5-Lipoxygenase-Activating Proteins: Scaffolding proteins that play an important role in the localization and activation of 5-LIPOXYGENASE.Transcription Factor AP-2: A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesRNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Sp1 Transcription Factor: Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors: A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Mice, Inbred C57BLRecombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.E2F1 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Transcription Initiation Site: The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Transcription Factors, TFII: The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.YY1 Transcription Factor: A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.NFATC Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Transcription Factor TFIID: The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.GATA4 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.Activating Transcription Factor 3: An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.Paired Box Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Sp3 Transcription Factor: A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.E2F Transcription Factors: A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Activating Transcription Factor 2: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of GENES including C-JUN GENES; CYCLIN A; CYCLIN D1; and ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.GATA3 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.Transcription Factor TFIIB: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.GATA1 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.MEF2 Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.TCF Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.STAT1 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.GATA2 Transcription Factor: An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.GATA Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs: Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Regulatory Elements, Transcriptional: Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor: A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.Activating Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Transcription Factor RelA: A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.STAT5 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Transcription Factor DP1: A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.TATA Box: A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.GATA6 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Transcription Factor 7-Like 1 Protein: A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway where it may play a role in the differentiation of KERATINOCYTES. The transcriptional activity of this protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN.Activating Transcription Factor 4: An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets: A family of transcription factors that share a unique DNA-binding domain. The name derives from viral oncogene-derived protein oncogene protein v-ets of the AVIAN ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS.Activating Transcription Factor 1: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including C-JUN GENES and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA2.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.SOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Nerve Tissue ProteinsTwo-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Transcription Factor TFIIIA: One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. It is a zinc finger (ZINC FINGERS) protein and is required for transcription of 5S ribosomal genes.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.NFI Transcription Factors: Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Bromodeoxyuridine: A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.T-Box Domain Proteins: Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.E2F3 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A. E2F3 regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis.Leucine Zippers: DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.E2F2 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A. E2F2 activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis.
"CHOP enhancement of gene transcription by interactions with Jun/Fos AP-1 complex proteins". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 19 ... Velazquez Torres A, Gariglio Vidal P (2002). "[Possible role of transcription factor AP1 in the tissue-specific regulation of ... AP-1 activity) in stress-induced apoptosis and cellular proliferation is regulated by its N-terminal phosphorylation. Another ... a RING finger ubiquitin ligase that interacts with Jun transcription factors and modulates their transcriptional activity". ...
... p38 and NF-κB signalling and transcriptional activation via promoter binding of the transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1. IL-10 ... Powell MJ, Thompson SA, Tone Y, Waldmann H, Tone M (July 2000). "Posttranscriptional regulation of IL-10 gene expression ... Varma TK, Toliver-Kinsky TE, Lin CY, Koutrouvelis AP, Nichols JE, Sherwood ER (September 2001). "Cellular mechanisms that cause ... It also enhances B cell survival, proliferation, and antibody production. IL-10 can block NF-κB activity, and is involved in ...
November 2002). "Transcriptional regulation of a mesangium-predominant gene, megsin". J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 13 (11): 2715-22. ... and thereby stimulate cellular proliferation via AP-1 activation. AP-1 transcription is deeply involved in the modulation of ... The AP-1 transcription factor has been shown to play numerous roles in cell growth and proliferation. In particular, c-Fos and ... AP-1 transcription factor has been shown to have a hand in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell growth, ...
Transcription factors Murphy LC, Alkhalaf M, Dotzlaw H, Coutts A, Haddad-Alkhalaf B (June 1994). "Regulation of gene expression ... It is involved in important cellular events, including cell proliferation, differentiation and survival; genes associated with ... Zhong H, Zhu J, Zhang H, Ding L, Sun Y, Huang C, Ye Q (December 2004). "COBRA1 inhibits AP-1 transcriptional activity in ... "The c-Fos protein interacts with c-Jun/AP-1 to stimulate transcription of AP-1 responsive genes". Cell. 54 (4): 541-52. doi: ...
regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • cell-cell signaling. • negative regulation of gene expression. • transcription, ... transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • ATPase binding. • zinc ion binding. • transcriptional activator ... regulation of epithelial cell proliferation. • progesterone receptor signaling pathway. • tertiary branching involved in ... Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • membrane. • nucleoplasm. • mitochondrial outer membrane. • mitochondrion. • cell nucleus. • ...
