The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.
A sometimes fatal ASFIVIRUS infection of pigs, characterized by fever, cough, diarrhea, hemorrhagic lymph nodes, and edema of the gallbladder. It is transmitted between domestic swine by direct contact, ingestion of infected meat, or fomites, or mechanically by biting flies or soft ticks (genus Ornithodoros).
A species of the PESTIVIRUS genus causing exceedingly contagious and fatal hemorrhagic disease of swine.
A family of large icosahedral DNA viruses infecting insects and poikilothermic vertebrates. Genera include IRIDOVIRUS; RANAVIRUS; Chloriridovirus; Megalocytivirus; and Lymphocystivirus.
An acute, highly contagious disease affecting swine of all ages and caused by the CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS. It has a sudden onset with high morbidity and mortality.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A family of double-stranded DNA viruses containing one genus Asfivirus. It is the source of AFRICAN SWINE FEVER.
A genus of softbacked TICKS, in the family ARGASIDAE, serving as the vector of BORRELIA, causing RELAPSING FEVER, and of the AFRICAN SWINE FEVER VIRUS.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
A phenomenon manifested by an agent or substance adhering to or being adsorbed on the surface of a red blood cell, as tuberculin can be adsorbed on red blood cells under certain conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins which are synthesized as a single polymer and then cleaved into several distinct proteins.
A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
A species of NAIROVIRUS of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. It is primarily transmitted by ticks and causes a severe, often fatal disease in humans.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)
An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus. The severe form is characterized by fever, HEMOLYTIC JAUNDICE, and renal damage.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
An acute infection caused by the RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS, an RNA arthropod-borne virus, affecting domestic animals and humans. In animals, symptoms include HEPATITIS; abortion (ABORTION, VETERINARY); and DEATH. In humans, symptoms range from those of a flu-like disease to hemorrhagic fever, ENCEPHALITIS, or BLINDNESS.
A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE, also known as mucosal disease virus group, which is not arthropod-borne. Transmission is by direct and indirect contact, and by transplacental and congenital transmission. Species include BORDER DISEASE VIRUS, bovine viral diarrhea virus (DIARRHEA VIRUS, BOVINE VIRAL), and CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Eukaryotic initiation factor of protein synthesis. In higher eukaryotes the factor consists of three subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. As initiation proceeds, eIF-2 forms a ternary complex with Met-tRNAi and GTP.
Notable disease-causing viruses in Varidnaviria include adenoviruses, poxviruses, and the African swine fever virus. Poxviruses ... Virus realms correspond to the rank of domain used for cellular life but differ in that viruses within a realm do not ... Kukhanova MK, Korovina AN, Kochetkov SN (December 2014). "Human herpes simplex virus: life cycle and development of inhibitors ... As such, each virus realm represents at least one instance of viruses coming into existence. Within each realm, viruses are ...
The thymidine kinases from pox viruses, African swine fever virus, Herpes simplex virus, Varicella zoster virus and Epstein- ... November 2013). "Cellular influx, efflux, and anabolism of 3-carboranyl thymidine analogs: potential boron delivery agents for ... African swine fever virus (ASFV) and Fish lymphocystis disease virus (FLDV). The major capsid protein of insect iridescent ... Genes for virus specific thymidine kinases have been identified in Herpes simplex virus, Varicella zoster virus and Epstein- ...
"Sequence and evolutionary relationships of African swine fever virus thymidine kinase". Virology. 178 (1): 301-4. doi:10.1016/ ... In addition to cellular TKs, virus specific thymidine kinases have been identified in Herpes simplex virus, Varicella zoster ... Kit S, Kit M, Qavi H, Trkula D, Otsuka H (1983). "Nucleotide sequence of the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) thymidine ... McDougall JK, Masse TH, Galloway DA (1980). "Location and cloning of the herpes simplex virus type 2 thymidine kinase gene". J ...
Yellow fever originated in Africa and the virus was brought to the Americas on cargo ships, which were harbouring the Aedes ... Other, more ancient, viruses have been less of a threat. Herpes viruses first infected the ancestors of modern humans over 80 ... The many diseases caused by viruses included foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest of cattle, avian and swine influenza, swine ... Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 65 (21): 3348-3365. doi:10.1007/s00018-008-8495-2. PMID 18818874. Varela M, Spencer TE, ...
The most important viruses to rule out are herpes simplex virus type one, varicella zoster virus, and (less commonly) ... The cellular membrane pinches in a procession known as pinocytosis and allows entry of the virus into the cell by way of an ... More than 95% of human deaths from rabies occur in Africa and Asia. About 40% of deaths occur in children under the age of 15. ... Early symptoms can include fever and tingling at the site of exposure. These symptoms are followed by one or more of the ...
... and epithelial cells by influenza virus, Herpes simplex virus, and Sendai virus and its possible role in innate immunity". ... "Cellular proteases involved in the pathogenicity of enveloped animal viruses, human immunodeficiency virus, influenza virus A ... The virus was injected intradermally or intratumorally and it caused fever in less than half of the treated patients, which ... January 2012). "Sendai virus-based RSV vaccine protects African green monkeys from RSV infection". Vaccine. 30 (5): 959-68. doi ...
In 2009, a swine-origin H1N1 virus strain commonly referred to as "swine flu" caused the 2009 flu pandemic, but there is no ... Swine flu. In pigs swine influenza produces fever, lethargy, sneezing, coughing, difficulty breathing and decreased appetite.[ ... it was not until Wendell Stanley first crystallized tobacco mosaic virus in 1935 that the non-cellular nature of viruses was ... which began in Russia and spread to Europe via Africa. In Rome, over 8,000 people were killed, and several Spanish cities were ...
The lifecycle of hepatitis E virus is unknown; the capsid protein obtains viral entry by binding to a cellular receptor. ORF2 ( ... "WHO , Regional Office for Africa. Retrieved 20 August 2019.. *^ Khudyakov, Yury E.; Purdy, Michael A. (17 December 2010). " ... deer and swine have frequently been implicated.[58] Domestic animals have been reported as a reservoir for the hepatitis E ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ...
... and ICP27 protein from herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 ICP27) (), as well as the three NESs identified in the ASFV p37 ... Comparison of nuclear export signals identified in p37 protein with well-characterized NESs present in cellular and viral ... Nuclear export of African swine fever virus p37 protein occurs through two distinct pathways and is mediated by three ... Nuclear Export of African Swine Fever Virus p37 Protein Occurs through Two Distinct Pathways and Is Mediated by Three ...
