Cellular Structures: Components of a cell.Cells: The fundamental, structural, and functional units or subunits of living organisms. They are composed of CYTOPLASM containing various ORGANELLES and a CELL MEMBRANE boundary.Electron Microscope Tomography: A tomographic technique for obtaining 3-dimensional images with transmission electron microscopy.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Microscopy, Fluorescence, Multiphoton: Fluorescence microscopy utilizing multiple low-energy photons to produce the excitation event of the fluorophore. Multiphoton microscopes have a simplified optical path in the emission side due to the lack of an emission pinhole, which is necessary with normal confocal microscopes. Ultimately this allows spatial isolation of the excitation event, enabling deeper imaging into optically thick tissue, while restricting photobleaching and phototoxicity to the area being imaged.Cell Physiological Phenomena: Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.

Preliminary findings in germinal vesicle transplantation of immature human oocytes. (1/139)

Transplanting a germinal vesicle (GV) from an aged woman's oocyte into a younger ooplasm has been proposed as a possible way to reduce the incidence of oocyte aneuploidy which is considered to be responsible for age-related infertility. In this study, we have assessed the efficiency of each step involved in nuclear transplantation-specifically cell survival, nuclear-cytoplasmic reconstitution, and the capacity of the reconstituted oocytes for in-vitro maturation. In addition, we have evaluated the fertilizability and karyotypic status of the manipulated oocytes by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and fluorescent in-situ hybridization technique respectively. Nuclear transplantation was accomplished with an overall efficiency of 73%. Due to the limited availability of materials, most nuclear transplantation procedures were performed between sibling oocytes. The maturation rate of 62% following reconstitution was comparable with that of control oocytes, as was the incidence of aneuploidy among the reconstituted oocytes. The ICSI results of the reconstituted oocytes yielded a survival rate of 77%, a fertilization rate of 52%, and a satisfactory early embryonic cleavage. Furthermore, in a limited number of observations where the nucleus of an aged oocyte was transferred into a younger ooplasm, there was an appropriate chromosomal segregation. These findings demonstrate that human oocytes reconstituted with GV nuclei are able to undergo maturation, fertilization, and early embryo cleavage, and maintain a normal ploidy. Although in-vitro maturation seems to be a limiting step, this technique would allow us to investigate further the nuclear-ooplasmic relationship during meiotic maturation.  (+info)

Inferring sub-cellular localization through automated lexical analysis. (2/139)

MOTIVATION: The SWISS-PROT sequence database contains keywords of functional annotations for many proteins. In contrast, information about the sub-cellular localization is available for only a few proteins. Experts can often infer localization from keywords describing protein function. We developed LOCkey, a fully automated method for lexical analysis of SWISS-PROT keywords that assigns sub-cellular localization. With the rapid growth in sequence data, the biochemical characterisation of sequences has been falling behind. Our method may be a useful tool for supplementing functional information already automatically available. RESULTS: The method reached a level of more than 82% accuracy in a full cross-validation test. Due to a lack of functional annotations, we could infer localization for fewer than half of all proteins in SWISS-PROT. We applied LOCkey to annotate five entirely sequenced proteomes, namely Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast), Caenorhabditis elegans (worm), Drosophila melanogaster (fly), Arabidopsis thaliana (plant) and a subset of all human proteins. LOCkey found about 8000 new annotations of sub-cellular localization for these eukaryotes.  (+info)

Prediction of protein subcellular locations by support vector machines using compositions of amino acids and amino acid pairs. (3/139)

MOTIVATION: The subcellular location of a protein is closely correlated to its function. Thus, computational prediction of subcellular locations from the amino acid sequence information would help annotation and functional prediction of protein coding genes in complete genomes. We have developed a method based on support vector machines (SVMs). RESULTS: We considered 12 subcellular locations in eukaryotic cells: chloroplast, cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, endoplasmic reticulum, extracellular medium, Golgi apparatus, lysosome, mitochondrion, nucleus, peroxisome, plasma membrane, and vacuole. We constructed a data set of proteins with known locations from the SWISS-PROT database. A set of SVMs was trained to predict the subcellular location of a given protein based on its amino acid, amino acid pair, and gapped amino acid pair compositions. The predictors based on these different compositions were then combined using a voting scheme. Results obtained through 5-fold cross-validation tests showed an improvement in prediction accuracy over the algorithm based on the amino acid composition only. This prediction method is available via the Internet.  (+info)

In vivo noninvasive identification of cell composition of intimal lesions: a combined approach with ultrasonography and immunocytochemistry. (4/139)

PURPOSE: We investigated whether differences in cellular composition of the shoulder region of carotid plaque, a cell-rich, debris-free area, can be revealed with computer-driven analysis of ultrasound scans. METHODS: In 26 patients referred for carotid endarterectomy, the shoulder region of plaque eligible for surgical removal was identified with ultrasound scanning. Digital images were obtained and evaluated with a specially developed computer-driven system (Medical Image Processing [MIP]). The gray level distribution of the region of interest (ROI), along with some statistical parameters exploring the spatial distribution of pixels, such as entropy and second angular moment, were analyzed. In the specimen retrieved at surgery, the area corresponding to the ROI was selected. Cryosections were tested at immunocytochemistry with monoclonal antibodies specific to smooth muscle cells (SMCs), macrophages), and lymphocytes. Computerized image analysis was performed to quantify each cellular component of the lesion. RESULTS: Mean gray levels were related positively to the content of SMCs (r = 0.576, P =.002) and negatively to the content of macrophages (r = -0.555, P =.003). Lymphocytes did not show any correlation. Prevalence of SMCs, expressed as the ratio SMC/(SMC + macrophages), was related positively with entropy (r = 0.517, P =.007) and negatively with the second angular moment (r = -0.422, P =.032). The quartiles of gray level were useful for detecting significant differences in terms of cellular composition. CONCLUSIONS: Some cellular features of the shoulder region of plaque are associated with specific videodensitometric patterns evaluated with MIP. This approach enables in vivo noninvasive prediction and monitoring of cell composition of the shoulder region, and could be extended to study of the thickened intima.  (+info)

Prediction of protein subcellular locations using fuzzy k-NN method. (5/139)

MOTIVATION: Protein localization data are a valuable information resource helpful in elucidating protein functions. It is highly desirable to predict a protein's subcellular locations automatically from its sequence. RESULTS: In this paper, fuzzy k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) algorithm has been introduced to predict proteins' subcellular locations from their dipeptide composition. The prediction is performed with a new data set derived from version 41.0 SWISS-PROT databank, the overall predictive accuracy about 80% has been achieved in a jackknife test. The result demonstrates the applicability of this relative simple method and possible improvement of prediction accuracy for the protein subcellular locations. We also applied this method to annotate six entirely sequenced proteomes, namely Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Oryza sativa, Arabidopsis thaliana and a subset of all human proteins. AVAILABILITY: Supplementary information and subcellular location annotations for eukaryotes are available at http://166.111.30.65/hying/fuzzy_loc.htm  (+info)

Translational polymorphism as a potential source of plant proteins variety in Arabidopsis thaliana. (6/139)

MOTIVATION: According to scanning model, 40S ribosomal subunits can either initiate translation at start AUG codon in suboptimal context or miss it and initiate translation at downstream AUG(s), thereby producing several proteins. Functional significance of such a protein translational polymorphism is still unknown. RESULTS: We compared predicted subcellular localizations of annotated Arabidopsis thaliana proteins and their potential N-terminally truncated forms started from the nearest downstream in-frame AUG codons. It was found that localizations of full and N-truncated proteins differ in many cases: 12.2% of N-truncated proteins acquired sorting signals de novo and 5.7% changed their predicted subcellular locations (mitochodria, chloroplast or secretory pathway). It is likely that the in-frame downstream AUGs may be frequently utilized to synthesize proteins possessing new functional properties and such a translational polymorphism may serve as an important source of cellular and organelle proteomes.  (+info)

Predicting subcellular localization of proteins using machine-learned classifiers. (7/139)

MOTIVATION: Identifying the destination or localization of proteins is key to understanding their function and facilitating their purification. A number of existing computational prediction methods are based on sequence analysis. However, these methods are limited in scope, accuracy and most particularly breadth of coverage. Rather than using sequence information alone, we have explored the use of database text annotations from homologs and machine learning to substantially improve the prediction of subcellular location. RESULTS: We have constructed five machine-learning classifiers for predicting subcellular localization of proteins from animals, plants, fungi, Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria, which are 81% accurate for fungi and 92-94% accurate for the other four categories. These are the most accurate subcellular predictors across the widest set of organisms ever published. Our predictors are part of the Proteome Analyst web-service.  (+info)

Morphological and physiological changes induced by high hydrostatic pressure in exponential- and stationary-phase cells of Escherichia coli: relationship with cell death. (8/139)

The relationship between a loss of viability and several morphological and physiological changes was examined with Escherichia coli strain J1 subjected to high-pressure treatment. The pressure resistance of stationary-phase cells was much higher than that of exponential-phase cells, but in both types of cell, aggregation of cytoplasmic proteins and condensation of the nucleoid occurred after treatment at 200 MPa for 8 min. Although gross changes were detected in these cellular structures, they were not related to cell death, at least for stationary-phase cells. In addition to these events, exponential-phase cells showed changes in their cell envelopes that were not seen for stationary-phase cells, namely physical perturbations of the cell envelope structure, a loss of osmotic responsiveness, and a loss of protein and RNA to the extracellular medium. Based on these observations, we propose that exponential-phase cells are inactivated under high pressure by irreversible damage to the cell membrane. In contrast, stationary-phase cells have a cytoplasmic membrane that is robust enough to withstand pressurization up to very intense treatments. The retention of an intact membrane appears to allow the stationary-phase cell to repair gross changes in other cellular structures and to remain viable at pressures that are lethal to exponential-phase cells.  (+info)

