Poly(A)-Binding Protein I: A poly(A) binding protein that has a variety of functions such as mRNA stabilization and protection of RNA from nuclease activity. Although poly(A) binding protein I is considered a major cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein it is also found in the CELL NUCLEUS and may be involved in transport of mRNP particles.Receptors, Retinoic Acid: Proteins in the nucleus or cytoplasm that specifically bind RETINOIC ACID or RETINOL and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Retinoic acid receptors, like steroid receptors, are ligand-activated transcription regulators. Several types have been recognized.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Protein Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4G: A component of eukaryotic initiation factor-4F that is involved in multiple protein interactions at the site of translation initiation. Thus it may serve a role in bringing together various initiation factors at the site of translation initiation.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Ricin: A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.Dactinomycin: A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Encephalomyocarditis virus: The type species of CARDIOVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis and myocarditis in rodents, pigs, and monkeys. Infection in man has been reported with CNS involvement but without myocarditis.Polyribosomes: A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Peptide Initiation Factors: Protein factors uniquely required during the initiation phase of protein synthesis in GENETIC TRANSLATION.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Diphtheria Toxin: An ADP-ribosylating polypeptide produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA. It can be broken into two unequal domains: the smaller, catalytic A domain is the lethal moiety and contains MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASES which transfers ADP RIBOSE to PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2 thereby inhibiting protein synthesis; and the larger B domain that is needed for entry into cells.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Poly(A)-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to the 3' polyadenylated region of MRNA. When complexed with RNA the proteins serve an array of functions such as stabilizing the 3' end of RNA, promoting poly(A) synthesis and stimulating mRNA translation.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.L Cells (Cell Line): A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.Poliovirus: A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Poly U: A group of uridine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each uridine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Poly C: A group of cytosine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each cytosine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Synapsins: A family of synaptic vesicle-associated proteins involved in the short-term regulation of NEUROTRANSMITTER release. Synapsin I, the predominant member of this family, links SYNAPTIC VESICLES to ACTIN FILAMENTS in the presynaptic nerve terminal. These interactions are modulated by the reversible PHOSPHORYLATION of synapsin I through various signal transduction pathways. The protein is also a substrate for cAMP- and CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is believed that these functional properties are also shared by synapsin II.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Poly I-C: Interferon inducer consisting of a synthetic, mismatched double-stranded RNA. The polymer is made of one strand each of polyinosinic acid and polycytidylic acid.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Puromycin: A cinnamamido ADENOSINE found in STREPTOMYCES alboniger. It inhibits protein synthesis by binding to RNA. It is an antineoplastic and antitrypanosomal agent and is used in research as an inhibitor of protein synthesis.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Poly A-U: A double-stranded polyribonucleotide comprising polyadenylic and polyuridylic acids.Poly dA-dT: Polydeoxyribonucleotides made up of deoxyadenine nucleotides and thymine nucleotides. Present in DNA preparations isolated from crab species. Synthetic preparations have been used extensively in the study of DNA.HMGA1a Protein: An 11-kDa AT-hook motif-containing (AT-HOOK MOTIFS) protein that binds to the minor grove of AT-rich regions of DNA. It is the full-length product of the alternatively-spliced HMGA1 gene and may function as an architectural chromatin binding protein that is involved in transcriptional regulation.Poly Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: A polynucleotide formed from the ADP-RIBOSE moiety of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Poly G: A group of guanine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each guanine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Poly I: A group of inosine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each inosine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Anisomycin: An antibiotic isolated from various Streptomyces species. It interferes with protein and DNA synthesis by inhibiting peptidyl transferase or the 80S ribosome system.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.PhosphoproteinsTritiumLiver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Tacrolimus Binding Proteins: A family of immunophilin proteins that bind to the immunosuppressive drugs TACROLIMUS (also known as FK506) and SIROLIMUS. EC 5.2.1.-Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Nerve Tissue ProteinsCoat Protein Complex I: A protein complex comprised of COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1. It is involved in transport of vesicles between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Reticulocytes: Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.Peptide Chain Initiation, Translational: A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION whereby the formation of a peptide chain is started. It includes assembly of the RIBOSOME components, the MESSENGER RNA coding for the polypeptide to be made, INITIATOR TRNA, and PEPTIDE INITIATION FACTORS; and placement of the first amino acid in the peptide chain. The details and components of this process are unique for prokaryotic protein biosynthesis and eukaryotic protein biosynthesis.Peptide Biosynthesis: The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Emetine: The principal alkaloid of ipecac, from the ground roots of Uragoga (or Cephaelis) ipecacuanha or U. acuminata, of the Rubiaceae. It is used as an amebicide in many different preparations and may cause serious cardiac, hepatic, or renal damage and violent diarrhea and vomiting. Emetine inhibits protein synthesis in EUKARYOTIC CELLS but not PROKARYOTIC CELLS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Poly T: A group of thymine nucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each thymine nucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2: Eukaryotic initiation factor of protein synthesis. In higher eukaryotes the factor consists of three subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. As initiation proceeds, eIF-2 forms a ternary complex with Met-tRNAi and GTP.Poly(A)-Binding Protein II: A poly(A) binding protein that is involved in promoting the extension of the poly A tails of MRNA. The protein requires a minimum of ten ADENOSINE nucleotides in order for binding to mRNA. Once bound it works in conjunction with CLEAVAGE AND POLYADENYLATION SPECIFICITY FACTOR to stimulate the rate of poly A synthesis by POLY A POLYMERASE. Once poly-A tails reach around 250 nucleotides in length poly(A) binding protein II no longer stimulates POLYADENYLATION. Mutations within a GCG repeat region in the gene for poly(A) binding protein II have been shown to cause the disease MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY, OCULOPHARYNGEAL.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4E: A peptide initiation factor that binds specifically to the 5' MRNA CAP STRUCTURE of MRNA in the CYTOPLASM. It is a component of the trimeric complex EIF4F.Retinol-Binding Proteins, Cellular: A subclass of retinol-binding proteins that take part in the intracellular storage and transport of RETINOL. They are both functionally and structurally distinct from PLASMA RETINOL-BINDING PROTEINS.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins: A family of soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors and modulate their biological actions at the cellular level. (Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1992;39(1):3-9)Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Retinol-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind with RETINOL. The retinol-binding protein found in plasma has an alpha-1 mobility on electrophoresis and a molecular weight of about 21 kDa. The retinol-protein complex (MW=80-90 kDa) circulates in plasma in the form of a protein-protein complex with prealbumin. The retinol-binding protein found in tissue has a molecular weight of 14 kDa and carries retinol as a non-covalently-bound ligand.Polydeoxyribonucleotides: A group of 13 or more deoxyribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.UridineStructure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Heat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Peptide Chain Elongation, Translational: A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION, when an amino acid is transferred from its cognate TRANSFER RNA to the lengthening chain of PEPTIDES.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Ribonucleoproteins: Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins: Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).High Mobility Group Proteins: A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases: A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4F: A trimeric peptide initiation factor complex that associates with the 5' MRNA cap structure of RNA (RNA CAPS) and plays an essential role in MRNA TRANSLATION. It is composed of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-4A; EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-4E; and EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-4G.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.ThymidineRats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Peptide Elongation Factor 2: Peptide Elongation Factor 2 catalyzes the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from the A site to the P site of eukaryotic ribosomes by a process linked to the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Ribosomal Proteins: Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.Sulfur Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Polynucleotide Adenylyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of polyadenylic acid from ATP. May be due to the action of RNA polymerase (EC 188.8.131.52) or polynucleotide adenylyltransferase (EC 184.108.40.206). EC 220.127.116.11.Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins: A family of ribonucleoproteins that were originally found as proteins bound to nascent RNA transcripts in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles. Although considered ribonucleoproteins they are primarily classified by their protein component. They are involved in a variety of processes such as packaging of RNA and RNA TRANSPORT within the nucleus. A subset of heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins are involved in additional functions such as nucleocytoplasmic transport (ACTIVE TRANSPORT, CELL NUCLEUS) of RNA and mRNA stability in the CYTOPLASM.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Polyribonucleotides: A group of 13 or more ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3: One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 18.104.22.168.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
NSP3 is bound to viral mRNAs in infected cells and it is responsible for the shutdown of cellular protein synthesis. NSP3 ... First, NSP3 ejects poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) from the translation initiation factor eIF4F. PABP is required for efficient ... At least six of the twelve proteins encoded by the rotavirus genome bind RNA. The role of these proteins play in rotavirus ... NSP6 is a nucleic acid binding protein and is encoded by gene 11 from an out-of-phase open reading frame. This table is based ...
