RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.Respiratory Syncytial Viruses: A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Virus Latency: The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Oncogenic Viruses: Viruses that produce tumors.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Mumps virus: The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.Mosaic Viruses: Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Hepatitis A virus: A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.Semliki forest virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.Avian Sarcoma Viruses: Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.BK Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Viruses, Unclassified: Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.JC Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.Avian leukosis virus: The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Bluetongue virus: The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Sendai virus: The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.Moloney murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Yellow fever virus: The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.Simplexvirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.Tobacco Mosaic Virus: The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections: Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.Myxoma virus: The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.Virus Inactivation: Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.Cowpox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Variola virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human: The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.Lassa virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.Chikungunya virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.Norwalk virus: The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Encephalitis Viruses: A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.DNA Virus InfectionsVirus Physiological Phenomena: Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.Herpesvirus 1, Human: The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.Epstein-Barr Virus Infections: Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne: A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.Leukemia Virus, Feline: A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus: The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus: A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.Hepatitis Viruses: Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.RNA Virus InfectionsSequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Satellite Viruses: Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.Oncolytic Viruses: Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.Orf virus: The type species of PARAPOXVIRUS which causes a skin infection in natural hosts, usually young sheep. Humans may contract local skin lesions by contact. The virus apparently persists in soil.Human T-lymphotropic virus 1: A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral: A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.Hepatitis E virus: A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).Friend murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.Mammary Tumor Virus, Mouse: The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Sarcoma Viruses, Murine: A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).Archaeal Viruses: Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Influenza A Virus, H7N7 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Fowlpox virus: The type species of the genus AVIPOXVIRUS. It is the etiologic agent of FOWLPOX.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Leukemia Virus, Bovine: The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.DucksHendra Virus: A species of HENIPAVIRUS first identified in Australia in 1994 in HORSES and transmitted to humans. The natural host appears to be fruit bats (PTEROPUS).Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Borna disease virus: A species in the genus Bornavirus, family BORNAVIRIDAE, causing a rare and usually fatal encephalitic disease in horses and other domestic animals and possibly deer. Its name derives from the city in Saxony where the condition was first described in 1894, but the disease occurs in Europe, N. Africa, and the Near East.Bunyamwera virus: A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. A large number of serotypes or strains exist in many parts of the world. They are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect humans in some areas.Viral Interference: A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Distemper Virus, Canine: A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in dogs, wolves, foxes, raccoons, and ferrets. Pinnipeds have also been known to contract Canine distemper virus from contact with domestic dogs.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Gene Products, gag: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.Viral Fusion Proteins: Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.Rinderpest virus: A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing cattle plague, a disease with high mortality. Sheep, goats, pigs, and other animals of the order Artiodactyla can also be infected.Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.Hepatitis Delta Virus: A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.Herpesvirus 3, Human: The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Monkeypox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing an epidemic disease among captive primates.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 22.214.171.124.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.African Swine Fever Virus: The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Respirovirus: A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.Reticuloendotheliosis virus: A species in the group RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN of the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS that causes a chronic neoplastic and a more acute immunosuppressive disease in fowl.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Rift Valley fever virus: A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.Infectious Anemia Virus, Equine: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus equine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, EQUINE), causing acute and chronic infection in horses. It is transmitted mechanically by biting flies, mosquitoes, and midges, and iatrogenically through unsterilized equipment. Chronic infection often consists of acute episodes with remissions.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Infectious bronchitis virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing infections in chickens and possibly pheasants. Chicks up to four weeks old are the most severely affected.Herpesvirus 1, Suid: A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Torque teno virus: A species of non-enveloped DNA virus in the genus ANELLOVIRUS, associated with BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS; and HEPATITIS. However, no etiological role has been found for TTV in hepatitis.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Influenza A Virus, H5N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.AKR murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from spontaneous leukemia in AKR strain mice.Ectromelia virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS infecting mice and causing a disease that involves internal organs and produces characteristic skin lesions.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Avian myeloblastosis virus: A species of ALPHARETROVIRUS causing anemia in fowl.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Influenza A Virus, H1N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Ross River virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS associated with epidemic EXANTHEMA and polyarthritis in Australia.Enterovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.West Nile Fever: A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)Gene Products, env: Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.Classical swine fever virus: A species of the PESTIVIRUS genus causing exceedingly contagious and fatal hemorrhagic disease of swine.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Ferrets: Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Proviruses: Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.Inclusion Bodies, Viral: An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.Serial Passage: Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Ebolavirus: A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease: Acute disease of cattle caused by the bovine viral diarrhea viruses (DIARRHEA VIRUSES, BOVINE VIRAL). Often mouth ulcerations are the only sign but fever, diarrhea, drop in milk yield, and loss of appetite are also seen. Severity of clinical disease varies and is strain dependent. Outbreaks are characterized by low morbidity and high mortality.SARS Virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Respirovirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus RESPIROVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. Host cell infection occurs by adsorption, via HEMAGGLUTININ, to the cell surface.Vesiculovirus: A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that infects a wide range of vertebrates and invertebrates. The type species is VESICULAR STOMATITIS INDIANA VIRUS.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
Almendral, JM (2013). "Assembly of simple icosahedral viruses". Sub-cellular biochemistry. 68: 307-28. doi:10.1007/978-94-007- ... Although viruses in circulation among feral mice can be tumorigenic, under natural conditions the virus does not cause tumors; ... and in older literature as SE polyoma or parotid tumor virus; abbreviated MPyV) is an unenveloped double-stranded DNA virus of ... and the 1950s discoveries of Gross murine leukemia virus and polyoma virus". Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part ...
Innate resistance to HIV
Viruses portal Discovery and development of CCR5 receptor antagonists Entry inhibitor HIV tropism Timothy Ray Brown Black ... Kay MA, Walker BD (2014). "Engineering cellular resistance to HIV". N. Engl. J. Med. 370 (10): 968-9. doi:10.1056/NEJMe1400593 ... A small proportion of humans show partial or apparently complete inborn resistance to HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. The main ... Zhen A, Kitchen S (2014). "Stem-cell-based gene therapy for HIV infection". Viruses. 6 (1): 1-12. doi:10.3390/v6010001. PMC ...
Also, the virus still has access to the CD4. Unlike CCR5, which the body apparently doesn't really need due to those still ... Kay MA, Walker BD (Mar 2014). "Engineering cellular resistance to HIV". The New England Journal of Medicine. 370 (10): 968-9. ... These receptors are located on the surface of host immune cells whereby they provide a method of entry for the HIV-1 virus to ... Many forms of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, initially use CCR5 to enter and infect host cells. Certain individuals carry a ...
Another virus-white bream virus-isolated from fish may also belong to this order. Animal viruses RNA viruses Coronavirus ... 2007). Coronaviruses: Molecular and Cellular Biology. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-16-5. Udeni B. R. Balasuriya ... Another virus has been isolated from mosquitoes-Nam Dinh virus-that appears to belong a new family in this order. Cavally virus ... Gill-associated virus and yellow head virus, both isolated from prawns, are members of this order. These latter two viruses ...
A number of viruses' names (e.g. Epstein-Barr virus) are so widely used that it is impractical to attempt to insist on their ... 2006). Alpha Herpesviruses: Molecular and Cellular Biology. www.horizonpress.com. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-09- ... The subfamily name is used for viruses from members of the family Bovidae or from primates (the virus name ending in -ine, e.g ... This has led to a dual nomenclature in the literature for some herpes viruses. All herpes viruses described since this system ...
Molecular and Cellular Biology portal Viruses portal. ... In order to solve such a problem, phage viruses synthesize ... Quemin, ERJ; Quax, TEF (5 June 2015). "Archaeal viruses at the cell envelope: entry and egress". Frontiers in Microbiology. 6: ... Cell-wall-containing Archaea are also lysed by specialized pseudomurein-cleaving lysins, while most archaeal viruses employ ...
The modified live virus replicates at the site of injection and in regional lymph nodes. Vaccine virus is shed in such low ... ISBN 978-1-904455-22-6. Sandri-Goldin RM (editor). (2006). Alpha Herpesviruses: Molecular and Cellular Biology. Caister ... The virus is shed in the saliva and nasal secretions of swine infected by the respiratory route. Aerosolization of the virus ... Viruses portal Animal viruses Virology Fenner, Frank J.; Gibbs, E. Paul J.; Murphy, Frederick A.; Rott, Rudolph; Studdert, ...
Pseudorabies virus is the causative agent of Aujeszky's disease in pigs and bovine herpesvirus 1 is the causative agent of ... ISBN 978-1-904455-22-6. Sandri-Goldin RM (editor). (2006). Alpha Herpesviruses: Molecular and Cellular Biology. Caister ... The virus exits the host cell by nuclear egress, budding, and microtubular outwards viral transport. Mammals serve as the ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 12 June 2015. Alphaherpesvirinae at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ...
WHO press release identifying and naming the SARS virus The SARS virus genetic map Science special on the SARS virus (free ... 2007). Coronaviruses: Molecular and Cellular Biology (1st ed.). Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-16-5. Enjuanes L, et ... Its genome is about 29.7kb, which is one of the largest among RNA viruses. The SARS virus has 13 known genes and 14 known ... Coronavirus Accessory Proteins in Virus Pathogenesis". Viruses. 4 (11): 2902-2923. doi:10.3390/v4112902. ISSN 1999-4915. PMC ...
For instance, a helical virus with a bilipid envelope bears a distinct resemblance to a highly simplified cellular nucleus (i.e ... Claverie, Jean-Michel (2006). "Viruses take center stage in cellular evolution". Genome Biology. 7 (6): 110. doi:10.1186/gb- ... Most virologists have considered viruses as not alive; but the hypothesis posits that viruses are the ancestors of the shared ... The viral eukaryogenesis hypothesis depicts a model of eukaryotic evolution in which a virus, similar to a modern pox virus, ...
ISBN 978-3-540-64729-4. Klenk, Hans-Dieter; Feldmann, Heinz (2004). Ebola and Marburg Viruses-Molecular and Cellular Biology. ... Two members of the family that are commonly known are Ebola virus and Marburg virus. Both viruses, and some of their lesser ... Virus Taxonomy-Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. London, UK: Elsevier/Academic Press. pp. 665 ... Recommendations have been made for the identification of these viruses below the species level. These include the use of virus ...
May 2005). "Subversion of cellular autophagosomal machinery by RNA viruses". PLoS Biol. 3 (5): e156. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio. ... In the extreme case of starvation, the breakdown of cellular components promotes cellular survival by maintaining cellular ... Vesicular stomatitis virus is believed to be taken up by the autophagosome from the cytosol and translocated to the endosomes ... A subset of viruses and bacteria subvert the autophagic pathway to promote their own replication. Galectin-8 has recently been ...
Dean H. Kenyon
The origin of viruses from cellular genetic material. Enzymologia. 1972 Jul 31;43(1):13-8. PMID 5050651 Smith AE, Kenyon DH. A ... Educ., 1997, 74 (8), p 950 doi:10.1021/ed074p950 Link "Prof Flips Theory Coin About Virus Production," Winnipeg Free Press, ... Kenyon's work was about virus production. During the 1969-1970 academic year he was "on a fellowship at the Graduate ...