African swine fever virus [49], Newcastle disease virus [50], papillomavirus [51] and herpes simplex virus [52]. ICP34.5 is a ... The relationship between viruses and the cellular stress response is a multifaceted and complex phenomenon that depends on the ... The African swine fever virus DP71L protein recruits the protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit to dephosphorylate eIF2alpha ... Cells and viruses. Green African monkey kidney (Vero) (ATCC) cells and human osteosarcoma-derived U2OS containing G3BP1-GFP (a ...
African swine fever virus in Vero cells), the addition of the drug 1 h before virus adsorption completely abolished virus ... herpes simplex and vaccinia) and RNA (influenza, porcine transmissible gastroenteritis and Sindbis) viruses, paying attention ... Both cellular and viral DNA synthesis and late viral transcription were inhibited by the drug; however, the early viral protein ... We analysed the effect of the antitumoural drug lauryl gallate on the infectivity of the African swine fever virus among other ...
... and both of these share sequence similarity to the C-terminal domain of the herpes simplex virus ICP34.5 protein and cellular ... The African swine fever virus (ASFV) DP71L protein is present in all isolates as either a short form of 70 to 72 amino acids or ... The African swine fever virus (ASFV) DP71L protein is present in all isolates as either a short form of 70 to 72 amino acids or ... The African swine fever virus DP71L protein recruits the protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit to dephosphorylate elF2 alpha ...
An Overview of the Immune Evasion Strategies Adopted by Different Viruses with Special Reference to Classical Swine Fever Virus ... allowing it to interfere with the activity of cellular IRFs [11]. The infected cell polypeptide 0 (ICP0) from Bovine herpes ... African swine fever virus (ASFV) replicates in macrophages and encodes an IkB homolog that blocks cytokine expression mediated ... An Overview of the Immune Evasion Strategies Adopted by Different Viruses with Special Reference to Classical Swine Fever Virus ...
... herpes viruses); Poxviridae (variola viruses, vaccinia viruses, pox viruses); and Iridoviridae (such as African swine fever ... Cellular and Molecular Immunology. , Saunders, Philadelphia. It has been suggested, however, that the zwitterionic nature of ... viruses, bunya viruses, phleboviruses, and Nairo viruses); Arena viridae (hemorrhagic fever viruses); Reoviridae (e.g., ... rubella viruses); Flaviviridae (for example, dengue viruses, encephalitis viruses, yellow fever viruses); Coronaviridae (for ...
The DP71L protein of African swine fever virus (ASFV) shares sequence similarity with the herpes simplex virus ICP34.5 protein ... which is an essential component of the cellular complex required for the transcription of the herpes simplex virus (HSV) ... The MyD116 African swine fever virus homologue interacts with the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 and activates its ... Thus HOX11 is a cellular oncogene that targets PP2A and PP1, both of which are targets for oncogenic viruses and chemical ...
African swine fever virus; Canarypox virus; DNA; capital; consensus sequence; dephosphorylation; herpes simplex; ... Most antibiotics inhibit processes that are major consumers of cellular energy output, suggesting that antibiotic treatment may ... Tramadol, previously only known as a synthetic analgesic, has now been found in the bark and wood of roots of the African ... CD4-positive T-lymphocytes; CD8-positive T-lymphocytes; HIV infections; Human immunodeficiency virus 1; RNA-directed DNA ...
Many Times To Make The Capsid Capsomere Clusters Of Polypeptides Which Lassa Fever Virus Transmission Western Africa Can Be Via ... Virology Study Sheet Download A Copy Of This Study Guide Basic Virology Dna Viruses Composed Of Numerous Repeating Subunits ... a molecular cloning of african swine fever virus dna virology 1984 mar 133 2249 257 liu fy roizman b the herpes simplex virus 1 ... of a small percentage of infected birds develop leukemia or lymphoma some exogenous viruses acquire on oncogene from a cellular ...
Notable disease-causing viruses in Varidnaviria include adenoviruses, poxviruses, and the African swine fever virus. Poxviruses ... Virus realms correspond to the rank of domain used for cellular life but differ in that viruses within a realm do not ... Kukhanova MK, Korovina AN, Kochetkov SN (December 2014). "Human herpes simplex virus: life cycle and development of inhibitors ... As such, each virus realm represents at least one instance of viruses coming into existence. Within each realm, viruses are ...
Detection of novel sequences related to african Swine Fever virus in human serum and sewage. J. Virol. 83:13019-13025. ... cluster and a proline-alanine-threonine repeat region determine the cellular localization of the herpes simplex virus type 1 ... Phylogenetic analysis of clinical herpes simplex virus type 1 isolates identified three genetic groups and recombinant viruses ... A mutant of herpes simplex virus type 1 in which the UL13 protein kinase gene is disrupted. J. Gen. Virol. 74:387-395. ...
Link between Human herpes virus 6 and African Swine fever virus, AIDS, CFIDS and US Biowarfare labs. The immune cells that ... Cytokines and Cellular Immunity by Robert Darga MD; NIH/NIAID officials question the value of Dr. Hos kitchen sink theory; ... a homeopathic remedy tested in Africa on 228 HIV patients increases CD4 helper cells over a 7 month period; Swine flu update ... Neem used in Africa to treat terminal AIDS patients. GOOT - Garlic Oil Ointment works effectively after one year in the ...
... including vaccinia virus, HIV-1, coxsackievirus B (CVB), herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), african swine fever virus (ASFV ... E. G. Sánche, A. Quintas, D. Pérez-Núñez et al., "African swine fever virus uses macropinocytosis to enter host cells," PLoS ... many microorganisms or viruses like Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), herpesviruses, and adeno-associated virus (AAV) also ... we discuss some recent advances in our understanding of cellular pathways for virus entry, molecular signaling during virus ...
ASFV, African swine fever virus; BFV, bovine foamy virus; B. pertussis, Bordetella pertussis; CRL, cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase ... hantaan virus; HCMV, human cytomegalovirus; HCV, hepatitis C virus; HSV, herpes simplex virus; IκBα, NF-κB inhibitor-α (also ... The classical and alternative NF-κB signalling pathways use a wide variety of signals to control a diverse set of cellular ... Ac, acetyl group; A. salmonicida, Aeromonas salmonicida; ASFV, African swine fever virus; B. bronchiseptica, Bordetella ...
... is the cause of an economically important swine disease that has devastated the swine industry since the late 1980s. The aim of ... Therefore, some viruses, such as vaccinia virus, African swine fever virus, influenza A virus, and mengovirus, have evolved ... influenza virus [14, 29], hepatitis C virus (HCV) [23], Japanese encephalitis virus [46], and herpes simplex virus [7] activate ... Some viruses activate the NF-κB pathway through viral protein-cellular receptor interaction. In PPRSV infection in vitro, the ...