Rotavirus RNA-binding protein NSP3 interacts with eIF4GI and evicts the poly(A)-binding protein from eIF4F. And NSP3A, by ... is responsible for the shut-off of cellular protein synthesis. Expression of NSP3 in mammalian cells allows the efficient ... "Rotavirus RNA-binding protein NSP3 interacts with eIF4GI and evicts the poly(A) binding protein from eIF4F" (Free full text). ... Using the yeast two-hybrid assay, RoXan a novel cellular protein was found to bind NSP3. The interaction between NSP3 and RoXaN ...
NSP3A by taking the place of PABP on eIF4GI, is responsible for the shut-off of cellular protein synthesis. Rotavirus mRNAs ... Poly(A)-binding protein (PAB or PABP) is a RNA-binding protein which binds to the poly(A) tail of mRNA. The poly(A) tail is ... This binding forms the characteristic loop structure of eukaryotic protein synthesis. Poly(A)-binding proteins in the cytosol ... Rotavirus RNA-binding protein NSP3 interacts with eIF4GI and evicts the poly(A) binding protein from eIF4F. ...
Stop codons are signals in messenger RNA that signal for synthesis of proteins to end. Aberrant transcripts are identified ... Non-stop decay is a cellular mechanism of mRNA surveillance to detect mRNA molecules lacking a stop codon and prevent these ... the amino acid binds to the polypeptide chain. Then the normal translation will translate the tm-RNA codons sequence that will ... during translation when the ribosome translates into the poly A tail at the 3' end of mRNA. A non-stop transcript can occur ...
Fatty acid synthase
... is a multi-enzyme protein that catalyzes fatty acid synthesis. It is not a single enzyme but a whole ... Although liver X receptor (LXRs) modulate the expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) in feeding ... Lomakin IB, Xiong Y, Steitz TA (April 2007). "The crystal structure of yeast fatty acid synthase, a cellular machine with eight ... Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Fatty Acid Synthase: RCSB PDB Molecule of the Month 3D electron microscopy structures of fatty ...
Malanga M, Pleschke JM, Kleczkowska HE, Althaus FR (May 1998). "Poly(ADP-ribose) binds to specific domains of p53 and alters ... Morgan HE, Jefferson LS, Wolpert EB, Rannels DE (Apr 1971). "Regulation of protein synthesis in heart muscle. II. Effect of ... Molecular and Cellular Biology. 18 (6): 3563-71. PMC 108937 . PMID 9584196. Ku MC, Stewart S, Hata A (Nov 2003). "Poly(ADP- ... PARP1 works: By modifying nuclear proteins by poly ADP-ribosylation. In conjunction with BRCA, which acts on double strands; ...
mRNA isolation Expressed DNA that codes for the synthesis of a protein is the final goal for scientists and this expressed DNA ... First, the DNA is separated from cellular components such as proteins, RNA, and lipids. This is done by placing the chosen ... Because Adenine and Thymine pair together in DNA, the poly(A) tail and synthetic beads are attracted to one another, and once ... they bind in this process the cell components can be washed away without removing the mRNA. Once the mRNA has been isolated, ...
Accordingly, misfolded proteins and damaged protein need to be continuously removed to recycle amino acids for new synthesis; ... and corresponding cellular Protein Quality Control (PQC). Protein ubiquitination and subsequent proteolysis and degradation by ... Rpn10 serve as a receptor for poly-ubiquitylated protein substrates. The Proteasome and its subunits are of clinical ... sterol-regulated element-binding proteins and androgen receptors are all controlled by the UPS and thus involved in the ...
"Disruption of the interaction of mammalian protein synthesis eukaryotic initiation factor 4B with the poly(A)-binding protein ... "Dual interactions of the translational repressor Paip2 with poly(A) binding protein". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 21 (15): ... Polyadenylate-binding protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PABPC1 gene. The protein PABP1 binds mRNA and ... "A newly identified N-terminal amino acid sequence of human eIF4G binds poly(A)-binding protein and functions in poly(A)- ...
Protein kinase B
Akt1 is also able to induce protein synthesis pathways, and is therefore a key signaling protein in the cellular pathways that ... This domain binds to phosphoinositides with high affinity. In the case of the PH domain of Akt, it binds either PIP3 ( ... These poly-phosphate inositol phosphatases dephosphorylate PIP3 to form PIP2. The phosphatases in the PHLPP family, PHLPP1 and ... Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular ...
Accordingly, misfolded proteins and damaged protein need to be continuously removed to recycle amino acids for new synthesis; ... and corresponding cellular Protein Quality Control (PQC). Protein ubiquitination and subsequent proteolysis and degradation by ... Protein Rpn11 presents the metalloproteases activity to hydrolyze the ubiquitin molecules from the poly-ubiquitin chain before ... sterol-regulated element-binding proteins and androgen receptors are all controlled by the UPS and thus involved in the ...
Entebbe bat virus
Lacking a poly-A tail allows the virus to use cellular machinery to synthesize its genome and the proteins it needs Moreover, ... Entebbe Bat Virus is an enveloped virus, which means that it has to bind its envelope proteins to a cell surface protein on the ... where the RNA synthesis begins. The mechanism by which the contacts between the viral nucleocapsid and M protein, which forms a ... However, since cellular mRNAs need a poly-A tail to be considered mature. Therefore, the virus produces a polyprotein that is ...
The genome mimics the cellular mRNA molecule in all aspects except for the absence of the poly-adenylated (poly-A) tail. This ... RNA binding affinity is reduced by the presence of ATP or GTP and enhanced by S-adenosyl methionine. This protein also encodes ... resulting in the synthesis of a single polyprotein. In general, the genome encodes 3 structural proteins (Capsid, prM, and ... Nevertheless, cellular post-translational modification is dependent on the presence of a poly-A tail; therefore this process is ...
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 gamma 1
"Rotavirus RNA-binding protein NSP3 interacts with eIF4GI and evicts the poly(A) binding protein from eIF4F". The EMBO Journal. ... Yan R, Rhoads RE (Mar 1995). "Human protein synthesis initiation factor eIF-4 gamma is encoded by a single gene (EIF4G) that ... possesses two separate and independent binding sites for eIF4A". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 17 (12): 6940-7. doi:10.1128/ ... "A newly identified N-terminal amino acid sequence of human eIF4G binds poly(A)-binding protein and functions in poly(A)- ...
Potato virus Y
... they code for the synthesis of various proteins, as mentioned before, as well as coat proteins. These coat proteins will now ... Nonspecifically bound components are less strongly bound than the specific bound ones. Detection is achieved either through the ... A disruption in gene expression disrupts the normal cellular function of cells which could be the cause of the physical ... poly-A tail. The positive sense genome contains a single extended open reading frame and acts directly as mRNA. The 144 ...
SUMOylation also facilitates error prone translesion synthesis. SUMO proteins are small; most are around 100 amino acids in ... The SUMOplot score system is based on two criteria: 1) direct amino acid match to the SUMO-CS observed and shown to bind Ubc9, ... Serine 2 of SUMO-1 is phosphorylated, raising the concept of a 'modified modifier'. Cellular DNA is regularly exposed to DNA ... it is thought to terminate these poly-SUMO chains. ... proteins are a family of small proteins that are covalently ...
... cell protein synthesis declines to almost zero output - essentially the macromolecular synthesis of cell proteins is shut off. ... Precursor proteins also have an effect on VPg-CRE specificity and stability. The upper RNA stem loop, to which VPg binds, has a ... The 3' end of picornavirus contains poly(A) tract which be required for infectivity. On the other hand, RNA synthesis is ... To fulfill energy requirements, MP also interacts with P10, which is a cellular ATPase. In 1897, foot-and-mouth disease virus ( ...
Coxsackie B4 virus
While all of this is occurring, viral proteinases are working to turn off host cell protein synthesis by cleaving the eIF-4 ... The viral genome encodes for a poly-A tail, which can be recognized by cellular initiation factors and ribosomal subunits which ... Riabi, 2014) When VP1 binds to the Coxsackie-Adenovirus receptor (CAR), which can be found on heart muscle cells as well as ... The purpose of these U's is to modify the VPg protein which serves as a protein primer which the viral RdRP can recognize and ...
