crude cellulase-treatment time, showing that both TOCs and TOCNs have biodegradability. (springer.com)
  • Lastly, based on this observation we argue that cellulose structure, specifically surface area and roughness, plays a major role in the ubiquitous rate loss observed for cellulases. (osti.gov)
  • After the treatment, the cellulase was inactivated lysis of cellulose, which was previously dyed with direct in the boiling water. (scribd.com)
  • Products crude cellulase-treated for 0-7 days were separated into water/ethanol-insoluble and -soluble fractions. (springer.com)