Electron Transport Complex III: A multisubunit enzyme complex that contains CYTOCHROME B GROUP; CYTOCHROME C1; and iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol to UBIQUINONE, and transfers the electrons to CYTOCHROME C. In MITOCHONDRIA the redox reaction is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Electron Transport Complex I: A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase complex that catalyzes the conversion of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol. In MITOCHONDRIA the complex also couples its reaction to the transport of PROTONS across the internal mitochondrial membrane. The NADH DEHYDROGENASE component of the complex can be isolated and is listed as EC 1.6.99.3.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Cell Respiration: The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Tissues: Collections of differentiated CELLS, such as EPITHELIUM; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; MUSCLES; and NERVE TISSUE. Tissues are cooperatively arranged to form organs with specialized functions such as RESPIRATION; DIGESTION; REPRODUCTION; MOVEMENT; and others.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Electron Transport Complex IV: A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Electron Transport Complex II: A flavoprotein oxidase complex that contains iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of SUCCINATE to fumarate and couples the reaction to the reduction of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol.Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Antimycin A: An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Electron Transport Chain Complex Proteins: A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Maltose: A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial: The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Maltose-Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that bind MALTOSE and maltodextrin. They take part in the maltose transport system of BACTERIA.Electrons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Periplasmic Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Ubiquinone: A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Coat Protein Complex I: A protein complex comprised of COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1. It is involved in transport of vesicles between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Quinone Reductases: NAD(P)H:(quinone acceptor) oxidoreductases. A family that includes three enzymes which are distinguished by their sensitivity to various inhibitors. EC 1.6.99.2 (NAD(P)H DEHYDROGENASE (QUINONE);) is a flavoprotein which reduces various quinones in the presence of NADH or NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol. EC 1.6.99.5 (NADH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADH, is inhibited by AMP and 2,4-dinitrophenol but not by dicoumarol or folic acid derivatives. EC 1.6.99.6 (NADPH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol and folic acid derivatives but not by 2,4-dinitrophenol.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Cytochromes b: Cytochromes of the b group that have alpha-band absorption of 563-564 nm. They occur as subunits in MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III.Cytochromes: Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.Rotenone: A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Uncoupling Agents: Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cytochrome b Group: Cytochromes (electron-transporting proteins) with protoheme (HEME B) as the prosthetic group.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Potassium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Cytochromes c1: The 30-kDa membrane-bound c-type cytochrome protein of mitochondria that functions as an electron donor to CYTOCHROME C GROUP in the mitochondrial and bacterial RESPIRATORY CHAIN. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p545)NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases: A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.Hydroxyquinolines: The 8-hydroxy derivatives inhibit various enzymes and their halogenated derivatives, though neurotoxic, are used as topical anti-infective agents, among other uses.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cytochrome c Group: A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)Succinic Acid: A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)Diuron: A pre-emergent herbicide.NADH Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation of NADH to NAD. In eukaryotes the enzyme can be found as a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex I. Under experimental conditions the enzyme can use CYTOCHROME C GROUP as the reducing cofactor. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 1.6.2.1.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Succinate Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Methacrylates: Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.Cytochrome ReductasesMitochondrial Diseases: Diseases caused by abnormal function of the MITOCHONDRIA. They may be caused by mutations, acquired or inherited, in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes that code for mitochondrial components. They may also be the result of acquired mitochondria dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other environmental causes.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Rhodothermus: A genus of obligately aerobic, thermophilic, gram-negative bacteria in the family Crenotrichaceae. They were isolated from submarine alkaline HOT SPRINGS in Iceland.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Axonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Iron-Sulfur Proteins: A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Submitochondrial Particles: The various filaments, granules, tubules or other inclusions within mitochondria.