Intracellular transport plays an essential role in maintaining the organization of polarized cells. Motor proteins tether and move cargos along microtubules during long-range transport to deliver them to their proper location of function. To reach their destination, cargo-bound motors must overcome barriers to their forward motion such as intersection points between microtubules. The ability to visualize how motors navigate these barriers can give important information about the mechanisms that lead to efficient transport. Here, we first develop an all-optical correlative imaging method based on single-particle tracking and superresolution microscopy to map the transport trajectories of cargos to individual microtubules with high spatiotemporal resolution. We then use this method to study the behavior of lysosomes at microtubule-microtubule intersections. Our results show that the intersection poses a significant hindrance that leads to long pauses in transport only when the separation distance of the
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Circulation.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address. ...
Plasmid pCAG-ChR2-mRuby2-ST from Dr. Hillel Adesniks lab contains the insert ChR2-mRuby2-ST and is published in Nat Neurosci. 2018 Apr 30. pii: 10.1038/s41593-018-0139-8. doi: 10.1038/s41593-018-0139-8. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Plasmid mRuby2-PMP-N-10 from Dr. Michael Davidsons lab contains the insert PMP and is published in Nat Methods. 2012 Sep 9. doi: 10.1038/nmeth.2171. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Conventional light microscopes cannot distinguish structures when they are separated by a distance smaller than, roughly, the wavelength of light. Superresolution microscopy, developed since the 1980s, lifts this limitation, using fluorescent moieties. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research have now discovered that graphene nano-molecules can be used to improve this microscopy technique. These graphene nano-molecules offer a number of substantial advantages over the materials previously used, making superresolution microscopy even more versatile. ...
Results The authors identified 178 gene expression programmes (modules) expressed in primary GCs, which were associated with distinct biological processes, chromosomal location patterns, cis-regulatory motifs and clinicopathological parameters. Expression of a transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signalling associated super-module of stroma-related genes consistently predicted patient survival in multiple GC validation cohorts. The proportion of intra-tumoural stroma, quantified by morphometry in tissue sections from gastrectomy specimens, was also significantly associated with stromal super-module expression and GC patient survival. ...
Active Motifs Cell and Organelle Stains are fluorescent dyes for staining subcellular structures in live and in fixed cells, simplifying the study of cellular structures or the identification of stem cells using fluorescence microscopy
Cellular organization refers to the components of a cell and how these individual parts are arranged within the cell. Cells are the smallest organizational levels of living...
Cell Structure and Function. Cell Theory. All living organisms are made of cells . Cells are small aqueous solution (cytoplasm) organelles ( subcellular structures)
Video articles in JoVE about microscopy fluorescence multiphoton include Intravital Microscopy for Imaging Subcellular Structures in Live Mice Expressing Fluorescent Proteins.
I havent cared to read all 44 pages of replys and Im fairly certain youve enough material for your paper at this point though I feel certain things oughtnt be left out of your paper. With evidence provided by the Miller-Urey experiments it is known the general composition of our early atmosphere was capable of producing something that we today might identify as lifelike- presumably a protobiont with a primitive lipid membrane and some means of reproduction- presumably RNA. under proper circumstances these RNA molecules could multiply, though it is doubtful any kind of orderly cellular structure developed for millions of years, a simple strip of RNA may as well be classified as a living thing due to its ability to reproduce ...
I havent cared to read all 44 pages of replys and Im fairly certain youve enough material for your paper at this point though I feel certain things oughtnt be left out of your paper. With evidence provided by the Miller-Urey experiments it is known the general composition of our early atmosphere was capable of producing something that we today might identify as lifelike- presumably a protobiont with a primitive lipid membrane and some means of reproduction- presumably RNA. under proper circumstances these RNA molecules could multiply, though it is doubtful any kind of orderly cellular structure developed for millions of years, a simple strip of RNA may as well be classified as a living thing due to its ability to reproduce ...
Get an answer for What hypothesis could you form to explain what would happen to the cell or organism if at least two cell structures were damaged or destroyed? and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
Figure 5 Maps of Anterior Infarct, Relation of Voltage and SI Mapping, and Morphology of Induced VT. (Top panel) Endocardial voltage (A) and subendocardial signal intensity (B) maps of an anterior infarct showing the similarity of scar from the patient shown in Figure 3A. (A) The voltage map shows the extension of the scar when the voltage scar definition was set ,1.5 mV. (B) The signal intensity map is consistent with the magnetic resonance imaging short-axis view shown in Figure 3A. The channel that runs parallel to the mitral annulus between segments 2 and 3 (black arrows) coincides with the heterogeneous tissue channel in frames 5 and 6 in Figure 3A. The second channel, perpendicular to the mitral annulus is in segment 3 (white arrow), this channel corresponds with the heterogeneous tissue channel in frames 1 and 2. The continuity of the signal-intensity channel is interrupted when the heterogeneous tissue channel (frame 3) moves to the epicardium. Then it moves back to the endocardium and ...
This makes it possible to measure samples quickly and adapt test conditions immediately during an experiment instead of evaluating them afterwards," says Rainer Heintzmann, describing the practical benefits of the new technology.. The scientists tested the method on biological cells and recorded the movements of mitochondria, the energy centres of the cells that are about one micrometer in size. "We were able to produce about 60 frames per second - a higher frame rate than those of motion pictures. The time between measurement and image is less than 250 milliseconds, which is why the technology allows real-time recordings," says Andreas Markwirth.. So far, superresolution images have often been combined with conventional methods: A conventional fast microscope is used to first find structures. These structures can then be examined in detail using a superresolution microscope. "However, some structures are so small that they cannot be found with conventional microscopes, for example special pores ...
Our main project deals with understanding the organization of the unique grid-like network of skeletal muscle fiber microtubules. Results obtained in previous y...
Expanding its 3D microcopy portfolio, ZEISS introduced superresolution photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) in 3D at the Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting in San Diego, California.
Welcome to the website of Ulrike Boehm - physicist, entrepreneur & science communicator. Here you can learn more about my research & various other projects.
A company spun out from Harvard University aims to provide life sciences researchers with a way to achieve subdiffraction imaging resolution using sta
New techniques for automatic invasive and noninvasive identification of inspiratory flow limitation (IFL) are presented. Data were collected from 11 patients with full nocturnal polysomnography and gold-standard esophageal pressure (Pes) measurement. A total of 38,782 breaths were extracted and automatically analyzed. An exponential model is proposed to reproduce the relationship between Pes and airflow of an inspiration and achieve an objective assessment of changes in upper airway obstruction. The characterization performance of the model is appraised with three evaluation parameters: mean-squared error when estimating resistance at peak pressure, coefficient of determination, and assessment of IFL episodes. The models results are compared to the two best-performing models in the literature. The obtained gold-standard IFL annotations were then employed to train, test, and validate a new noninvasive automatic IFL classification system. Discriminant analysis, support vector machines, and ...
This is the first study to examine the utility of 3DE for noninvasive identification of elevated RAP, testing the concept that enlarged 3DE-derived RA volume may be useful for identifying elevated RAP. Although qualitative and 2DE measures of RA size did not correlate with RAP, 3DE RA volume was correlated with RAP in this population of advanced heart failure patients. Compared with the combination of dilated IVC and reduced IVC collapse, the addition of 3DE maximal RA volume to IVC diameter resulted in improved sensitivity for identification of RAP ,10 mm Hg. The combination of 3D-RAVi ≥35 ml/m2 and IVC ≥2 cm, compared with the presence of a dilated IVC alone, also trended toward improved specificity for RAP ,10 mm Hg without compromising accuracy or sensitivity.. Whereas RA size is determined by qualitative assessment in many laboratories, the results of the current study indicate only a modest correlation between qualitative assessment of RA size and 3DE RA volume. In addition, whereas ...
Recently, 18FDG-PET has emerged as a promising imaging modality for visualizing plaque inflammation. Our prospective, controlled, randomized trial has shown here for the first time by the use of 18FDG-PET co-registered with enhanced CT that 3-month simvastatin treatment attenuates plaque inflammation. Although simvastatin decreased LDL-C and increased HDL-C, only the increase in HDL-C was correlated with the decrease in 18FDG uptake. Thus, the antiinflammatory effect of simvastatin on atherosclerotic plaques may be one of the pleiotropic effects independent of LDL-C-lowering.. Noninvasive identification of inflammatory plaque has been challenging. With the recent advance in imaging technologies, we can get the morphology of plaques and some information about plaque stability (12,13) but cannot see the inflammation directly. Because 18FDG-PET can visualize tissue glucose metabolism with high sensitivity and we can quantify 18FDG uptake in the region of interest, we used this metabolic imaging ...
Organisms across the evolutionary spectrum have evolved mechanisms to maintain the integrity of the cellular proteome. Among these mechanisms are spatial protein quality control pathways in which damaged and misfolded cellular proteins are actively sequestered at unique subcellular structures in response to acute stress. This mitigates the deleterious effects of these aberrant protein species, which can include advanced cellular aging and cytotoxicity leading to cell death. Despite the universal importance of such spatial control of the proteome, there is considerable mechanistic diversity throughout the evolutionary scale regarding how this control is achieved. In a recent publication in Cell Reports (Egan and McClintock et al., PMID 25865884) the Reck-Peterson Lab expanded on the known evolutionary diversity of spatial quality control mechanisms by examining the subcellular organization of heat-induced protein aggregates in filamentous fungi, which are of substantial health and economic ...
yes - the ballonist assumes youd have electricity i dont. lifetime of opportunistic net made out of cell phones running our modified twitter client to tell people where you are and send hashtag data with sensor net is about 7 days... coverage? depends on mobility patterns of scavenger missions and landscape/territory - given the way people surivve in clusters (see for example googles mapping of haiti earthquake damage), it can be very good, in fact, if you design your manet/dtn routing with the actual human movement/location patterns in mind.... something mon golfier frere hasnt being able to hand the disaster teams 72 hours later with a map of who is where and what resources are still working would be good i nteh book i cited, not knowing this led to susequent followup diasters (like shooting people who were sharing water thinking they were looters) In missive ,[email protected][10.0.1.3],, John Day typed: ,,You seem to be assuming you have electricity. Which seems like a big ...