... they are in fact two functionally distinct transcription factors, mediating their own response genes and physiological effects ... Hilton HN, Graham JD, Clarke CL (September 2015). "Minireview: Progesterone Regulation of Proliferation in the Normal Human ... E6-AP, is a coactivator for the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 19 (2): 1182-9. doi: ... like factor 9/basic transcription element-binding protein with progesterone receptor isoforms A and B determine transcriptional ...
Rice AP, Herrmann CH (2003). "Regulation of TAK/P-TEFb in CD4+ T lymphocytes and macrophages". Curr. HIV Res. 1 (4): 395-404. ... Sequential recruitment of transcription factors and differential phosphorylation of C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II at ... cellular proliferation and apoptosis". Oncogene. 22 (36): 5707-11. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1206800. PMID 12944920. Marcello A, ... Marcello A, Zoppé M, Giacca M (2001). "Multiple modes of transcriptional regulation by the HIV-1 Tat transactivator". IUBMB ...
Hypoxia also activates transcription factor AP-1, which is involved in MET transcription. MET pathway plays an important role ... translocates into the nucleus following MET activation and participates in transcriptional regulation of numerous genes. The ... Johnson M, Koukoulis G, Matsumoto K, Nakamura T, Iyer A (Jun 1993). "Hepatocyte growth factor induces proliferation and ... GAB1 is a key coordinator of the cellular responses to MET and binds the MET intracellular region with high avidity, but low ...
This gene encodes a member of the Snail superfamily of C2H2-type zinc finger transcription factors. The encoded protein acts as ... Chen M, Chen LM, Chai KX (June 2006). "Androgen regulation of prostasin gene expression is mediated by sterol-regulatory ... "Human Slug is a repressor that localizes to sites of active transcription". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 20 (14): 5087-95. ... a transcriptional repressor that binds to E-box motifs and is also likely to repress E-cadherin transcription in breast ...
"Entrez Gene: BTAF1 BTAF1 RNA polymerase II, B-TFIID transcription factor-associated, 170kDa (Mot1 homolog, S. cerevisiae)". ... interactions and their role in control of cellular proliferation". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 302 (4): 735-42. doi:10.1016/ ... Zhou Q, Sharp PA (1995). "Novel mechanism and factor for regulation by HIV-1 Tat". EMBO J. 14 (2): 321-8. PMC 398086 . PMID ... Wang Z, Morris GF, Rice AP, Xiong W, Morris CB (1996). "Wild-type and transactivation-defective mutants of human ...
ETS family is present throughout the body and is involved in a wide variety of functions including the regulation of cellular ... such as through gene fusion. For example, the ERG ETS transcription factor is fused to the EWS gene, resulting in a condition ... Gutierrez-Hartman A, Duval DL, Bradford AP (2007). "ETS transcription factors in endocrine systems". Trends Endocrinol Metab. ... ETS factors act as transcriptional repressors, transcriptional activators, or both. Lee GM, Donaldson LW, Pufall MA, et al. ( ...
These associations are weak and require additional transcription factors such as members of the AP-1 family, TFE3 and FoxG1 to ... expression of the genes involved in cell growth is no longer regulated and cell proliferation can go on without any inhibition ... a family of proteins that all play a role in the regulation of cellular responses. Mammalian SMAD4 is a homolog of the ... First, it allows Smad4 to reach its peak of transcriptional activity by activating a growth factor-regulated transcription ...
Such cross-regulation occurs extensively in transcription factor families. Many transcription factor genes regulate their own ... Klf4 and Klf5 can act antagonistically during cellular proliferation, differentiation, and promoter activation, either via ... Eaton, Sally; Funnell AP; Sue N; Nicholas H; Pearson RC; Crossley M. (August 2008). "A network of Krüppel-like Factors (Klfs). ... Klf4, also known as gut-enriched Krüppel-like factor (GKLF), acts as a transcriptional activator or repressor depending on the ...