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Cardiolipins: Acidic phospholipids composed of two molecules of phosphatidic acid covalently linked to a molecule of glycerol. They occur primarily in mitochondrial inner membranes and in bacterial plasma membranes. They are the main antigenic components of the Wassermann-type antigen that is used in nontreponemal SYPHILIS SERODIAGNOSIS.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Oligomycins: A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).Plastoquinone: Polyunsaturated side-chain quinone derivative which is an important link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Photosystem II Protein Complex: A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Succinate Cytochrome c Oxidoreductase: An electron transport chain complex that catalyzes the transfer of electrons from SUCCINATE to CYTOCHROME C. It includes ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX II and ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III.MalatesPhotosystem I Protein Complex: A large multisubunit protein complex that is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to drive electron transfer reactions that result in either the reduction of NADP to NADPH or the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Amobarbital: A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)Thylakoids: Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone): A flavoprotein that reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of NADH or NADPH by various quinones and oxidation-reduction dyes. The enzyme is inhibited by dicoumarol, capsaicin, and caffeine.Mitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins: Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.Cytochrome b6f Complex: A protein complex that includes CYTOCHROME B6 and CYTOCHROME F. It is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE and plays an important role in process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS by transferring electrons from PLASTOQUINONE to PLASTOCYANIN or CYTOCHROME C6. The transfer of electrons is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.Cheyne-Stokes Respiration: An abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by alternating periods of apnea and deep, rapid breathing. The cycle begins with slow, shallow breaths that gradually increase in depth and rate and is then followed by a period of apnea. The period of apnea can last 5 to 30 seconds, then the cycle repeats every 45 seconds to 3 minutes.Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Cytochromes c: Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Shewanella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods. It is a saprophytic, marine organism which is often isolated from spoiling fish.Ferricyanides: Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid, H3Fe(CN)6.Carbonyl Cyanide p-Trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone: A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.CarbodiimidesGlucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide: A carbodiimide that is used as a chemical intermediate and coupling agent in peptide synthesis. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Quinones: Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Ferredoxins: Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Wolinella: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the bovine RUMEN, the human gingival sulcus, and dental PULPITIS infections.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.ATP Synthetase Complexes: Multisubunit enzyme complexes that synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE from energy sources such as ions traveling through channels.Fumarates: Compounds based on fumaric acid.ThiazolesDinitrophenols: Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Methylphenazonium Methosulfate: Used as an electron carrier in place of the flavine enzyme of Warburg in the hexosemonophosphate system and also in the preparation of SUCCINIC DEHYDROGENASE.Carbonyl Cyanide m-Chlorophenyl Hydrazone: A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.Polarography: An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Brain Diseases, Metabolic, Inborn: Brain disorders resulting from inborn metabolic errors, primarily from enzymatic defects which lead to substrate accumulation, product reduction, or increase in toxic metabolites through alternate pathways. The majority of these conditions are familial, however spontaneous mutation may also occur in utero.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Plastocyanin: A copper-containing plant protein that is a fundamental link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Cyanobacteria: A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mitochondrial Myopathies: A group of muscle diseases associated with abnormal mitochondria function.Dibromothymoquinone: At low concentrations, this compound inhibits reduction of conventional hydrophilic electron acceptors, probably acting as a plastoquinone antagonist. At higher concentrations, it acts as an electron acceptor, intercepting electrons either before or at the site of its inhibitory activity.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Aconitate Hydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of cis-aconitate to yield citrate or isocitrate. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 4.2.1.3.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chloroflexus: A genus of green nonsulfur bacteria in the family Chloroflexaceae. They are photosynthetic, thermophilic, filamentous gliding bacteria found in hot springs.Photophosphorylation: The use of light to convert ADP to ATP without the concomitant reduction of dioxygen to water as occurs during OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION in MITOCHONDRIA.Dicumarol: An oral anticoagulant that interferes with the metabolism of vitamin K. It is also used in biochemical experiments as an inhibitor of reductases.Mycobacterium phlei: A saprophytic bacterium widely distributed in soil and dust and on plants.Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Cytochromes f: Cytochromes f are found as components of the CYTOCHROME B6F COMPLEX. They play important role in the transfer of electrons from PHOTOSYSTEM I to PHOTOSYSTEM II.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Synechocystis: A form-genus of unicellular CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. None of the strains fix NITROGEN, there are no gas vacuoles, and sheath layers are never produced.Proton-Motive Force: Energy that is generated by the transfer of protons or electrons across an energy-transducing membrane and that can be used for chemical, osmotic, or mechanical work. Proton-motive force can be generated by a variety of phenomena including the operation of an electron transport chain, illumination of a PURPLE MEMBRANE, and the hydrolysis of ATP by a proton ATPase. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p171)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Transport Vesicles: Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.Light-Harvesting Protein Complexes: Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Cytochromes a: A subclass of heme a containing cytochromes that have two imidazole nitrogens as axial ligands and an alpha-band absorption of 605 nm. They are found in a variety of microorganisms and in eucaryotes as a low-spin cytochrome component of MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.Darkness: The absence of light.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Sulfanilic Acids: Aminobenzenesulfonic acids. Organic acids that are used in the manufacture of dyes and organic chemicals and as reagents.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Mitochondrial Proton-Translocating ATPases: Proton-translocating ATPases responsible for ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE synthesis in the MITOCHONDRIA. They derive energy from the respiratory chain-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the intermembranous space of the mitochondria.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Metalloproteins: Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Tetramethylphenylenediamine: Used in the form of the hydrochloride as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.Valinomycin: A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.Nitrate Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathies: A heterogenous group of disorders characterized by alterations of mitochondrial metabolism that result in muscle and nervous system dysfunction. These are often multisystemic and vary considerably in age at onset (usually in the first or second decade of life), distribution of affected muscles, severity, and course. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp984-5)Ferredoxin-NADP Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC 1.18.1.2 was formerly listed as EC 1.6.7.1 and EC 1.6.99.4.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Geobacter: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, metal-reducing bacteria in the family Geobacteraceae. They have the ability to oxidize a variety of organic compounds, including AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
... as final electron acceptors in the electron transport chain. They share the initial pathway of glycolysis but aerobic ... cellular respiration indicator Complex 1: NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductes Bailey, Regina. "Cellular Respiration". Rich, P. R. ( ... 2.5 in case of malate-aspartate shuttle transferring hydrogen atoms from cytosolic NADH+H+ to mitochondrial NAD+ So finally we ... Fructose 1,6-diphosphate then splits into two phosphorylated molecules with three carbon chains which later degrades into ...
... complex III), docks near the CuA binuclear center and passes an electron to it, being oxidized back to cytochrome c containing ... NO and CN will compete with oxygen to bind at the site, reducing the rate of cellular respiration. Endogenous NO, however, ... The oxygen atom close to CuB picks up one electron from Cu+, and a second electron and a proton from the hydroxyl of Tyr(244), ... "NDUFA4 is a subunit of complex IV of the mammalian electron transport chain". Cell Metab. 16 (3): 378-86. doi:10.1016/j.cmet. ...
The NADH pulls the enzyme's electrons to send through the electron transport chain. The electron transport chain pulls H+ ions ... Complex 1: NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductes. References. *^ a b c d e f g Schmidt-Rohr, K. (2020). "Oxygen Is the High-Energy ... 8] Numbers in circles indicate counts of carbon atoms in molecules, C6 is glucose C6H12O6, C1 carbon dioxide CO2. Mitochondrial ... Fructose 1,6-biphosphate then splits into two phosphorylated molecules with three carbon chains which later degrades into ...
... and induces cellular hypoxia by inhibiting the electron transport chain (ETC) complex 1. Kalkitoxin is an ichthyotoxin, derived ... which are tertiary carbon atoms bearing three single carbon bonds and one hydrogen. The four methyl groups (each at a methine ... complex 1, one of the protein complexes involved in mitochondrial respiration. By blocking the ETC complex 1, kalkitoxin ... It also blocks the voltage-gated sodium channel and the electron transport chain (ETC) complex 1. It remains unknown how ...
In oxidative phosphorylation, the passage of electrons from NADH and FADH2 through the electron transport chain pumps protons ... ATP can be produced by a number of distinct cellular processes; the three main pathways in eukaryotes are (1) glycolysis, (2) ... 2 ATP Anaerobic respiration is respiration in the absence of O 2. Prokaryotes can utilize a variety of electron acceptors. ... In terms of its structure, ATP consists of an adenine attached by the 9-nitrogen atom to the 1′ carbon atom of a sugar (ribose ...