Studies that include genetic, biochemical, biophysical, bioinformatic and structural analyses leading to a deeper understanding of the molecular principals underlying basic physiological processes or mechanisms are considered as potentially suitable for publication in the Journal. Topics that are considered appropriate include gene expression and regulation, pathogenicity and virulence, physiology and metabolism, synthesis of macromolecules (proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, polysaccharides, etc), cell biology and subcellular organization, membrane biogenesis and function, traffic and transport, cell-cell communication and signalling pathways, evolution and gene transfer ...
Microbial transformation of hydrocarbons. II. Growth constants and cell composition of microbial cells derived from |em|n|/em|-alkanes | F. Wagner; Th. Kleemann; W. Zahn | download | BookSC. Download books for free. Find books
In late 2014, just a month after learning he had won that years Nobel Prize in Chemistry for superresolution microscopy, Eric Betzig and colleagues described a technique that has taken the microscopy world by storm.. Lattice light-sheet microscopy (LLSM) projects ultrathin, low-intensity planes of light into a biological sample, boosting image clarity while reducing phototoxicity and photobleaching, thus allowing researchers to image live cells at high resolution for extended periods. Still in development at Zeiss, and sublicensed to 3i, which has released a commercial version of its own, LLSM has been a hit with the microscopy community, says Betzig, a group leader at the Howard Hughes Medical Institutes Janelia Research Campus. Besides the systems sold by 3i itself, Betzig estimates his team has guided 70 or so groups in setting up their own versions of the system, and another 40 have gotten time on the system in Janelias Advanced Imaging Center in Ashburn, Virginia.. But for all that, the ...
Photostable fluorescent dye for superresolution microscopy could serve as a powerful tool to visualize biological events and structural details in liv
With the patent-pending SuperResolution upgrade, you can capture extremely high-resolution infrared images (up to megapixel quality) with your Testo thermal imager. The SuperResolution upgrade improves the usable geometric resolution of the thermal image by a factor of 1.6 - with four times as many measuring values.
Fundamental to the success of cell and developmental biology is the ability to tease apart molecular organization in cells and tissues by localizing specific proteins with respect to one another in a native cellular context. However, many key cellular structures (from mitochondrial cristae to nuclea …
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View Notes - Chapter 4 Cell Structure and Function from BSC BSC1005 at Broward College. Chapter 4 Cell Structure and Function: An Overview I. Pastures of the Seas A. Vast populations of single-celled
proteopedia link. Many PDB files contain complexes in which a particular protein is interacting with a different protein in what are called multi-protein assemblies or multi-protein complexes. These interactions, if biologically relevant, can be immensely insightful in shedding light on cellular and extracellular processes. ...
Cellular structures known as midbodies, formed during cell division, appear to accumulate in stem cells and cancer cells, hinting at a potential function for these once-disregarded organelles.. 9 Comments. ...
The ability to obtain an accurate three-dimensional image of an intact cell is critical for unraveling the mysteries of cellular structure and function. However, for many years, tiny structures buried deep inside cells have ...
pH (potential of hydrogen) is the measurement of resistance and indicates the speed at which energy is moving through the body.pH is key in digestion.The pH reading tells us if we are getting the right amount of the right kind of minerals and if the energy from our food is being put on our frequency so it can be used to build and maintain cellular structures. An acidic pH (5.0 6.2) shows there is too little resistance or in this case digestion is going too fast and not assimilating any minerals.An alkaline pH (6.6 7.0) shows there is too much resistance or digestion is going to slow and food basically starts to rot in our digestive track.As in an acidic body, an alkaline body has minimal assimilation of minerals ...
Two articles in one, with strong scientific details showing the evolutionary claim to be invalid: From: ICR Many supporters of evolutionary theory have claimed that nylon-eating bacteria strongly demonstrate the kind of evolution that can create new cellular structures, new cells, and new organisms.1 However, examining only the apparent, visible beneficial trait can be misleading. Recent…
Cell Structure and Function: Questions 299-307 of 413. Get to the point NEET (NTA-National Eligibility cum Medical Entrance Test) Biology questions for your exams.
Cell Structure and Function: Questions 26-32 of 413. Get to the point NEET (National Eligibility cum Medical Entrance Test) Biology questions for your exams.
Study Flashcards On BIO 101 Chapter 4 Cell Structure at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Despite the success of CRT in clinical treatment of patients with HF and cardiac dyssynchrony,1,2 little is known about restoration of subcellular structures and functions related to EC coupling. Fluorescent labeling, 3D confocal microscopy, and image analysis provide a quantitative way of describing subcellular structures, their remodeling, and restoration. Using this approach, we demonstrated for the first time substantial remodeling of the t-system as a deleterious consequence of DHF and subsequent structural restoration of the t-system that result from CRT. In addition, we characterized the location of specific effects of DHF-associated structural remodeling of the t-system and its relationship to RyR clusters. Remodeling of t-tubules in DHF ranged from minor alterations in anterior left ventricular cells to nearly complete depletion in lateral cells. Our analyses did not reveal remodeling of the t-system by atrial tachypacing, indicating that remodeling in DHF is a consequence of cardiac ...
Tomography-Guided 3D Reconstruction of Subcellular Structures (TYGRESS) is a hybrid method, which combines the advantageous features of both cryo-electron tomography and single particle cryo-EM to achieve higher resolution than before of complex subcellular structures within their native environment.
UCLA biochemists reveal the first structural details of a family of mysterious objects called microcompartments that seem to be present in a variety of bacteria. The discovery was published Aug. 5 in the journal Science. "This is the first look at how microcompartments are built, and what the pieces look like," said Todd O. Yeates, UCLA professor of chemistry and biochemistry, and a member of the UCLA-DOE Institute of Genomics and Proteomics. "These microcompartments appear to be highly evolved machines, and we are just now learning how they are put together and how they might work. We can see the particular amino acids and atoms." A key distinction separating the cells of primitive organisms like bacteria, known as prokaryotes, from the cells of complex organisms like humans is that complex cells -- eukaryotic cells -- have a much higher level of subcellular organization; eukaryotic cells contain membrane-bound organelles, such as mitochondria, the tiny power generators in cells. Cells of ...
The origin of eukaryotes stands as a major conundrum in biology1. Current evidence indicates that the last eukaryotic common ancestor already possessed many eukaryotic hallmarks, including a complex subcellular organization1, 2, 3. In addition, the lack of evolutionary intermediates challenges the elucidation of the relative order of emergence of eukaryotic traits. Mitochondria are ubiquitous organelles derived from an alphaproteobacterial endosymbiont4. Different hypotheses disagree on whether mitochondria were acquired early or late during eukaryogenesis5. Similarly, the nature and complexity of the receiving host are debated, with models ranging from a simple prokaryotic host to an already complex proto-eukaryote1, 3, 6, 7. Most competing scenarios can be roughly grouped into either mito-early, which consider the driving force of eukaryogenesis to be mitochondrial endosymbiosis into a simple host, or mito-late, which postulate that a significant complexity predated mitochondrial ...
Extracellular webs expelled by neutrophils trap invading pathogens, but these newly discovered structures also have ties to autoimmunity and cancer.
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Please take this brief survey to help us improve the site. !. The Cell Image Library™ is a freely accessible, easy-to-search, public repository of reviewed and annotated images, videos, and animations of cells from a variety of organisms, showcasing cell architecture, intracellular functionalities, and both normal and abnormal processes. The purpose of this database is to advance research, education, and training, with the ultimate goal of improving human health.. ...
This is the unit 2 topics of CSIR NET Life Sciences examination syllabus. Unit name is Cellular Organization. Provided topic wise study materials.
The man who planted trees is a project taken from the homonymous Jean Gionos short-story. The tale reflects the relationship among man, nature and transformation, an unconditional act of love, generosity and immutable constancy. Valentina has created a paper cellular structure; putting in seeds until they sprouted and became plants; then de-contextualized the cellular structure by adapting it to the woods.
Rac2 is required for the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps.: Neutrophils play a critical role as a first line of defense against invading pathogens. R
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
This webinar was presented by Kathryn S. Lilley on February 26, 2015 and is now available for download by visiting httpwww.spectroscopynow.comdetailswebinar14b0703b4d6Robustclassification-of-stemcell-protein-localization-by-SPS-MS3.html . Highlights from a webinar held by spectroscopyNOW.com reveal the biological importance of the location of...
This webinar was presented by Kathryn S. Lilley on February 26, 2015 and is now available for download by visiting httpwww.spectroscopynow.comdetailswebinar14b0703b4d6Robustclassification-of-stemcell-protein-localization-by-SPS-MS3.html . Highlights from a webinar held by spectroscopyNOW.com reveal the biological importance of the location of...
Cell Structure and organelles Worksheet . Beautiful Cell Structure and organelles Worksheet . Chapter 4 Cell Structure and Function Worksheet Answers
The nucleolus is a cellular structure found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Some cells have several nucleoli, which work as a...
(Phys.org)-A team of researches affiliated with several institutions in Japan has conducted research into the cellular structure of tight junctions in the small intestine, and has made progress in better understanding their ...
But aside from such physical changes, these infective larvae also start spewing out a complex cocktail of proteins. When researchers isolated and examined this mixture more closely, they found that it was made up of 472 different proteins - many of them are proteases, which are digestive enzymes that breaks down proteins and cellular structures. There are also some peptide toxins similar to those found in other parasitic nematodes, but the functions of the vast majority of those molecule are unknown. And it turns out this cocktail can be quite toxic for insects. Fruitflies that are injected with S. carpocapsea toxins die within two to six hours, and it proved equally deadly for silkworms. Waxwmoth larvae fared a little better - while the toxins left them paralysed, they were able to recover after 24 hours, though a bit battered and bruised from the experience ...
View Notes - BiologyTes2 from BIO 1320 at Texas State. Biology Test Chapters 4 & 5 Chapter 4 - Cell Structure and Function Cells are measured in micrometers and how tall they are Cells are