... bringing them to their destination by overcoming different cellular barriers. ... of different types of formulation materials and discuss how these formulation materials function as protectors and cellular ... the physicochemical properties of nucleic acids render them liable to degradation and also restrict their cellular entrance and ... gene translation/inhibition at the correct cellular location. Therefore, gene condensation/protection and guided intracellular ...
The thymidine kinases from pox viruses, African swine fever virus, Herpes simplex virus, Varicella zoster virus and Epstein- ... November 2013). "Cellular influx, efflux, and anabolism of 3-carboranyl thymidine analogs: potential boron delivery agents for ... African swine fever virus (ASFV) and Fish lymphocystis disease virus (FLDV). The major capsid protein of insect iridescent ... Genes for virus specific thymidine kinases have been identified in Herpes simplex virus, Varicella zoster virus and Epstein- ...
Herpes Viruses. African Swine Fever Virus. Zoonoses. Exhibit 115. Disease, Causative Agent, Species, Clinical Symptoms in Man, ... Almost 2000 of the licensed vaccines in the US are killed or live attenuated bacteria or viruses. Development in molecular ... Vaccines for Other Animal Species Rest of World Market Shares (2012, 2018 & 2022) by Country for South Africa and Other ... USDA Grants Conditional License to Zoetis for the First Vaccine against Georgia 08 Strain of Infectious Bronchitis Virus in ...
2-DE/MS has been utilized to investigate the cellular changes in Vero cells infected with African swine fever virus (19), ... protein of herpes simplex virus: genetic and biochemical evidence that Vhs is a nuclease. J. Virol. 76, 8560- 8571. ... Identification of cellular proteins modified in response to African swine fever virus infection by proteomics. Proteomics 4, ... 2). Up-regulated HSPB1 has been found in cells infected with African swine fever virus (19), enterovirus 71 (20), or FHV (23). ...
Cloning and Mapping of African Swine Fever Virus DNA Jose M. Almendral, Antonio Talavera, Eladio Viñuela ... Expression of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Type 2 Glycoprotein D Genes Using the EscherichiaColilac Promoter ... The Cloning and Sequencing of Sites of Linkage between Adenovirus DNA and Cellular DNA: Recombination of Foreign DNA with the ... Cloning of Plant-Virus Genomes Other than that of Cauliflower Mosaic Virus ...
The synthesis of host cell proteins is adversely inhibited in many virus infections, whereas viral proteins are efficiently ... the African swine fever virus (ASFV) was shown to encode a decapping protein, ASFV-DP, which removes the m7G cap from both the ... Wagner, L.M.; DeLuca, N.A. Temporal Association of Herpes Simplex Virus ICP4 with Cellular Complexes Functioning at Multiple ... Characterization of the African Swine Fever Virus Decapping Enzyme during Infection. J. Virol. 2017, 91, e00990-17. [Google ...
... and development of cellular networks and multi-cellular systems. Intercellular communication is mediated by soluble factors ( ... and development of cellular networks and multi-cellular systems. Intercellular communication is mediated by soluble factors ( ... Interestingly, viruses, such as African Swine Fever, Ebola, Herpes Simplex, Marburg filoviruses, and Poxvirus Vaccinia, encode ... and development of cellular networks and multi-cellular systems. Intercellular communication is mediated by soluble factors ( ...
This cellular defence mechanism may, in turn, affect significantly the virus life-cycle. This review highlights the current ... This review highlights the current understanding of the mechanisms of the ER stress activation by Human Hepatitis B virus (HBV ... understanding of the mechanisms of the ER stress activation by Human Hepatitis B virus (HBV), a deadly pathogen affecting more ... This cellular defence mechanism may, in turn, affect significantly the virus life-cycle. ...
... the expression of active Rac1 is increased after hepatitis B virus replication (59). African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the ... INTRODUCTION The members of Rho family of small GTPases are essential key regulators of diverse critical cellular functions, ... herpes simplex pathogen 1 (HSV-1) activates Rac1 and Cdc42, which outcomes in the induction of filopodia and lamellipodia in ... The integrity of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway is required for efficient African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection. We ...
... the virus bovine leukemia virus rinderpest, FMD virus, rabies virus swine fever virus African swine fever, porcine parvovirus, ... Additional antigens include pathogenic viruses such as the herpes viruses of cattle-1,3,6, viral diarrhea virus in cattle (BVDV ... The immune response may be a cellular immune response mediated primarily cytotoxic T-cells or humoral immune response mediated ... PRRS virus, porcine circovirus, influenza virus, the virus vesicular disease swine fever virus Techen, virus false rabies, or ...
CD4 T Cells, CD8 T Cells, and Monocytes Coordinate To Prevent Rift Valley Fever Virus Encephalitis RVFV is found in Africa and ... Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is an alphaherpesvirus related to human pathogens such as herpes simplex virus 1 and varicella-zoster ... Cellular Response to Infection. Exchange Proteins Directly Activated by cAMP and Their Roles in Respiratory Syncytial Virus ... virus (VZV). The natural host of PRV is the swine, but it can infect most mammals. In susceptible animals other than pigs, PRV ...
African swine fever virus (ASF). As a signature pattern for this family of TK we selected a conserved region which is located ... TK_CELLULAR_TYPE, PS00603; Thymidine kinase cellular-type signature (PATTERN). * Consensus pattern:. [GA]-x(1,2)-[DE]-x-Y-x-[ ... Evolution of the herpes thymidine kinase: identification and comparison of the equine herpesvirus 1 thymidine kinase gene ... One family groups together TK from herpesviruses as well as cellular thymidylate kinases, while the second family currently ...
... polyoma virus, adenovirus, herpes simplex virus I or II, varicella zoster virus, pox virus, and African swine fever virus. ... Cytokine-expressing cellular vaccine combinations. US20040235074. 14 May 2004. 25 Nov 2004. Seattle Genetics, Inc.. Methods for ... polyoma virus, adenovirus, herpes simplex virus I or II, varicella zoster virus, pox virus, African swine fever virus. ... polyoma virus, adenovirus, herpes simplex virus I or II, varicella zoster virus, pox virus, African swine fever virus. ...
Detection of African Swine Fever Virus Antibodies in Serum and Oral Fluid Specimens Using a Recombinant Protein 30 (p30) Dual ... A novel antigen capture ELISA for the specific detection of IgG antibodies to elephant endotheliotropic herpes virus. BMC ... Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Exploits Inflammation to Modify Swine Intestinal Microbiota. Frontiers in cellular and ... African swine fever virus transmission cycles in Central Europe: evaluation of wild boar-soft tick contacts through detection ...
African swine fever virus BA71V (U18466), species African swine fever virus, genus Asfivirus ... Abbreviations: Herpes simplex virus (HSV); vaccinia virus (VV); methyl transferase (FTSJ); excision repair cross- ... Viral Bcl-2 binds to most cellular proapoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2 family to inhibit apoptosis, and it also binds Beclin1 to ... when it was removed as a member of the unassigned genus African swine fever virus group, (renamed African swine fever-like ...