The NADH pulls the enzyme's electrons to send through the electron transport chain. The electron transport chain pulls H+ ions ... 6] Numbers in circles indicate counts of carbon atoms in molecules, C6 is glucose C6H12O6, C1 carbon dioxide CO2. Mitochondrial ... Pyruvate is oxidized to acetyl-CoA and CO2 by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). The PDC contains multiple copies of ... Fructose 1,6-diphosphate then splits into two phosphorylated molecules with three carbon chains which later degrades into ...
Q-cytochrome c oxidoreductase (complex III)Edit. The two electron transfer steps in complex III: Q-cytochrome c oxidoreductase ... It is the terminal process of cellular respiration in eukaryotes and accounts for high ATP yield. ... The flow of electrons through the electron transport chain, from electron donors such as NADH to electron acceptors such as ... The iron atoms inside complex III's heme groups alternate between a reduced ferrous (+2) and oxidized ferric (+3) state as the ...
... the 30 equivalents of ATP generated in cellular respiration by transferring electrons from NADH or FADH2 to O2 through electron ... cofactors such as NAD+ donate and accept electrons that aid in the electron transport chain's ability to produce a proton ... ADP consists of three important structural components: a sugar backbone attached to adenine and two phosphate groups bonded to ... The ATP synthase complex exists within the mitochondrial membrane (F0 portion) and protrudes into the matrix (F1portion). The ...
Molecular oxygen, O2, is essential for cellular respiration in all aerobic organisms. Oxygen is used as an electron acceptor in ... Water oxidation is catalyzed by a manganese-containing enzyme complex known as the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) or water- ... which have been removed into an electron transport chain via light-dependent excitation and resonance energy transfer onto ... an enzyme that also has an active site with an atom of iron. Monooxygenase uses oxygen to catalyze many oxidation reactions in ...
... complex II in the electron transport chain) requires covalently bound FAD to catalyze the oxidation of succinate to fumarate by ... German scientists Warburg and Christian discovered a yeast derived yellow protein required for cellular respiration in 1932. ... Radical species contain unpaired electron atoms and are very chemically active. Hydride loss is the inverse process of the ... The three classes of glutamate synthases are categorized based on their sequences and biochemical properties. Even though there ...
... ubiquinone oxidoreductase complex, also acting as an intermediate in the electron transport chain. The citric acid cycle is ... Stryer L, Berg JM, Tymoczko JL (2002). "Section 18.6: The Regulation of Cellular Respiration Is Governed Primarily by the Need ... For each acetyl group that enters the citric acid cycle, three molecules of NADH are produced. Electrons are also transferred ... Two carbon atoms are oxidized to CO2, the energy from these reactions is transferred to other metabolic processes through GTP ( ...
... s also enable electron transfer as they form part of the electron transport chain. Cyctochrome a, cytochrome b, and ... Oxygen (O2), nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) bind to the iron atom in heme proteins. Once ... Muscle cells, when put into action, can quickly require a large amount of oxygen for respiration because of their incredible ... although its function and mechanism are more complex than this name would suggest. In vertebrates, oxygen is taken into the ...
1 complex by three nitrogen electron pairs and three negatively charged oxygen atoms with a distorted octahedral structure. The ... Iron-an essential element for life used for such cellular processes as respiration and DNA replication-is extensively chelated ... Because of its high affinity for iron, yersiniabactin can solubilize the metal bound to host binding proteins and transport it ... Several enzymes, most notably the HMWP2-HMWP1complex, assemble salicylate, three cysteines, a malonyl linker group and three ...
Human cells require iron in order to obtain energy as ATP from a multi-step process known as cellular respiration, more ... Iron is present in the iron-sulfur clusters and heme groups of the electron transport chain proteins that generate a proton ... Iron in such complexes can cause damage as described above. To prevent that kind of damage, all life forms that use iron bind ... a member of a three gene repulsive guidance molecule family, (also called hemojuvelin (HJV), and HFE2), Hemojuvelin, or the ...
Photosynthetic electron transport chain of the thylakoid membrane. electronegativity A measure of the tendency of an atom to ... anticodon A unit made up of three nucleotides that correspond to the three bases of the codon on the mRNA. arachnology The ... During metaphase, the cell's chromosomes align themselves in the middle of the cell through a type of cellular "tug of war". ... enzyme Enzymes are biological molecules (proteins) that act as catalysts and help complex reactions occur everywhere in life. ...