... while another member of the AP-1 transcription factor complex, JUNB increases miR-203 expression. Growth factors, such as ... MicroRNAs are likely to play roles in most cellular processes, including proliferation, development, differentiation and ... They concluded that SOCS3 is targeted by miR-203, and hypothesize that miR-203 regulation of SOCS3 and thus of STAT3 could have ... They then undergo extensive post-transcriptional modifications, starting with the processing of the pri-miRNA in the nucleus to ...
"Interplay between cdk9 and NF-kappaB factors determines the level of HIV-1 gene transcription in astrocytic cells". Oncogene. ... Rice AP, Herrmann CH (2004). "Regulation of TAK/P-TEFb in CD4+ T lymphocytes and macrophages". Curr. HIV Res. 1 (4): 395-404. ... CDK9 human gene details in the UCSC Genome Browser. Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. ... Marcello A, Zoppé M, Giacca M (2002). "Multiple modes of transcriptional regulation by the HIV-1 Tat transactivator". IUBMB ...
"Regulation of gene expression and transcription factor binding activity during cellular aging". Biological Signals. 5 (3): 130- ... transcriptional regulation - controlling the rate of gene transcription for example by helping or hindering RNA polymerase ... Three groups of transcription factors are known to be important in human cancer: (1) the NF-kappaB and AP-1 families, (2) the ... Evan G, Harrington E, Fanidi A, Land H, Amati B, Bennett M (August 1994). "Integrated control of cell proliferation and cell ...
The Jun dimerization protein is a member of the AP-1 family of transcription factors. JDP 2 was found by a Sos-recruitment ... immediate early gene BZLF1 for the regulation of the latent-lytic switch in EBV infection. JDP2 (gene) has been shown to ... Gene knockout mice have a shorter tail, are smaller, have low neutrophil count. and cell proliferation, and commit to cell ... In other settings, JDP2 has been shown to play an important role in the regulation of cellular senescence. JDP2-deficient mouse ...
... changing the transcriptional regulation of the associated genes. Not only do transcription factors act downstream of signaling ... "Regulation of gene expression and transcription factor binding activity during cellular aging". Biological Signals. 5 (3): 130- ... Three groups of transcription factors are known to be important in human cancer: (1) the NF-kappaB and AP-1 families, (2) the ... Evan G, Harrington E, Fanidi A, Land H, Amati B, Bennett M (August 1994). "Integrated control of cell proliferation and cell ...
AP-1, and NF-κB transcription factors regulating the inducible and constitutive expression of both subunits In terms of enzyme ... GCL enzymatic activity is influenced by numerous factors, including cellular expression of the GCL subunit proteins, access to ... GCL expression is regulated at the transcriptional (transcription of the GCLC and GCLM DNA to make mRNA), posttranscriptional ( ... Lu SC (2009). "Regulation of glutathione synthesis". Mol Aspects Med. 30 (1-2): 42-59. doi:10.1016/j.mam.2008.05.005. PMC ...
... a mammalian zinc-finger transcription factor. Thus it plays an important role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle ... Randhawa GS, Bell DW, Testa JR, Feinberg AP (1998). "Identification and mapping of human histone acetylation modifier gene ... "Three-way control of fetal heart-cell proliferation could help regenerate cardiac cells". October 7, 2010. Wen YD, Cress WD, ... Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. ... Sp1 transcription factor, Sp3 transcription factor, TOP2B, and ...
NF-κB - by reducing a disulfide bond in NF-κB, Trx1 promotes binding of this transcription factor to DNA. AP1 via Ref1 - Trx1 ... Hirota K, Matsui M, Iwata S, Nishiyama A, Mori K, Yodoi J (April 1997). "AP-1 transcriptional activity is regulated by a direct ... Free Radic Biol Med 43, 477-503 (2007). Nakamura H, Nakamura K, Yodoi J (1997-01-01). "Redox regulation of cellular activation ... Tonissen KF, Wells JR (June 1991). "Isolation and characterization of human thioredoxin-encoding genes". Gene. 102 (2): 221-8. ...