  • The African swine fever virus (ASFV) DP71L protein is present in all isolates as either a short form of 70 to 72 amino acids or a long form of about 184 amino acids, and both of these share sequence similarity to the C-terminal domain of the herpes simplex virus ICP34.5 protein and cellular protein GADD34. (
  • Two different classes of thymidine kinases have been identified and are included in this super family: one family groups together thymidine kinase from herpesvirus as well as cellular thymidylate kinases, the second family groups TK from various sources that include, vertebrates, bacteria, the bacteriophage T4, poxviruses, African swine fever virus (ASFV) and Fish lymphocystis disease virus (FLDV). (
  • The integrity of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway is required for efficient African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection. (
  • African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the causative agent of a severe and highly lethal hemorrhagic disease buy AMG517 that affects domestic pigs. (
  • Like many other viruses, during the Prokr1 early stages of infection ASFV interacts with the microtubule cytoskeleton and requires retrograde dynein-based transport to constitute the perinuclear virus factory (3, 30), where DNA replication and assembly occur. (
  • African swine fever virus (ASFV) virions consist of a nucleoprotein core structure, 70-100 nm in diameter, surrounded by an internal lipid layer and an icosahedral capsid, 170-190 nm in diameter, which in turn is eventually surrounded by an external lipid-containing envelope. (
  • African swine fever virus (ASFV), the causative agent of one of the most important viral diseases of domestic pigs for which no vaccine is available, causes immune system disorders in infected animals. (
  • In this study, the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines, as well as the histological and cellular constitution of lymphoid organs of pigs infected with ASFV genotype II were investigated. (
  • To maximize the effectiveness of DNA replication, African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection recruits the mitochondria around the viral factories, associated with the morphology change and accumulation of the mitochondria. (
  • Das Virus der afrikanischen Schweinepest (African swine fever virus, ASFV) ist der einzige bekannte Vertreter der Familie der Asfarviridae. (
  • The existence of overlapping nuclear export mechanisms, together with our observation that p37 protein is localized in the nucleus at early stages of infection and exclusively in the cytoplasm at later stages, suggests that the nuclear transport ability of this protein may be critical to the African swine fever virus replication cycle. (
  • During infection, viruses trigger the host cell stress response, leading to changes in RNA translation and the assembly of large aggregates of stalled translation preinitiation complexes, termed stress granules (SGs). (
  • Furthermore, the presence of the drug abrogated the activation of this protease induced by the virus infection. (
  • The cowpox virus (CPV) complement inhibitor, termed inflammation modulatory protein (IMP), blocks immunopathological tissue damage at the site of infection, presumably by inhibiting production of the macrophage chemo attractant factors C3a and C5a. (
  • Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a well-adapted human pathogen that can invade the peripheral nervous system and persist there as a lifelong latent infection. (
  • Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is among the most widespread pathogens of the herpesvirus family, with about 60% seroprevalence, indicating exposure or ongoing infection, among adults in the United States ( 83 ). (
  • The effect of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infection on cellular protein expression is essential for viral pathogenesis. (
  • To characterize the cellular response to IBDV infection, the differential proteomes of chicken embryo fibroblasts, with and without IBDV infection, were analyzed at different time points with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by MALDI-TOF/TOF identification. (
  • Mass spectrometry identified 51 altered cellular proteins, including 13 up-regulated proteins and 38 down-regulated proteins 12-96 h after infection. (
  • In addition, IBDV infection considerably suppressed those cellular proteins involved in ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation, energy metabolism, intermediate filaments, host translational apparatus, and signal transduction. (
  • Therefore, the proteomics analysis of host cellular responses to virus infection is more likely to probe potential cellular factors involved directly or indirectly in viral infection and to identify potential drug targets of antiviral treatment. (
  • To date, a small but increasing number of studies have used proteomics approaches to reveal the effects of viral infection on the cellular proteome ( 15 ). (
  • During infection, vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototype poxvirus, targets all major processes of the central dogma of genetics, as well as pre-transcription and post-translation steps to hinder host cell protein production. (
  • Discovered more than 40 years ago, with an efficient vaccine developed against it, the Human Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is still a frequent viral disease and a major cause of chronic liver pathogenesis. (
  • this modulation results critical for virus buy AMG517 morphogenesis and in turn, triggers cytoskeleton remodeling, such as microtubule stabilization for viral transport during early infection. (
  • This F11L-mediated inhibition of RhoA signaling has been proposed to be required for an efficient virus release from infected cells (4) and also for stimulating virus-induced cell motility (4, 12, 66) and the spreading of infection. (
  • Infection of domestic pigs and wild boar results in haemorrhagic fever and, for virulent isolates, death. (
  • cattle were vaccinated with a recombinant capripox-rinderpest vaccine designed to protect cattle from infection with either rinderpest virus (rpv) or lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv). (
  • 2. The method of claim 1, wherein the pathogen is a virus, and wherein the subject has a persistent viral infection. (
  • 14. The method of claim 13, wherein the persistant infection is an infection with a human immunodeficiency virus. (
  • 16. The method of claim 13, wherein the persistent infection is an infection with hepatitis c virus. (
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of liver infection in human. (
  • Because of the lack of an appropriate cell culture system for supporting HBV infection efficiently, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of hepadnavirus infection remain incompletely understood. (
  • Duck heptatitis B virus (DHBV) can naturally infect primary duck hepatocytes (PDHs) that provide valuable model systems for studying hepadnavirus infection in vitro . (
  • Viral cross talk: intracellular inactivation of the hepatitis B virus during an unrelated viral infection of the liver. (
  • Adult mice inoculated with Semliki Forest virus (SFV) were protected from a lethal infection of the central nervous system by intranasal administration of defective-interfering (DI) SFV. (
  • Double immunofluorescence (DIFA) with markers for neurons, astrocytes, microglia, and NDV nucleoprotein detected the three strains in all three cell types at similar levels.These data indicate that similar to other paramyxoviruses, neurons and glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia) are susceptible to vNDV infection, and suggest that factors other than cellular tropism are likely the major determinant of the neurotropic phenotype. (
  • At early times of virus infection, the presence of Vmw110 increases the proportion of ND10 which contain the ubiquitin‐specific protease. (
  • Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV‐1) is a common human pathogen which attains a life‐long latent state in sensory neurones after initial infection at the periphery. (
  • Serologic studies in the Philippines and elsewhere in Southeast Asia indicated that Ebola virus is a prevalent cause of infection among macaques (Manson 1989). (
  • The mode of primary infection and the natural ecology of these viruses are unknown. (
  • However, in all instances, study of antibody in bats failed to detect evidence of infection, and no virus was isolated form bat tissue. (
  • TB has reemerged as a serious public health threat worldwide because of a significant increase in multiple-medicine-resistant TB (mrdTB) and synergism between Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and M. tuberculosis infection. (
  • A better understanding of how tubercle bacilli establish infection at the cellular and molecular levels should facilitate the design of both new vaccines and treatment approaches. (
  • Upon viral infection, monocytes respond with an elevated expression of proinflammatory signalling molecules and antiviral responses, as is shown in the case of the influenza, Chikungunya, human herpes and Zika viruses. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus initiates acute inflammation on site during the early stages of infection but there is a shift of M1 to M2 at the later stages of infection. (
  • Nevertheless, monocytes/macrophages have several appealing characteristics as a target for viral infection, thus viruses have found ways to avoid the limitations and adapt these cells for their replication. (
  • Monocytes are at the front line in the defence against foreign invasion by microorganisms, providing the first virus-cell contact upon infection. (
  • The impact of incident and prevalent herpes simplex virus-2 infection on the incidence of HIV-1 infection among commercial sex workers in South Africa. (
  • Clinical signs of classical swine fever usually appear 5-10 days after infection (occasionally longer). (
  • in a development that could transform how viral infections are treated, a team of researchers at MIT's Lincoln Laboratory has designed a drug that can identify cells that have been infected by any type of virus, then kill those cells to terminate the infection. (
  • A herpes infection that is not active actually wouldn't be targeted by this. (
  • most human transmissible virus that emerge already have that capability at first human infection or acquire it relatively rapidly. (
  • Viral infection is a proliferation of harmful virus inside the body. (
  • Hepatitis C virus lacking the hypervariable region 1 of the second envelope protein is infectious and causes acute resolving or persistent infection in chimpanzees", Pro. (
  • Zhang Y, Hu M, Wei D, Zhang H, Chu B, Xu HM, Wang T. From Severe Herpes Zoster to Rare Suid Herpesvirus Encephalitis: A New Twist of the Varicellovirus Genus Infection in Patients with Kidney Diseases. (
  • Blaise-Boisseau, Sandra 2015-10-01 00:00:00 In addition to acute infection and disease, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) can cause persistent infection in ruminants. (
  • Nuclear export of African swine fever virus p37 protein occurs through two distinct pathways and is mediated by three independent signals. (
  • Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling activity of the African swine fever virus p37 protein, a major structural protein of this highly complex virus, has been recently reported. (
  • however, the early viral protein synthesis and the virus-mediated increase of p53 remained unaffected. (
  • The major capsid protein of insect iridescent viruses also belongs to this family. (
  • Although viruses encode various numbers of genes to perform replication, they rely on cellular translation machinery for protein synthesis. (
  • By usurping host mRNA translation, viruses can gain a competitive advantage over available energy and translational machinery, thereby enhancing the expression of viral mRNA to protein. (
  • The unfolded protein response in virus infections. (
  • Recently, it has been shown that vaccinia virus F11L protein interacts directly with RhoA to inhibit its downstream signaling (61). (
  • Black arrow shows capsid protein, white arrow shows virus membrane. (
  • In the past 20 years, protein sumoylation has emerged as an important post-translational modification that is manipulated by viruses to modulate anti-viral responses, viral replication, and viral pathogenesis. (
  • A virus consists of genetic material, which may be either DNA or RNA, and is surrounded by a protein coat and, in some viruses, by a membranous envelope. (
  • 17. The method of claim 16, wherein the antigen is Hepatitis C virus (HCV) E1, E2 or a core protein. (
  • In this report, we explored global changes in cellular protein expression in DHBV infected PDHs by two-dimension gel electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). (
  • To identify proteins that interact with the U(L)28-encoded DNA binding protein of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), a previously undescribed rabbit polyclonal antibody directed against the U(L)28 protein fused to glutathione S-transferase was used to immunopurify U(L)28 and the proteins with which it associated. (
  • We report here that poxvirus protein F12 that has been implicated in intracellular enveloped virus (IEV) morphogenesis, and in particular IEV movement along microtubules [ 11 - 13 ], is a derived DNA polymerase in which both the polymerase and the exonuclease activities apparently were abrogated as a result of mutational replacement of catalytic amino acid residues. (
  • Adenoviruses of different species are assumed to enter host cells mainly by interactions between the knob domain of the protruding fiber capsid protein and cellular receptors. (
  • We provide evidence that at least two of these viruses, OC43 and 229E, are undergoing adaptive evolution in regions of the viral spike protein that are exposed to human humoral immunity. (
  • Herpes simplex virus type 1 immediate‐early protein Vmw110 is a non‐specific activator of gene expression and is required for efficient initiation of the viral lytic cycle. (
  • Vmw110 migrates to discrete nuclear structures (ND10) which contain the cellular PML protein, and in consequence PML and other constituent proteins are dispersed. (
  • In addition, Vmw110 binds to a cellular protein of ∼135 kDa, and its interactions with the 135 kDa protein and ND10 contribute to its ability to stimulate gene expression and viral lytic growth. (
  • They say the most prevalent hantaviruses in North America (Sin Nombre virus) and South America (Andes virus) can recognize the protein, protocadherin-1 (PCDH1), and exploit it to infect the lungs. (
  • While latent the virus merely sits in its protein shell inside a cell, not actively producing RNA. (
  • In addition, replication of the lac operator plasmid was visualized continuously in living cells infected with a recombinant vaccinia virus that expresses the lac repressor fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein. (
  • By employing cell culture conditions which induce BPV-1 E2 transactivator expression and viral early region transcription in virus-transformed C127 cell lines, we detected a single immunoprecipitated E6 protein species with an apparent molecular mass of 17 kDa and a single E7 protein species with an apparent molecular mass of 15 kDa. (
  • Mutagenesis of the Signal Sequence of Yellow Fever Virus prM Protein: Enhancement of Signalase Cleavage In Vitro Is Lethal for Virus Production", J. Virol. (
  • Mutation in a 17D-204 Vaccine Substrain-Specific Envelope Protein Epitope Alters the Pathogenesis of Yellow Fever Virus Mice", Virol. (
  • parasite with a noncellular structure composed mainly of nucleic acid nucleic acid, any of a group of organic substances found in the chromosomes of living cells and viruses that play a central role in the storage and replication of hereditary information and in the expression of this information through protein synthesis. (