... in order to enhance the O2 transport of the body to the muscles. The body undergoes aerobic respiration in order to provide ... two PFC products are currently being tested in phase III clinical trials. Transition metal complexes are widely known to play ... their high content of electron-dense fluorine atoms results in little intramolecular interaction and low surface tension, ... The combination of drugs consistently releases EPO due to increased transcription at the cellular level. The effect wears off ...
... the TPP cofactor was found to induce oxidative stress due to electron transport from E3 subunit of α-KGDHC to the oxygen atom ... The citric acid cycle is a cyclic metabolic pathway involved in cellular respiration, which eventually converts carbohydrates, ... The α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) is an enzyme involved in the citric acid cycle that consists of three ... More specifically, the exact ROS sources are Complex I of the electron transport chain and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle ...
... cell membrane transport - cell nucleus - cell surface receptor - cellular respiration - cellulose - centriole - centromere - ... electron capture - Electron configuration - electron microscopy - electron shell - electron transport chain - electron volt - ... complement membrane attack complex - complement receptor - complex - computational biology - computational chemistry - ... atom - atomic absorption spectroscopy - atomic mass - atomic mass unit - atomic nucleus - atomic number - atomic orbital - ...
... (III) complexes are quite similar to those of chromium(III) with the exception of iron(III)'s preference for O-donor ... This happens because the two unpaired electrons on each iron atom are in the dz2 and dx2 − y2 orbitals, which do not point ... Iron is also the metal at the active site of many important redox enzymes dealing with cellular respiration and oxidation and ... The main roles of iron-containing proteins are the transport and storage of oxygen, as well as the transfer of electrons. Iron ...
The electrons needed to drive this electron transport chain come from light-gathering proteins called photosynthetic reaction ... The three main purposes of metabolism are the conversion of food/fuel to energy to run cellular processes, the conversion of ... The electrons then flow to the cytochrome b6f complex, which uses their energy to pump protons across the thylakoid membrane in ... by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. Usually, ...
Active transport - Movement of molecules into and out of cells with the input of cellular energy. Bulk transport Endocytosis - ... Electron transport chain - a biochemical process which associates electron carriers (such as NADH and FADH2) and mediating ... Cellular respiration - Glycolysis - The foundational process of both aerobic and anaerobic respiration, glycolysis is the ... It is a cellular "scaffolding" or "skeleton" contained within the cytoplasm it is composed of three types of fibers: ...
... three atoms of copper, one of magnesium and one of zinc. This enzyme mediates the final reaction in the electron transport ... This cellular damage might contribute to disease and is proposed as one cause of aging. The cytochrome c oxidase complex is ... Kita K, Hirawake H, Miyadera H, Amino H, Takeo S (2002). "Role of complex II in anaerobic respiration of the parasite ... The flow of electrons through the electron transport chain, from electron donors such as NADH to electron acceptors such as ...
... ubiquinone oxidoreductase complex, also acting as an intermediate in the electron transport chain.[16] ... The Regulation of Cellular Respiration Is Governed Primarily by the Need for ATP". Biochemistry. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman. ... which is a substrate of the electron transfer chain at the level of Complex III. ... Two carbon atoms are oxidized to CO2, the energy from these reactions is transferred to other metabolic processes through GTP ( ...
... although the cellular electron donor(s) for many globins have yet to be defined. Electron donors may include ascorbate, ... "Structure of Ralstonia eutropha flavohemoglobin in complex with three antibiotic azole compounds". Biochemistry. 50 (7): 1255- ... the last enzyme in the respiratory electron transport chain of mitochondria. Additionally NO, with its lone radical on the ... Imidazoles have been shown to coordinate with the heme iron atom of microbial flavohemoglobin, impair ferric heme reduction, ...
III). It has been speculated that the original evolutionary function of hemoproteins was electron transfer in primitive sulfur- ... "Four novel mutations of the coproporphyrinogen III oxidase gene". Cellular and Molecular Biology. 55 (1): 8-15. Bustad, H. J.; ... Heme or haem is a coordination complex "consisting of an iron ion coordinated to a porphyrin acting as a tetradentate ligand, ... The non-protein-bound (free) heme produced in this manner becomes highly cytotoxic, most probably due to the iron atom ...