Mendell and members of his research group investigate post-transcriptional gene regulation. As a graduate student with Harry ( ... These miRNAs in turn affect the expression of a c-Myc-induced transcription factor, E2F1. This research demonstrated a ... Mendell, J.; Ap Rhys, C.; Dietz, H. (2002). "Separable roles for rent1/hUpf1 in altered splicing and decay of nonsense ... "MicroRNAs in cell proliferation, cell death, and tumorigenesis". British Journal of Cancer. 94 (6): 776-780. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc ...
2003). "Critical role of the transcription factor AP-1 for the constitutive and interferon-induced expression of IFI 16". J. ... 2004). "The interferon-inducible IFI16 gene inhibits tube morphogenesis and proliferation of primary, but not HPV16 E6/E7- ... The encoded protein contains domains involved in DNA binding, transcriptional regulation, and protein-protein interactions. The ... 2003). "Role of IFI 16, a member of the interferon-inducible p200-protein family, in prostate epithelial cellular senescence". ...
These regulation pathways activate protein kinases, which subsequently modulate transcription factor activity. RhoA ... also participates in regulating transcriptional control over other signal transduction pathways via various cellular factors. ... transcription, cell cycle progression and cell transformation. The specific gene that encodes RhoA, ARHA, is located on ... suppression of RhoA activity partially reversed the proliferation phenotype of gastric cancer cells via the down-regulation of ...
... and MEF2-interacting transcription repressor (MITR) contributes to transcriptional repression of the MEF2 transcription factor ... Zhang Y, Dufau ML (June 2003). "Dual mechanisms of regulation of transcription of luteinizing hormone receptor gene by nuclear ... Wolffe AP (April 1996). "Histone deacetylase: a regulator of transcription". Science. 272 (5260): 371-2. doi:10.1126/science. ... corepressors HDAC1 and HDAC2 to negatively regulate gene expression". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 21 (20): 7065-77. doi: ...
Pastorcic M, Das HK (November 2000). "Regulation of transcription of the human presenilin-1 gene by ets transcription factors ... This gene encodes the adenovirus E1A-associated cellular p300 transcriptional co-activator protein. EP300 is closely related to ... functions as a co-activator for transcription factor AP-2". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (10): 8559-65. doi:10.1074/jbc.M110850200. PMID ... and is important in the processes of cell proliferation and differentiation. It mediates cAMP-gene regulation by binding ...
... which is required for the transcriptional regulation of many target genes. The complex of two SMAD3 (or of two SMAD2) and one ... SMAD3 and SMAD4 can also form a complex with c-Fos and c-jun at the AP-1/SMAD site to regulate TGF-β-inducible transcription. ... "A novel role of transforming growth factor beta1 in transcriptional repression of human cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase gene". ... "Arkadia activates Smad3/Smad4-dependent transcription by triggering signal-induced SnoN degradation". Molecular and Cellular ...
Regulation of glucose-6-phosphatase gene expression by protein kinase Balpha and the forkhead transcription factor FKHR ... Regulation of cardiomyocyte proliferation and myocardial growth during development by FOXO transcription factors. Circ Res. ... Transcriptional genomics associates FOX transcription factors with human heart failure. Circulation. 2006;114(12):1269-76. ... Cellular damage that progresses to apoptosis can be considered as an important contributing factor to pathology in maladies ...
Other life-style factors associated with obesity that also increase colorectal cancer risk are physical inactivity, smoking and ... Moreover, 4-HNE deregulates cell proliferation, cell survival, differentiation, autophagy, senescence, apoptosis and necrosis ... On the one hand, colorectal cancer has been strongly associated with lifestyle factors. A diet rich in red and processed meats ... and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). Furthermore, oxidative stress produces fatty-acid peroxidation whose metabolites ...
AP-1 in cancer: Activator protein 1 (AP-1) belongs to the basic region leucine zipper (bZIP) family of transcription factors ... Chromatin and Regulation of Gene Expression. Active Mentor - currently hosting PULSe students for laboratory rotations and ... thereby regulating a wide range of cellular processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, death, and stress ... Liu, H., Deng, X., Shyu, Y., Li, J.J., Taparowsky, EJ., and Hu, C.-D. Mutual regulation of c-Jun and ATF2 by transcriptional ...