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are networks of extracellular fibers, primarily composed of DNA from neutrophils, which bind pathogens. Neutrophils are the immune systems first-line of defense against infection and have conventionally been thought to kill invading pathogens through two strategies: engulfment of microbes and secretion of anti-microbials. In 2004, a novel third function was identified: formation of NETs. NETs allow neutrophils to kill extracellular pathogens while minimizing damage to the host cells. Upon in vitro activation with the pharmacological agent phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), Interleukin 8 (IL-8) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), neutrophils release granule proteins and chromatin to form an extracellular fibril matrix known as NETs through an active process. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy has shown that NETs consist of stretches of DNA and globular protein domains with diameters of 15-17 nm and 25 nm, respectively. These aggregate into larger threads ...
A wide variety of microbial and inflammatory factors induce DNA release from neutrophils as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Consensus on the kinetics and mechanism of NET release has been hindered by the lack of distinctive methods to specifically quantify NET release in time. Here, we validate and refine a semi-automatic ... read more live imaging approach for quantification of NET release. Importantly, our approach is able to correct for neutrophil input and distinguishes NET release from neutrophil death by other means, aspects that are lacking in many NET quantification methods. Real time visualization shows that opsonized S. aureus rapidly induces cell death by toxins, while actual NET formation occurs after 90 minutes, similar to the kinetics of NET release by immune complexes and PMA. Inhibition of SYK, PI3K and mTORC2 attenuates NET release upon challenge with physiological stimuli but not with PMA. In contrast, neutrophils from chronic granulomatous disease patients show ...
As the number of Multiple Sclerosis is swiftly rising, experts across the world have yet to determine the cure to the auto-immune disease. But why does MS research Australia support the study about neutrophil extracellular traps? Could it finally be the answer to the long dreaded disease? Heres what health professionals have to say
E. Betzig, "Experiments on the linear and non-linear evolution of the double helical instability in jets", Proc. of the 19th Annual Meeting of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (1981); E. Betzig, A. Lewis, A. Harootunian, M. Isaacson, and E. Kratschmer, "Near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM): development and biophysical applications", Biophys. J. 49, 269 (1986); E. Betzig, A. Harootunian, A. Lewis, and M. Isaacson, "Near-field diffraction by a slit: implications for superresolution microscopy", Appl. Opt. 25, 1890 (1986); A. Harootunian, E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, and A. Lewis, "Superresolution fluorescence near-field scanning optical microscopy", Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 674 (1986); M. Isaacson, E. Betzig, A. Harootunian, and A. Lewis, "Scanning optical microscopy at tenth wavelength resolution using near-field imaging methods", Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 483, 448 (1986); E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, A. Lewis, and K. Lin, "Near-field scanning optical microscopy", Proc. 45th Annual ...
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Abstract The alveolar structure of cork confers to this natural material specific physical properties such as low permeability to liquids and gases, advanced thermal and acoustic insulation, and high elasticity. In this paper, a morphological analysis of natural cork cells is presented including statistical distributions of structural quantities....
The new locomotives will be used to convert existing AEM-7 and ALP-44 runs on the Paoli/Thorndale, Wilmington/Newark, West Trenton, and Media/Elwyn Lines to ACS-64 locomotive runs. The new engines will also provide relief for the Silverliner IV Multiple Unit cars, which date from the early 1970s. By this October we will finally be able to say goodbye to the AEM-7 and ALP-44 locomotives ...
The new locomotives will be used to convert existing AEM-7 and ALP-44 runs on the Paoli/Thorndale, Wilmington/Newark, West Trenton, and Media/Elwyn Lines to ACS-64 locomotive runs. The new engines will also provide relief for the Silverliner IV Multiple Unit cars, which date from the early 1970s. By this October we will finally be able to say goodbye to the AEM-7 and ALP-44 locomotives ...
This piece of amber contains the first fossilized red blood cells from a mammal ever discovered -- in this case, infected by a parasite.
This schematic of a graphene liquid cell shows multiple liquid pockets containing single nanoparticles, dimers composed of dsDNA bridges in different lengths, and trimers.
Looking for Cell structure? Find out information about Cell structure. Cells are divided into several compartments, each with a characteristic structure, biochemical composition, and function . These compartments are called... Explanation of Cell structure
Cell structure and function 109 cell structure and function by lori armstrong course bio 111 (introduction to biology)... diagrams with descriptions, labeling exercises, and a multiple-choice quiz...Cell structure and function practice quiz ap biology/instructor ... cell structure and function practice quiz ap biology/instructor: mr. buckley choose the response which best completes the following statements or answers...
One of the basic concepts of cell biology is compartmentalization of the cellular processes within subcellular structures, termed organelles. Organelles were originally identified in the 19th century as the morphological entities that are still reflected in their names (e.g. "nucleus" from the Latin "little nut," "mitochondria" from the Greek "thread" + "grain," or "reticulum" from the Latin "little net"). Later, the progress of biochemistry made it possible to assign to the various organelles their specific biological functions. Thus, detailed information about the location of biochemical reactions became crucial for the understanding of their roles in cell function or dysfunction. Current technology allows the location of a cell component (a protein or a metabolite) to be linked directly to a morphologically defined organelle (or even a suborganellar compartment) by using electron microscopy. However, more typically, the location of a component is determined on the basis of its co-localization ...
We present five algorithms which can improve classical resolution of synthetic aperture radar images, especially when the objects of interest are small bright target are small bright targets against a weaker background. Through quantitative analysis of the resolution enhancement, we assess their different performances ...
Presents striking photographs and 3D-construction images of cellular structures from a variety of microscopes and visualizing techniques Includes a short
Introduction. Discuss the potential of genetically modified organisms. All living organisms are made up of cells that contain a substance called DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). The structure of DNA molecules, whose units are called genes, contains information that is used by cells as a recipe for the organism. That is, the characteristics of any living thing are determined by the information in the DNA of its genes. Genes, made up of DNA, control the synthesis of proteins. Proteins are extremely important because they make up the majority of cellular structures. So DNA is extremely important in the characteristics of living organisms. Genetically modified organisms occur naturally through a process called mutation. Deletion: This is where certain nucleotides are deleted, which affects the coding of proteins that are using a certain piece of DNA sequence. For example, if a nucleotide base was deleted then the whole entire structure after that would change. AGD CDG , if the G in AGD was deleted the ...
The duties of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum vary depending on the type of cell, but one of the most important functions of this cellular structure is the synthesis of phospholipids and cholesterol. The smooth endoplas... More » ...
Modern biology has attained deep knowledge of how cells work, but the mechanisms by which cellular structures assemble and grow to the right size largely remain a mystery. Now, Princeton University researchers may have found the key in a dynamic agglomeration of molecules inside cells.
The country, which has been pilloried by the US and Britain in the UN climate talks for demanding steep carbon emission cuts, will establish 11 new rights for nature. They include: the right to life and to exist; the right to continue vital cycles and processes free from human alteration; the right to pure water and clean air; the right to balance; the right not to be polluted; and the right to not have cellular structure modified or genetically altered. ...
Differentiation is a multidisciplinary journal dealing with topics relating to cell differentiation, development, cellular structure and function,...
Subcellular location of IRS2. Mainly localized to the cytoplasm in human and mouse cells. Analysis based on one antibody, HPA054664, using immunofluorescence in human and mouse cells
Jin J, Smith FD, Stark C, Wells CD, Fawcett JP, Kulkarni S, Metalnikov P, ODonnell P, Taylor P, Taylor L, Zougman A, Woodgett JR, Langeberg LK, Scott JD, Pawson T (Aug 2004). "Proteomic, functional, and domain-based analysis of in vivo 14-3-3 binding proteins involved in cytoskeletal regulation and cellular organization". Current Biology. 14 (16): 1436-50. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2004.07.051. PMID 15324660 ...
Study Flashcards On Biology class cells structure at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Enhance Staphylococcus Aureus Vegetation Formation through Interaction with Platelets in Infective Endocarditis. AU - Hsu, Chih-Chieh. AU - Hsu, Ron-Bin. AU - Ohniwa, Ryosuke L. AU - Chen, Jeng-Wei. AU - Yuan, Chang-Tsu. AU - Chia, Jean-San. AU - Jung, Chiau-Jing. N1 - Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.. PY - 2019/5. Y1 - 2019/5. N2 - The mechanisms or host factors involved in septic thrombus or vegetation formation in Staphylococcus aureus-induced infective endocarditis (IE) are unclear. Using an experimental endocarditis rat model, here we demonstrated that S. aureus HG001-induced vegetation was composed of bacterial floes encased in aggregated platelets and surrounded by neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). In vitro data demonstrated that platelets contribute to both biofilm and NET formation. Prophylactic administration of DNase I significantly reduced the size of vegetation induced by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and ...
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) play an important role in innate immunity to microbial infections. NETs have been described in several species, but the molecular details of NET formation and their role in infection has not been addressed, partly because we lack optimal experimental models. Here we describe tools to investigate NET formation in neutrophils isolated from mice. Upon in vitro stimulation of wild-type mouse neutrophils with PMA, we analyzed 3 important steps in the process of NET formation: reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, NET cell death and NET release. As expected, neutrophils from NADPH oxidase-deficient mice failed to produce ROS and did not die nor release NETs upon stimulation. We found that neutrophils from several mouse strains produced NETs with different efficiency and that NET formation correlated with the amount of ROS produced. Activation with Candida albicans also resulted in ROS production and NET cell death. The hyphal form of this fungus induced NETs ...