Non-cellular life. Virus. Incl.: viroids,. satellites,. virophages,. virusoids. *Duplodnaviria. *Monodnaviria. *Riboviria ... In this way, they are similar to viruses. Various viruses and TEs also share features in their genome structures and ... "Molecular and Cellular Biology. 27 (12): 4589-600. doi:10.1128/MCB.02027-06. PMC 1900042. PMID 17403897.. ... Bacteria may undergo high rates of gene deletion as part of a mechanism to remove TEs and viruses from their genomes, while ...
Non-cellular life. Virus. Incl.: viroids,. satellites,. virophages,. virusoids. *Duplodnaviria. *Monodnaviria. *Riboviria ... pilus) are cellular appendages, slightly larger than fimbriae, that can transfer genetic material between bacterial cells in a ... Others such as cyanobacteria and some purple bacteria are autotrophic, meaning that they obtain cellular carbon by fixing ... Bacteria can be classified on the basis of cell structure, cellular metabolism or on differences in cell components, such as ...
When cellular iron levels are high, this protein binds to a 4Fe-4S cluster and functions as an aconitase. Aconitases are iron- ... Virus Research. 133 (2): 167-77. doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2007.12.014. PMID 18262302. Popovic Z, Templeton DM (Oct 2004). "Iron ... When cellular iron levels are low, the protein binds to iron-responsive elements (IREs), which are stem-loop structures found ... Molecular and Cellular Biology. 27 (7): 2423-30. doi:10.1128/MCB.01111-06. PMC 1899896 . PMID 17242182. Liu CY, Liu YF, Zeng L ...
"A mutant type 2 herpes simplex virus deleted for the protein kinase domain of the ICP10 gene is a potent oncolytic virus". ... It replicates specifically in cells that have an activated Ras pathway (a cellular signaling pathway that is involved in cell ... The first two ras genes, HRAS and KRAS, were identified from studies of two cancer-causing viruses, the Harvey sarcoma virus ... Another tumor-lysing virus that specifically targets tumor cells with an activated Ras pathway is a type II herpes simplex ...
"Hepatitis C virus and vaccine development". International Journal of Molecular and Cellular Medicine. 3 (4): 207-15. PMC ... Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes refer to the genetic variations that occurs in the hepatitis C virus. Hepatitis C is a ... Hepatitis C virus genotype is considered more common than the Hepatitis B virus infection contributing to more than a million ... It is caused by the Hepatitis C virus, a small, enveloped RNA virus. The transmission of hepatitis C is through the contact ...
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. 86 (1): 56-66. doi:10.1002/jcb.10190. PMID 12112016. Fukushi M, Higuchi M, Oie M, Tetsuka T, ... Virus Genes. 27 (3): 237-47. doi:10.1023/A:1026391715071. PMID 14618084. Briggs RC, Atkinson JB, Miranda RN (May 2005). " ... Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. 49 (1): 82-92. doi:10.1002/jcb.240490114. PMID 1644857. Briggs RC, Briggs JA, Ozer J, Sealy L ... Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. 54 (2): 198-206. doi:10.1002/jcb.240540208. PMID 8175894. Xie J, Briggs JA, Briggs RC ( ...
Chiral life concept
Viruses would be completely incompatible with the reflected cellular structures; and bacteria, protozoa, and fungi could not ... The great advantage, though, is that such chiral organisms should enjoy a disease-free life, completely immune to all viruses ... It is thought that such mirror organisms can be highly incompatible with existing microbes (viruses, bacteria, protozoa, etc ... The chiral environment is hostile for normal viruses, protozoa, bacteria, etc. Chiral life presents potential dangers. For ...
Some act as phagocytes, ingesting bacteria, viruses, and cellular debris. Others release enzymatic granules that damage ... Inflammations that lead to serious depression could be caused by common infections such as those caused by a virus, bacteria or ... This means acute inflammation can be broadly divided into a vascular phase that occurs first, followed by a cellular phase ... Kadi, F; Eriksson, A; Holmner, S; Butler-Browne, GS; Thornell, LE (Mar 1999). "Cellular adaptation of the trapezius muscle in ...
Cantin R, Méthot S, Tremblay MJ (Jun 2005). "Plunder and stowaways: incorporation of cellular proteins by enveloped viruses". ... Viruses were confirmed as human pathogens in 1901, with the discovery of the yellow fever virus by Walter Reed. Immunology made ... Stram Y, Kuzntzova L (Jun 2006). "Inhibition of viruses by RNA interference". Virus Genes. 32 (3): 299-306. doi:10.1007/s11262- ... Biology portal Medicine portal Molecular and cellular biology portal Viruses portal. ...
Don Craig Wiley
Eisen, M. B.; Sabesan, S; Skehel, J. J.; Wiley, D. C. (1997). "Binding of the influenza a virus to cell-surface receptors: ... Ploegh, Hidde L. "Don C. Wiley: A Tribute". Harvard University Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology. "Authorities ... Wilson, I. A.; Skehel, J. J.; Wiley, D. C. (1981). "Structure of the haemagglutinin membrane glycoprotein of influenza virus at ... Skehel, J. J.; Wiley, D. C. (2000). "Receptor Binding and Membrane Fusion in virus entry: The Influenza Hemagglutinin". Annual ...
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. 100 (4): 897-915. doi:10.1002/jcb.21090. PMID 17044041. "Pathogenic Virus Found in Mad Cow ... No virus particles, bacteria, or fungi have been conclusively associated with prion diseases, although virus-like particles and ... Medicine portal Molecular and cellular biology portal Viruses portal Amyloidosis Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease Prion pseudoknot ... and progression among species resembles that seen between viruses, especially RNA viruses The long incubation and rapid onset ...
"The interplay between virus infection and the cellular RNA interference machinery". FEBS Lett. 580 (12): 2896-902. doi:10.1016/ ... Some viruses have evolved mechanisms for suppressing the RNAi response in their host cells, particularly for plant viruses. ... Other functions for RNAi in mammalian viruses also exist, such as miRNAs expressed by the herpes virus that may act as ... Stram Y, Kuzntzova L (2006). "Inhibition of viruses by RNA interference". Virus Genes. 32 (3): 299-306. doi:10.1007/s11262-005- ...
"Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. de Groot RJ, Baker SC, Baric R, Enjuanes L, Gorbalenya AE, Holmes KV, ... Scientist have recently found that the cellular receptor for MERS-CoV is CD24, found in smooth muscle cells, pneumocytes, and ... Among the seven to ten specific viral mRNAs synthesized in virus-infected cells, only the full-length genomic RNA is packaged ... Coronaviridae is a family of enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses. The viral genome is 26-32 kb in length. Virions are ...
SV40 large T antigen
... another function of T-antigen is to alter the cellular environment to permit virus genome replication. The SV40 large T-antigen ... Encodes non-structural proteins (i.e. not present in virus particle). Late: Expressed later in virus infection, i.e. during and ... Ahuja D, Sáenz-Robles MT, Pipas JM (2005). "SV40 large T antigen targets multiple cellular pathways to elicit cellular ... SV40 large T antigen (Simian Vacuolating Virus 40 TAg) is a hexamer protein that is a dominant-acting oncoprotein derived from ...
R. M. Rizki et T. M. Rizki, (November 1990). "Parasitoid virus-like particles destroy Drosophila cellular immunity". ... and the virus. The full genome of the virus is integrated into the genome of the wasp and the virus only replicates in a ... The virus exits the host cell by nuclear pore export. Parasitoid wasps serve as hosts for the virus, and Lepidoptera serve as ... The female wasp injects one or more eggs into its host along with a quantity of virus. The virus and wasp are in a mutualistic ...
"Parasitoid virus-like particles destroy Drosophila cellular immunity". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 87 (21 ... heterotoma during oviposition contains virus-like particles that delay host larval development and suppress the host cellular ... There is no evidence that these virus-like particles are the products of viral DNA as described in other parasitoid taxa, . ... "When parasitic wasps hijacked viruses: genomic and functional evolution of polydnaviruses". Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 368 (1626 ...
Filoviridae - Vicipaedia
Ebola and Marburg Viruses-Molecular and Cellular Biology. Wymondham Norfolciae: Horizon Bioscience. ISBN 978-0-9545232-3-7. ... Virus Taxonomy-Sixth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Archives of Virology Supplement. 10. Vienna ... Virus Taxonomy-Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. San Diego, USA: Academic Press. pp. 539-48 ... Virus Taxonomy-Eighth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. San Diego, USA: Elsevier/Academic Press. pp ...
T细胞 - 维基百科，自由的百科全书
IL-10 Induces T Cell Exhaustion During Transplantation of Virus Infected Hearts. Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry. 2016, 38 ... Hepatitis B Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells Maintain Functional Exhaustion after Antigen Reexposure in an Acute Activation Immune ... Role of regulatory T cells during virus infection. Immunological Reviews. September 2013, 255 (1): 182-96. PMC 3748387. PMID ... Cell-intrinsic transforming growth factor-beta signaling mediates virus-specific CD8+ T cell deletion and viral persistence in ...
Lee PP, Linial ML (1994). "Efficient particle formation can occur if the matrix domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ... N-myristoyltransferase 2 Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. ... of gag proteins of HIV-1 plays an important role in virus ... Tashiro A, Shoji S, Kubota Y (1990). "Antimyristoylation of the gag proteins in the human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells ... Goddard C, Aquino A, Glazer RI, Felsted RL (1989). "Chemical characterization of p17gag from human immunodeficiency virus as an ...
This processing appears to allow the virus to bind to cellular proteins enabling it to fuse with internal cellular membranes ... The four are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and one simply called Ebola virus (EBOV, ... The virus responsible for the initial outbreak, first thought to be Marburg virus, was later identified as a new type of virus ... Main articles: Ebola virus cases in the United States, Ebola virus disease in Spain, and Ebola virus disease in the United ...
PML is caused by activation of JC virus, a common virus in the brain which is usually latent. Reactivation of the JC virus ... The Fc portion of rituximab mediates antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC ... "Chronic Hepatitis After Hepatitis E Virus Infection in a Patient With Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Taking Rituximab" (PDF). Retrieved ... myasthenia gravis and Epstein-Barr virus-positive mucocutaneous ulcers. It is given by slow injection into a vein.[ ...
"Neural mechanisms of respiratory syncytial virus-induced inflammation and prevention of respiratory syncytial virus sequelae". ... SP amplifies or excites most cellular processes.. Substance P is a key first responder to most noxious/extreme stimuli ... Respiratory syncytial and related viruses appear to upregulate SP receptors, and rat studies suggest that NK1RAs may be useful ... Editorial: impact of substance p on cellular immunity. 22, 93-98 (2008). ...
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
There is now a greater appreciation of the generalized cellular injury and obstruction in hepatic vein sinuses, and hepatic VOD ... the virus was once again detected in both patients some time after the discontinuation of therapy. ... and the cells must be cooled very slowly in a controlled-rate freezer to prevent osmotic cellular injury during ice crystal ...
PML is caused by activation of JC virus, a common virus in the brain which is usually latent. Reactivation of the JC virus ... The Fc portion of rituximab mediates antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC ... myasthenia gravis and Epstein-Barr virus-positive mucocutaneous ulcers. It is given by slow injection into a vein.[ ... Rituximab mechanisms of action; the three major independent mechanisms are (1) antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC ...
Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, including protozoa, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. ... Subspecialties include transfusion medicine, cellular pathology, clinical chemistry, hematology, clinical microbiology and ... the knowledge of what happens at the cellular and molecular level in the tissues being stitched arises through science. ...
Evolution of biological complexity
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 72 (21): 4063-4076. doi:10.1007/s00018-015-1990-3. ISSN 1420-682X.. ... "How a neutral evolutionary ratchet can build cellular complexity". IUBMB Life. 63 (7): 528-537. doi:10.1002/iub.489.. ... especially multi-cellular organisms) is much smaller than in prokaryotes, they experience lower selection constraints. ...
Vesicular stomatitis virusEdit. See also: Oncolytic virus. In 2000, researchers used the vesicular stomatitis virus, or VSV, to ... and release and recruitment of cellular mediators (e.g., cytokines) that disrupt normal parenchymal function. ... Neurofibromatosis, exposure to vinyl chloride, Epstein-Barr virus, ionizing radiation. ... Epstein-Barr virus and ionizing radiation. The evidence for mobile phone exposure is not clear. The most common ...
Antibody - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
To fulfill energy requirements, MP also interacts with P10, which is a cellular ATPase. In 1897, foot-and-mouth disease virus ( ... deformed wing virus, acute bee paralysis virus, Drosophila C virus, Rhopalosiphum padi virus, and Himetobi P virus. Several ... This family includes Infectious flacherie virus and SeIV-1 virus. Another virus is Nora virus from Drosophila melanogaster. ... Bovine rhinitis A virus Bovine rhinitis B virus Equine rhinitis A virus Foot-and-mouth disease virus Genus: Aquamavirus ...
... can be infected by double-stranded DNA viruses that are unrelated to any other form of virus and have a variety of ... Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences (CMLS). 54 (4): 305-308. doi:10.1007/s000180050156.. ... the latter virus has the largest currently reported ssDNA genome. Defenses against these viruses may involve RNA interference ... Photosynthesis, cellular respiration and fermentation. Reproduction. Asexual reproduction, horizontal gene transfer. Asexual ...
"Molecular and Cellular Biology. 20 (13): 4754-64. doi:10.1128/mcb.20.13.4754-4764.2000. PMC 85905. PMID 10848601.. ... MicroRNAs also play a role in replicating viruses such as HIV-1. Novel HIV-1-encoded microRNA have been found to enhance ... Tripathi, G. (2010). Cellular and Biochemical Science. New Delhi: I.K. International Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. pp. 373-374. ... The TATA-binding protein (TBP) could also be targeted by viruses as a means of viral transcription. ...
"Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Hansman, GS (editor) (2010). Caliciviruses: Molecular and Cellular ... Newbury-1 virus Genus Norovirus; type species: Norwalk virus Genus Sapovirus; type species: Sapporo virus Genus Vesivirus; type ... Norwalk virus Genus: Sapovirus Sapporo virus Genus: Vesivirus Feline calicivirus Vesicular exanthema of swine virus Two ... European brown hare syndrome virus Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus Genus: Nebovirus Newbury-1 virus Genus: Norovirus ...
Single particle analysis
These viruses infect fish and other aquatic animals. The reconstruction has high enough resolution to have amino acid side ... This huge enzyme complex is responsible for building the long chain fatty acids essential for cellular life. A 0.33 nanometer ... Methods are also available for making 3D reconstructions of helical samples (such as tobacco mosaic virus), taking advantage of ... "3.3 A cryo-EM structure of a nonenveloped virus reveals a priming mechanism for cell entry". Cell. 141 (3): 472-82. doi:10.1016 ...
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Carol Greider, who in 1992 discovered a relationship between cellular aging and damage to the ends of chromosomes, called ... Upon taking charge in 1968, he focused the Laboratory on cancer research, creating a tumor virus group and successfully ... Louis, sought to discover the nature of genes through study of viruses called bacteriophages that infect bacteria. ... "for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses." ...
The recruitment of cellular membranes and cytoskeleton to generate virus replication sites can also benefit viruses in other ... Viroplasms have been found in the cauliflower mosaic virus, rotavirus, vaccinia virus and the rice dwarf virus. These appear ... viroplasms of mammalian viruses contain certain elements of the cellular degradation machinery which might enable cellular ... Viroplasms are formed early during the infection; in many cases, the cellular rearrangements caused during virus infection lead ...
... activation with cellular viremia and plasma HIV RNA levels in asymptomatic patients infected by human immunodeficiency virus ... Analytical Cellular Pathology, 1994; 6:377-394. K. Strauss, F. Hulstaert, V. Deneys, A. Mazzon, I. Hannet, M. DeBruyere, T. ... His interest in immunology has led to publications in HIV disease, cellular activation and natural killer cell function, tumor ... Performance Evaluation of the FACSCount system: a dedicated system for clinical cellular analysis. Cytometry, 1996; 26:52-59. B ...
Boulpaep EL, Boron WF (2005). Medical physiology: a cellular and molecular approach. St. Louis, Mo: Elsevier Saunders. p. 90. ... or parts of the outside of a virus or microbe. The endogenously designated -molecule for a particular receptor is referred to ... Each receptor is linked to a specific cellular biochemical pathway. While numerous receptors are found in most cells, each ... The N terminus interacts with other cellular transcription factors in a ligand-independent manner; and, depending on these ...
Scientists have struggled to decide whether viruses are alive or not. Viruses lack common characteristics of a living cell, ... Other cellular processesEdit. *Active transport and Passive transport - Movement of molecules into and out of cells. ... Cells contains specialized sub-cellular compartments including cell membrane, cytoplasm and ribosomes. See organelle. ... Inside of the cell are extensive internal sub-cellular membrane-bounded compartments called organelles. ...
Additionally, analysis of the sub-cellular localization of JC CPN virions in nuclei, cytoplasm, and axons suggests that the ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. LCV Lymphocytic ... The JC virus or John Cunningham virus is a type of human polyomavirus (formerly known as papovavirus). It was identified by ...
فهرست یهودیان برنده جایزه نوبل - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
Index of HIV/AIDS-related articles
... herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) - herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) - herpes varicella zoster virus (VZV) - herpes viruses - highly ... cellular immunity - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) - Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) - ... human papilloma virus (HPV) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV- ... human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) - human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) - human leukocyte antigens (HLA) - ...
White blood cell
CD8+ cytotoxic T cells: virus-infected and tumor cells.. *γδ T cells: bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses; ... cellular differentiation lineage). Lymphocytes can be further classified as T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells. ... Natural killer cells: virus-infected and tumor cells.. Deeply staining, eccentric. NK-cells and cytotoxic (CD8+) T-cells. Years ... These cells bind antigens presented on MHC I complex of virus-infected or tumour cells and kill them. Nearly all nucleated ...
Tulane virus recognizes sialic acids as cellular receptors | Scientific Reports
In this study, we demonstrated that Tulane virus (TV), a cultivable primate calicivirus, also recognizes SAs in addition to the ... Our findings further highlight TV as a valuable surrogate for huNoVs, particularly in studying virus-host interactions that may ... pointed to a new direction in studying virus-host interactions during calicivirus infection. HuNoVs remain difficult to study ... How to cite this article: Tan, M. et al. Tulane virus recognizes sialic acids as cellular receptors. Sci. Rep. 5, 11784; doi: ...
Viruses | Free Full-Text | Cellular Prion Protein: From Physiology to Pathology
The processing of APP has been extensively studied, while the identity of the cellular proteases involved in the proteolysis of ... The human cellular prion protein (PrPC) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored membrane glycoprotein with two N- ... Viruses 2012, 4, 3109-3131. AMA Style. Yusa S-I, Oliveira-Martins JB, Sugita-Konishi Y, Kikuchi Y. Cellular Prion Protein: From ... "Cellular Prion Protein: From Physiology to Pathology." Viruses 4, no. 11: 3109-3131. ...
Molecular Signaling and Cellular Pathways for Virus Entry
... we discuss some recent advances in our understanding of cellular pathways for virus entry, molecular signaling during virus ... including vaccinia virus, HIV-1, coxsackievirus B (CVB), herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), african swine fever virus (ASFV ... many microorganisms or viruses like Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), herpesviruses, and adeno-associated virus (AAV) also ... but in some viruses like Influenza A virus and semliki forest virus (SFV), are associated with the sorting and transport to LE ...
Viruses | Free Full-Text | Cellular Prion Protein: From Physiology to Pathology | HTML
The processing of APP has been extensively studied, while the identity of the cellular proteases involved in the proteolysis of ... The human cellular prion protein (PrPC) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored membrane glycoprotein with two N- ... but not a virus. However, a new paradigm has appeared since normal cellular PrPC was found and examined. In 1998, Weissmanns ... Cellular Prion Protein: From Physiology to Pathology. Sei-ichi Yusa 1, José B. Oliveira-Martins 2, Yoshiko Sugita-Konishi 1 and ...
Team learns how cellular protein detects viruses, sparks immune response
A study led by researchers at the University of Illinois reveals how a cellular protein recognizes an invading virus and alerts ... Team learns how cellular protein detects viruses, sparks immune response. 20.02.2009 ... cellular RNAs »cellular protein »genomic »immune cell »immune response »protein-induced fluorescent enhancement »synthetic ... cellular RNAs , cellular protein , genomic , immune cell , immune response , protein-induced fluorescent enhancement , ...
Tumor Viruses and Cellular Gene Expression | Cancer Research
Noncanonical antibody strategy for broad and potent neutralization of influenza virus | Cellular & Molecular Immunology
... such as influenza virus. The inhibition of functional activity essential for virus physiology in the case of influenza virus ... Influenza B viruses account for one-fourth of influenza infections, and contrary to influenza A viruses, they have not yet ... Krammer, K. The human antibody response to influenza A virus infection and vaccination. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 19, 383-397 (2019). ... Noncanonical antibody strategy for broad and potent neutralization of influenza virus. *Jordan D. Dimitrov. 1. ...
Frontiers | Interplay between Inflammation and Cellular Stress Triggered by Flaviviridae Viruses | Microbiology
Virus replication results in abundant viral RNAs and proteins, which are recognized by cellular mechanisms evolved to prevent ... Virus replication results in abundant viral RNAs and proteins, which are recognized by cellular mechanisms evolved to prevent ... West Nile and Japanese Encephalitis viruses. Those are enveloped, single-stranded positive sense RNA viruses, and replicate ... West Nile and Japanese Encephalitis viruses. Those are enveloped, single-stranded positive sense RNA viruses, and replicate ...
Frontiers | Tick-Virus Interactions: Toll Sensing | Cellular and Infection Microbiology
The assumption has been that the tick host and virus have evolved to reach an equilibrium whereby virus infection does not ... The assumption has been that the tick host and virus have evolved to reach an equilibrium whereby virus infection does not ... including viruses. But do they play a similar role in detection of virus infection in ticks, and if they do, how does this ... including viruses. But does Toll signaling play a similar role in detection of virus infection in ticks, and if it do... ...