... and membrane bound. The three forms differ by the poly(A) and non-poly(A) protein binding sequence. Cambra, Kris (Spring 2017 ... binding proteins". Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. 131 (2): 131-139. ISSN 0300-8177 PMID 8035778. Lunelli, Lorenzo; ... Warner JR, Knopf PM, Rich A (1963). "A multiple ribosomal structure in protein synthesis". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 49: ... Moss, R.; Pryme, I. F.; Vedeler, A. (23 February 1994). "Free, cytoskeletal-bound and membrane-bound polysomes isolated from ...
This particular initiation factor binds to the PABPI (PolyA binding protein I), which is in turn binds the messenger RNA's poly ... This has the effect of preventing most cellular mRNAs from binding eIF4G; however, a few cellular mRNAs with IRESs still ... Regulation of translation initiation by eIF4G is vital for protein synthesis in developing organisms, for example yeast and ... Some viral IRESs directly bind eIF4G, and co-opt it for gaining access to the ribosome. Some cellular mRNAs also contain IRESs ...
Binding of the coenzyme NAD+ Binding of the alcohol substrate by coordination to zinc Deprotonation of His-51 Deprotonation of ... coli and Salmonella typhimurium ethanolamine utilization protein eutG. E. coli hypothetical protein yiaY. A further class of ... Scientists at Saint Louis University have used carbon-supported alcohol dehydrogenase with poly(methylene green) as an anode, ... Duester G (Sep 2008). "Retinoic acid synthesis and signaling during early organogenesis". Cell. 134 (6): 921-31. doi:10.1016/j. ...
DNA polymerase alpha catalytic subunit
Niki T, Galli I, Ariga H, Iguchi-Ariga SM (June 2000). "MSSP, a protein binding to an origin of replication in the c-myc gene, ... Collins KL, Kelly TJ (1991). "Effects of T antigen and replication protein A on the initiation of DNA synthesis by DNA ... "Interaction of DNA polymerase alpha-primase with cellular replication protein A and SV40 T antigen". EMBO J. 11 (2): 769-76. ... Simbulan CM, Suzuki M, Izuta S, Sakurai T, Savoysky E, Kojima K, Miyahara K, Shizuta Y, Yoshida S (Jan 1993). "Poly(ADP-ribose ...
Poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) has been shown to bind to BC200 RNA further confirming their role as regulators of protein ... Protein synthesis at the synapses of neurons contribute to neuronal plasticity and help prevent neuronal degradation. Small, ... Molecular and Cellular Biology. American Society for Microbiology (ASM). PMC 2293081 . Retrieved 10 October 2017. Bhadra, Utpal ... The TATA-box binding protein (TBP) binds here, and when inhibited, BC200 RNA levels decrease, indicating that the 100 base pair ...
Protein synthesis is the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular ... other proteins that assist the process. Elongation occurs when the next aminoacyl-tRNA (charged tRNA) in line binds to the ... tailing with a poly A tail) to give hnRNA (heterogeneous nuclear RNA). hnRNA then undergoes splicing of introns (noncoding ... In protein synthesis, a succession of tRNA molecules charged with appropriate amino acids are brought together with an mRNA ...
... tends to destabilize those transcripts through the action of cellular proteins that bind these sequences and stimulate poly(A) ... The limited lifetime of mRNA enables a cell to alter protein synthesis rapidly in response to its changing needs. There are ... and poly(A)-binding protein. eIF-4E and eIF-4G block the decapping enzyme (DCP2), and poly(A)-binding protein blocks the ... which binds poly(A)-binding protein, forming the familiar mRNA-protein-mRNA circle. Barley yellow dwarf virus has binding ...
This leads to the synthesis of poly-ADP ribose. The PBZ domain is present in many proteins involved in DNA repair and allows ... over 800 proteins have been annotated to contain the loosely defined poly ADP-ribose binding motif; therefore, in addition to ... it may also be used as a tag to recruit other proteins or for regulation of the target protein. During DNA damage or cellular ... Glu to facilitate binding of NAD+ and positioning of the end of the existing poly-ADP ribose chain on the target protein; the ...
Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase
... (PARP) is a family of proteins involved in a number of cellular processes such as DNA repair, ... Once PARP detects a SSB, it binds to the DNA, undergoes a structural change, and begins the synthesis of a polymeric adenosine ... The DNA-binding region is capable of doing so independent of the rest of the protein, cleaved or not. It is unable, however, to ... the DNA-binding domain will bind the DNA and induce a conformational shift. It has been shown that this binding occurs ...
... transcript PABPN1 poly(A) binding protein, nuclear 1 SRSF3 splicing factor, arginine/serine-rich EIF1 aka SUI1 EIF1AD EIF1B ... an energy sensor protein kinase that plays a key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism PRKAB1 NM_006253 Non-catalytic ... which in turn is the first enzymatic step in pyrimidine synthesis. Regulated by MITF) HMGB1 High mobility group box binds DNA ... Protein translocation in ER SSR3 Translocon-associated protein TRAPG. Protein translocation in ER SUMO1 Protein targeting SUMO3 ...
Each PNPase molecule consists of two RNase PH domains, an S1 RNA binding domain and a K-homology domain. The protein is present ... Furth JJ, Hurwitz J, Anders M (August 1962). "The role of deoxyribonucleic acid in ribonucleic acid synthesis. I. The ... Polynucleotide Phosphorylase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular ... "Polynucleotide phosphorylase functions as both an exonuclease and a poly(A) polymerase in spinach chloroplasts". Molecular and ...
Elastin like polypeptides
The ELP can be conjugated to a functional group that can bind to a protein of interest. At temperatures below the Tt, the ELP ... Because ELPs are protein-based biopolymers, synthesis involves manipulation of genes to continually express the monomeric ... It has been shown that ELPs can be synthetically conjugated to poly (ethylene glycol). In order to perform this conjugation, a ... The temperature-based phase behavior of ELPs can be utilized to produce stiff networks that may be compatible with cellular ...
Rotavirus - Wikipedia
NSP3 is bound to viral mRNAs in infected cells and it is responsible for the shutdown of cellular protein synthesis. NSP3 ... First, NSP3 ejects poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) from the translation initiation factor eIF4F. PABP is required for efficient ... At least six of the twelve proteins encoded by the rotavirus genome bind RNA. The role of these proteins play in rotavirus ... NSP6 is a nucleic acid binding protein and is encoded by gene 11 from an out-of-phase open reading frame. This table is based ...
Frontiers | ER stress, autophagy, and RNA viruses | Microbiology
ER stress induces the evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways, called the unfolded protein response (UPR), which ... ER stress induces the evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways, called the unfolded protein response (UPR), which ... In enteroviruses, 2A and 3C proteases target translation factors such as eIF4GI and poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) to impede ... synthesis of the 2C protein was ablated. However, in the RTN3 rescue cell line 2A3, the synthesis of viral protein and RNA was ...
Foresight Update 52 Page 1
Novel Chemical Strategy to Link Protein to DNA for Directed Molecular Assembly, Synthesis and Self-Assembly of Metal-Centered ... Molecular Quantum-dot Cellular Automata: Computation without Current. *Ultrahigh Density Data Storage using Epitaxial Phase- ... Material templating through substrate-bound molecular and macromolecular gradients,. *Manipulating DNA Molecules in Synthetic ... Nanoscale Structure Control Within and Beyond Poly(amidoamine) Dendrimers. *Nanostructured Films of Supramolecular Metal- ...
NS - Non-structural protein 1 - Influenza A virus (strain A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 H1N1) - NS gene & protein
Prevents human EIF2AK2/PKR activation, either by binding double-strand RNA, or by interacting directly with EIF2AK2/PKR. This ... Prevents the establishment of the cellular antiviral state by inhibiting TRIM25-mediated DDX58 ubiquitination, which normally ... Viral protein synthesis is not affected by the inhibition of the cellular 3 end processing machinery because the poly(A) tails ... Inhibits post-transcriptional processing of cellular pre-mRNA, by binding and inhibiting two cellular proteins that are ...
Interaction of Paxillin with Poly(A)-Binding Protein 1 and Its Role in Focal Adhesion Turnover and Cell Migration | Molecular...