  • in the other stage, however, viruses enter living plant, animal, or bacterial cells and make use of the host cell's chemical energy and its protein- and nucleic acid-synthesizing ability to replicate themselves. (
  • Typically the protein coat, or capsid, of an individual virus particle, or virion, is composed of multiple copies of one or several types of protein subunits, or capsomeres. (
  • Certain viruses, such as bacteriophages, have complex protein tails. (
  • A bacterial virus infects the cell by attaching fibers of its protein tail to a specific receptor site on the bacterial cell wall and then injecting the nucleic acid into the host, leaving the empty capsid outside. (
  • Late last year the recombinant viral-vector vaccine, which uses an altered vesicular stomatitis virus to express a protein from the Zaire strain of Ebola virus, showed 100 percent efficacy. (
  • These data demonstrate that ZIKV elicits mechanisms to counteract host anti-viral stress responses to promote a cellular environment propitious for viral replication. (
  • Our work demonstrates that ZIKV prevents a host stress response in order to maintain a cellular environment propitious for viral replication. (
  • Nevertheless, to exist as a species, virus replication and transfer to a new host are essential. (
  • While Baltimore classification is chiefly based on transcription of mRNA, viruses in each Baltimore group also typically share their manner of replication. (
  • dsDNA viruses can be subdivided between those that replicate in the nucleus, and as such are relatively dependent on host cell machinery for transcription and replication, and those that replicate in the cytoplasm, in which case they have evolved or acquired their own means of executing transcription and replication. (
  • The double-stranded form of ssDNA viruses may be produced either directly after entry into a cell or as a consequence of replication of the viral genome. (
  • Most ssDNA viruses contain circular genomes that are replicated via rolling circle replication (RCR). (
  • ROS modulate the permissiveness of cells to viral replication and regulate host inflammatory and immune responses, ROS and MDA result in oxidative damage to both host tissue and the virus [ 15 ]. (
  • Cloning and expression of viral genes in mammalian cells was made possible by the construction of shuttle plasmid vectors which carry the origins of DNA replication from bacteria and/or mammalian viruses. (
  • RhoA signaling is required for respiratory syncytial buy AMG517 virus replication and morphogenesis (26). (
  • Moreover, the expression of active Rac1 is increased after hepatitis B virus replication (59). (
  • Activir is an antiviral drug, a synthetic nucleoside analogue, that has inhibitory activity (interferes with viral replication) against the herpes viruses, including herpes simplex 1 and 2 (cold sores and genital herpes), varicella-zoster (shingles and chickenpox), and Epstein-Barr virus (mononucleosis). (
  • The Activir is converted to an active form by the virus itself, and the virus then uses the active form of Activir rather than the nucleoside it normally uses to manufacture DNA, a critical component of viral replication. (
  • Viruses exploit various cellular processes for their own benefit, including counteracting anti-viral responses and regulating viral replication and propagation. (
  • Because these properties are shared by certain bacteria ( rickettsiae , chlamydiae ), viruses are now characterized by their simple organization and their unique mode of replication. (
  • Other viruses, however, such as the herpesviruses , actually enter a time known as "viral latency," when little or no replication is taking place until further replication is initiated by a specific trigger. (
  • It was demonstrated using self-replicating hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNAs that both types of interferons (IFNs) (in particular IFN- α and IFN- γ ) are potent inhibitors of HCV replication in Huh-7 cells. (
  • Replication of hepatitis C virus. (
  • Human γ interferon and tumor necrosis factor alpha exert a synergistic blockade on the replication of herpes simplex virus. (
  • Interferon- α inhibits hepatitis C virus subgenomic RNA replication by an MxA-independent pathway. (
  • Interferon- γ inhibits replication of subgenomic and genomic hepatitis C virus RNAs. (
  • Virus trigger the rearrangement and morphology remodeling of intracellular organelles, including the quality control of intracellular organelles, the hijacking of the modified organelle membranes, morphology remodeling for viral replication, and degradation of intracellular organelles by virus-triggered selective autophagy. (
  • Viruses have evolved several strategies to remodel the mitochondria for viral replication and assembly, including spatial distribution, morphology remodeling, and metabolism reprogramming. (
  • It was speculated that the translation and ATP synthesis are coupled and compartmentalized around viral factories to promote virus replication [ 16 ] (Figure 1C). (
  • The replication in and destruction of the host cell is rapid and produces a large number of viruses budding from the cell membrane. (
  • Viruses manipulate cell biology to utilize monocytes/macrophages as vessels for dissemination, long-term persistence within tissues and virus replication. (
  • The majority of viruses discussed in this review employ monocytes/macrophages as a repository but certain viruses use these cells for productive replication. (
  • Viral genetics is the study of the mechanisms of heritable information in viruses, including genome structure, replication and genetic change. (
  • Replication of the vaccinia virus genome occurs in cytoplasmic factory areas and is dependent on the virus-encoded DNA polymerase and at least four additional viral proteins. (
  • Studies with conditional lethal mutants of vaccinia virus indicated that each of the five proteins known to be required for viral genome replication was also required for plasmid replication. (
  • Origin-independent plasmid replication was also shown to occur in the cytoplasm of cells infected with other poxviruses including Shope fibroma virus and myxoma virus as well as with African swine fever virus [ 30 , 31 ]. (
  • Mechanism of viral pathogenesis includes - implantation of the virus, spread to target organs, local replication, keeping of the viruses into environment. (
  • The genome of Rabies virus, Borna disease virus and Ebola virus code for the P phosphoprotein and VP35 that can block the antiviral response induced by IFN [ 8 , 9 , 10 ]. (
  • A DNA virus is a virus that has a genome made of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that is replicated by a DNA polymerase. (
  • They can be divided between those that have two strands of DNA in their genome, called double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses, and those that have one strand of DNA in their genome, called single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses. (
  • Viruses that have a DNA genome that is replicated through an RNA intermediate by a reverse transcriptase are separately considered reverse transcribing viruses and are assigned to the kingdom Pararnavirae in the realm Riboviria. (
  • The first Baltimore group of DNA viruses are those that have a double-stranded DNA genome. (
  • dsDNA viruses make use of several mechanisms to replicate their genome. (
  • Some dsDNA viruses use a strand displacement method whereby one strand is synthesized from a template strand, and a complementary strand is then synthesized from the prior synthesized strand, forming a dsDNA genome. (
  • Lastly, some dsDNA viruses are replicated as part of a process called replicative transposition whereby a viral genome in a host cell's DNA is replicated to another part of a host genome. (
  • These data increase our knowledge of sequence variation in large DNA viruses and demonstrate the potential of deep sequencing to yield insight into DNA genome evolution and the variation among different pathogen isolates. (