May act as a repressor for a specific subset of ETS/AP-1-responsive genes and as a modulator of the nuclear response to mitogen ... Transcriptional activator that may play a role in regulating epithelial cell differentiation and proliferation. ... Ets domain transcription factor. *ETS domain-containing transcription factor. *ETS homologous factor ... Cellular and biochemical assays. By product type. Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists ...
... sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ... Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3 (By similarity). ... Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase ... Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace ...
... hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and ... sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ... Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase ... Steroid receptor induction of gene transcription: a two-step model. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Jul 22;94(15):7879-84. PMID: ...
... or AP-1 family (15, 16), coordinating the transcription of target genes. Therefore, CBP and p300 are involved in regulation of ... Moreover, the transcriptional activity of Sp-1, a transcription factor that does not need coactivator function of p300 to ... multiple cellular processes, such as proliferation, differentiation, tumor suppression, malignant transformation, and several ... transcription factor II B, transcription factor II D, and RNA polymerase II (4). In contrast, p300 and CBP are able to ...
Transcriptional regulation arises from the direct interaction of the ER with components of the cellular transcription machinery ... hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and ... sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ... Categories: Large Structures , Brzozowski, A M , Pike, A C.W , Agonist , Nuclear receptor , Steroid , Transcription factor ...
... transcription factor family that regulates key cellular processes, including cell proliferation, death, survival ... gene that undergoes rapid transcriptional activation in response to multiple pathophysiological stimuli (e.g., growth factors, ... Under these conditions, transcription of AP-1 target genes is off. Upon mitogen stimulation, phosphorylated (active) ERK1/2 ... kinase mediates the transcriptional activation of AP-1 and cellular transformation induced by platelet-derived growth factor. ...
... and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). In combination, these ethanol effects disrupt cellular homeostasis, reduce the ... and by growth factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), ... Neuronal development requires many hormones and growth factors such as retinoic acid, nerve growth factors, and cytokines. ... These factors regulate development and differentiation of neurons by acting through various receptors and their signaling ...
... family of transcription factors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME) Transcriptional regulation by the AP-2 (TFAP2) ... leading to cessation of cellular proliferation (Rouault et al. 1996, Duriez et al. 2002). BTG2 binds to the CCR4-NOT complex ... organism-specific biosystemOVERVIEW OF TRANSCRIPTION REGULATION: Detailed studies of gene transcription regulation in a wide ... Transcriptional Regulation by TP53, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME) Transcriptional Regulation by TP53, organism- ...
... and survival genes. AP-1 transcriptional activity results in cell growth and proliferation. GR binds directly to AP-1 and ... Transcription factor interactions: selectors of positive or negative regulation from a single DNA element. Science (Wash. DC), ... but there is a correlation between cellular proliferation and c-myc gene expression. Also, c-myc mRNA levels are reduced in ... AP-1. Another target for transrepression is transcription factor AP-1, a nucleoprotein complex that was originally discovered ...
In turn, MAPK9/JNK2 phosphorylates a number of transcription factors, primarily components of AP-1 such as JUN and ATF2 and ... thus regulates AP-1 transcriptional activity. In response to oxidative or ribotoxic stresses, inhibits rRNA synthesis by ... Phosphorylates the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer and plays a role in the regulation of the circadian clock (PubMed:22441692). ... Promotes stressed cell apoptosis by phosphorylating key regulatory factors including TP53 and YAP1. In T-cells, MAPK8 and MAPK9 ...
An integrated database of genes responsive to the Myc oncogenic transcription factor: identification of direct genomic targets ... Cell Cycle , Intracellular and Extracellular Signalling , DNA Structure and Function , Transcriptional Regulation , DNA Damage ... Bracken AP, Ciro M, Cocito A and Helin K (2004) E2F target genes: unraveling the biology. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 29: ... Molecular and Cellular Biology 21: 3256-3265.. Fisher RP (2012) The CDK network: linking cycles of cell division and gene ...