By targeting the paxillin-binding subdomain sequences in PABP1, we have generated mutants of PABP1 that do not bind to cellular ... indicating that it is unlikely that binding of paxillin to PABP1 is required for global protein synthesis. Thus, although cell ... The multiple RNA-binding domains of the mRNA poly(A)-binding protein have different RNA-binding activities. Mol. Cell. Biol. 11 ... Identification of a C-terminal poly(A)-binding protein (PABP)-PABP interaction domain: role in cooperative binding to poly (A) ...
NS1 - Non-structural protein 1 - Influenza A virus (A/blue-winged teal/Wisconsin/548/1979(mixed)) - NS1 gene & protein
Viral protein synthesis is not affected by the inhibition of the cellular 3 end processing machinery because the poly(A) tails ... by binding and inhibiting two cellular proteins that are required for the 3-end processing of cellular pre-mRNAs: the 30 kDa ... Cellular protein synthesis is thereby shut off very early after virus infection. ... cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor/CPSF4 and the poly(A)-binding protein 2/PABPN1. In turn, unprocessed 3 end pre ...
Poly(A)-binding protein - Wikipedia
NSP3A by taking the place of PABP on eIF4GI, is responsible for the shut-off of cellular protein synthesis. Rotavirus mRNAs ... Poly(A)-binding protein (PAB or PABP) is a RNA-binding protein which binds to the poly(A) tail of mRNA. The poly(A) tail is ... This binding forms the characteristic loop structure of eukaryotic protein synthesis. Poly(A)-binding proteins in the cytosol ... Rotavirus RNA-binding protein NSP3 interacts with eIF4GI and evicts the poly(A) binding protein from eIF4F. ...
Kits and methods for generating 5′ capped RNA - CellScript, LLC
... the cap binding protein, the poly(A) binding protein, and the poly(A) tail. Some aspects and applications of this synergy are ... The 5′ cap structure is involved in the initiation of protein synthesis of eukaryotic cellular and eukaryotic viral mRNAs and ... the single-stranded binding protein is bacteriophage T4 gene 32 protein or a Thermus single-stranded binding protein; however, ... Without being bound by theory, this synergy is believed to involve an interaction between the poly(A) binding protein and the N ...
Leucine-Aspartic Acid-Valine Sequence as Targeting Ligand and Drug Carrier for Doxorubicin Delivery to Melanoma Cells: In Vitro...
Oligo(LDV), consisting of 2-6 LDV units, were synthesized by solid phase protein synthesis (SPPS) method. Binding of Leu-Asp- ... binding specificity cellular uptake LDV oligo(LDV) targeted delivery This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check ... The binding, internalization, and cytotoxicity depend on the level of integrin α4β1 expression. Poly(L,D,V) and oligo(LDV) were ... LDV was essential for the specific binding and internalization by cells expressing integrin α4β1. Cytotoxicity of poly(L,D,V)- ...
Transduction of Growth or Mitogenic Signals into Translational Activation of TOP mRNAs Is Fully Reliant on the...
Overexpression of poly(A)-binding protein down-regulates the translation or the abundance of its own mRNA. FEBS Lett. 457:209- ... most of the energy consumed during cellular growth is utilized for generating the components of the protein synthesis machinery ... and poly(A)-binding protein], are translationally regulated by mitogenic signals through their 5′ terminal oligopyrimidine ... Rapamycin inhibits ribosomal protein synthesis and induces G1 prolongation in mitogen-activated T lymphocytes. J. Immunol. 155: ...
Biology-Online • View topic - The Fiber Disease
biosynthesis protein)poly-gamma-glutamate synthesis protein (capsule biosynthesisprotein)Class Unclassified; Cellular Processes ... peptidoglycan bound protein (LPXTG motif) s similar to iron-sulfur cofactor synthesis probable cell surface protein (LPXTG ... similar to Bacillus anthracis encapsulation protein CapA KO KO: K07282 poly-gamma-glutamate synthesis protein (capsule ... Mastoparan interacts with heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) such as Gi and G(o), which are ADP- ...
Poly(A) tail length regulates PABPC1 expression to tune translation in the heart | eLife
... tail-based regulatory mechanism dynamically controls PABPC1 protein synthesis in cardiomyocytes and thereby titrates cellular ... Autoregulation of poly(A)-binding protein synthesis in vitro * OP de Melo Neto ... mRNA stabilization by poly(A) binding protein is independent of poly(A) and requires translation * JM Coller ... An RNA-binding protein called PABPC1 has an important role in determining protein synthesis rates and hypertrophy in the heart. ...
The Role of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Activation in Determining Cellular Outcomes in Polyamine Analogue-treated Human...
RNA templates bound to beads were subjected to a cDNA synthesis primer mixture and [α-32P]dATP. Purified cDNA probes (,6.5 × 10 ... Briefly, total cellular RNA was isolated and contaminating DNA was removed by treatment with DNase I. Poly(A)+ RNA was enriched ... a GTP binding protein, and ZRP in both melanoma cell lines, whereas EGR-1, a transcription factor involved in multiple cellular ... The Role of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Activation in Determining Cellular Outcomes in Polyamine Analogue-treated Human ...
Inhibition of Translation Initiation by Protein 169: A Vaccinia Virus Strategy to Suppress Innate and Adaptive Immunity and...
Calicivirus 3C-like proteinase inhibits cellular translation by cleavage of poly(A)-binding protein. J Virol 2004;78(15):8172- ... 169 inhibits protein synthesis. To investigate if protein 169 inhibits protein synthesis, HeLa cells were co-transfected with ... by binding to one or two specific host proteins. In contrast, protein 169 is a general inhibitor of protein synthesis and ... cleavage of poly A-binding protein [66, 67], and (iii) decreasing phosphorylation of cap-binding protein eIF4E [68, 69]. In ...
Frontiers | Exploring Internal Ribosome Entry Sites as Therapeutic Targets | Oncology
Therefore, this cellular mechanism represents an attractive target for pharmacological modulation. The purpose of this review ... Therefore, this cellular mechanism represents an attractive target for pharmacological modulation. The purpose of this review ... is to provide insight into current strategies used to target viral and cellular IRESs and discuss the physiological ... is to provide insight into current strategies used to target viral and cellular IRESs and discuss the physiological ...
Mechanistic insights into mammalian stress granule dynamics | JCB
Viral and cellular proteins containing FGDF motifs bind G3BP to block stress granule formation. PLoS Pathog. 11:e1004659. doi: ... Mammalian poly(A)-binding protein is a eukaryotic translation initiation factor, which acts via multiple mechanisms. Genes Dev. ... a serine/threonine kinase that couples cellular metabolism to protein synthesis. Under optimal growth conditions, mTOR ... Newly transcribed mRNAs bind to a plethora of RNA-binding proteins (RNA-BPs) to assemble RNP particles, the protein components ...
Conserved patterns of protein interaction in multiple species | PNAS
To elucidate cellular machinery on a global scale, we performed a multiple comparison of the recently available protein-protein ... 2h links protein degradation to the process of poly(A) RNA elongation. Although these two processes are not connected in this ... actin binding, and ion transport within an intricate network of protein interactions. ... Other significant conserved clusters were involved in DNA synthesis, nuclear-cytoplasmic transport, and protein folding. The ...
Gene Report for G00001760 - Genes2Cognition Neuroscience Research Programme
Disruption of the interaction of mammalian protein synthesis eukaryotic initiation factor 4B with the poly(A)-binding protein ... a cellular protein of yet-unknown function. By evicting cytoplasmic poly(A) binding protein (PABP-C1) from translation ... a poly(A) binding protein; PAIP-1, a poly(A) binding protein interacting protein; hnRNP D, an AU-rich element binding protein; ... A major component of paxillin immunoprecipitates was poly(A)-binding protein 1, a 70-kDa mRNA-binding protein. Poly(A)-binding ...
Poly(A) polymerase, central domain (IPR007012) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... The crystal structure of bovine poly(A) polymerase bound to an ATP analog at 2.5 A resolutio has been determined [PMID: ... In eukaryotes, polyadenylation of pre-mRNA plays an essential role in the initiation step of protein synthesis, as well as in ...
OPUS 4 | Search
... transiently binds to poly(A) binding protein 1 (PABP) in cells undergoing adhesion. The cytoplasmic domain of ADAM15 was shown ... of temporo-spatial compartmentalization of protein synthesis is of crucial importance for a variety of physiologic cellular ... Cell adhesion-induced transient interaction of ADAM15 with poly(A) binding protein at the cell membrane colocalizes with mRNA ... Co-immunoprecipitation served to identify protein binding to ADAM15. Our results elucidate the prodomain as critical for the ...