  • Despite the clinical importance of these viruses, only one wild-type genome sequence is available for HSV-1, that of strain 17, which was completed over 20 years ago ( 41 , 42 ). (
  • High-throughput sequencing techniques have the potential to address the entire genome of a population without resorting to recombinant DNA techniques and have already enabled substantial inroads into novel pathogen discovery and the genetic characterization of other viruses and pathogens ( 13 , 34 , 54 , 79 , 81 ). (
  • Some of these may already have been present within the initial virus, and others may be coded for by the viral genome for production within the host cell. (
  • The latest development in negative strand virology, reverse genetics, the ability to rescue live virus from a DNA copy of the RNA genome, is being used to address questions concerning virus pathogenicity at the molecular level and to produce "marker" vaccines, i.e. vaccines that allow serological identification of all vaccinated animals. (
  • Viral architecture is very complex, but every virus contains at least a genome and a capsid. (
  • The 400 known viruses are classified in several ways: by genome core (RNA or DNA), host (animals, plants, or bacteria), method of reproduction (such as retrovirus), mode of transmission (such as enterovirus), and disease produced (such as hepatitis virus). (
  • A virus must attach to a living cell and taken inside and manufacture its proteins and copy its genome then find a way to escape the cell so that the virus can infect other cells. (
  • Due to the problems caused by the uncertainty in alignment, existing tools for phylogenetic analysis based on multiple alignment could not be directly applied to the whole-genome comparison and phylogenomic studies of viruses. (
  • In this paper, the DL method is used to analyze the whole-proteome phylogeny of 124 large dsDNA viruses and 30 parvoviruses, two data sets with large difference in genome size. (
  • In comparison, some alignment-free methods such as the CV Tree method can be used for recovering the phylogeny of large dsDNA viruses, but they are not suitable for resolving the phylogeny of parvoviruses with a much smaller genome size. (
  • The present study represents another effort of applying an alignment-free method in analysing complete genome data to elucidate the phylogeny of two virus groups of different genome size, the large dsDNA viruses and parvoviruses. (
  • The genome sizes of dsDNA viruses are usually larger than 10 kb except those in the families Polyomaviridae (5 kb) and Papillomaviridae (7-8 kb). (
  • On the other hand, the genome sizes of ssDNA viruses are smaller than 10 kb. (
  • Acihexal is also used to prevent recurrent genital herpes infections. (
  • Acix is an antiviral medicine used to treat shingles lesions and nerve pain, genital herpes, and chicken pox. (
  • Acix will not cure genital herpes and may not stop the spread of genital herpes to other people. (
  • Herpes simplex causes cold sores and genital herpes and is under investigation as a possible factor in Alzheimer's. (
  • This review highlights the current understanding of the mechanisms of the ER stress activation by Human Hepatitis B virus (HBV), a deadly pathogen affecting more than 350 million people worldwide. (
  • 9. The method of claim 2, wherein the virus is a human T-Cell leukemia virus, an Epstein-Barr virus, a cytomegalovirus, a herpesvirus, a varicella-zoster virus, a papovavirus, a hepatitis virus, an adenovirus, a parvovirus or a papillomavirus. (
  • 10. The method of claim 2, wherein the virus is a human immunodeficiency virus, a hepatitis C virus, an Epstein-Barr Virus, or a cytomegalovirus. (
  • DHBV and woodchuck hepatitis B virus (WHBV) are classified into the family of hepadnaviridae. (
  • Tumor necrosis factor- α negatively regulates hepatitis-B virus gene expression in transgenic mice. (
  • Effect of alpha interferon on the hepatitis C virus replicon. (
  • National Institutes of Health scientists and their collaborators found that hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated acute liver failure (ALF)-a rare condition that can turn fatal within days without liver transplantation-results from an uncommon encounter between a highly mutated HBV variant and an unusual immune response in the patient's liver that is mainly sustained by antibody-producing B cells. (
  • The main viruses associated with human cancers are human papillomavirus, hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus, Epstein-Barr virus, human T-lymphotropic virus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Merkel cell polyomavirus. (
  • In a clinical molecular virology, the discovery of the hepatitis C virus as an etiologic agent of chronic hepatitis resulted from the direct cloning of the viral nucleic acid important to identify or development of a serologic test. (
  • These processes are associated with the production of antigenic proteins that make the virus vulnerable to immune control mechanisms 'warning' the host of the presence of an invader [ 1 ]. (
  • There are two classes of viral immunoregulatory proteins: the proteins encoded by genes having sequence similarity with cellular genes and those coded by genes without any sequence similarity to cellular genes. (
  • Viruses encode homologs of complement regulatory proteins that are secreted and block complement activation and neutralization of virus particles. (
  • Reversible modification of proteins by beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) in response to serum glucose levels regulates diverse cellular processes. (
  • The NF-κB proteins are activated by diverse signalling pathways that originate from many different cellular receptors and sensors. (
  • Virus-encoded proteins are in green boxes, and bacterium- and parasite-encoded proteins are in orange boxes. (
  • This machinery initiates with cell type specific cellular signaling pathways, and the signaling compounds can be proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. (
  • The synthesis of host cell proteins is adversely inhibited in many virus infections, whereas viral proteins are efficiently synthesized. (
  • Viruses encode proteins that lead to host shutoff by affecting many cellular gene expression processes. (
  • more often, many viruses encode an arsenal of proteins targeting mRNA processing and translation. (
  • This specialized site, close to the microtubule organizing center, contains mostly viral DNA, most of the viral proteins, immature and mature virions, and also abundant virus-induced membranes. (
  • Post-translational modification of proteins is important to numerous cellular events, allowing cells to respond to both external and internal stimuli. (
  • The most successful of these approaches has been virus-like particles (VLP) relying on self-assembly of viral structural proteins (HBV, papillomavirus). (
  • Within the host cell the genetic material of a DNA virus is replicated and transcribed into messenger RNA by host cell enzymes, and proteins coded for by viral genes are synthesized by host cell ribosomes. (
  • In viruses that have membranes, membrane-bound viral proteins are synthesized by the host cell and move, like host cell membrane proteins, to the cell surface. (
  • Some viruses have only a few genes coding for capsid proteins. (
  • Although in general viruses "steal" their lipid envelope from the host cell, virtually all of them produce "envelope proteins" that penetrate the envelope and serve as receptors. (
  • The down-regulated expression of beta-actin and annexin A2 was confirmed by Western blot analysis, and potential roles of some differentially expressed proteins in the virus-infected cells have been discussed. (
  • The virus is composed of 7 polypeptides, a nucleoprotein, a glycoprotein, a polymerase and 4 other undesignated proteins. (
  • Proteins are produced from polyadenylated monocistronic mRNA species transcribed from virus RNA. (
  • The nucleic acid specifies information for the synthesis of from a few to 50 different proteins, depending on the type of virus. (