Virus Subverts Cellular Defense for Reproduction and Escape
... Apr 27, 2005, 02:27, Reviewed by: Dr. ... Virus Subverts Cellular Defense for Reproduction and Escape. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0030195. Published: April 26, 2005. ... New human retrovirus - Xenotropic MuLV-related virus (XMRV). Viruses can be forced to evolve as better delivery vehicles for ... This may increase the virus s chance of avoiding immune system detection as it infects new cells. - (2005) The Nuclear ...
Human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infectivity and cellular transformation. - PubMed - NCBI
Human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infectivity and cellular transformation.. Matsuoka M1, Jeang KT. ... Laboratory of Virus Immunology, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Japan.. Abstract. It has been 30 years since a ... We discuss HTLV-1 infectivity and how the HTLV-1 Tax oncoprotein initiates transformation by creating a cellular environment ... human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), that causes this disease. ...
JCI - Anthrax toxin receptor 1 is the cellular receptor for Seneca Valley virus
These studies identify ANTXR1, a class of receptor that is shared by a mammalian virus and a bacterial toxin, as the cellular ... Anthrax toxin receptor 1 is the cellular receptor for Seneca Valley virus. ... Anthrax toxin receptor 1 is the cellular receptor for Seneca Valley virus. ... Seneca Valley virus (SVV) is an oncolytic picornavirus with selective tropism for neuroendocrine cancers. It has shown promise ...
PhD Opening: An artificial virus replicating in a cellular host - WUR
PhD Opening: An artificial virus replicating in a cellular host. Viruses are among the simplest biological systems and are ... Artificial viruses can be used as model systems for providing insights into natural viruses and can be considered a testing ... The artificial virus particles produced using these proteins protect their nucleic acid cargo and feature significant ... the replication of an artificial virus particle in E. coli, from an artificial viral genome. ...
Distinct Cellular Interactions of Secreted and Transmembrane Ebola Virus Glycoproteins | Science
Distinct Cellular Interactions of Secreted and Transmembrane Ebola Virus Glycoproteins. By Zhi-yong Yang, Rafael Delgado, Ling ... Distinct Cellular Interactions of Secreted and Transmembrane Ebola Virus Glycoproteins. By Zhi-yong Yang, Rafael Delgado, Ling ... Distinct Cellular Interactions of Secreted and Transmembrane Ebola Virus Glycoproteins Message Subject. (Your Name) has ... In these groups, GP virus titer was 1 × 105 to 4 × 105/ml and amphotropic virus was ∼2 × 104/ml (MOIs ∼ 1.0 and 0.1, ...
Identification of the leukemogenic protein of avian myeloblastosis virus and of its normal cellular homologue | PNAS
Identification of the leukemogenic protein of avian myeloblastosis virus and of its normal cellular homologue. W J Boyle, J S ... The genome of the replication-defective avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) contains an inserted cellular sequence (amv) that is ... Identification of the leukemogenic protein of avian myeloblastosis virus and of its normal cellular homologue ... Identification of the leukemogenic protein of avian myeloblastosis virus and of its normal cellular homologue ...
Cellular transformation by Simian Virus 40 and Murine Polyoma Virus T antigens. - PubMed - NCBI
Cellular transformation by Simian Virus 40 and Murine Polyoma Virus T antigens.. Cheng J1, DeCaprio JA, Fluck MM, Schaffhausen ... Simian Virus 40 (SV40) and Mouse Polyoma Virus (PY) are small DNA tumor viruses that have been used extensively to study ... Cellular Transformation by Simian Virus 40 and Murine Polyoma Virus T antigens ... Cellular Transformation by Simian Virus 40 and Murine Polyoma Virus T antigens ...
The Intraviral Protein Interaction Network of Hepatitis C Virus | Molecular & Cellular Proteomics
Molecular & Cellular Proteomics July 1, 2014, First published on May 5, 2014, 13 (7) 1676-1689; DOI: 10.1074/mcp.M113.036301 ... Molecular & Cellular Proteomics July 1, 2014, First published on May 5, 2014, 13 (7) 1676-1689; DOI: 10.1074/mcp.M113.036301 ... Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global health problem and one of the main reasons for chronic liver diseases such as cirrhosis and ... Your Name) has sent you a message from Molecular & Cellular Proteomics Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see ...
Virus-derived Platforms for Visualizing Protein Associations inside Cells | Molecular & Cellular Proteomics
As one of the key regulators of cellular stress, p53 interacts with a large number of cellular proteins, including CBP and p300 ... Brookes, S. M., Hyatt, A. D., and Eaton, B. T. (1993) Characterization of virus inclusion bodies in bluetongue virus-infected ... Virus-derived Platforms for Visualizing Protein Associations inside Cells. Cathy L. Miller, Michelle M. Arnold, Teresa J. ... Virus-derived Platforms for Visualizing Protein Associations inside Cells. Cathy L. Miller, Michelle M. Arnold, Teresa J. ...
Scientists Find Cellular Process That Fights Herpes Virus | Infection Control Today
Scientists have discovered a new way for our immune system to combat the elusive virus responsible for cold sores: Type 1 ... a group of virus hunters from the Université de Montréal, in collaboration with American colleagues, have identified a cellular ... Once human cells are infected with Type 1 herpes simplex, the virus comes back because it hides and blocks protection from our ... Scientists have discovered a new way for our immune system to combat the elusive virus responsible for cold sores: Type 1 ...
HAVCR2 - Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2 precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - HAVCR2 gene & protein
Reports on stimulating functions suggest that the activity may be influenced by the cellular context and/or the respective ... Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2Add BLAST. 280. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. ... Cluster: Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2. 41. Q8TDQ0-2. T0MFX3. UPI0001C397FF. UPI0000F734FF. Camelus ferus (Wild ... "Novel human hepatitis A virus cellular receptor.". Zhang W., Wan T., Li N., Cao X.. Submitted (APR-2000) to the EMBL/GenBank/ ...
Dual infection of the central nervous system by AIDS viruses with distinct cellular tropisms | Science
Both viruses were found to replicate in peripheral blood lymphocytes, but only virus from brain tissue will efficiently infect ... Dual infection of the central nervous system by AIDS viruses with distinct cellular tropisms ... Dual infection of the central nervous system by AIDS viruses with distinct cellular tropisms ... Dual infection of the central nervous system by AIDS viruses with distinct cellular tropisms ...
Effect of influenza A virus infection on natural and adaptive cellular immunity
Influenza A virus (FLU) is an important pathogen in humans. Although many features of the antiviral immune response have been ... Effect of influenza A virus infection on natural and adaptive cellular immunity Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1996 Jun;79(3):294- ... Influenza A virus (FLU) is an important pathogen in humans. Although many features of the antiviral immune response have been ... Reductions in the absolute number of T lymphocytes and in PBMNC proliferation to FLU virus antigen and mitogen were also ...
HAVCR1 - Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1 variant A - Felis catus (Cat) - HAVCR1 gene & protein
Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1 variant AImported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ... tr,A0A024A8A5,A0A024A8A5_FELCA Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1 variant A OS=Felis catus OX=9685 GN=HAVCR1 PE=2 SV=1 ... cellular organisms › Eukaryota › Opisthokonta › Metazoa › Eumetazoa › Bilateria › Deuterostomia › Chordata › Craniata › ... Keywords - Cellular componenti. Membrane. ,p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing ...
Profiling of N6-Methyladenosine in Zika Virus R NA and Host Cellular mR NA | SpringerLink
... influenza virus, and SV40 virus several decades ago. More recently, human immunodeficiency virus-1,... ... in viral RNA was first identified in Rous sarcoma virus, ... hepatitis C virus, and Zika virus (ZIKV) RNAs have also been ... N6-Methylation of adenosine (m6A) in viral RNA was first identified in Rous sarcoma virus, influenza virus, and SV40 virus ... Lichinchi G., Rana T.M. (2019) Profiling of N6-Methyladenosine in Zika Virus RNA and Host Cellular mRNA. In: Wajapeyee N., ...
The Cellular Factor NXP2/MORC3 Is a Positive Regulator of Influenza Virus Multiplication. | Sigma-Aldrich
The Cellular Factor NXP2/MORC3 Is a Positive Regulator of Influenza Virus Multiplication.. [Lorena S Ver, Laura Marcos-Villar, ... suggesting that NXP2/MORC3 is important for influenza virus transcription. Influenza virus infections appear as yearly ... Influenza virus infection led to a slight increase in NXP2/MORC3 expression and its partial relocalization to the cytoplasm. ... Transcription and replication of influenza A virus are carried out in the nuclei of infected cells in the context of viral ...
Interactions Between Tobamovirus Replication Proteins and Cellular Factors: Their Impacts on Virus Multiplication
Interactions with some cellular factors, however, are inhibitory to virus multiplication and contribute to host range ... The interactions that have positive and negative impacts on virus multiplication should have been maintained and lost, ... respectively, during adaptation of the viruses to their respective natural hosts. This review lists the host factors that ... interact with the replication proteins of tobamovirus and discusses how they influence multiplication of the virus. ...
Nucleotide sequence of the simian sarcoma virus genome: demonstration that its acquired cellular sequences encode the...
Like other transforming viruses, SSV contains sequences derived from its helper virus, simian sarcoma-associated virus (SSAV), ... Nucleotide sequence of the simian sarcoma virus genome: demonstration that its acquired cellular sequences encode the ... Nucleotide sequence of the simian sarcoma virus genome: demonstration that its acquired cellular sequences encode the ... Nucleotide sequence of the simian sarcoma virus genome: demonstration that its acquired cellular sequences encode the ...
Phosphorylation and membrane association of the Rubella virus capsid protein is important for its anti-apoptotic function -...
Mir, M.A., Duran, W.A., Hjelle, B.L., Ye, C., and Panganiban, A.T. (2008) Storage of cellular 5′ mRNA caps in P bodies for ... 2013) Rubella virus capsid protein structure and its role in virus assembly and infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110: 20105- ... Yao, J., and Gillam, S. (1999) Mutational analysis, using a full-length rubella virus cDNA clone, of rubella virus E1 ... Interactions between rubella virus capsid and host protein p32 are important for virus replication. J Virol 79: 10807-10820.. * ...
Important Roles of Cellular MicroRNA miR-155 in Leukemogenesis by Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Infection
Cellular Immune Responses to Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)- Longitudinal Follow up and Natural History - Full Text View -...
Cellular Immune Responses to Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)- Longitudinal Follow up and Natural History. This study has been completed ... Cellular Immune Responses to Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)- Longitudinal Follow up and Natural History. ... Virus Diseases. Enterovirus Infections. Picornaviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae ... this process by collecting blood and analysing how the patients white blood cells respond to different pieces of the HBV virus ...