Which medications in the drug class Antineoplastic agents are used in the treatment of Pancreatic Cancer?
... and a natural taxane that prevents depolymerization of cellular microtubules, which results in DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis ... Paclitaxel protein bound (Abraxane). Paclitaxel protein bound is a microtubular inhibitor (albumin-conjugated formulation) ... Olaparib is a poly (DP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor. PARP enzymes are involved in normal cellular function (eg, DNA ... Irinotecan and its active metabolite SN-38 bind reversibly to the topoisomerase-1 DNA complex and prevent re-ligation of the ...
US6958325B2 - Cationic polysaccharide compositions - Google Patents
Synthesis. Dextran, a naturally occurring poly-β(1-6) dextrose, was oxidized at room temperature with equimolar amount of KIO4 ... This can prevent gene expression which may prevent protein synthesis by passive or reactive inhibition of mRNA translation. ... Surface modification of DNA/chitosan complex nanoparticles by covalently binding poly(ethylene glycol), transferrin and mannose ... Methods for improving cellular uptake and biological efficacy of ODNs have been devised, including their conjugation to a ...
Readers of poly(ADP-ribose): designed to be fit for purpose
... regulate many aspects of protein function and are indispensable for the spatio-temporal regulation of cellular processes. The ... Since many cellular functions of PARylation are exerted through dynamic interactions of PAR-binding proteins with PAR, we ... discuss the readers of this modification and provide a synthesis of recent findings, which suggest that multiple structurally ... regulate many aspects of protein function and are indispensable for the spatio-temporal regulation of cellular processes. The ...
Search | eLife
A poly(A) tail-based regulatory mechanism dynamically controls PABPC1 protein synthesis in cardiomyocytes and thereby titrates ... binding protein in the inflammatory response Xu Zhang et al. The RNA-binding protein, Zfp36, which is critical for resolving ... cellular translation in response to developmental and hypertrophic cues. Research Article Jun 27, 2017. ... iron response protein binding, and eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF3 binding. Research Article Updated Sep 3, 2019 ...
Molecular genetics - wikidoc
Expressed DNA that codes for the synthesis of a protein is the final goal for scientists and this expressed DNA is obtained by ... First, the DNA is separated from cellular components such as proteins, RNA, and lipids. This is done by placing the chosen ... Because Adenine and Thymine pair together in DNA, the poly(A) tail and synthetic beads are attracted to one another, and once ... they bind in this process the cell components can be washed away without removing the mRNA. Once the mRNA has been isolated, ...
Zika virus inhibits eIF2α-dependent stress granule assembly
... the 40S ribosomal subunit and RNA-binding proteins such as the poly(A) binding protein (PABP), T-cell intracellular antigen 1 ( ... Regulation of protein synthesis by eIF2α phosphorylation plays an important role in the cellular defense against viral ... TIA-1), TIA-1-related protein (TIAR), and Ras GTPase activating protein-binding protein 1 (G3BP1) . Distinct cell host ... Many viruses modulate p-eIF2α levels during replication to assure viral protein synthesis and avoid cellular stress responses. ...
Multiplexed Protein Quantitation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Using Amine-reactive Isobaric Tagging Reagents | Molecular &...
These include the poly(A)-binding protein Pab1p that also serves as a scaffold for a series of post-transcriptional regulatory ... Synthesis of the four derivatization reagents is discussed elsewhere (11). For each yeast strain, 150 μg of total protein was ... Molecular & Cellular Proteomics December 1, 2004, First published on September 22, 2004, 3 (12) 1154-1169; DOI: 10.1074/mcp. ... The upf1Δ strain showed up-regulation of proteins such as the Sec63 protein important for protein assembly in the nucleus and ...
Regulation of Poly (A)-Binding Protein Expression in Response to Heat Shock and Recovery
Thus regulation of the cellular machinery involved in mRNA translation is crucial. Poly (A) binding protein (PABP1), eukaryotic ... it allows changes in protein synthesis without triggering transcription of a new set of genes. Control of mRNA translation and ... for the presence of specific mRNAs showed that the cellular nucleic acid binding protein ZNF9 binds not only to TOP mRNAs but ... Regulation of Poly (A)-Binding Protein Expression in Response to Heat Shock and Recovery. Show full item record ...
Polyadenylation-Dependent Control of Long Noncoding RNA Expression by the Poly(A)-Binding Protein Nuclear 1 | proLékaře.cz
The poly(A)-binding protein nuclear 1 (PABPN1) is required for efficient and processive poly(A) tail synthesis in vitro. ... Článek A Germline Polymorphism of DNA Polymerase Beta Induces Genomic Instability and Cellular Transformation ... The poly(A)-binding protein nuclear 1 (PABPN1) is a ubiquitously expressed protein that is thought to function during mRNA poly ... The poly(A)-binding protein nuclear 1 (PABPN1) is a ubiquitously expressed protein that is thought to function during mRNA poly ...
Storage of cellular 5′ mRNA caps in P bodies for viral cap-snatching | PNAS
... and poly(A) binding protein at the 3′ end (23, 24). It is likely that circularization through this protein bridge stabilizes ... Reactions for synthesis of the decamer RNA used in competition experiments (Fig. 1C) lacked GTP and contained either 7 mM m7 or ... 1996) Association of the yeast poly(A) tail binding protein with translation initiation factor eIF-4G. EMBO J 15:7168-7177. ... Here we show that the hantavirus nucleocapsid protein binds with high affinity to the 5′ cap of cellular mRNAs, protecting the ...
EIF4EVitroInhibitsSeveral proteinsEIF3NuclearAntiviralEncodeSequenceInhibition of hostViral proteinPathwayHost protein synthesisMRNA synthesisNonstructural proteinsTranslation InitiationMolecular and CelInvolved in mRNACytoplasmAssaysRibosomeMachineryEIF4F complexProcessesMechanismsNucleic acidsPrecursorGenomeAccumulationComplexTranscriptsModulatesSecretionFunctionsPeptides and proteinsTarget proteinsInhibitors
- eIF4G is a component of the eIF4F complex, containing eIF4E, another initiation factor bound to the 5' cap on the 5' end of mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
- This interaction enhances both the affinity of eIF4E for the cap structure and PABP1 for poly(A), effectively locking proteins onto both ends of the mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
- VACV mRNAs are translated by a cap-dependent mechanism facilitated by the eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)4F complex that recognizes the 5'-methylated cap, and translation is initiated by interaction of the cap with eIF4E, a cap-binding protein [ 28 ]. (prolekare.cz)
- Mechanistically, the polysome/SG dynamics is achieved by regulating the activities of eukaryotic initiator factor 2 (eIF2), the cap-binding eIF4F complex (consisting of eIF4E, eIF4A, and eIF4G), or both. (rupress.org)
- Under optimal growth conditions, mTOR constitutively phosphorylates eIF4E-binding protein (4E-BP) to prevent it from binding to eIF4E and inhibiting translation. (rupress.org)
- In cells subjected to metabolic stress (e.g., amino acid starvation), inactivation of mTOR results in the accumulation of hypophosphorylated 4E-BP, which binds eIF4E and inhibits translation ( Sonenberg and Hinnebusch, 2009 ). (rupress.org)
- Among this complex of proteins are cap-binding protein eIF4E and the eIF4E kinase Mnk1. (asm.org)
- Cap-dependent mRNA translation generally correlates with Mnk1 phosphorylation of eIF4E when both are bound to eIF4G. (asm.org)
- During the late phase of adenovirus (Ad) infection translation of cellular mRNA is inhibited, which correlates with displacement of Mnk1 from eIF4G by the viral 100-kDa (100K) protein and dephosphorylation of eIF4E. (asm.org)
- The eIF4G-binding site is located in an N-terminal 66-amino-acid peptide of 100K which is sufficient to bind eIF4G, displace Mnk1, block eIF4E phosphorylation, and inhibit eIF4F (cap)-dependent cellular mRNA translation. (asm.org)
- These data support a model whereby 100K protein blocks cellular protein synthesis by coopting eIF4G and cap-initiation complexes regardless of their association with mRNA and displacing or blocking binding by Mnk1, which occurs only on preassembled complexes, resulting in dephosphorylation of eIF4E. (asm.org)
- The C terminus of eIF4G interacts with the mitogen-activated protein kinase-interacting kinases Mnk1 and Mnk2 (Mnk2a and Mnk2b, respectively), which efficiently phosphorylate eIF4E in vivo when both eIF4E and Mnk are bound to eIF4G ( 3 , 33 , 36 , 39 , 49 ). (asm.org)
- Ad inhibition of cellular protein synthesis correlates with a strong decrease in eIF4E phosphorylation ( 17 , 53 ), but it does not involve eIF4E sequestration by the 4E-binding proteins ( 5 , 12 ), in contrast to certain stress conditions ( 32 , 34 , 47 ). (asm.org)
- We recently established that the Ad late L4 100-kilodalton (L4 100K) protein inhibits cellular protein synthesis, consistent with its binding to eIF4G, displacement of Mnk1, and dephosphorylation of eIF4E ( 3 ). (asm.org)