Aerobic respiration. *Glycolysis → Pyruvate decarboxylation → Citric acid cycle → Oxidative phosphorylation (electron transport ... C-mannosylation is unusual because the sugar is linked to a carbon rather than a reactive atom such as nitrogen or oxygen. ... In addition to their function in protein folding and cellular attachment, the N-linked glycans of a protein can modulate a ... Indeed, glycosylation is thought to be the most complex post-translational modification, because of the large number of ...
Cellular Respiration and Fermentation 1. Define or describe the following terms: Oxidation Reduction Electron transport chain ... 5) Source of H and electrons that end up in glucose. ______ 6) Source of O atoms that end up in glucose. ______ 7) Where O ... 4) Diffusion with the help of a transport protein. _____ 5) Three types of endocytosis. _____ 6) How cells bring liquid inside ... Photosystem I Photosystem II Light-harvesting complexes Primary electron acceptor Chlorophyll Pigment molecules Reaction center ...
Electron Transport Chain. This animation shows how the enzyme complexes of the electron transport chain harvest energy from ... It is the third of three animations about cellular respiration.. Biochemistry & Molecular Biology ... This animation shows the reactions of the citric acid cycle, which splits off carbon atoms and generates energy-rich reduced ... This three-part animation series explores the biology of the virus SARS-CoV-2, which has caused a global pandemic of the ...
Ultimately the purpose of Cellular respiration is to make ATP. The electron transport chain carries out oxidative ... As electrons flow along the electrochemical gradient, some of the energy is used by each complex to pump H+ ions from the ... During each turn of the cycle, 2 carbon atoms are removed from the substrates as CO2, 4 oxidations by removal of hydrogen atoms ... In step 2, the six carbon compound formed in step 1 is split into two three-carbon molecules glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate (G3P). ...
Be able to apply these to the cellular respiration ... Cellular Respiration Test Study Guide Redox Reactions What does ... F. The Cristae of a Mitochondrion 1. Electron transport system consists of three protein complexes and two protein mobile ... b. Once NADH delivers electrons to electron transport system, it is free to pick up more hydrogen atoms. c. Components of ATP ... 4 transport electrons between complexes. 2. NADH dehydrogenase complex, cytochrome b-c complex, and cytochrome oxidase complex ...
Source for information on Cellular Respiration: The Gale Encyclopedia of Science dictionary. ... aerobic respiration ) is the process by which energy-rich organic substrates are broken down into carbon dioxide and water , ... Cellular respirationCellular respiration in the presence of oxygen ( ... known as the electron transport chain). These proteins are grouped into three large respiratory enzyme complexes, each of which ...
Cellular respiration produces three molecules of ATP per pair of electrons in NADH, while the pair of electrons in FADH2 ... and energy-rich electrons in the electron transport chain.. During electron transport, much of the energy represented by the ... The third stage of cellular respiration occurs when the energy-rich hydrogen atoms are separated into protons [H+] ... Furthermore, each complex in the chain has a greater affinity for electrons than the complex before it. The flow of protons ...
In Stat3-/- cells, the activities of complexes I and II of the electron transport chain (ETC) were significantly decreased. We ... The complex I antibody did not immunoprecipitate complex III core protein 2, complex IV subunit I, or the 19-kD adenosine ... Oxygen consumption is expressed as nanogram atom of oxygen per minute per milligram of mitochondrial protein (nAtom O/min/mg) ... NADH oxidase activity requires complexes I, III, and IV, and duroquinol oxidase (DHQ) requires complexes III and IV. Consistent ...
cytochrome c that shuttle electrons from one complex to the next. The electron transport chain accomplishes: *the stepwise ... Complex III; also known as the cytochrome b-c1 complex) *cytochrome c oxidase (Complex IV) *ATP synthase (Complex V) The Matrix ... Cellular Respiration. Index to this page. *Mitochondria *The Citric Acid Cycle *The Electron Transport Chain *Chemiosmosis in ... the NADH dehydrogenase (complex I) *the cytochrome c reductase (complex III) *the cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) and two ...