Future reproductive success of the dairy industry continues to decline as the push for high-producing dairy cows increases. The transition from gestation into early lactation can be stressful for the dairy cow and result in low fertility in the future. Implementation of feed strategies can improve the transition from parturition to lactation for the cow, both metabolically and physically, and possibly reduce the risk of postpartum uterine diseases and early embryonic loss. Two experiments were conducted in order to observe the effects of nutritional supplementation on reproductive status and future embryonic development from the transition period to early lactation in Holstein cows. To investigate the effect of rumen-protected methionine (RPM) on plasma amino acid concentrations, uterine cytology, immunohistochemistry (IHC) of glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX) and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD), and to confirm neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation in the endometrial tissue, multiparous ...
Sarah Hartman is a 6th year graduate student in the lab of Dr. Jennifer Herman where she studies the roles of DNA-binding proteins in the subcellular organization of Bacillus subtilis. In the past, Sarah has served as Graduate and Professional Student Council (GPSC) research chair and as the GPSC representative for the Biochemistry Graduate Association (BGA). As research chair, she worked with TAMUs Research Compliance and Biosafety to improve the Institutional Review Board (IRB) process for students at A&M and started a research-video spotlight competition for graduate students. Sarah is excited about teaching. She is the recipient of the 2018 Vice Chancellors Award in Graduate Student Teaching, the Deans Outstanding Achievement Award for Graduate Teaching, and the 2018 Ethel Ashworth-Tsutsui Memorial Award for Mentoring presented by Women in Science and Engineering (WISE). Sarah is scheduled to defend her PhD thesis and graduate in May 2019. She plans to continue teaching and be involved ...
Project Description: The Kner and De La Fuente Labs are interested in using a novel 3D superresolution fluorescence microscopy approach to study nucleosome organization and the role of specific proteins in chromatin organization. The project involves the engineering of a new superresolution microscope, imaging of chromosomes, and biological questions that are important for in reproduction.. REU Student Role and Responsibility: The REU student will assist a graduate student in developing the microscope and in imaging experiments on samples form the De La Fuente lab. The student will assist in developing software to run the microscope and process the images, will help run the microscope to collect data, and will help prepare the samples for imaging.. Expected Outcome for REU student: The student will be trained in cutting-edge microscopy techniques and exposed to important questions in modern biology. Superresolution imaging of the nucleus is a hot topic. This project is expected to result in at ...
The students will be introduced to modern microscopy techniques used in the molecular life sciences (from the protein to cellular level). Topics include electron and fluorescence microscopy of cells/tissues, the use of fluorescent dyes and proteins, special fluorescence approaches such as FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching), FCS (fluorescence correlation spectroscopy) and FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer), superresolution microscopy, atomic force microscopy and optical tweezers ...
Bacteria colony counts in peripheral blood and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were also markedly decreased in PLD2−/− mice versus WT (Fig. 3 a). Bacteria released into the peritoneal cavity eventually make their way through the circulation and enter lung tissue, resulting in lung inflammation (Matute-Bello et al., 2001). Bacteria colony counts in lung tissues were also significantly decreased in PLD2−/− mice versus WT (Fig. 3 a). Live bacterial colony numbers were significantly increased in liver and spleen 24 h after CLP in WT mice compared with PLD2−/− mice (Fig. 3 a).. It was recently reported that neutrophils generate NETs to trap and kill invading bacteria (Brinkmann et al., 2004). To investigate the effect of PLD2 deficiency on NET formation, we stained neutrophils with SYTOX Green nucleic acid stain, a nonpermeable dye that stains nucleic acid, a primary component of NETs. Stimulation of neutrophils isolated from WT mice with ionomycin induced NET formation (Fig. 3 d). ...
Mucosal surfaces cover a vast area in humans of ∼400 m2, where external influences, like commensal bacteria, food, or inhaled Ags, come into close contact with internal tissues (25). Whereas effective immunological responses against pathogenic micro-organisms must be initiated, disproportionate responses against innocuous Ags must be avoided. As such, a delicate equilibrium is required to maintain mucosal homeostasis. IgA plays an important role in this balance. Whereas SIgA prevents invasion of micro-organisms without inducing prominent inflammatory responses, dIgA can bind to FcαRI and trigger activation of PMNs (3, 9, 10). This is due to the presence of SC in SIgA, which (partly) blocks the binding site for FcαRI. As dIgA lacks SC, it can act as potent opsonin, and previous studies showed that dIgA is equally active in inducing phagocytosis or PMN migration, compared with serum IgA (9, 10). It has been demonstrated that opsonization of E. coli, Streptococcus pneumonia, S. aureus, ...
Although PMNs figure prominently in the joint effusions and inflamed synovial tissue of RA patients [31], the potential roles of NETotic events in the pathophysiology of this disorder have only recently become a focus of attention [13, 14]. These studies indicated that RA-derived PMNs were more prone to undergo NETosis, and that NETs themselves could contribute to the generation of auto-antigens (ACPAs) or be the target of auto-antibodies [13, 14].. Our studies, performed independently at a time similar time to these, corroborate that NETosis is enhanced in RA, confirming a possible fundamental role of this phenomenon in the underlying etiology of RA. In addition, we extended these observations by examining for changes in the underlying signal-transduction cascade required for the induction of NETosis. The results show that the propensity of circulatory PMNs in RA patients to undergo NETosis is associated with elevations in members of this cascade, including increased intracellular ROS ...
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Research conducted by scientists at the Queensland Brain Institute (QBI) at The University of Queensland (UQ) and Harvard University, has led to the discovery that treatment for Alzheimers disease may lie in modifying the length of subcellular structures in the brain responsible for metabolising energy, mitochondria.. The study found in cases where the mitochondria were abnormally long, they had a toxic effect inducing cell death.. Director, Centre for Ageing Dementia Research (CADR) at QBI and co-author of the paper, Professor Jürgen Götz, said:. "Alzheimers disease belongs to a group of neurodegenerative diseases termed tauopathies, charaterised by clumps of the protein tau inside neurons.. "In instances where neurons express toxic levels of human tau, the mitochondria are elongated.. "All cells rely on mitochondria for energy metabolism, and neurons in particular, so controlling the length of these subcellular structures is very important for brain function.". The research provides ...
Varjú, Imre and Longstaff, Colin and Szabó, László and Farkas, Ádám Zoltán and Farkas, Veronika Judit and Tanka-Salamon, Anna and Machovich, Raymund and Kolev, Kraszimir Nikolaev (2015) DNA, histones and neutrophil extracellular traps exert anti-fibrinolytic effects in a plasma environment. Thrombosis and haemostasis, 113 (6). pp. 1289-1298. ISSN 0340-6245 Varjú, Imre and Tenekedjiev, Kiril and Keresztes, Zsófia and Pap, Andrea Edit and Szabó, László and Thelwell, Craig and Longstaff, Colin and Machovich, Raymund and Kolev, Krasimir (2014) Fractal Kinetic Behavior of Plasmin on the Surface of Fibrin Meshwork. BIOCHEMISTRY, 53 (40). pp. 6348-6356. ISSN 0006-2960 Machovich, Raymund and Kolev, Kraszimir and Komorowicz, Erzsébet and Léránt, István and Rábai, Gyöngyi and Wohner, Nikolett (2013) Trombolízis: a trombus celluláris és molekuláris komponenseinek hatása a fibrinolízisre = Thrombolysis: modulation of fibrinolysis by cellular and molecular components of thrombi. ...
Neutrophil cell trapping bacteria. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of bacteria (rod-shaped) being trapped by a neutrophil cell. The neutrophil cell (a type of white blood cell) has trapped the bacteria with extruded material that forms a net-like structure called a NET (neutrophil extracellular trap). This method of cellular defence was first discovered in 2004. These are Shigella sp. bacteria, one of the causes of dysentery, a severe intestinal inflammation. - Stock Image P276/0186
The phenomenon of superoscillation produces oscillations that are faster than the fastest Fourier component of a system, potentially forming a local "hot spot" with a size below the diffraction limit. We show that a radially polarized Laguerre-Gaussian mode has the inherent ability to form superoscillation spots simply by controlling the incident beam size. We investigate this in detail, both numerically and experimentally. Our numerical simulations predict that lateral resolutions close to 100 nm are possible for practical confocal laser scanning microscopy with visible light. We demonstrate experimentally that superoscillation focusing can offer significant spatial resolution improvements for fluorescence imaging.. © 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Wound healing is a complex and dynamic process of replacing devitalized and missing cellular structures and tissue layers. The human adult wound healing process can be divided into 3 or 4 distinct phases.
A process for achieving the partial dewatering of an organic sludge by isolating a batch of the sludge, acid adjusting its pH into a range from 3 to 5, and adding an oxidizing reagent in the presence of the acid in sufficient quantity so that within one-half hour the cellular structure of the sludge has been partially broken down and enough occluded water released therefrom to increase the pH by at least one, while at the same time changing the color of the sludge to a light tan and deodorizing it and killing the pathogens therein, the sludge and other solids settling down below the supernatant liquid with a clear line of demarcation therebetween.
The Impact of Various Reactive Oxygen Species on the Formation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Neutrophils release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) which ensnare pathogens and have pathogenic functions in diverse diseases. We examined the NETosis pathways induced by five stimuli; PMA, the calcium ionophore A23187, nigericin, Candida albicans and Group B Streptococcus. We studied NET production in neutrophils from healthy donors with inhibitors of molecules crucial to PMA induced NETs including protein kinase C, calcium, reactive oxygen species, the enzymes myeloperoxidase (MPO) and neutrophil elastase. Additionally, neutrophils from chronic granulomatous disease patients, carrying mutations in the NADPH oxidase complex or a MPO-deficient patient were examined. We show that PMA, C. albicans and GBS use a related pathway for NET induction whereas ionophores require an alternative pathway but that NETs produced by all stimuli are proteolytically active, kill bacteria and composed mainly of chromosomal DNA. Thus, we demonstrate that NETosis occurs through several signalling mechanisms,
NET formation is a potent antimicrobial mechanism of neutrophils. NETs have been documented in vivo in several pathological conditions, including appendicitis, experimental models of shigellosis (Brinkmann et al., 2004), and preeclampsia (Gupta et al., 2005). Furthermore, the importance of NETs in host defense was recently demonstrated in models for necrotizing fasciitis (Buchanan et al., 2006) and pneumonia (Beiter et al., 2006). The release of intact chromatin into the extracellular space is unprecedented. We describe that after activation, the neutrophils become highly phagocytic and eventually undergo morphological changes that lead to NET formation (Figs. 1 and 2 and Videos 1 and 2, available at http://www.jcb.org/cgi/content/full/jcb.200606027/DC1). The changes follow a particular pattern that is initiated by the loss of nuclear segregation into eu- and heterochromatin. Simultaneously, the characteristic lobular form of the nucleus is also lost. At this point the nuclear membranes (Fig. 2) ...