- However, 100K is a large protein displaying several activities, which make it difficult to demonstrate that 100K displacement of Mnk1 from eIF4G and dephosphorylation of eIF4E are actually responsible for inhibition of host cell protein synthesis. (asm.org)
- Entero- and rhinovirus 2A and foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) L proteases cleave eIF4G into an N-terminal one-third fragment, which has the eIF4E interaction site, and a C-terminal two-thirds fragment, which has the interaction site for eIF3, and both sites where eIF4A binds. (asmscience.org)
- Release of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) from its translational repressor eIF4E-binding protein (4E-BP) is a crucial event for the first mitotic division following fertilization of sea urchin eggs. (biologists.org)
- Among highly conserved domains, SgIF4G protein possesses motifs that correspond to the poly(A) binding protein and eIF4E protein-binding sites. (biologists.org)
- Microinjection of a peptide corresponding to the eIF4E-binding site derived from the sequence of SgIF4G into unfertilized eggs affects the first mitotic division of sea urchin embryos. (biologists.org)
- In mammalian cells, the function of eIF4E is to recognize the 7-methyl guanosine triphosphate (m 7 GTP) `cap' at the 5′ terminus of the mRNA, thereby allowing the latter to bind to the 43S complex composed of the ribosomal 40S subunit, eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3) and eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2). (biologists.org)
- For protein synthesis to take place, eIF4E must function in conjunction with a large scaffolding protein, eIF4G, that interacts with several proteins, including eIF4E, eIF4A (an ATP-dependent RNA helicase) and eIF3. (biologists.org)
- As shown previously for human norovirus VPg, MNV-1 VPg bound eIF3, eIF4GI, eIF4E, and S6 ribosomal protein in cell extracts by GST pull-down assay. (biomedcentral.com)
- Cap-dependent translation initiates with binding of the eIF4F complex that consists of eIF4E, eIF4GI and eIF4A, to the m 7 G cap structure. (biomedcentral.com)
- Simultaneous interactions of eIF4G with cap-binding protein eIF4E, on the one hand, and PABP, on the other hand, bring about circularization of the mRNA, which could facilitate ribosome recycling. (genetics.org)
- The eIF4F complex comprises the eIF4E cap-binding protein, the eIF4A DEAD box RNA helicase, and the eIF4G scaffolding protein ( Fig. 1A ). (aacrjournals.org)
- The major mechanism of translation initiation in eukaryotes involves recognition of the cap structure at the 5′ end of the mRNA by the cap‐binding protein eIF4E. (els.net)
- In vitro studies have shown the binding affinities to be on the order of 2-7nM, while affinity for poly(U), poly(G), and poly(C) were reportedly lower or undetectable in comparison. (wikipedia.org)
- Poly(L,D,V) and oligo(LDV) were both effective in the in vitro targeted delivery of Dox to integrin α 4 β 1 over-expressing A375 cells. (springer.com)
- The product of the PABPN1 gene was originally identified as a factor that stimulates the synthesis of RNA poly(A) tails in vitro . (prolekare.cz)
- In vitro binding assays indicate that a 127-nucleotide region of the 3'-untranslated region of p21(WAF) interacts with both alphaCP1 and alphaCP2, and co-depletion of alphaCP1/2 results in a marked increase in p21(WAF) mRNA half-life. (genes2cognition.org)
- Additionally, in vitro experiments revealed that solubilized, gradient-purified ribosome-translocon complexes were able to initiate the translation of secretory and cytosolic proteins and were functional in assays of signal sequence recognition. (jove.com)
- VPg of two human norovirus strains binds translation initiation factor eIF3 and other eIFs in vitro , suggesting VPg functions in initiation of protein synthesis on viral RNA. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, our SRAP-RNA binding experiments, both in vitro with recombinant protein and in cultured cells with plasmid-expressed protein and RNA, did not reveal a specific interaction between SRAP and SRA. (stanford.edu)
- As expected, a P56 mutant that does not interact with P48 and eIF‐3 failed to inhibit protein synthesis in vitro and in vivo . (embopress.org)
- Inhibits post-transcriptional processing of cellular pre-mRNA, by binding and inhibiting two cellular proteins that are required for the 3'-end processing of cellular pre-mRNAs: the 30 kDa cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor/CPSF4 and the poly(A)-binding protein 2/PABPN1. (uniprot.org)
- The results show that protein 169 inhibits the synthesis of host proteins in cells and thereby provides a broad inhibition of the host innate immune response to infection. (prolekare.cz)
- This is a fluorinated pyrimidine antimetabolite that inhibits thymidylate synthase (TS) and also interferes with ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis and function. (medscape.com)
- The RNA-binding protein, Zfp36, which is critical for resolving inflammation, inhibits the production of proinflammatory cytokines via modulation of the cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein. (elifesciences.org)
- Here we report that a cellular purine synthesis enzyme inhibits protein nuclear import via deamidation. (sciencemag.org)
- Employing human Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) to probe the role of protein deamidation, we identified a purine synthesis enzyme, phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthetase (PFAS) that inhibits KSHV transcriptional activation. (sciencemag.org)
- VPg of human noroviruses binds directly to eIF3, is present in complexes with other eIFs, and inhibits translation of mRNAs that have different eIF requirements for functional initiation complex assembly [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- An interesting aspect of these immune evasion strategies is the apparent redundancy, with several proteins targeting the same activation pathway. (prolekare.cz)
- Translation of the TOP mRNAs is regulated by growth signals and usually codes for several proteins involved in mRNA translation. (uoguelph.ca)
- Each RNA segment consists of RNA joined with several proteins - PB1, PB2, PA, NP. (mybiosource.com)
- Using mefloquine as the selective drug, we determined that overexpression of YBR233w , a member of the hnRNPK family of nuclear RNA binding proteins, conferred resistance to mefloquine (13.5-fold). (asm.org)
- GEMIN5 (Gem Nuclear Organelle Associated Protein 5) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
- Most spliceosomal snRNPs contain a common set of Sm proteins SNRPB, SNRPD1, SNRPD2, SNRPD3, SNRPE, SNRPF and SNRPG that assemble in a heptameric protein ring on the Sm site of the small nuclear RNA to form the core snRNP. (genecards.org)
- The human interferon-inducible protein IFI16 is an important antiviral factor that binds nuclear viral DNA and promotes antiviral responses. (asm.org)
- Protein nuclear translocation is highly regulated and crucial for diverse biological processes. (sciencemag.org)
- However, our understanding concerning protein nuclear import is incomplete. (sciencemag.org)
- There was no change observed in nuclear export protein (NEP). (ukessays.com)
- In alliance with matrix protein 1(M1), it interacts with cellular export factor (CEF1) and modulates nuclear export of viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complexes by connecting cellular export machinery with vRNPs 14 . (ukessays.com)
- PARP-1 activation is initiated by binding to SSB ( 12 , 13 ) and triggers synthesis and transfer of ADP-ribose polymers on various nuclear proteins associated with chromatin, including PARP-1 ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- The NA protein is the target of the antiviral drugs Relenza and Tamiflu. (mybiosource.com)
- Many RNA viruses are detected by retinoic acid-inducible gene i (RIG-I), a cytoplasmic sensor that triggers an antiviral response upon binding non-self-RNA that contains a stretch of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) bearing a base-paired 5′ ppp nucleotide. (asm.org)
- Translation of terminal oligopyrimidine tract (TOP) mRNAs, which encode multiple components of the protein synthesis machinery, is known to be controlled by mitogenic stimuli. (asm.org)
- Large DNA viruses, in particular, encode many proteins that modify the intracellular environment to promote viral survival, replication and spread. (prolekare.cz)
- Sometimes pre-mRNA messages may be spliced in several different ways, allowing a single gene to encode multiple proteins. (wikidoc.org)
- more often, many viruses encode an arsenal of proteins targeting mRNA processing and translation. (mdpi.com)
- Advances in RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technologies have revealed that mammalian genomes encode tens of thousands of RNA transcripts that have similar features to mRNAs, yet are not translated into proteins ( 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- While the functional mechanisms of short regulatory ncRNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), have been described in detail ( 8 - 10 ), the most abundant and functionally enigmatic regulatory ncRNAs are called long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) that are loosely defined as RNAs larger than 200 nucleotides (nt) that do not encode for protein ( 11 - 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