... as final electron acceptors in the electron transport chain. They share the initial pathway of glycolysis but aerobic ... cellular respiration indicator Complex 1: NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductes Bailey, Regina. "Cellular Respiration". Rich, P. R. ( ... 2.5 in case of malate-aspartate shuttle transferring hydrogen atoms from cytosolic NADH+H+ to mitochondrial NAD+ So finally we ... Fructose 1,6-diphosphate then splits into two phosphorylated molecules with three carbon chains which later degrades into ...
cellular respiration. The structure of this molecule consists of a purine base (. adenine) attached to the 1 carbon atom of a ... It is the passage of electron pairs from NADH and FADH2 through the electron transport chain that powers the pumping of protons ... ribose). Three phosphate groups are attached at the 5 carbon atom of the pentose. ATP is also one of four monomers (. ... ATP in complex with proteins generally requires the presence in solution of a divalent cation, almost always magnesium, which ...
... complex III), docks near the CuA binuclear center and passes an electron to it, being oxidized back to cytochrome c containing ... NO and CN will compete with oxygen to bind at the site, reducing the rate of cellular respiration. Endogenous NO, however, ... The oxygen atom close to CuB picks up one electron from Cu+, and a second electron and a proton from the hydroxyl of Tyr(244), ... "NDUFA4 is a subunit of complex IV of the mammalian electron transport chain". Cell Metab. 16 (3): 378-86. doi:10.1016/j.cmet. ...
... the biochemical process responsible for shuttling electrons within cellular membranes. Electron transport is used to breathe ... including photosynthesis and respiration, both of which could lead to much larger amounts of energy being harvested and stored ... we can speculate that having access to a much larger energy budget enabled the biosphere to host larger and more complex ... The evolution of electron transport during the Archean Expansion would have enabled several key stages in the history of life, ...
Q transports the electrons to Complex III. As electrons pass through Complex III, more hydrogen ions are pumped across the ... These reduced electron carriers from the previous steps of cellular respiration transfer their electrons to molecules near the ... Complex IV passes the electrons to oxygen, the terminal electron acceptor. Oxygen is split into two oxygen atoms, and accepts ... The electron transport chain. The electron transport chain comprises the part of the final stages of aerobic respiration. The ...
Cellular proliferation. *Regulation of the cellular redox state (chemical process in which the oxidation number of atoms is ... By transporting protons from the intermembrane space back into the matrix, the ATP synthase complex can make ATP from ADP and ... The ability of symbiont bacteria to conduct cellular respiration in host cells that had relied on glycolysis and fermentation ... The energy from NADH and FADH2 is transferred to oxygen (O2) in several steps via the electron transfer chain. The protein ...
... suggesting bacteria may acquire iron from natural siderophore-like organic complexes. Despite the lack of knowledge of iron ... especially for electron transport. Photosynthesis, respiration, and nitrogen fixation require high cellular concentrations of ... Braun1995Signal transfer through three compartments: transcription initiation of the Escherichia coli ferric citrate transport ... iron may be complexed to natural organic ligands [46]. Citrate is ubiquitous in nature and can complex Fe3+ in the form of ...
The ATP is made via proton pumping to establish a hydrogen ion gradient as the electron travels down an electron transport ... The ultimate source of these hydrogen atoms is going to be water, but water is a poor reducing agent (O2 holds its electrons ... other plant tissues use glucose via respiration. And so do the leaves at night. Glucose is stored, transported, and used for ... See handout on ATP-synthetase for the structure of this multi-subunit protein complex. Each lollipop is a complex of proteins; ...
... the electron transport stage is when most adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is produced. Electron transport is the third stage in ... Cellular respiration involves a series of complex reactions. The first phase of cellular respiration is glycolysis, which ... Oxygen began appearing on Earth around two or three billion years ago. At that point, living organisms could begin using oxygen ... During this phase, six carbon atoms combine with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide. The energy produced through chemical bonds ...
By acting as the first stage of cellular respiration, the generation of high energy electrons from the citric acid cycle, in ... The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is composed of three different enzymes. Its complex is composed of members of a family of ... FADH2 will pass its electrons to coenzyme Q, which will be use in the electron transport chain. ... TPP is known as the prosthetic group which the carbon atom between the nitrogen and sulfur atoms in the thizaole ring is more ...