Title: A Research on Bioinformatics Prediction of Protein Subcellular Localization. VOLUME: 4 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):Gang Fang, Guirong Tao and Shemin Zhang. Affiliation:Department of Life Science, Xian University of Arts and Science, Xian 710065, China.. Keywords:Bioinformatics, prediction, protein subcellular localization, localizome, proteomics, database. Abstract: Protein subcellular localization is one of the key characteristic to understand its biological function. Proteins are transported to specific organelles and suborganelles after they are synthesized. They take part in cell activity and function efficiently when correctly localized. Inaccurate subcellular localization will have great impact on cellular function. Prediction of protein subcellular localization is one of the important areas in protein function research. Now it becomes the hot issue in bioinformatics. In this review paper, the recent progress on bioinformatics research of protein subcellular localization and its prospect ...
Neutrophil function, including NETs formation, chemotaxis, superoxide production, hydrogen peroxide production, and the presence of myeloperoxidase, will be examined in 50 pediatric patientsundergoing chemotherapy for solid and hematological malignancies. Children with the following malignancies will be examined: acute lymphoblastic leukemia,acute myelogenous leukemia,Hodgkins lymphoma,non-Hodgkins lymphoma, primary bone sarcoma,rhabdomyosarcoma,non-rhabdomyosarcoma,neuroblastoma,Wilms tumor,hepatoblastoma or hepatocellular carcinoma,germ cell tumors, and hystiocytosis. Also those with brain tumors such as medulloblastom,low grade glioma,high grade glioma,ependymoma,and embryonal and pineal region tumors. Data gathered on the patients will include background data (age, gender, ethnicity) and background diseases, data on current illness (histologic type, grade, stage, response treatment,infectious episodes), and on the use of ranulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF).. The following time ...
Cellular location and structure[edit]. The radial spoke shown in an axoneme cross-section ... The radial spoke is a multi-unit protein structure found in the axonemes of eukaryotic cilia and flagella.[1] Although ... Each spoke consists of a "head" and a "stalk," while each of these sub-structures is itself made up of many protein subunits.[2 ... This article is about the structure within biological organisms. For the aspect of bicycle wheel design, see Bicycle wheel § ...
Cellular structure[edit]. Green algae have chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll a and b, giving them a bright green color, as ...
Structure. 24 (1): 179-86. doi:10.1016/j.str.2015.11.005. PMID 26724994. Xiao JH, Davidson I, Matthes H, Garnier JM, Chambon P ... Molecular and Cellular Biology. 10 (7): 3541-50. doi:10.1128/mcb.10.7.3541. PMC 360789 . PMID 2192259. Boylan MT, Mirabito PM, ... Structure. 20 (7): 1135-40. doi:10.1016/j.str.2012.04.004. PMID 22632831. Mahoney WM, Hong JH, Yaffe MB, Farrance IK (May 2005 ... Molecular and Cellular Biology. 7 (9): 3113-8. doi:10.1128/mcb.7.9.3113. PMC 367944 . PMID 2823119. Goulev Y, Fauny JD, ...
While the detailed structure and function of the connexon was described in a limited way at the time the gross "disk" structure ... Cellular membranes in development. New York: Academic Press. OCLC 261587041.. [page needed] ... Little is known about what structures make up the formation plaque or how the formation plaque's structure changes when ... Structure[edit]. In vertebrates, gap junction hemichannels are primarily homo- or hetero-hexamers of connexin proteins. ...
... and cardiac cellular structures were absent. There was one possible patch with animal cellular structures. The authors found ... The authors interpreted the structure of the heart as indicating an elevated metabolic rate for Thescelosaurus, not reptilian ... From these methods, the authors found the following: the object's internal structure does not include chambers but is made up ... and agreed with Morris that the ankle structure was distinct, returning it to T. garbanii. Finally, they noted that another ...
Molecular & Cellular. *Comparative: Evolution, Adaptation & Environment. *Genomics & Biodiversity. References[edit]. *^ IUPS ... Structure[edit]. There are eight Commissions [4] *Locomotion. *Circulation & Respiration. *Endocrine, Reproduction & ...
Rubin CI, Atweh GF (October 2004). "The role of stathmin in the regulation of the cell cycle". Journal of Cellular Biochemistry ... They are highly dynamic structures that continuously alternate between assembly and disassembly. Stathmin performs an important ... Rubin CI, Atweh GF (October 2004). "The role of stathmin in the regulation of the cell cycle". Journal of Cellular Biochemistry ... Changes in the cytoskeleton are important because the cytoskeleton is a scaffold required for many cellular processes, such as ...
"Diversity of structures and properties among catalases" (PDF). Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences (Submitted manuscript). 61 ... Sub-Cellular Biochemistry. Subcellular Biochemistry. 44. pp. 115-41. doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-6051-9_6. ISBN 978-1-4020-6050-2. ... Sub-Cellular Biochemistry. Subcellular Biochemistry. 25. pp. 1-16. doi:10.1007/978-1-4613-0325-1_1. ISBN 978-1-4613-7998-0. ... Decameric structure of AhpC, a bacterial 2-cysteine peroxiredoxin from Salmonella typhimurium.[141] ...
High-resolution structure[edit]. Figure 4 : Atomic structure of the 50S subunit from Haloarcula marismortui. Proteins are shown ... "Molecular & Cellular Proteomics. mcp.M116.063255.: 243-254. doi:10.1074/mcp.M116.063255. PMC 5294211 . PMID 27932527.. ... The general molecular structure of the ribosome has been known since the early 1970s. In the early 2000s, the structure has ... Two papers were published in November 2005 with structures of the Escherichia coli 70S ribosome. The structures of a vacant ...
3.3 The Structures. and Functions. of Organisms. 3.3.1 Cellular Basis of Form and Function 3.3.2 Relation of Form and Function ... 5.2.1 Social Structure and Change 5.2.2 The Group Structure of Society 5.2.3 Social Status 5.2.4 Human Populations: Urban and ... 2.1 Earth's Properties, Structure, Composition. 2.1.1 The Planet Earth 2.1.2 Earth's Physical Properties 2.1.3 Structure and ... 4.2.1 The Structures and Functions of the Human Body 4.2.2 Human Health 4.2.3 Human Diseases 4.2.4 The Practice of Medicine and ...
Matsuoka Y, Li X, Bennett V (June 2000). "Adducin: structure, function and regulation". Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. ... "Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine. 19 (10): 2352-64. doi:10.1111/jcmm.12648. PMC 4594677. PMID 26223362.. ... Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • mitochondrion. • nuclear speck. • cytoplasmic vesicle. • ... "Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience. 8: 170. doi:10.3389/fncel.2014.00170. PMC 4064707. PMID 24999318.. ...
A levator raises a structure; a depressor moves a structure down. A supinator turns the palm of the hand up; a pronator turns ... Cellular physiology and contraction[edit]. In addition to the actin and myosin components that constitute the sarcomere, ... a b c d Lieber, Richard L. (2002) Skeletal muscle structure, function, and plasticity. Wolters Kluwer Health. ...
Cellular component. • cytosol. • nucleoplasm. • protein complex. • nucleolus. • nucleus. • nuclear chromatin. Biological ... Structure[edit]. Myc protein belongs to Myc family of transcription factors, which also includes N-Myc and L-Myc genes. Myc ... "Molecular and Cellular Biology. 22 (5): 1307-16. PMC 134713 . PMID 11839798. doi:10.1128/mcb.22.5.1307-1316.2002.. ... "Molecular and Cellular Biology. 23 (23): 8668-90. PMC 262673 . PMID 14612409. doi:10.1128/mcb.23.23.8668-8690.2003.. ...
Kern A, Dikic I, Behl C (2015). "The integration of autophagy and cellular trafficking pathways via RAB GAPs". Autophagy. 11 ( ... Kim BW, Kwon DH, Song HK (2016). "Structure biology of selective autophagy receptors". BMB Reports. 49 (2): 73-80. doi:10.5483/ ... Phagophores (also called "isolation membranes") are sack-like structures that mature into autophagosomes that fuse with ... Molecular and Cellular Biology. 34 (9): 1695-706. doi:10.1128/MCB.01327-13. PMC 3993601 . PMID 24591649. Aguilera MO, Berón W, ...
"Cellular shape is determined by the extracellular matrix and is responsible for the control of cellular growth and function". ... The cell wall is the relatively rigid structure surrounding the plant cell. The cell wall provides lateral strength to resist ... This plays an important role because it helps regulate many important cellular processes including cellular contraction,[20] ... In addition, it sequesters a wide range of cellular growth factors and acts as a local store for them.[5] Changes in ...
Internal cellular structuresEdit. The generalized structure and molecular components of a cell ... Cell biology (also called cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure ... Other cellular processesEdit. *Active transport and Passive transport - Movement of molecules into and out of cells. ... Cell structureEdit. There are two fundamental classifications of cells: prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The major difference ...
Cellular structure. Neurons generate electrical signals that travel along their axons. When a pulse of electricity reaches a ... Neuroanatomists study the large-scale structure of the brain as well as the microscopic structure of neurons and their ... "Behavioral Neurobiology: the Cellular Organization of Natural Behavior. Sinauer Associates. ISBN 978-0-87893-092-0.. ... Ramón y Cajal, S (1894). "The Croonian Lecture: La Fine Structure des Centres Nerveux". Proceedings of the Royal Society. 55 ( ...
Structure[edit]. The chondrocyte in cartilage matrix has rounded or polygonal structure. The exception occurs at tissue ... Intra-cellular features are characteristic of a synthetically active cell. The cell density of full-thickness, human, adult, ... The structure, density, and synthetic activity of an adult chondrocyte are various according to its position. Flattened cells ... These chondrogenic cells differentiate into so-called chondroblasts, which then synthesize the cartilage extra cellular matrix ...
Panwar B, Raghava GP (May 2012). "Predicting sub-cellular localization of tRNA synthetases from their primary structures". ... Here you can see the general structure of the Rossmann fold seen in class I aaRSs and the general structure of antiparallel ... Structures[edit]. Both classes of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are multidomain proteins. In a typical scenario, an aaRS consists ... A general structure of an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase is shown here with an editing site as well as an activation site. The main ...
Medullary rays are cellular structures found in some species of wood. They appear as radial planar structures, perpendicular to ...
Cellular localization. Proteins in different cellular compartments and structures tagged with green fluorescent protein (here, ... Quinary structure: the signatures of protein surface that organize the crowded cellular interior. Quinary structure is ... Structure determination. Discovering the tertiary structure of a protein, or the quaternary structure of its complexes, can ... Primary structure: the amino acid sequence. A protein is a polyamide.. *Secondary structure: regularly repeating local ...
Vincent JP (October 1995). "Neurotensin receptors: binding properties, transduction pathways, and structure". Cellular and ...
Vincent JP (Oct 1995). "Neurotensin receptors: binding properties, transduction pathways, and structure". Cellular and ... Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • axon terminus. • integral component of membrane. • perikaryon. • Golgi apparatus. • membrane ... Neurotensin receptor type 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NTSR1 gene.[5][6] For a crystal structure of NTS1, ... Le F, Groshan K, Zeng XP, Richelson E (Jan 1997). "Characterization of the genomic structure, promoter region, and a ...
"Cellular function and molecular structure of ecto-nucleotidases". Purinergic Signalling. 8 (3): 437-502. doi:10.1007/s11302-012 ... It involves the activation of purinergic receptors in the cell and/or in nearby cells, thereby regulating cellular functions. ... Esther CR, Jr; Alexis, NE; Picher, M (2011). "Regulation of airway nucleotides in chronic lung diseases". Sub-cellular ... Lu, D.; Insel, P. A. (18 December 2013). "Cellular Mechanisms of Tissue Fibrosis. 6. Purinergic signaling and response in ...