- There was positive hybridization of both total cellular and poly(A)('+) cytoplasmic RNA isolated from NDV-infected splenocytes to a cDNA probe which contains the entire coding sequence for mouse POMC. (illinois.edu)
- It involves more than 50 proteins [ 160 ], which are loaded onto more or less highly conserved sequence motifs to catalyze this step of pre-mRNA maturation. (springer.com)
- A G2553U mutation reduces the RNA binding affinity by 2 orders of magnitude, confirming that G2553 is a sequence specificity determinant in RNA binding. (stanford.edu)
- It probably starts with inverted repeats, TAR sequence, then a viral TATA box, then a poly(A) tract flanked by inverted repeats followed by PBS (primer binding site). (brainscape.com)
- The encoded protein is also suggested to play a part in formation of a sequence-specific alpha-globin mRNP complex which is associated with alpha-globin mRNA stability. (genecards.org)
- Avian influenza viruses sequence analysis shows that NS1 protein C-terminal four residues is a probable PDZ domain ligand (PL) of the X-S/T-X-V type 16 . (ukessays.com)
- The protein structure and amino acid sequence of S100A2 (human). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
Inhibition of host2
- Ad late mRNAs are translated despite inhibition of host cell protein synthesis due to the presence of a 200-nucleotide 5′ noncoding region, known as the tripartite leader. (asm.org)
- Whilst cellular and viral mRNAs are structurally equivalent, influenza virus promotes the selective translation of its mRNAs regardless of the inhibition of host mobile protein synthesis. (axlinhibitor.com)
- Rotavirus mRNAs terminate a 3' GACC motif that is recognized by the viral protein NSP3. (wikipedia.org)
- Importantly, HA, which is a trimer, is the viral protein that recognizes the cellular receptor for the entry. (mybiosource.com)
- Beneath the lipid membrane is a viral protein called M1, or matrix protein. (mybiosource.com)
- Instead of a 7-methylguanosine (m 7 G) cap structure at the 5' end, genomic and subgenomic RNAs are covalently linked to a viral protein called VPg, for viral protein genome-linked. (biomedcentral.com)
- L pro self-cleaves from the nascent viral polyprotein precursor as the first mature viral protein. (biomedcentral.com)
- In case of infection by poliovirus, plays a role in initiation of viral RNA replication in concert with the viral protein 3CD (PubMed:12414943). (genecards.org)
- Each protomer consists of 4 polypeptides known as VP (viral protein) 1, 2, 3 and 4. (wikipedia.org)
- VPg, viral protein genome-linked. (biomedcentral.com)
- Pubmed ID: 11964406 In current views, translation-coupled ribosome binding to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane is transient, with association occurring via the signal recognition particle pathway and dissociation occurring upon the termination of protein synthesis. (jove.com)
- This indicates that PLG synthesis may be a form of nitrogen assimilatory pathway during ammonium starvation in virulent mycobacteria. (biomedcentral.com)
- This pathway is activated by P56, a protein whose synthesis is strongly induced by interferons or double‐stranded RNA. (embopress.org)
- Furthermore, we've not long ago revealed that inhibition of HIF1A protein accumulation by irinotecan would not depend upon inhibition from the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway (21). (axlinhibitor.com)
- A main focus of the laboratory is to understand the molecular principles dictating the sorting of newly transcribed RNA into a productive pathway involving its packaging with protein and cellular transport vs. a destructive pathway leading to RNA turnover. (au.dk)
- Mechanistic analysis suggests that this small molecule, erstressin, also activates the unfolded protein response (UPR), a signaling pathway triggered by endoplasmic reticulum stress. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- To compensate for this increased protein burden, a signaling pathway known as the unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated [ 3 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- We have identified a novel small molecule activator of the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway in a chemical genetic screen for inhibitors of iNOS. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
Host protein synthesis1
- However, mRNA synthesis does not always correlate directly to protein synthesis and downstream functional activity. (jimmunol.org)
- Five hypotheses were explored mathematically, of which the most plausible is that there is a phosphate-sensitive transcriptional repressor (PsTR) of PHO2 mRNA synthesis. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- Translation of most cellular mRNAs involves cap binding by the translation initiation complex. (asm.org)
- The fact that norovirus RNAs lack a m 7 G cap, are 5' nucleotide-protein linked, and have 5' untranslated regions (UTR) of only 10 nucleotides suggest translation initiation on norovirus RNA mediated by VPg proceeds in a manner distinct from cap-dependent and IRES-dependent mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
- The mechanism of this augmentation relies on the ability of N to replace the cellular cap binding complex to attain more efficient translation initiation--the result being great mRNA production and greater protein/polypeptide production. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
Molecular and Cel1
- Researchers from Inserm and CNRS from the Institute for genetics and molecular and cellular biology (IGBMC) and from the Research Institute at the Strasbourg school of biotechnology (Irebs) have focussed their efforts on PARG, currently thought to be a promising new therapeutic target in the treatment of cancer. (eurekalert.org)
Involved in mRNA1
- The Cth2 protein shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. (mdpi.com)
- The cytoplasmic RLR family, which includes retinoic acid-inducible gene i (RIG-I), melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5), and Laboratory of Genetics and Physiology 2 (LGP2), is involved in the detection of specific RNAs in the cytoplasm of host cells ( 1 ). (asm.org)
- S100 proteins are found in the cytoplasm as preassembled dimers. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Our live-cell imaging, mass spectrometry-based proteomics, CRISPR-based cellular assays, and optogenetics underscore the value of integrative approaches to uncover complex cellular responses against pathogens. (asm.org)
- This invention is directed towards methods of destabilizing proteins in living cells, and their use for the development of novel assays. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Gel filtration assays revealed that P56 binds to the large eIF‐3 complex that contains P48. (embopress.org)
- The results of the iTRAQ assays indicated that L antigen family member 3 (LAGE3) protein, essential for tRNA processing, tRNA metabolic processes and ncRNA processing, was downregulated in the PR8+eleu compared with the PR8 group. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Internal initiation relies on the presence of so-called internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements in the 5′ UTRs of some viral and cellular mRNAs. (frontiersin.org)
- Alternatively, the IRES can bind a preformed 80S ribosome (not shown). (els.net)
- b, c) The ribosome‐IRES complex binds eEF2, which induces the rotation of the 40S subunit (indicated by an arrow) and first translocation. (els.net)
- Baird SD, Lewis SM, Turcotte M and Holcik M (2007) A search for structurally similar cellular internal ribosome entry sites. (els.net)
- Indeed, according to one estimate, most of the energy consumed during cellular growth is utilized for generating the components of the protein synthesis machinery ( 53 ). (asm.org)
- In other words, competition exists between viruses and their hosts to utilize the limited amount of cellular translation machinery. (mdpi.com)
- Importantly, our data suggested that host cell proteins like PCBP2 may form a molecular bridge between the viral RNA and the cellular translation machinery in poliovirus-infected HeLa cells. (uci.edu)
- An initial step in the systematic investigation of cellular processes is the identification and measurement of expression levels of relevant sets of proteins. (mcponline.org)
- Control of mRNA translation and stability is important in several cellular processes including cell growth and differentiation. (uoguelph.ca)
- Further forskolin treatment in the presence of IBMX for 5 days resulted in many cells exhibiting the formation of long, ramifying, neuritelike processes that were abolished by an inhibitor of protein kinase A. Cells grown on poly-D-lysine-coated substratum treated with forskolin remained undifferentiated. (elsevier.com)
- Plant polyphenols are known to interact with proteins in a nonspecific manner, but some plant polyphenols can engage proteins via specific and intimate molecular recognition processes with high‐binding affinities. (els.net)
- The mechanisms that drive this kind of dynamic change in protein production remain unclear. (elifesciences.org)