InfectionProteinsReplicationDengue VirusProteinReceptorRNAsInfectionsInducesCapsidReceptorsImmune responseGenesProliferationSimianInnateInteractionHumansGenomesInfectivityMechanismWest NileSingle-strandedInterferonMammalianProcessesVectorsReplicateGlycoproteinsEndosomalMicrobiologyGene ExpressionSV40MRNA exportFlavivirusAntiviral drugsMolecular and CelMechanismsImmunology
- The recent discovery that human noroviruses (huNoVs) recognize sialic acids (SAs) in addition to histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) pointed to a new direction in studying virus-host interactions during calicivirus infection. (nature.com)
- Our findings further highlight TV as a valuable surrogate for huNoVs, particularly in studying virus-host interactions that may involve two host carbohydrate receptors or co-receptors for infection. (nature.com)
- Attachment to a host cell receptor is the first, essential step for a virus to initiate a successful infection. (nature.com)
- A study led by researchers at the University of Illinois reveals how a cellular protein recognizes an invading virus and alerts the body to the infection. (innovations-report.com)
- In rare cases, infection of humans with HIV-1 or influenza virus results in production of antibodies that can neutralize a very broad spectrum of viral strains. (nature.com)
- Virus replication results in abundant viral RNAs and proteins, which are recognized by cellular mechanisms evolved to prevent virus infection, resulting in inflammation and stress responses. (frontiersin.org)
- The major focus of investigation of tick-borne viruses has been the interaction with the mammalian host, particularly the mechanisms underlying disease and the development of vaccines to prevent infection. (frontiersin.org)
- The assumption has been that the tick host and virus have evolved to reach an equilibrium whereby virus infection does not impede the tick life cycle and conversely, the tick does not restrict virus replication and through blood-feeding on vertebrates, disseminates the virus. (frontiersin.org)
- But does Toll signaling play a similar role in detection of virus infection in ticks, and if it does, how does this affect the maintenance of viruses within the tick? (frontiersin.org)
- The interaction of most tick-borne viruses with vertebrate hosts leads to a transient infection that causes morbidity and mortality. (frontiersin.org)
- Infection with a virulent virus in a vertebrate host is usually short-lived and, if the host survives, eliminated by the rapid induction of antibodies and subsequent development of cell-mediated responses. (frontiersin.org)
- By PLoS Biology, Against the constant threat of infection by bacteria or viruses, one line of defense for the eukaryotic cell is the autophagosome. (rxpgnews.com)
- The specific cellular targets of these related gene products and their roles in the pathogenesis of Ebola infection have not been characterized. (sciencemag.org)
- These results document that FLU infection was accompanied by enhancement of natural immunity and, as expected, suppression of most of the other measured parameters of cellular immunity. (nih.gov)
- The normal response to FLU infection in humans may involve sequential modulation of the different components of the cellular immune system. (nih.gov)
- Immunopathogenesis of hepatitis B virus infection. (davidson.edu)
- Immunology of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection. (davidson.edu)
- Influenza virus infection led to a slight increase in NXP2/MORC3 expression and its partial relocalization to the cytoplasm. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Here we characterized the role of the human NXP2/MORC3 protein, a member of the Microrchidia family that is associated with the nuclear matrix, during virus infection. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- While it is widely assumed that the immune response of the patient to the virus infection limits the utility of the therapy, investigations into the specific cell type(s) involved in this response have been performed using nonspecific pharmacologic inhibitors or allogeneic models with compromised immunity. (aacrjournals.org)
- To identify the immune cells that participate in clearing an oncolytic infection in glioma, we used flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry to immunophenotype an orthotopic glioma model in immunocompetent mice after Myxoma virus (MYXV) administration. (aacrjournals.org)
- Interferon-α (IFN-α) is used to treat chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, but only 20%-40% of patients respond well. (nih.gov)
- The aim of this work is to analyse the global dynamics of an extended mathematical model of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in vivo with cellular proliferation, spontaneous cure and hepatocyte homeostasis. (scirp.org)
- A model of human immunodeficiency virus infection was adapted by Neumann et al. (scirp.org)
- model for HCV infection included three differential equations representing the populations of target cells, productively infected cells, and virus. (scirp.org)
- Cellular immune response to hepatitis B virus-encoded antigens in acute and chronic hepatitis B virus infection. (jimmunol.org)
- The proliferative response of PBMC to hepatitis B virus (HBV) envelope, core, and e Ag was analyzed prospectively in 21 patients with acute self-limited HBV infection and compared with the response of patients with chronic HBV infection and different levels of HBV replication (i.e., hepatitis e Ag (HBeAg)- or anti-HBe-positive) and liver damage (i.e., chronic active hepatitis or chronic asymptomatic carriers). (jimmunol.org)
- The matrix (MA) protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) plays a critical role in virion morphogenesis and fulfills important functions during the early steps of infection. (epfl.ch)
- But Bieniasz and his colleagues found that for HIV and other viruses, certain spellings, or specific variants in the genetic code, are critical for viral replication and infection. (technologynetworks.com)
- In seeking to identify parts of the HIV genome that enable infection, the researchers generated mutant versions of the virus. (technologynetworks.com)
- The researchers hypothesized that a cellular surveillance system might exist to identify and destroy CG sequences, thereby preventing viral infection. (technologynetworks.com)
- It has also become clear that the state of chromatin of the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) genome is dynamically regulated during both productive and latent stages of infection. (asm.org)
- The results in this report represent the first evidence that cellular chromatin-remodeling proteins, and SNF2H in particular, can play important roles in regulating the chromatin state of the HSV-1 genome during infection. (asm.org)
- The double-stranded DNA genome of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) associates with histones to form chromatin rapidly following infection of a host cell, and the resulting chromatin structure is dynamically regulated throughout productive HSV-1 infection (1-3). (asm.org)
- The goal was to determine if these peptides could induce resistance to subsequent virus infection after rinsing cells to remove peptide. (arvojournals.org)
- None of the currently known mechanisms of cellular immunity to virus infection, such as IFN induction, seem to account for the rapidity with which MTPs can protect cells. (arvojournals.org)
- The results raise the possibility that these peptides could be used to prevent virus infection, which would make a significant impact on infection with various viruses. (arvojournals.org)
- Journal Article] Unique infection strategy of H5N1 avian influenza virus is governed by the acid-destabilized property of hemagglutinin. (nii.ac.jp)
- These findings underscore the contribution of virus-specific central memory T lymphocytes in controlling clinical progression in vaccinated individuals following a primate immunodeficiency virus infection. (springer.com)
- Seventy-nine human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-seropositive homosexual men participating in a longitudinal study of HIV-1 infection were assessed twice, 6 months apart, to investigate associations between bereavement and cellular immune function. (asm.org)
- The only long-term solution to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in the developing world is likely to be a vaccine that either prevents infection or substantially reduces transmission. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- An HIV vaccine that induces cellular immune responses, therefore, should aim to limit peak viremia in acute infection and to reduce chronic-phase plasma viral concentrations from the median level of ~30,000 copies/ml in untreated patients, to levels at which transmission is unlikely. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection of hepatocytes begins by binding to its cellular receptor sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), followed by the internalization of viral nucleocapsid into the cytoplasm. (physiciansweekly.com)
- Here we conducted targeted genetic screening in combination with chemical inhibition to identify the cellular DNA polymerase(s) responsible for cccDNA formation, and exploited recombinant HBV with capsid coding deficiency which infects HepG2-NTCP cells with similar efficiency of wild-type HBV to assure cccDNA synthesis is exclusively from de novo HBV infection. (physiciansweekly.com)
- Nucleot(s)ide analogues and peginterferon (PEG-IFN) treatment are the only approved therapies for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. (asm.org)
- The functional consequences of this variation in cellular multiplicity of infection (MOI) remain poorly understood. (flu.org.cn)
- Here, we rigorously quantify the phenotypic consequences of cellular MOI during influenza A virus (IAV) infection over a single round of replication in terms of cell death rates, viral output kinetics, interferon and antiviral effector gene transcription, and superinfection potential. (flu.org.cn)
- We further observe that a model in which the rate and efficiency of virus production increase with cellular co-infection best fits our observations in MDCK cells, but not in A549 cells. (flu.org.cn)
- This finding identifies a role for cellular co-infection in shaping the innate immune response to IAV infection. (flu.org.cn)
- Overall, this study suggests that the extent of cellular co-infection by influenza viruses may be a critical determinant of both viral production kinetics and cellular infection outcomes in a host cell type-dependent manner. (flu.org.cn)
- In the case of the chronic infection with HIV, it is shown how the virus can mutate and avoid recognition and elimination by the immune response. (uu.nl)
- This process is attributed to the failing of HIV-infected patients to control the infection and it is shown how rapid the virus can escape the immune response. (uu.nl)
- Then, following infection of influenza or Akabane virus, we selected cells resistant to virus infections. (nii.ac.jp)
- However, substantial reductions in RNA replication levels were observed at early time points following infection of naïve cells with the infectious mutant virus particles. (gla.ac.uk)
- Detailed analysis of this mutant revealed its replication properties resembled those of the WT virus following both electroporation of the viral RNA into cells and infection of naïve cells with the virus particles, demonstrating that the core-DDX3 interaction is dispensable for virus replication in cell culture. (gla.ac.uk)
- Mammalian cell expressed dengue VLPs are capable to induce VLP-specific humoral and cellular immune responses in mice, and being a promising subunit vaccine candidate for prevention of dengue virus infection. (biomedcentral.com)
- One possible function is resistance to infection by related viruses. (peerj.com)
- The widespread occurrence of non-retroviral RNA virus genes in eukaryotes may reflect an underappreciated method of host resistance to infection. (peerj.com)
- For a better prevention and treatment of the infection, an increased knowledge of the infectious process of the virus is required. (biomedcentral.com)
- Our results suggest that the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor subunit 2 (Cpsf2), the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (cyclophilin)-like 2 protein (Ppil2), and the synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) are the most promising targets for the NSm protein of the virus during an infection. (biomedcentral.com)
- In this study, we have investigated in detail the cellular pattern of lymphoid response associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) reactivation, and compared it with the pattern of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and with the typical diagnostic findings of acute cellular rejection. (uni-regensburg.de)
- Thus, the cellular patterns of HCV reactivation and CMV infection differed slightly from each other, but significantly from that of acute liver allograft rejection monitored with the FNAB cytology. (uni-regensburg.de)
- Antibodies to viruses produced after infection or vaccination can protect the host by virus neutralization or through antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). (sciencemag.org)
- The identity of the cell surface receptor (or receptors) that mediates infection of human hepatocytes by Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has proven elusive. (scitechnol.com)
- consideration of what is known about HCV infection is worth considering as the viruses are share the same cell tropism. (scitechnol.com)