... electron transport chain. what is required for cellular respiration. glucose and oxygen. ... cellular respiration. three distinct series of reactions: 1. glycolysis 2. citric acid cycle 3. ... chemical energy is held in bonds between the atoms of molecules and is released when these bonds are broken. ... substrate molecules +enzyme molecule--,enzyme-substate complex--,product (changed substrates)+ enzyme molecule. ...
Coordination Chemistry Complexes, Real-time Flight Control: Embedded Sensor Calibration and Data Acquisition. ... Electron Carriers, Sensory Exam, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy, Passaging Cells, Palladium-Catalyzed ... Over the many stages of cellular respiration, glucose breaks down into carbon dioxide and water. Electron carriers pick up ... The reduced electron carriers NADH and FADH2 pass electrons into complexes I and II of the electron transport chain, ...
anaerobic process glycolysis oxygen electron transport chain Krebs cycle pyruvic acid glucose Cellular respiration which is ... all of the carbon atoms that enter #chapter 9 cellular respiration answer key, #chapter 9 cellular respiration Concept Map - ... Chapter 9, Cellular Respiration (continued) Reading Skill Practice When your read about complex topics, writing an outline can ... copies DNA 5. What three organic macromolecules are often utilized to make ATP by cellular respiration? 40. gaps 6. What ...
It is a part of the electron transport chain, aids in aerobic cellular respiration which generates ATP for energy. "In the ... Cellular respiration: • What is cellular respiration and what are its three stages? Cellular respiration is a way cells store ... Coenzyme Q10 functions as an electron carrier from enzyme complex 1 to complex 2 to complex 3 in this process. This is crucial ... NADH transfers electrons to other atoms like glutamine to form QH2. The regeneration of the oxaloacetate in the last stage ...
Perfect prep for Review of Cell Respiration quizzes and tests you might have in school. ... Test your knowledge on all of Review of Cell Respiration. ... oxygen is reduced by the electrons in the electron transport ... In which protein complex in the inner mitochondrial membrane is ATP synthesized? * I ... How many carbon atoms are found in one molecule of glucose? * 1 ... What is the main cellular structure involved in respiration? * ...
The NADH pulls the enzymes electrons to send through the electron transport chain. The electron transport chain pulls H+ ions ... Complex 1: NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductes. References. *^ a b c d e f g Schmidt-Rohr, K. (2020). "Oxygen Is the High-Energy ... 8] Numbers in circles indicate counts of carbon atoms in molecules, C6 is glucose C6H12O6, C1 carbon dioxide CO2. Mitochondrial ... Fructose 1,6-biphosphate then splits into two phosphorylated molecules with three carbon chains which later degrades into ...
Perfect prep for Review of Cell Respiration quizzes and tests you might have in school. ... Review of Cell Respiration quiz that tests what you know. ... oxygen is reduced by the electrons in the electron transport ... In which protein complex in the inner mitochondrial membrane is ATP synthesized? *. I ... How many carbon atoms are found in one molecule of glucose? *. 1 ... What is the main cellular structure involved in respiration? * ...
  • 3. Formation of Acetyl CoA: Formation of Acetyl CoA: In this step, acetyl CoA is formed when acetyl group is transferred from acetyllipoamide. (wikibooks.org)
  • The citric acid produced by the condensation of acetyl CoA and oxaloacetate is a tri carboxylic acid containing three carboxylate groups. (encyclopedia.com)
  • There are three redox states of CoQ10: fully oxidized (ubiquinone), semiquinone (ubisemiquinone), and fully reduced (ubiquinol). (rcsb.org)
  • In addition changes in the K m for n -decyl-ubiquinone and I 50 for hydrophobic complex I inhibitors were observed, which provides further evidence that not only the hydrophobic, mitochondrially coded subunits, but also some of the nuclear coded subunits of complex I are involved in its reaction with ubiquinone. (chemweb.com)
  • Coenzyme-Q also refers to as " Ubiquinone " that connects the complex I and II. (biologyreader.com)