The transcription factors activator protein 1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) cooperate to induce the ... Here, we report a role for p73 in supporting cellular growth through the upregulation of AP-1 transcriptional activity. p73 ... Activator protein 1 (AP-1) subunits have been implicated in the regulation of genes important for these processes and have been ... performs essential functions for cellular proliferation, our aim was to test the hypothesis that l-3,3,5-triiodothyronine (T(3 ...
The transcription factor, AP-1, is known to play a role in cellular differentiation, proliferation, and transformation. The AP- ... and increased sod2 mRNA levels were a result of increased transcriptional activation of the sod2 gene in mice [31]. In addition ... This paper focuses on how regulation of antioxidant expression and activity can be modulated in skin disease and the potential ... SP-1 recognition sequences are often found to be near binding sites for other transcription factors such as AP-1 [28], AP-2 [29 ...
In T cells, PKCtheta is known to affect a wide range of transcription factors such as AP-1, NF-kappaB and NFAT, regulating i.e ... the detailed cellular processes of PKCtheta that contribute in a CAM cell-specific manner to IL-10 transcriptional regulation ... have been characterized as essential or critical in myeloid cell-type-specific IL-10 gene regulation. Thus a comprehensive ... in PKCtheta-deficient BMDMs and that neutralization of IL-10 results in an improved control of bacterial proliferation that is ...
... which includes transcription factors, inflammatory cytokines and factors of cell survival, proliferation and angiogenesis. miR- ... Transcriptional regulation of pri-miR-21 has been shown to be controlled by AP-1, PU.1, the SWI/SNF complex, STAT3 and δEF1 [27 ... 21 revealed that PMA-induced AP-1 binds to the pri-miR-21 promoter and triggers the transcription of the pri-miR-21 gene. ... They control a wide range of biological functions such as cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis [12-14]. ...
... the ER can interact with other DNA-bound transcription factors to influence gene transcription activation. For example, the ER ... Transcriptional activities of estrogen and glucocorticoid receptor are functionally integrated at the AP-1 response element. ... Cellular extracts. Preadipose cells were scraped on ice into lysis buffer containing 10 mM HEPES, pH 7.9, 150 mM NaCl, 1 mM ... Anderson LA, McTernan PG, Barnett AH, and Kumar S. The effects of androgens and estrogens on preadipocyte proliferation in ...
... c-Jun is a transcription factor that localizes in the nucleus where it forms AP-1, together with c-Fos, and regulates gene ... transcription factor component c-Jun. c-jun proto-oncogene is a transcription factor that regulates proliferation, ... The oncogenic function of c-Jun is evident through transcriptional regulation of many genes during cancer transformation ( ... AP-1) that regulates various cellular activity ( 15, 16). To examine the effect of WWOX-c-Jun association on c-Jun ...
One such protein, Fra-1, is a member of the AP-1 family of bzip transcription factors. Genetic manipulation of AP-1 genes ... in osteoblast function but also begins to address the contribution of post-transcriptional and post-translational regulation to ... Proliferation Assay-. MC3T3-E1 cells were plated in 96-well plates at a density of 2,500 cells per well. Seventy-two hours ... AP)-1 family of transcription factors, which is important in both bone development and the regulation of osteoblast function ( ...
We found a dramatic up-regulation of the IGFBP-5 gene in both tissues overexpressing AP-2γ. This gene had been shown to harbor ... Furthermore, we analyzed the expression of IGFBP-5, a transcriptional target of AP-2 (20), being involved in the apoptosis of ... These differences suggest very specific cellular functions of the particular AP-2 isoforms despite their high degree of ... Werling, U. and Schorle, H. Transcription factor gene AP-2γ essential for early murine development. Mol. Cell. Biol., 22: 3149- ...
... that hypoxia leads to a significant induction in the activity of super-enhancers next to transcription factors and other genes ... that hypoxia leads to a significant induction in the activity of super-enhancers next to transcription factors and other genes ... We demonstrate that hypoxia regulates the nascent transcription of ~1800 lncRNAs. Interestingly, we uncover evidence that ... We demonstrate that hypoxia regulates the nascent transcription of ~1800 lncRNAs. Interestingly, we uncover evidence that ...