However, in contrast to the cytoskeleton, the nuclear matrix has been proposed to be a highly dynamic structure, perhaps more ... The presence of intra-cellular proteins is largely indisputable, and it is well recognized that proteins such as the Scaffold, ... Evidence for such a structure was recognised as long ago as 1948 (Zbarskii and Debov), and consequently many proteins ... Rynearson AL, Sussman CR (June 2011). "Nuclear structure, organization, and oncogenesis". Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer. ...
McArdle B, Hofmann A (2000). "Coronin structure and implications". Sub-Cellular Biochemistry. 48: 56-71. doi:10.1007/978-0-387- ... the secondary structure allows you to clearly see the parallel beta sheets moving towards the bottom of the structure. Model B ... and this motifs repeat seven time forming a propeller like structures. The new ribbon visualization of the secondary structure ... Coronin-1a was input into Database of Secondary Structure Program (DSSP), where the PDB database entered and a secondary ...
Wu, Samuel Miao-sin; Johnston, Daniel (1995). Foundations of cellular neurophysiology. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262- ... structure, physiology and cognitive abilities of the nervous system.[1][2][3][4] ... others argue that uncovering structural functional relations depends on including as much neuronal and network structure as ...
Cellular component. • nucleoplasm. • endosome membrane. • cell nucleus. • cytoplasm. • cytosol. Biological process. • positive ... Zhang L, Pagano JS (January 2002). "Structure and function of IRF-7". Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research. 22 (1): 95-101 ... "Molecular and Cellular Biology. 20 (23): 8803-14. doi:10.1128/MCB.20.23.8803-8814.2000. PMC 86519. PMID 11073981.. ... "Molecular and Cellular Biology. 17 (10): 5748-57. doi:10.1128/MCB.17.10.5748. PMC 232423. PMID 9315633.. ...
Dense arrays of carbon nanofibers are being used as membranes that are integrated within fluidic structures. Size-dependent ... The biologically inspired design of VACNF structures will be useful for performing chemical separations and for mimicking the ... Nanofiber Structures as Mimics for Cellular Membranes. Authors: M.J. Doktycz, L. Zhang, A.V. Melechko, K. Klein, T.E. McKnight ... Dense arrays of carbon nanofibers are being used as membranes that are integrated within fluidic structures. Size-dependent ...
BICD2, dynactin, and LIS1 cooperate in regulating dynein recruitment to cellular structures.. Splinter D1, Razafsky DS, ... BICD2, dynactin, and LIS1 cooperate in regulating dynein recruitment to cellular structures ... BICD2, dynactin, and LIS1 cooperate in regulating dynein recruitment to cellular structures ... BICD2, dynactin, and LIS1 cooperate in regulating dynein recruitment to cellular structures ...
A. Chemical structure of an 8oxoG base in the anti configuration base paired with a dC. Adapted from []. B. Chemical structure ... DNA polymerase family X: function, structure, and cellular roles.. Yamtich J1, Sweasy JB. ... Remarkably, although these enzymes have similar three-dimensional structures, their biochemical properties and cellular ... The mispaired crystal structure was aligned with crystal structures of the binary and correctly paired ternary complexes of pol ...
... a large cellular component whose structure wasnt solved until the year 2000) and complex (with as many as 1,000 individual ... Understanding the structure of the NPC could lead to new classes of cancer drugs as well as antiviral medicines. "The NPC is a ... To map the structure of the NPC, Hoelz relied primarily on X-ray crystallography, which involves shining X-rays on a ... "This is an incredibly important structure to study," he says, "but because it is so large and complex, people thought it was ...
Our work aims at providing a way to compute homologies directly on a cellular structure. This is done through the computation ... cellular structures that allow multi-incidence between cells. We deal here with combinatorial maps, more precisely chains of ... Homology computation on such structures is usually achieved by computing simplicial homology on a simplicial analog. But such ... expensive because it requires computing this simplicial analog and performing the homology computation on a structure ...
The invention consits of a modular, self-reconfigurable cellular robot system with a plurality of interconnected individual ...
Cellular Structures in Instabilities. Proceedings of the Meeting "Structures cellulaires dans les instabilités - périodicité, ... Profil Structures boundary element method chaos convection dynamical system dynamical systems equilibrium geometry laminar flow ... Defects and interactions with the structures in ehd convection in nematic liquid crystals ... Electro-hydro-dynamical convective structures and transitions to chaos in a liquid crystal ...
... have mapped out the structure of an important protein involved in cellular function and nervous system development. ... The new structure provides crucial information for understanding how the protein binds to cellular components. Its also the ... TSRI scientists map out protein structure involved in cellular function, nervous system development. *Download PDF Copy ... Cellular Highways. While previous research had shown that TTLL7 modifies microtubules (hollow tubes that transport cellular ...
Structures and Cellular Processes scheduled on April 29-30, 2022 in April 2022 in Jerusalem is for the researchers, scientists ... Structures and Cellular Processes. ICCBSCP 2022: 16. International Conference on Cell Biology, Structures and Cellular ... Structures and functions of the cell. Internal cellular structures. Chemical and molecular environment. Organelles. Processes. ... ICCBSCP 2022 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Cell Biology, Structures and Cellular Processes. A number of ...
Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These ... The crystal structure of CREG, a secreted glycoprotein involved in cellular growth and differentiation. Sacher, M., Di Bacco, A ... The crystal structure of Cellular Repressor of E1A-stimulated Genes (CREG). *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1XHN/pdb ... To better understand CREG function in cellular growth and differentiation, we solved the 3D crystal structure of this protein ...
Molecular & Cellular Proteomics August 1, 2010, First published on March 31, 2010, 9 (8) 1634-1649; DOI: 10.1074/mcp.R000001- ... Molecular & Cellular Proteomics August 1, 2010, First published on March 31, 2010, 9 (8) 1634-1649; DOI: 10.1074/mcp.R000001- ... Structures of most commonly used amine-reactive cross-linking reagents: DSS, BS3, DSG, and bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) glutarate (BS ... Your Name) has sent you a message from Molecular & Cellular Proteomics Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see ...
Molecular & Cellular Proteomics May 1, 2017, First published on March 14, 2017, 16 (5) 840-854; DOI: 10.1074/mcp.M116.065326 ... Molecular & Cellular Proteomics May 1, 2017, First published on March 14, 2017, 16 (5) 840-854; DOI: 10.1074/mcp.M116.065326 ... Your Name) has sent you a message from Molecular & Cellular Proteomics Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see ... Molecular Details Underlying Dynamic Structures and Regulation of the Human 26S Proteasome. Xiaorong Wang, Peter Cimermancic, ...
large membrane enclosed structure that contains genetic material in the form of DNA and controls many of the cells activities . ... gives cell membranes a flexible structure that forms a strong barrier between the cell and its surroundings. ... 7.1 life is cellular 7.2 Cell Structure. Loyola Cell structure vocabulary . 1. 2. 3. ...
The Cellular and Sub-Cellular Distribution of GABA Transporters. One of the most interesting features of GAT1 and GAT3 is their ... Figure 4. The cellular and sub-cellular distribution of GABA transporters. (A) Schematized morphology of cortical pyramidal ... This reasoning obviously holds only if considering GABA transport in cellular or sub-cellular compartments where the reversal ... Figure 2. Secondary structure and surface representation of LeuTAa. (A) Topology of Aquifex aeolicus LeuTAa. The transporter is ...
Medical Physiology/Cellular Physiology/Cell structure and Function. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world ... They are complex structures made up of ribosomal RNA and proteins. The are composed of a large and a small subunit which clamp ... It is a polarized structure with a cis and a trans side. The cis side faces the endoplasmic reticulum and the trans side the ... Structure. Characteristics. Function. Microvilli (not shown). Extensive folding of the cell membrane found in certain cells ...
Some assembly required: In vitro reconstitution of cellular structures. Add to your list(s) Download to your calendar using ... University of Cambridge , Talks.cam , Foster Talks , Some assembly required: In vitro reconstitution of cellular structures ... Progress towards reconstitution of micron-scale cellular structures and processes has been limited by the challenges of ... Understanding the molecular basis of cellular behavior is a central goal in biology and a critical guide for medical research. ...
The Cellular and Supramolecular Structure and Function (CSSF) Section develops new methods based on electron microscopy and ... Cellular Imaging and Macromolecular Biophysics (LCIMB) * Cellular and Supramolecular Structure and Function ... The Cellular and Supramolecular Structure and Function (CSSF) Section of LCIMB is located in Building 13, Room 3E63. ... The Cellular and Supramolecular Structure and Function (CSSF) Section develops new methods based on electron microscopy and ...
Generate your own 3d-printed jewelry with this physics-based tool inspired by microscopic cellular structures. ...
Phys.org)-A team of researches affiliated with several institutions in Japan has conducted research into the cellular structure ... Phys.org)-A team of researches affiliated with several institutions in Japan has conducted research into the cellular structure ... Researchers gain better understanding of cellular intestinal barrier structure. by Bob Yirka , Phys.org ... Here we present the structure of mammalian claudin-19 in complex with C-CPE at 3.7 Å resolution. The structure shows that C-CPE ...
... representing the effective property of the cellular structure without regard to the cellular geometry itself. This approach has ... This is the second in a two-part post on the modeling aspects of 3D printed cellular structures. If you havent already, please ... The literature on the 3D printing of cellular structures is vast, and growing. While the majority of the focus in this field is ... However, the assumption that the connecting struts/walls in a cellular structure behave the same way the bulk material does can ...
Modeling cellular structures has the above mentioned challenges - most have practical implications in determining what is the ... In this post, I discuss six challenges that make the modeling of 3D printed cellular structures (such as honeycombs and ... I state the most well-appreciated challenge with cellular structures first: they are NOT fully-dense solid materials that have ... It is common in the field of cellular structure modeling to extract an "effective" property - a property that represents a ...
The present chapter deals with optimum design of structures for earthquake induced loads by taking into account nonlinear time ... Optimum Design of Structures for Earthquake Loading by a Cellular Evolutionary Algorithm and Neural Networks: 10.4018/978-1- ... "Optimum Design of Structures for Earthquake Loading by a Cellular Evolutionary Algorithm and Neural Networks." In Structural ... "Optimum Design of Structures for Earthquake Loading by a Cellular Evolutionary Algorithm and Neural Networks." Structural ...
Spiral Constriction - How Dynamin Mediates Cellular Nutrient Uptake MDC Researchers Determine The Structure Of The Wire-Puller ... "Now that we have an idea of how the dynamin molecule is structured, we can understand at the atomic level how the molecular ... have determined the molecular structure of dynamin, a ℠wire-puller´ that mediates nutrient uptake into the cell. Since ...