- Although increased frequency of HepaRG cell polarization was associated with increased virus infection, disruption of tight junctions also lead to increased levels of HBV. (scitechnol.com)
- The outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) and associated fetal microcephaly mandates efforts to understand the molecular processes of infection. (5055.cn)
- While CD4 and several chemokine receptors are the principal receptors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viruses, other cell membrane proteins also play a role in HIV-1 infection. (elsevier.com)
- Hence, LFA-1, ICAM-1, and other cellular adhesion molecules are involved in different stages of HIV-1 infection and profoundly affect HIV-1 neutralization by virus-specific antibodies. (elsevier.com)
- Rubella virus causes a relatively benign disease in most cases, although infection during pregnancy can result in serious birth defects. (cdc.gov)
- The herpes simplex virus regulatory protein ICP27 contributes to the decrease in cellular mRNA levels during infection. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- The DF-1 chicken fibroblast cell line: transformation induced by diverse oncogenes and cell death resulting from infection by avian leukosis viruses. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Translational control of viral and host protein synthesis during the course of herpes simplex virus type 1 infection: evidence that initiation of translation is the limiting step. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- First, using deep sequencing, we demonstrate that infection of human cells by the RNA virus dengue virus (DENV) or West Nile virus (WNV) does not result in the production of any virus-derived siRNAs or viral miRNAs. (elsevier.com)
- In a recently published study from Nature , a team of researchers have found that for HIV and other viruses, specific variants in the genetic code are critical for viral replication and infection. (id-hub.com)
- Double-tagged viruses consisting of an eGFP-tagged PFV capsid (Gag-eGFP) and mCherry-tagged Env (Ch-Env) from either PFV or macaque simian FV (SFVmac) were observed during early stages of the infection pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
- HBcAg is one of the three major clinical antigens of hepatitis B virus but disappears early in the course of infection. (abcam.com)
- Overexpression of stannin specifically inhibits infection by several HPV types, but not other viruses tested. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- The depletion of TRBP also lifted cellular IFNβ level without infection. (ed.ac.uk)
- Given though their ability to bind exogenous DNA in a sequence-independent manner 7,11,14-16 , emerging evidence strongly supports the idea that the PYHIN proteins play a central role in activating the intrinsic and innate response upon DNA virus infection. (sciencetrends.com)
- New research from Alfredo Castello's laboratory published in Molecular Cell has discovered that virus infection rewires cellular RNA-binding proteins on a global level. (ox.ac.uk)
- However, which of these host proteins are required for virus infection remains largely unknown. (ox.ac.uk)
- Alfredo's group developed a novel technique called 'comparative RNA interactome capture' to interrogate which RNA-binding proteins are involved in the infection of a model virus called Sindbis (SINV). (ox.ac.uk)
- This work uncovered that SINV infection alters the activity of more than 200 cellular RNA-binding proteins, thus rewiring cellular RNA metabolism (Figure 1). (ox.ac.uk)
- They discovered that cells lacking the exonuclease XRN1, mediator cellular RNA clearance, become resistant to SINV infection. (ox.ac.uk)
- Therefore, cellular RNA degradation emerges as a key process supporting viral infection. (ox.ac.uk)
- Moreover, their study revealed that the cellular protein GEMIN5 binds to the viral RNAs and inhibits their translation, which represents a new antiviral mechanism to control virus infection. (ox.ac.uk)
- System-wide profiling of RNA-binding proteins uncovers key regulators of virus infection. (ox.ac.uk)
- Infection of susceptible cells by herpes simplex virus (HSV) requires the interaction of the HSV gD glycoprotein with one of two principal entry receptors, herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM) or nectins. (northwestern.edu)
- Psychiatric hospitalizations among children and youths with human immunodeficiency virus infection. (cdc.gov)
- Objective: Psychiatric manifestations of pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have been described. (cdc.gov)
- This machinery initiates with cell type specific cellular signaling pathways, and the signaling compounds can be proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. (hindawi.com)
- Pathogens with high levels of genetic variability, such as HIV-1 and influenza virus, evade the immune system by constantly changing their proteins vulnerable to neutralization by antibodies Consequently, these highly evolvable viruses are notoriously elusive targets for vaccines. (nature.com)
- Simultaneously, the synthesis of virus RNA and proteins are distinguished in different compartments such as mitochondria, ER and cytoplasmic granules, triggering intracellular stress pathways, including oxidative stress, unfolded protein response pathway, and stress granules assembly. (frontiersin.org)
- This polyprotein is targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where it is processed by virus and host's encoded proteases to form the structural proteins (capsid protein C and envelope protein E) and non-structural proteins (NS), which participate in replication, polyprotein processing and virion assembly. (frontiersin.org)
- The artificial virus particles produced using these proteins protect their nucleic acid cargo and feature significant transfection efficiency. (wur.nl)
- The negative-stranded genome of Ebola virus contains seven structural and regulatory proteins ( 5 ), but despite its relative simplicity, the molecular basis for Ebola virus pathogenicity is unknown. (sciencemag.org)
- MT, its principal phosphorylation sites, and its interaction with cellular proteins are shown. (nih.gov)
- Using either endogenous p53 or a second fluorescently tagged fusion of p53 with the rotavirus NSP5 protein, we demonstrated p53 oligomerization as well as p53 association with another of its cellular interaction partners, the CREB-binding proteins, within the inclusions. (mcponline.org)
- We previously identified a set of polymerase-associated cellular proteins by proteomic analysis of polymerase-containing intracellular complexes expressed and purified from human cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- This review lists the host factors that interact with the replication proteins of tobamovirus and discusses how they influence multiplication of the virus. (apsnet.org)
- Identification of five interferon-induced cellular proteins that inhibit west nile virus and dengue virus infections. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- EBV) produce small vesicles or sacs called exosomes, changing their cellular "cargo" of proteins and RNA. (unclineberger.org)
- Significantly, EBV also changes the entire contents of the exosomes to deliver cellular proteins that are also activated in cancers. (unclineberger.org)
- The next step," explains David Meckes, PhD, postdoctoral fellow in the Raab-Traub lab and first author of the paper, "is to determine how the virus controls which proteins are sorted into exosomes and how this process could be inhibited. (unclineberger.org)
- Intuitively, this is unexpected, because all of the proteins-the workhorses of the virus-are exactly the same," Bieniasz explains. (technologynetworks.com)
- Importin-α adaptor proteins orchestrate dynamic nuclear transport processes involved in cellular homeostasis. (genscript.com)
- Nevertheless, IF analysis of JFH1-infected cells has shown a proportion of DDX3 is redistributed to distinct cytoplasmic sites where it colocalises with core, implying that these two proteins interact during virus replication. (gla.ac.uk)
- The focus of this work was to identify protein-protein interactions between the non-structural protein (NSm), encoded by the M-segment of the virus, and host cell proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
- We have identified nine murine proteins that interact with NSm protein of Rift Valley Fever virus, and the putative protein-protein interactions were confirmed by growth selection procedures and β-gal activity measurements. (biomedcentral.com)
- The cellular receptor, entry process, virus proteins trafficking and assembly were also mapped in detail. (nus.edu.sg)
- Most current models of HCV entry recognize a role for four distinct putative cellular co-receptors - the tight junction proteins claudin-1 and occludin, as well as the scavenger receptor-B1 (SR-BI) and the tetraspanin family protein CD81 [ 3 ]. (scitechnol.com)
- The capsid of spherical viruses is built from a limited number of proteins and often displays icosahedral symmetry. (ebi.ac.uk)
- A large array of host cell- derived membrane proteins, including adhesion molecules, are incorporated into the envelope of HIV-1 virions, and the profile of host cell proteins acquired by the virus depends on the cells used to propagate the virus. (elsevier.com)
- pX ORF-II encodes two proteins, p13 II and p30 II , which are incompletely defined in the virus life cycle or HTLV-1 pathogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
- The ICP27 protein of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is the prototype of these proteins. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- SR proteins SRp20 and 9G8 contribute to efficient export of herpes simplex virus 1 mRNAs. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Influenza A viruses contain a segmented, single-(-) stranded RNA genome encoding at least 10 different proteins and are highly diverse due to hypermutation and reassortment. (ed.ac.uk)
- The processing bodies (PBs) are a form of cytoplasmic aggregates that house the cellular RNA decay machinery as well as many RNA-binding proteins and mRNAs. (nebraska.edu)
- The presence or absence of multiple nuclear localization signals (NLS) dictates the cellular compartmentalization of these proteins: in physiological conditions, IFI16 7 , MNDA 8,9 and IFIX 10 exhibit a nuclear localization while AIM2 is located in the cytoplasm 11 , 12 . (sciencetrends.com)
- RNA-binding proteins are a critical component of the cellular machinery that dictate the fate of RNA molecules. (ox.ac.uk)
- The coding region of the genome codes for three structural proteins and seven nonstructural (NS) proteins, proteins that are not incorporated into the structure of new viruses. (wikipedia.org)
- The WNV genome is first translated into a polyprotein and later cleaved by virus and host proteases into separate proteins (i.e. (wikipedia.org)
- The genome of the replication-defective avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) contains an inserted cellular sequence (amv) that is part of the oncogene responsible for acute myeloblastic leukemia in chickens infected with AMV. (pnas.org)
- Silencing of NXP2/MORC3 in a recombinant minireplicon system in which virus transcription and replication are uncoupled showed reductions in cat mRNA and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) protein accumulation but no alterations in cat vRNA levels, suggesting that NXP2/MORC3 is important for influenza virus transcription. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Primer-DNA formation during simian virus 40 DNA replication in vitro. (asm.org)
- Studies of simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA replication in vitro have identified a small (approximately 30-nucleotide) RNA-DNA hybrid species termed primer-DNA. (asm.org)
- They are used to investigate the ability of the immune response to suppress the replication of the virus. (uu.nl)
- One example is the Sanofi Pasteur's dengue vaccine candidate, which is based on a backbone of yellow fever vaccine (YF 17D) replication genes and incorporates the envelope genes of the four dengue virus serotypes, entered its final stage of clinical development in Australia. (biomedcentral.com)
- This work demonstrates for the first time that an endogenous host protein encoded by a gene that has been naturally acquired from a virus and fixed in a eukaryote can interfere with the replication of a related virus and do so by negative complementation. (peerj.com)
- Nokta, MA & Pollard, RB 1992, ' Human immunodeficiency virus replication: Modulation by cellular levels of cAMP ', AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses , vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 1255-1261. (elsevier.com)
- Second, to more globally assess the potential of small regulatory RNAs to inhibit virus replication, we used gene editing to derive human cell lines that lack a functional Dicer enzyme and that therefore are unable to produce miRNAs or siRNAs. (elsevier.com)
- We conclude that most, and perhaps all, human viruses have evolved to be resistant to inhibition by endogenous human miRNAs during productive replication and that dependence on a cellular miRNA, as seen with hepatitis C virus, is rare. (elsevier.com)
- As virus replication is strictly dependent on infecting susceptible cells, viruses have evolved several strategies to enter their host. (biomedcentral.com)
- Further experiments using real virus showed that the depletion of ARF4/5 by siRNA could significantly reduced the replication of dengue 1 virus, dengue 4 virus and yellow fever virus, confirming the important role of ARF4 and ARF5 for not only dengue viruses but also other flaviviruses. (biomedcentral.com)