"CHOP enhancement of gene transcription by interactions with Jun/Fos AP-1 complex proteins". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 19 ... Velazquez Torres A, Gariglio Vidal P (2002). "[Possible role of transcription factor AP1 in the tissue-specific regulation of ... AP-1 activity) in stress-induced apoptosis and cellular proliferation is regulated by its N-terminal phosphorylation. Another ... a RING finger ubiquitin ligase that interacts with Jun transcription factors and modulates their transcriptional activity". ...
28 Several studies reported various indirect transcriptional regulations by LXR.29,30 Transcription factors such as AP-1,31 ... a transcription factor involved in the regulation of many inflammation-related genes, in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) ... The cellular response to Ang II depends on the expression level of AT1R; thus, downregulation of AT1R can be one way to avoid ... that T0901317 decreased platelet-derived growth factor-induced expression of cyclinA and D1 and inhibited VSMC proliferation.34 ...
  • Cutting-edge studies reported that high-risk transformation ability of adipose tissue is due to production of different pro-inflammatory cytokines like IL-8, IL-6 or IL-2 and other enzymes like lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Neuronal development requires many hormones and growth factors such as retinoic acid, nerve growth factors, and cytokines. (mdpi.com)
  • Activated CAMs are pro-inflammatory Mφ and produce high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-6, IL-1beta, IL-23 and IL-12. (springer.com)
  • AAMs, in particular, produce high amounts of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and Tumor growth factor beta (TGFβ), thereby inhibiting pro-inflammatory immune responses. (springer.com)
  • Both Jun and its dimerization partners in AP-1 formation are subject to regulation by diverse extracellular stimuli, which include peptide growth factors, pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative and other forms of cellular stress, and UV irradiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • These effects in turn lead to increased cell proliferation and migration (particularly by fibroblasts), modulation in levels of cytokines, growth factors and inflammatory mediators, and increased tissue oxygenation. (photobiology.info)
  • IL-10 is capable of inhibiting synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-3, TNFα and GM-CSF made by cells such as macrophages and Th1 T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the etiology of RA is not clear, inflammatory cytokines and tissue-destructive molecules play key roles in the initiation and progression of the inflammatory processes that characterize the disease [ 2 ]. (kjim.org)
  • 18 , 19 NF-κB activity can also be elevated by several stress factors in human pancreatic cancer cells, such as hypoxia, acidosis, nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines. (wiley.com)
  • The secretion of angiogenesis factors such as the fibroblast growth factor, VEGF, platelet-derived growth factor, interleukin-8, angiogenin, and CCN1, is enhanced in response to hypoxia ( 10 , 14 - 22 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Functionally, CCN1 promotes cell adhesion, proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis through cell type-specific binding to different integrins ( 24 - 27 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • 5 Of the numerous angiogenic factors discovered so far, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) 6 , 7 , 8 and, most recently, interleukin-8 (IL-8) 9 , 10 have been identified as key mediators of pancreatic tumor angiogenesis. (wiley.com)
  • In addition, curcumin affects a variety of growth factor receptors and cell adhesion molecules involved in tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 3) Transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of prostate cancer development, progression, and therapeutic responses. (purdue.edu)
  • Formation of this interface relies on coordinated interactions among transcriptional, epigenetic, and environmental factors. (jci.org)
  • It was demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo model systems that malignant transformation of epidermal cells is a multistage process, in which stepwise accumulation of genetic and epigenetic events determines the transition from normal to malignant cellular state. (nature.com)
  • Mutation of genes and epigenetic alterations underline oncogenesis and cancer progression . (termedia.pl)
  • The effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) are mediated by Ang II receptors, and so far 2 isoforms, type 1 receptor (AT1R) and type 2 receptor, have been identified. (ahajournals.org)
  • Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and their receptors play crucial roles in the formation of blood and lymphatic vessels during embryogenesis, and also under pathologic conditions in the adult. (nature.com)