"Cellular Structures" by people in this website by year, and whether "Cellular Structures" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Cellular Structures" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Cellular Structures" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Cellular Structures". ...
... cell structures, including membrane dyes, nuclear stains, & cytoskeleton stains. ... Biotium offers a variety of stains for different organelles and cellular structures. Scroll down or select an organelle below ... See the Cellular Stains Brochure for more information.. Biotin Derivatives. Biocytin (e-biotinoyl-L-lysine) is a cellular ... General structure of SynaptoGreen™ and SynaptoRed™ dyes.. General structure of AM fixable nerve terminal dyes.. ...
  • Current research includes development of techniques for (1) determining the tertiary and quaternary structures of macromolecular assemblies, (2) visualizing 3D ultrastructure, (3) mapping the elemental composition of subcellular compartments quantitatively, and (4) studying bionanoparticles and their interactions with cells. (nih.gov)
  • We are also developing techniques for determining subcellular structure based on axial bright-field STEM tomography by recording images from micrometer-thick sections of cells over a range of tilt angles. (nih.gov)
  • In this research, we are developing techniques to map chemical elements contained in subcellular structures using (1) energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), and (2) STEM coupled with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). (nih.gov)
  • The concluding discussion compares cellular and subcellular hard-X-ray microradiology with other techniques and evaluates its potential impact on biomedical research. (epfl.ch)
  • The applications range widely from morphostructural analyses of cellular structures, to the investigation of subcellular structures, to functional investigations, and reveal a powerful new way of looking at biological samples. (springer.com)
  • A three-dimensional cellular system that may be made to exhibit some very unusual but highly useful mechanical properties, including negative Poisson's ratio (auxetic), zero Poisson's ratio, negative linear and negative area compressibility, is proposed and discussed. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • One example of a cellular structure is the honeycomb, a morphological structure made by bees that is based on the bee's round bottom shape and size, which mainly functions to either store honey or larvae. (wordpress.com)
  • Typical cellular confinement systems are made with ultrasonically welded high-density polyethylene (HDPE) strips or novel polymeric alloy (NPA)-and expanded on-site to form a honeycomb-like structure-and filled with sand, soil, rock, gravel or concrete. (wikipedia.org)
  • This approach does away with the need for any cellular level characterization and in so doing, we do not have to worry about size or contact effects described in the previous post that are artifacts of having to characterize behavior at the cellular level. (padtinc.com)
  • However, the assumption that the connecting struts/walls in a cellular structure behave the same way the bulk material does can particularly be erroneous for AM processes that can introduce significant size specific behavior and large anisotropy. (padtinc.com)
  • Member modeling approach: represent cellular structure as a collection of members, use beam theory for example, to describe the member's behavior through analytical equations. (padtinc.com)
  • It is common in the field of cellular structure modeling to extract an "effective" property - a property that represents a homogenized behavior without explicitly modeling the cellular detail. (padtinc.com)
  • 3 The Structure of the Elementary CA Rule Space 283 quantitatively, what the probability is for two nearby rules to have the similar behavior. (sciencedocbox.com)
  • This talk will describe on-going efforts to create functional reconstitutions of cytoskeletal and membrane processes involved in cellular protrusions and shape change. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The level of error introduced by a continuum assumption is likely to vary by process: processes like Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) are already strongly anisotropic with highly geometry-specific meso-structures and an assumption like this will generate large errors as shown in Figure 1. (padtinc.com)
  • However, using a new technique developed at MedUni Vienna, so-called Line Field OCT, MedUni Vienna researchers from the Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Technology have now managed to simplify looking into the cellular processes in the eye to allow even more accurate diagnosis. (healthcanal.com)
  • Pathology is the study of processes of disease at all levels from the whole organism down to the cellular, sub-cellular and molecular levels. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • Abstract One of the most important goals of the postgenomic era is understanding the metabolic dynamic processes and the functional structures generated by them. (duhnnae.com)
  • Acetyl coenzyme A (CoA), generated via glucose and acetate uptake, is a key carbon source for important cellular processes such as histone acetylation and gene expression," says Zhimin Lu, Ph.D., professor of neuro-oncology and lead researcher of the study. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Structure of mCldn19cryst in complex with C-CPE shown in ribbon representation and viewed parallel to the membrane. (phys.org)
  • Phys.org)-A team of researches affiliated with several institutions in Japan has conducted research into the cellular structure of tight junctions in the small intestine, and has made progress in better understanding their construction, possibly helping to pave the way towards creating drugs that would be better equipped to make their way into the bloodstream. (phys.org)
  • A distinctive common feature of +RNA viruses is the replication of their genomes in the cytoplasm of the host cell in association with rearranged cellular membranes that are remodeled into organelle-like membranous structures to which the viral replication-transcription complexes (RTCs) localize. (mdpi.com)
  • The most common approach in the literature is the use of homogenization - representing the effective property of the cellular structure without regard to the cellular geometry itself. (padtinc.com)
  • Here I limit myself to size effects that are purely a mathematical artifact of the cellular geometry itself, independent of the manufacturing process used to make them - in other words this effect would persist even if the material in the cellular structure was a mathematically precise, homogeneous and isotropic material. (padtinc.com)
  • The amount of information that is needed to direct the action of the cellular assembly pathways could be minimal because cellular morphogenesis is a self-organizing process. (wordpress.com)
  • Nowadays, it is assumed that the denaturation is the destruction of the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein. (vladimirmatveev.ru)
  • In this work, the mechanical response of microarchitectured structures is investigated with an emphasis on the effects of the architecture and the amorphous NiB thickness on their deformation mechanisms and energy absorption capability. (epfl.ch)
  • Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this process is essential for proper diagnosis and prediction of outcome for cancer patients, and for developing new ways of preventing and treating cancer. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • Researchers are naturally eager to find commonalities in the mechanisms of cellular regulation. (vladimirmatveev.ru)
  • None of these enzymes possesses a proofreading subdomain, and their intrinsic fidelity of DNA synthesis is much lower than that of a polymerase that functions in cellular DNA replication. (nih.gov)
  • In this post, I discuss six challenges that make the modeling of 3D printed cellular structures (such as honeycombs and lattices) a non-trivial matter. (padtinc.com)
  • The ACSS2 enzyme allows lysosomes, which are cellular structures that are known to contribute to tumor development, to be produced. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • For 1D analysis, Reid and Peng (1997) firstly treated cellular materials subject to uniaxial compression using a simplified rigid, perfectly-plastic, locking (RPPL) model. (imechanica.org)
  • However, as shown in Figure 1 , such is not the case for cellular structures, where local stress and strain distributions are non-uniform. (padtinc.com)
  • The biologically inspired design of VACNF structures will be useful for performing chemical separations and for mimicking the properties of natural membranes. (nsti.org)
  • A. Chemical structure of an 8oxoG base in the anti configuration base paired with a dC. (nih.gov)
  • Now that we have an idea of how the dynamin molecule is structured, we can understand at the atomic level how the molecular motor dynamin functions," said Professor Daumke. (redorbit.com)
  • In this structure the C-terminus of one module is situated very close to the N-terminus of the adjacent module around the five fold axis ( Figure 71 ) suggesting that more than one repeat in a single receptor molecule might attach simultaneously. (esrf.eu)
  • The Magnum deliverables include 1) multiple sequence alignments, 2) mapping of alignment sites to crystal structure sites, 3) phylogenetic trees, 4) inferred ancestral sequences at internal tree nodes, and 5) amino acid replacements along tree branches. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To demonstrate Magnum's capabilities, we asked for amino acid replacements requiring three nucleotide substitutions, located at internal protein structure sites, and occurring on short phylogenetic tree branches. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Researchers at our institute are developing new strategies in order to study​ the laws governing internal cell structure. (cea.fr)
  • Microtubules are hollow cylinders formed from alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin subunits, and they participate in cellular activities requiring motion, such as organelle transport and chromosome segregation during cell division. (epigentek.com)
  • Glutathione peroxidases (GPx) play an important role in the cellular defense against oxidant stress by utilizing glutathione (GSH) to reduce lipid hydroperoxides and hydrogen peroxide to their corresponding alcohols. (semanticscholar.org)
  • While previous research had shown that TTLL7 modifies microtubules (hollow tubes that transport cellular components and act as highways and scaffolding in the cell) by adding one or more molecules of the amino acid glutamate, exactly how has remained a mystery. (news-medical.net)
  • When accurate models for the divergent evolution of protein sequences are integrated with complementary biological information, such as folded protein structures, analyses of the combined data often lead to new hypotheses about molecular physiology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This four-year degree is similar to BSc Cellular and Molecular Medicine but will give you the opportunity to gain valuable experience of cellular and molecular medicine in commercial or government research as an employee during your third year. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • In addition, the core modules in cellular pathology are designed to deliver a comprehensive overview of contemporary technical practice in the context of service delivery to the pathologist for diagnostic practice, or for the scientist engaged in cell and tissue-based research. (westminster.ac.uk)
  • Conclusion: Here, we provide a review of the latest research findings on the toxicological profiles of carbon-based nanomaterials, highlighting both the cellular toxicities and immunological effects of carbon nanomaterials. (springer.com)
  • Research and development of cellular confinement systems (CCS) began with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 1975 to devise a method for building tactical roads over soft ground. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early research (Bathurst and Jarrett, 1988) found that cellular confinement reinforced gravel bases are "equivalent to about twice the thickness of unreinforced gravel bases" and that geocells performed better than single sheet reinforcement schemes (geotextiles and geogrids) and were more effective in reducing lateral spreading of infill under loading than conventional reinforced bases. (wikipedia.org)