- One of the repair mechanisms used is poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. (eurekalert.org)
- Microarray technologies assessing global mRNA levels in cells are only partially valid because posttranscriptional mechanisms dramatically affect protein levels in the proteome. (jimmunol.org)
- Studies related to nitrogen metabolism in pathogens may help in understanding of complex cellular mechanisms by which M. bovis survive in nitrogen stress inside the macrophages. (biomedcentral.com)
- In the second chapter, protein-folding mechanisms, namely the framework model and nucleation-condensation mechanism are discussed. (novapublishers.com)
- The molecular mechanisms that connection TOP1 inhibition to the attenuation of HIF1A protein stages continue being being discovered, but are usually not within the foundation of transcriptional downregulation of the HIF1A gene. (axlinhibitor.com)
- The two main mechanisms, hydrogen‐atom transfer and single electron transfer, through which plant (poly)phenols can express their radical scavenging‐based antioxidant action. (els.net)
- Contemporary approaches to the synthesis of chemically modified biomacromolecules (proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates) not only require efficient means to control conjugation and the specific site of attachment of the conjugated moiety but also the effective use of recent developments in the fields of pharmaceutical chemistry, biomolecular/polymer engineering, and nanobiotechnology. (worldcat.org)
- Resulting hybrids are detected by binding of an antibody reagent, preferably labeled with a detectable chemical group, selective for binding the hybrids in the presence of the single stranded sample and probe nucleic acids. (google.ca)
- ACTH, as well as six other peptide hormones from the pituitary gland, is derived from a 31 kd precursor protein known as pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC). (illinois.edu)
- These data provide evidence that virus-infected lymphoid cells synthesize the precursor protein for two 'classical' pituitary hormones, ACTH and (beta)-endorphin, that are released during acute stress. (illinois.edu)
- The processing of the polyprotein into precursor and mature proteins is illustrated. (asmscience.org)
- Exposure of LNT-229 glioma cells to SC68896 results in a concentration- and time-dependent inhibition of the proteasome, with a consequent accumulation of p21 and p27 proteins, cell cycle arrest, caspase cleavage, and induction of apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
- Equivalent observations dissociating the inhibition of HIF1A protein accumulation from mRNA modulation are actually not long ago revealed for PEGylated SN-38 and irinotecan in glioblastoma xenografts (51). (axlinhibitor.com)
- Many disturbances, including aberrant calcium regulation, altered redox status, or interference with protein glycosylation, can result in the accumulation of unfolded ER client proteins in a phenomenon referred to as ER stress. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- We have previously identified poly(A)-binding protein 1 (PABP1) as a ligand for paxillin and shown that the paxillin-PABP1 complex undergoes nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. (asm.org)
- Irinotecan and its active metabolite SN-38 bind reversibly to the topoisomerase-1 DNA complex and prevent re-ligation of the single-strand breaks, leading to exposure time-dependent double-strand DNA damage and cell death. (medscape.com)
- We describe here a multiplexed protein quantitation strategy that provides relative and absolute measurements of proteins in complex mixtures. (mcponline.org)
- The encoded protein is the snRNA-binding component of the SMN complex. (genecards.org)
- In the cytosol, the Sm proteins SNRPD1, SNRPD2, SNRPE, SNRPF and SNRPG are trapped in an inactive 6S pICln-Sm complex by the chaperone CLNS1A that controls the assembly of the core snRNP (PubMed:18984161). (genecards.org)
- Dissociation by the SMN complex of CLNS1A from the trapped Sm proteins and their transfer to an SMN-Sm complex triggers the assembly of core snRNPs and their transport to the nucleus (PubMed:18984161). (genecards.org)
- The SAP30-YY1 complex also bridges the NSs protein with chromatin DNA, affecting cohesion and segregation of chromatin DNA as well as the activation of interferon-β promoter. (biomedcentral.com)
- A complex between a fragment of 23S rRNA and the RNA binding domain (RBD) of the Bacillus subtilis DbpA protein YxiN was crystallized and its structure was determined to 2.9 A resolution, revealing an RNA recognition mode that differs from those observed with other RNA recognition motifs. (stanford.edu)
- KBI and Selexis customers are addressing unmet medical needs by developing complex protein therapeutics. (pharmiweb.com)
- It is becoming increasingly evident that aberrant activity of this complex is observed in many cancers, leading to the selective synthesis of proteins involved in tumor growth and metastasis. (aacrjournals.org)
- A cohesive picture of protein function in the sieve element-companion cell complex is just beginning to develop. (plantphysiol.org)
- but their synthesis is complex, often requiring a seeded growth process or spherical to triangle morphology transformation. (mit.edu)
- The exosome is comprised of 9 catalytically inert subunits (EXO9) associating with distinct ribonucleases (DIS3, DIS3L, RRP6) and co-factors depending on the sub-cellular localisation of the complex. (au.dk)
- Transcripts differing at the 3′ end can have profound physiological effects by encoding proteins with distinct functions or regulatory properties or by affecting the mRNA fate via the inclusion or exclusion of regulatory elements (such as miRNA or protein binding sites). (springer.com)
- The S100A2 gene has a total length of 4723 bp and seven splice variants, which can be categorized into five variants with protein product and two transcripts without an open-reading frame. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Although the percentage of these nonprotein-coding RNAs that are functional is still unknown, detailed characterization of many of these transcripts has challenged the idea that the central role for RNA in a cell is to give rise to proteins. (diabetesjournals.org)
- This recognition is accomplished by constitutively expressed "DNA sensor" proteins, which bind foreign DNA and elicit the secretion of cytokines, such as type I interferons (IFN). (asm.org)
- Both viral and bacterial agents can induce synthesis and secretion of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) by lymphoid cells. (illinois.edu)
- PCBP1 is a member of the hnRNP family that functions as a RNA-binding, as well as DNA-binding, protein. (genes2cognition.org)
- Recent findings indicate that the TZF-containing tristetraprolin protein also functions in modulating human iron homeostasis. (mdpi.com)
- The simple sphingolipids ceramide, sphingosine, ceramide 1-phosphate and sphingosine 1-phosphate, and their metabolizing enzymes are implicated in the regulation of vital cellular functions, including angiogenesis, cell differentiation, migration, and cell growth and death. (chemweb.com)
- This review will provide and summarize an update of recent findings pertaining to the biological functions of the NSs protein of RVFV as well as the differences from those of other bunyaviruses. (biomedcentral.com)
- These signatures are often used as references from which protein levels and functions are inferred. (jimmunol.org)
- Members of the ENOD subfamily of the cupredoxin superfamily do not appear to bind copper and have unknown functions. (plantphysiol.org)
- However, the specific biochemical and cellular functions of most of these proteins are unknown. (embopress.org)
- The main functions of NS protein of influenza A virus is suppressing of type I IFN production by the host. (ukessays.com)
- NS1 is one of multifunctional protein determinant of virulence with several functions in different ways to counteract the cellular innate immune response 14 . (ukessays.com)
Peptides and proteins2
- Multiple 2-plex datasets can be combined after separate analyses, but there is a high likelihood that different sets of peptides and proteins will be identified between each experiment. (mcponline.org)
- Almeida A, Souto E (2007) Solid lipid nanoparticles as a drug delivery system for peptides and proteins. (springer.com)
- In this study, we make use of a 4-fold (4-plex) multiplex strategy to simultaneously determine relative protein levels in three yeast strains and provide a demonstration of the ability to measure the absolute quantity of specific target proteins through the use of internal peptide standards. (mcponline.org)
- In another embodiment the invention provides for a generalized way of coordinately regulating the cellular concentration of a plurality of target proteins. (freepatentsonline.com)
- In one aspect of this method, the target proteins are operatively coupled to a ubiquitin fusion protein via a linker containing a protease cleavage site. (freepatentsonline.com)
- In contrast, the effect of etoposide was not prevented by preincubation of HL-60 cells with the RNA synthesis inhibitor 5,6-dichloro-1-β-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole or the protein synthesis inhibitors cycloheximide or puromycin. (aacrjournals.org)