- The depletion of either TRBP or PACT led to an inhibition of influenza virus replication. (ed.ac.uk)
- Many viruses induce compositionally altered PBs, while many others use specific components of the PBs for their replication. (nebraska.edu)
- PB constituents are also known to restrict virus replication by a variety of mechanisms. (nebraska.edu)
- Their expression is very often upregulated by interferons and their presence in a specific cell type represent a severe obstacle for virus replication, forcing the latter ones to constantly evolve new ways to neutralize or evade them 4, 5 . (sciencetrends.com)
- The Flaviviridae family includes several important human pathogens such as Dengue Virus (DENV), Zika Virus (ZIKV), Yellow Fever Virus (YFV), West Nile Virus (WNV), Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV), St. Louis Encephalitis Virus (SLE), and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). (frontiersin.org)
- To identify IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) that instigate an antiviral state against two medically important flaviviruses, West Nile virus (WNV) and dengue virus (DENV), we tested 36 ISGs that are commonly induced by IFN-alpha for antiviral activity against the two viruses. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The incidence of dengue, an infectious disease caused by dengue virus (DENV), has dramatically increased around the world in recent decades and is becoming a severe public health threat. (biomedcentral.com)
- To develop an effective and safe dengue vaccine, we tested the effect of recombinant dengue virus-like particles (VLPs). (biomedcentral.com)
- However, little is known about molecular and cellular processes sustaining egress of dengue virus in the host cell. (biomedcentral.com)
- Our study uncovered the importance of class II ARFs in the egress of dengue virus. (biomedcentral.com)
- Results from this project provided information on mechanism of dengue virus assembly and its dependence on cellular machineries. (biomedcentral.com)
- It is a member of the family Flaviviridae, specifically from the genus Flavivirus, which also contains the Zika virus, dengue virus, and yellow fever virus. (wikipedia.org)
- The human cellular prion protein (PrP C ) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored membrane glycoprotein with two N-glycosylation sites at residues 181 and 197. (mdpi.com)
- Yusa S-I, Oliveira-Martins JB, Sugita-Konishi Y, Kikuchi Y. Cellular Prion Protein: From Physiology to Pathology. (mdpi.com)
- The central dogma of prion biology is that the normal cellular isoform of prion protein (PrP C ) encoded by the highly conserved single-copy gene Prnp [ 1 ] is post-translationally refolded into a partially protease resistant and β-sheet-enriched conformation (generally termed PrP Sc ) that is infectious [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
- The RIG-I protein has two major parts: caspase-recruitment domains (CARDs) and an ATPase domain that consumes ATP, the cellular fuel molecule. (innovations-report.com)
- Charles R. Madden and Betty L. Slagle, "Stimulation of Cellular Proliferation by Hepatitis B Virus X Protein," Disease Markers , vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 153-157, 2001. (hindawi.com)
- Virus RNA molecules are sensed by Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RIG-I and MDA5) and RNA-dependent protein kinases (PKR), inducing the production of inflammatory mediators and interferons. (frontiersin.org)
- One such protein family is Toll and Toll-like receptors that in vertebrates play a key role in detection of microorganisms, including viruses. (frontiersin.org)
- We also explore the contribution of a newly discovered protein and RNA on the HTLV-1 minus strand, HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ), to the maintenance of virus-induced leukaemia. (nih.gov)
- Three antisera raised against distinct synthetic peptides predicted from the long open reading frame of amv specifically precipitated the same 48-kilodalton protein (p48amv) from leukemic myeloblasts but not from normal hematopoietic tissue, fibroblasts, or from fibroblasts infected with the AMV helper virus, MAV-1 (myeloblastosis-associated virus type 1). (pnas.org)
- This normal cellular homologue of the AMV leukemogenic protein, p110proto-amv, was not present in normal fibroblasts, MAV-1 infected fibroblasts, or, interestingly, in some leukemic myeloblasts. (pnas.org)
- Protein-protein associations are vital to cellular functions. (mcponline.org)
- Furthermore using the p53-fused fluorescent μNS platform in conjunction with three-color microscopy, we identified a ternary complex comprising p53, simian virus 40 large T antigen, and retinoblastoma protein. (mcponline.org)
- Silencing of NXP2/MORC3 in an influenza virus CAT minireplicon system diminished CAT protein and cat mRNA levels but not genomic RNA levels. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2 (T Cell Immunoglobulin And Mucin Domain Containing Protein 3 or T Cell Immunoglobulin Mucin Receptor 3 or T Cell Membrane Protein 3 or CD366 or HAVCR2). (emailwire.com)
- Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2 (T Cell Immunoglobulin And Mucin Domain Containing Protein 3 or T Cell Immunoglobulin Mucin Receptor 3 or T Cell Membrane Protein 3 or CD366 or HAVCR2) pipeline Target constitutes close to 15 molecules. (emailwire.com)
- The latest report Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2 - Pipeline Review, H1 2017, outlays comprehensive information on the Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2 (T Cell Immunoglobulin And Mucin Domain Containing Protein 3 or T Cell Immunoglobulin Mucin Receptor 3 or T Cell Membrane Protein 3 or CD366 or HAVCR2) targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by indications, stage of development, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (emailwire.com)
- It also reviewsalso reviews key players involved in Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2 (T Cell Immunoglobulin And Mucin Domain Containing Protein 3 or T Cell Immunoglobulin Mucin Receptor 3 or T Cell Membrane Protein 3 or CD366 or HAVCR2) targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects. (emailwire.com)
- Although many animal viruses like HIV contain few CG sequences, and hence don't get destroyed by ZAP, the researchers speculate that the protein still serves to protect us against other pathogens. (technologynetworks.com)
- Here, we show, using a cellular vaccine carrying foreign protein antigen plus iNKT cell glycolipid antigen, designated as artificial adjuvant vector cells (aAVCs), that mature XCR1(-) DCs in situ elicit not only ordinal antigen-specific CD4(+)T cells, but also CD4(+) Tfh and germinal center, resulted in inducing long-term antibody production. (physiciansweekly.com)
- One such cellular interacting partner of core protein is the DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX3. (gla.ac.uk)
- Interestingly, sucrose gradient studies showed that DDX3 protein sedimented with the extracellular core protein from JFH1WT virus particles. (gla.ac.uk)
- Matrix protein (M1) of influenza virus is a bifunctional membrane/RNA-binding protein that mediates the encapsidation of RNA-nucleoprotein cores into the membrane envelope. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Structure of a bifunctional membrane-RNA binding protein, influenza virus matrix protein M1. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Combined results from solution studies on intact influenza virus M1 protein and from a new crystal form of its N-terminal domain show that M1 is an elongated monomer. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Marek's disease virus (MDV-1), an alphaherpesvirus that induces lymphoma in birds, also has an ICP27 protein that is produced in lytic MDV-1-infected cells. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Herpes simplex virus inhibits host cell splicing, and regulatory protein ICP27 is required for this effect. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- We further show that stannin interacts with L1 major capsid protein and impairs the interaction of the L2 minor capsid protein with retromer, which is required for virus trafficking to the TGN. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Our findings shed light on a novel cellular protein that interferes with HPV entry and highlight the role of retrograde transport in HPV entry. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- The GP precursor is post-translationally cleaved by the pro-protein convertase furin within the Golgi compartment of virus-producer cells, yielding two disulfide-linked subunits, GP1 and GP2 [ 13 ]. (mdpi.com)
- The capsid is a structural protein and its main purpose is to package RNA into the developing viruses. (wikipedia.org)
- These studies identify ANTXR1, a class of receptor that is shared by a mammalian virus and a bacterial toxin, as the cellular receptor for SVV. (jci.org)
- In this study, we set to identify the cellular orthologues and receptor of vIL-8 using in silico analyses, binding and chemotaxis assays. (uni-muenchen.de)
- Taken together, our data demonstrate the conservation of the receptor-ligand interaction between CXCR5 and CXCL13 and shed light on the origin and function of the MDV-encoded vIL-8 chemokine, which plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of this highly oncogenic virus. (uni-muenchen.de)
- Within the host, their journey of amplification is initiated by adsorption to specific cellular receptor molecules on the target cell surface. (biomedcentral.com)
- The three-dimensional image reconstructions provide a molecular envelope within which the crystal structures of the viruses and the receptor fragments can be positioned with accuracy. (rcsb.org)
- Fitting of molecular models into the image reconstruction density identified the residues on the virus that interact with those on the receptor surface, demonstrating complementarity of the electrostatic patterns for the tip of the N-terminal receptor domain and the floor of the canyon. (rcsb.org)
- Most cellular RNAs have their triphosphate tails bobbed, capped or otherwise modified before circulating in the cytosol of the cell, he said. (innovations-report.com)
- More recently, human immunodeficiency virus-1, hepatitis C virus, and Zika virus (ZIKV) RNAs have also been reported to be modified by m 6 A, highlighting the significance of this posttranscriptional RNA modification. (springer.com)
- Downregulation of NXP2/MORC3 by use of two independent short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) reduced virus titers in low-multiplicity infections. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- A novel messenger activity has been identified by in vitro translation of the 70S virion RNAs of a variety of avian leukosis and avian sarcoma viruses. (asm.org)
- This cellular mRNA, however, was not observed in the virion RNAs of Rous-associated virus types 0 and 2 avian leukosis viruses and therefore is not packaged by all avian retroviruses. (asm.org)
- Zika virus produces noncoding RNAs using a multi-pseudoknot structure that confounds a cellular exonuclease. (5055.cn)
- These viruses make sfRNAs by co-opting a cellular exonuclease via structured RNAs called xrRNAs. (5055.cn)
- The issue of whether viruses are subject to restriction by endogenous microRNAs (miRNAs) and/or by virus-induced small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in infected human somatic cells has been controversial. (elsevier.com)
- Influenza B viruses account for one-fourth of influenza infections, and contrary to influenza A viruses, they have not yet caused known pandemics. (nature.com)
- Influenza virus infections appear as yearly epidemics and occasional pandemics of respiratory disease, with high morbidity and occasional mortality. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- establishing named a download cellular signaling and innate immune responses to rna virus infections myself, also elected had me be my hierarchical subject-matter Christianity. (favorlabel.com)
- Lifting the bottleneck in importin-α3 availability in the lung might provide a new strategy to combat respiratory virus infections. (genscript.com)
- Infections can be caused by viruses, which attack certain cells within an infected host. (uu.nl)
- Seasonal and pandemic Influenza virus infections cause about three to five million cases of severe illness and about 250,000 to 500,000 deaths world-wide annually according to the WHO. (ed.ac.uk)
- Virus infections result in modification of the PBs and their constituents. (nebraska.edu)
- Further, continuing studies in this rapidly emerging field of PB-virus interactions will undoubtedly provide important clues to the understanding of the role of PBs in cellular homeostasis as well as their role in virus infections and innate immune signaling. (nebraska.edu)
- The epidemics of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections meet in individuals with parenteral exposure to blood, including injecting drug users (IDU) and persons with hemophilia, where rates of coinfection range from 60-90 percent. (grantome.com)
- Dynamin has been suggested to act both as a regulatory GTPase by controlling the early stages of CME, which is an important endocytic pathway used by many viruses, and as a chemical enzyme that induces membrane fission and pinches endocytic vesicles off from the cellular plasma membrane in later stages in several endocytic pathways, including CME. (hindawi.com)
- In vivo dendritic cell targeting cellular vaccine induces CD4(+) Tfh cell-dependent antibody against influenza virus. (physiciansweekly.com)