  • In addition, VEGFs bind to co-receptors such as neuropilins (NRP) 1 and 2 as well as heparan sulfate proteoglycans, that do not signal directly but modulate the interaction between VEGFs and VEGFRs and thereby affect VEGF signaling indirectly 1 . (nature.com)
  • Moreover, data from gene knockout animals indicate that the absence of TNF-α or TNF receptors significantly improves insulin sensitivity in genetic ( ob/ob ) and dietary (high-fat diet) models of rodent obesity ( 15 , 16 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Moreover, CAPE inhibited both the DNA-binding and transcriptional activity of NFAT, a result that correlated with its ability to inhibit phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus ionomycin-induced NFAT1 dephosphorylation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • There is evidence that there are differences in the immune response in the male seahorse during the parental vs. mating phases with improved immunity during the parental stage ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Inflammation mediated by the innate immune system is an organism's protective mechanism against infectious environmental risk factors. (medsci.org)
  • Inflammation is a defense response mediated by the innate immune system to reinstate cellular homeostasis against foreign pathogenic agents that disrupt the integrity of cellular homeostasis [ 1 - 3 ]. (medsci.org)
  • The present invention includes composition and methods for making and using a combinatorial library to identify modified thioptamers that bind to, and affect the immune response of a host animal, transcription factors such as IL-6, NF-KB, AP-1 and the like. (google.it)
  • This work motivated clinical trials of agents that inhibit HIF-responsive growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). (dana-farber.org)
  • One of these disease-associated variants, rs12190287, resides in the 3′untranslated region of the vascular developmental transcription factor, TCF21. (prolekare.cz)
  • VEGF has been shown to induce the proliferation of endothelial cells, increase vascular permeability and induce the production of plasminogen activators by these cells. (wiley.com)
  • The microarray results were validated as significantly differentially expressed by qPCR assays for 2 out of 9 diet-responsive transcripts and for all of the 35 selected pIC-responsive transcripts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Biochemical assays showed that the +331G/A polymorphism increases transcription of the PR gene, favoring production of hPR-B in an Ishikawa endometrial cancer cell line. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isoform 2 has a higher thyroid hormone-dependent transactivation activity than isoform 1 and isoform 3. (proteopedia.org)
  • WWOX, via its first WW domain, associates with c-Jun following UV radiation and is able to repress its transcription, thus suggesting that WWOX might be involved in regulating c-Jun transactivation activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Isoform 2 enhances the transactivation activity of isoform 1 from some but not all TP53-inducible promoters. (genecards.org)
  • One of the activated genes is an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases. (genecards.org)
  • Treatment with 2-Deoxy- d -glucose, an inhibitor of anaerobic glycolysis, completely blocked the oncogenic roles of c-Myc-LDHA signaling. (springer.com)
  • The carcinogenic properties of hexachlorobutadiene are proposed to result from binding of the sulfenic acid degradation product or a thioketene intermediate to cellular DNA. (t3db.ca)
  • This network contains many positive feedback loops that generate a bistable switch in E2F activity which is similar to a toggle switch and explains the transition from growth‐factor‐dependent to growth‐factor‐independent transition of cell cycle progression at the R‐point. (els.net)
  • The restriction point (R‐point) marks the transition from growth‐factor‐dependent to growth‐factor‐independent cell cycle progression. (els.net)
  • Functional studies provide clues for the poor performance of retinoic acid as a general cancer therapeutic, connecting retinoic acid signaling to both cell growth arrest and proliferation with tumor suppression and cancer progression consequences. (omicsonline.org)
  • The contribution of CDC42 to cancer progression seems to be tissue specific due to it has been found to have pro-oncogenic and anti-oncogenic properties depending on cellular context. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The core mechanism involves a network of interactions among transcription factors (Myc and E2F) and cyclin‐dependendent kinases (CcnD/Cdk4,6 and CcnE/Cdk2). (els.net)
  • This gene and MAPK8 are also known as c-Jun N-terminal kinases. (genwaybio.com)
  • 2012). Two polo-like kinases, PLK2 and PLK3, are direct transcriptional targets of TP53. (wikipathways.org)
  • Hence members of this family of kinases have come to be appreciated as key cellular signal transducers and attractive targets for drug development. (bmj.com)