- In contrast, preclinical studies demonstrate that an HSV-2 single-cycle strain deleted in gD, ΔgD-2, induces primarily non-neutralizing antibodies that activate Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). (sciencemag.org)
- A prime-boost immunisation regimen using DNA followed by recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara induces strong cellular immune responses against the Plasmodium falciparum TRAP antigen in chimpanzees. (ox.ac.uk)
- Interestingly, virions harboring fusion-defective glycoproteins still promoted virus attachment and uptake, but failed to show syncytia formation and perinuclear capsid accumulation. (biomedcentral.com)
- Quantitative monitoring of the fraction of individual viruses containing both Env and capsid signals as a function of time demonstrated that PFV virions fused within the first few minutes, whereas fusion of SFVmac virions was less pronounced and observed over the entire 90 minutes measured. (biomedcentral.com)
- In contrast, endocytosed viruses are challenged to release their capsid into the cytosol before the endosomal content is delivered to lysosomes, where degradation occurs. (biomedcentral.com)
- The activation can be triggered in a very short time after virus binds on target cells, such as receptors. (hindawi.com)
- Many glycoproteins on the host cell membrane display sialic acid, thus serving as receptors for attachment of the virus. (nature.com)
- Our data indicate that SNPs near the butyrophilin genes (BTN3A3/BTN2A1) and cytokine receptors (IL10RB/IFNAR1) are associated with variations in IFNγ secretion and that multiple SNPs in the PVR gene, as well as SNPs located in the ADAR gene, exhibit significant associations with rubella virus-specific IL-6 secretion. (cdc.gov)
- In order to survive in an environment populated by hostile viruses ready to parasite them, mammalian cells have evolved a sophisticated variety of constitutively expressed receptors to detect extra- or intracellular pathogen-associated molecular signatures. (sciencetrends.com)
- Previous studies had shown that the CARD domains actually inhibit the activity of RIG-I when no virus is present, but are vital to sounding the alarm and triggering an immune response once a certain type of virus has been detected. (innovations-report.com)
- Now that we've identified the novel mechanism in cells that activate immune response to Type 1 herpes simplex, scientists are one step closer to creating new treatments that can activate the defense against this and other viruses,' says Desjardins. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- The immune response induced by hepatitis B virus principal antigens. (davidson.edu)
- This study demonstrates that resistance to MYXV virotherapy in syngeneic glioma models involves a multifaceted cellular immune response that can be overcome with cyclophosphamide-mediated lymphoablation. (aacrjournals.org)
- and computer simulations to describe the dynamics of a virus population and the cellular immune response within an infected host. (uu.nl)
- Further, several models that describe the dynamics of viruses in presence of a cellular immune response are presented. (uu.nl)
- A recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing PfTRAP was injected intramuscularly 6 weeks later to boost the immune response. (ox.ac.uk)
- Now, scientists have found that a key similarity between our genes and those of many viruses-a way of spelling out the genetic code - has likely allowed viruses to evade our cellular defenses. (technologynetworks.com)
- DNA copies of many non-retroviral RNA virus genes or portions thereof (NIRVs) are present in the nuclear genomes of many eukaryotes. (peerj.com)
- The existence of genes derived from non-retroviral RNA viruses within the cellular genomes of eukaryotes (NIRVs) has been puzzling. (peerj.com)
- Herein, we further characterized the role of p30 II in regulation of cellular gene expression, using stable p30 II expression system employing lentiviral vectors to test cellular gene expression with Affymetrix U133A arrays, representing ~33,000 human genes. (biomedcentral.com)
- In all categories, p30 II appeared to be an overall repressor of cellular gene expression, while selectively increasing the expression of certain key regulatory genes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Under the support of RFCID grant, HeLa-prME cells were used to screen a siRNA library that included 122 cellular membrane trafficking genes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Reductions in the absolute number of T lymphocytes and in PBMNC proliferation to FLU virus antigen and mitogen were also observed. (nih.gov)
- Figure 1 is the schematic representation of the extended model, which we will study, of HCV with cellular proliferation and spontaneous healing designed by T. C. Reluga et al. (scirp.org)
- These two mutants were chosen for further analysis as they possessed unique properties relating to the virus proliferation in cell culture. (gla.ac.uk)
- Simian Virus 40 (SV40) and Mouse Polyoma Virus (PY) are small DNA tumor viruses that have been used extensively to study cellular transformation. (nih.gov)
- We then established the broader utility of this technology by using a truncated, fluorescently tagged form of μNS as a fusion platform to present the mammalian tumor suppressor p53, which strongly recruited its known interactor simian virus 40 large T antigen to the μNS-derived structures. (mcponline.org)
- Finkel D, Groner Y (1983) Methylations of adenosine residues (m6A) in pre-mRNA are important for formation of late simian virus 40 mRNAs. (springer.com)
- Like other transforming viruses, SSV contains sequences derived from its helper virus, simian sarcoma-associated virus (SSAV), and a cell-derived (v-sis) insertion sequence. (pnas.org)
- Immortalization of human fibroblasts transformed by origin-defective simian virus 40. (asm.org)
- Simian virus 40 (SV40)-mediated transformation of human diploid fibroblasts has provided an effective experimental system for studies of both "senescence" in cell culture and carcinogenesis. (asm.org)
- Eight Mamu - A * 01 -positive Indian rhesus macaques were vaccinated with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) gag , tat , rev , and nef using a DNA prime-adenovirus boost strategy. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
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- By virtue of its enzymatic activity, NA mediates release of the virus from its initial retention in the mucosa, which is caused by the interaction of HA with secretory sialic acid-reach glycoproteins (mucins). (nature.com)
- Only recently has research begun to investigate the interaction of the virus with the tick host. (frontiersin.org)
- Previous interpretations may have been complicated, however, by the semipermissive virus-cell interaction. (asm.org)
- Furthermore, the interaction of the Rev activation domain with a cellular cofactor is essential for Rev function in vivo. (rupress.org)
- Using cross-linking experiments and Biospecific Interaction Analysis (BIA) we identify eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A) as a cellular factor binding specifically to the HIV-1 Rev activation domain. (rupress.org)
- Kopp, SJ, Storti, CS & Muller, WJ 2012, ' Herpes simplex virus-2 glycoprotein interaction with HVEM influences virus-specific recall cellular responses at the mucosa ', Clinical and Developmental Immunology , vol. 2012, 284104. (northwestern.edu)
- These viruses are divided into six major genera with diverse host tropisms causing variable diseases in both humans and animals. (nature.com)
- Influenza A virus (FLU) is an important pathogen in humans. (nih.gov)
- We humans are not alone in lacking CG sequences: normal HIV and many other viruses lack them too, but for different reasons. (technologynetworks.com)
- The causative virus is predominantly transmitted by mosquitoes and high mortality and abortion rates characterize outbreaks in animals while symptoms ranging from mild to life-threatening encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever are noticed among infected humans. (biomedcentral.com)
- previously, only lineage 2 West Nile virus had been detected in horses and humans in South Africa. (wikipedia.org)
- In order to deliver their genomes into the host cells for their own purposes, viruses have to overcome the barrier of the cell, the plasma membrane. (hindawi.com)
- This distinct infectivity was determined by the specific amino acid sequences, located in individual genomes of the viruses from human and birds. (nii.ac.jp)
- Its activity may provide defence against viruses from other species, such as biting insects, whose genomes still have high numbers of CG sequences," commented Bieniasz. (id-hub.com)
- Human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infectivity and cellular transformation. (nih.gov)
- We discuss HTLV-1 infectivity and how the HTLV-1 Tax oncoprotein initiates transformation by creating a cellular environment favouring aneuploidy and clastogenic DNA damage. (nih.gov)
- Next, we assessed the infectivity of avian influenza viruses in differentiated human airway epithelial cell clones. (nii.ac.jp)
- The cell endocytic mechanism also provides a route for virus internalization. (hindawi.com)
- This review focuses on the elements that are involved in regulating the mechanism of virus entry and their traffic systems. (hindawi.com)
- For the first time, our research team has indentified a combative cellular mechanism in this game of hide-and-seek. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- The assembly route from RNA-free NP to the NP-RNA polymer in vRNPs has been suggested to require a cellular factor UAP56, but the mechanism is poorly understood. (flu.org.cn)
- Journal Article] Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus entry mechanism, using a vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotyping system. (nii.ac.jp)
- HPV traffics to the nucleus via the retrograde transport pathway, but the mechanism of intracellular transport of non-enveloped viruses such as HPV is incompletely understood. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- In this study, the interplay of flavivirus West Nile and different cellular components were investigated from the point of entry to egression. (nus.edu.sg)
- Health officials in Texas will be on watch in coming weeks for any increases in mosquito-borne diseases including the West Nile and Zika viruses after Harvey's heavy rains and flooding brought water that filled ponds and ditches and crept into trash and debris that piled up. (journalrecord.com)
- Health officials say mosquitoes found in Oklahoma County have tested positive for the potentially fatal West Nile Virus. (journalrecord.com)
- The Oklahoma State Department of Health says the state has its first confirmed case of West Nile virus of the season. (journalrecord.com)
- The Oklahoma State Department of Health is reporting the third West Nile virus death of 2015 in the state. (journalrecord.com)
- The first death of the year in Oklahoma due to the West Nile virus has been reported. (journalrecord.com)
- The first mosquitoes of 2013 confirmed to be carrying the West Nile virus have been found in Oklahoma. (journalrecord.com)
- West Nile virus (WNV) is a single-stranded RNA virus that causes West Nile fever. (wikipedia.org)
- West Nile virus is primarily transmitted by mosquitoes, mostly species of the genus Culex, but ticks have also been found to carry the virus. (wikipedia.org)
- A 2007 fatal case in a killer whale in Texas broadened the known host range of West Nile virus to include cetaceans. (wikipedia.org)
- The cell signaling plays a pivotal role in regulating cellular processes and is often manipulated by viruses as they rely on the functions offered by cells for their propagation. (hindawi.com)
- This reflects two antagonistic processes: the virus hijacking key cellular resources and the antiviral defence mechanisms of the cell. (ox.ac.uk)
- Ticks are important vectors of viruses that infect and cause disease in man, livestock, and companion animals. (frontiersin.org)
- To determine the specificity of Ebola virus glycoproteins, we transfected expression vectors encoding either sGP, GP, or a plasmid control ( 8 ) into human 293 cells, and cell culture supernatants were used as a source of relevant recombinant glycoproteins. (sciencemag.org)
- Unlike the other organisms, in order to create its progeny, viruses need the hosts to provide the replicate resources. (hindawi.com)
- Both viruses were found to replicate in peripheral blood lymphocytes, but only virus from brain tissue will efficiently infect macrophage/monocytes. (sciencemag.org)
- Influenza viruses are intracellular parasites that replicate and transcribe their genomic ribonucleoproteins in the nuclei of infected cells, in a complex interplay with host cell factors. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The unique contributions of SV40 LT and ST and PY MT to cellular transformation have provided significant insights into our understanding of tumor suppressors, oncogenes and the process of oncogenesis. (nih.gov)
- In previous studies we observed that resistance of murine SV40-transformed fibroblast cell lines to cytolysis by activated macrophages was frequently associated with cellular expression of the gp70 of an endogenous ecotropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV). (jimmunol.org)
- Dengue viruses, exist as four serotypes, belong to the family of Flaviviridae , genus Flavivirus . (biomedcentral.com)
- Caused by one of four closely related virus serotypes of the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae, each serotype is sufficiently different that there is no cross-protection and epidemics caused by multiple serotypes (hyperendemicity) can occur. (abcam.com)