  • A free virus particle may be thought of as a packaging device by which viral genetic material can be introduced into appropriate host cells, which the virus can recognize by means of proteins on its outermost surface. (
  • the south african vaccine strain (lw), a virulent field-strain from a recent outbreak in south africa (ld), and the virulent kenyan 2490 strain (lk). (
  • more research is needed on epidemiology and transmission of lsd in south africa to formulate control measures. (
  • Sir Arnold Theiler , a Swiss-born veterinarian working in South Africa, had developed a crude vaccine against rinderpest by 1897 , without knowledge of the nature of the agent: this consisted of blood from an infected animal, injected with serum from one that had recovered. (
  • Tracking the emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants in South Africa. (
  • Ley v almendral jm carbonero p beloso a vinuela e talavera a molecular cloning of african swine fever virus dna virology 1984 mar 133 2249 257 liu fy roizman b the herpes simplex virus 1 gene encoding a protease also contains within its coding domain the gene encoding the more abundant substrate j virol. (
  • A finding that was later to have great importance in veterinary virology was the discovery by Maurice Nicolle and Adil Mustafa in Turkey in 1902 , that rinderpest or cattle plague was caused by a virus. (
  • Virology is the scientific discipline concerned with the study of the biology of viruses and viral diseases, including the distribution, biochemistry , physiology, molecular biology, ecology, evolution and clinical aspects of viruses. (
  • A major branch of virology is virus classification. (
  • It is the Study of viruses and viral diseases are known as virology. (
  • Study of viruses on molecular level is known as molecular virology. (
  • Study of viruses in non-human animals are known as veterinary virology. (
  • Here, we describe the mechanisms by which viruses and bacteria micromanage the host NF-κB signalling circuitry to favour the continued survival of the pathogen. (
  • In addition, during admittance into sponsor cells, herpes simplex pathogen 1 (HSV-1) activates Rac1 and Cdc42, which outcomes in the induction of filopodia and lamellipodia in epithelial cells and fibroblasts (33). (
  • Natural selection in the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 in bats created a generalist virus and highly capable human pathogen. (
  • In this paper, we discuss some recent advances in our understanding of cellular pathways for virus entry, molecular signaling during virus entry, formation of endocytic vesicles, and the traffic. (
  • The comparative proteomics approaches coupling 2-DE and MS (2-DE/MS) effectively help the study of the molecular profiles of virus-infected cells ( 16 ). (
  • the genomic sequences of 3 strains of lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) (neethling type) were compared to determine molecular differences, viz. (
  • Subsequently, the AVS primers were used to amplify unknown algal virus pol fragments from natural virus communities, demonstrating that molecular techniques can be used to study algal virus diversity ( 7 ). (
  • Important progress has been achieved at the molecular and cellular level in determining the guidance and locomotion mechanisms of individual migratory cells. (
  • Study of biological viruses causes diseases in target hosts, generally carried out at the cellular level or molecular level is known viral pathogenesis. (
  • Outbreak of Jaundice and Hemorrhagic Fever in the Southeast of Brazil in 2001: Detection and Molecular Characterization of Yellow Fever Virus", J. Medical Virol. (
  • This bovine model of FMDV persistence holds promise for the investigation of the viral and cellular molecular determinants that promote FMDV persistence. (
  • Establishment and characterization of an infectious cdna clone of a classical swine fever virus lom strain gil soon park 1 seong in lim 2 seung ho hong 3 jae young song 2 1 dna analysis division national forensic service seoul 158 707 korea. (
  • Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), 1 a member of the Birnaviridae family, is a pathogenic agent that damages the precursors of antibody-producing B lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius (central humoral immune organ) and causes severe immunodeficiency and mortality in young chickens ( 1 ). (
  • Some infectious virus may survive treatment at pH4 or pH13. (
  • Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a pathogenic coronavirus with high morbidity and mortality in chicken breeding. (
  • Viruses were discovered as an excluded entity rather than by being seen or cultured, due to the invention of efficient filters: the fact that cell-free extracts from diseased plants and animals could still cause disease led people to theorise that an unknown infectious agent - a "filterable virus" - was responsible. (
  • Again, their "sterile" filtered liquid proved infectious in calves, providing the first proof of viruses infecting animals. (
  • Viruses have evolved di ff erent strategies to hijack subcellular organelles during their life cycle to produce robust infectious progeny. (
  • While in baboons and mice there are ERVs that are transmissible as infectious viruses, this is not the case in humans. (
  • He was also involved in organizing diagnostic methods for identifying infectious diseases such as African swine fever and glanders in horses. (
  • Genes for virus specific thymidine kinases have been identified in Herpes simplex virus, Varicella zoster virus and Epstein-Barr virus. (
  • RNA virus genomes which can be transcribed to their cDNA form were also cloned in bacterial p1asmids, facilitating the study of RNA virus genes. (
  • But no virus has the thousands of genes required by even the simplest cells. (
  • Previous studies have indicated that the U(L)6, U(L)15, U(L)17, U(L)28, U(L)32, and U(L)33 genes are required for the cleavage and packaging of herpes simplex viral DNA. (
  • Through the course of their evolution, viruses with large genomes have acquired numerous host genes, most of which perform function in virus reproduction in a manner that is related to their original activities in the cells, but some are exapted for new roles. (
  • Some of these genes, such as diverse metabolic, repair and signaling enzymes, retain their original biochemical activities that are utilized for virus reproduction. (
  • These findings inspired the development of the degenerate algal-virus-specific PCR primers AVS1 and AVS2, which amplify a 700-bp fragment of algal virus DNA polymerase ( pol ) genes ( 5 ). (
  • Nature selects for viruses that merely splice themselves into genes, without doing any other damage at all. (
  • AAVs are nonenveloped single-stranded DNA viruses used in gene therapy to insert copies of missing genes into host cells. (
  • Recombinant, chimaeric live, attenuated vaccine (ChimeriVaxTM) incorporating the envelope genes of Japanese encephalitis (SA 14-14-2) virus and the capsid and nonstructural genes of yellow fever (17D) virus is safe, immunogenic and protective in non-human primates", Vaccine (1999), 17:1869-1882. (
  • The phylogeny based on single genes or gene families contains ambiguity because horizontal gene transfer (HGT), along with gene duplication and gene capture from hosts, appear to be frequent in large DNA viruses [ 7 - 10 ]. (
  • These cells possessed the characteristics of primary PAMs, including strong expression of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class II genes and the inability to grow anchorage-independently. (
  • Viruses can exist in two forms: extra cellular virion particles and intracellular genomes. (
  • In order to deliver their genomes into the host cells for their own purposes, viruses have to overcome the barrier of the cell, the plasma membrane. (
  • The family Asfarviridae includes the single species African swine fever virus , isolates of which have linear dsDNA genomes of 170-194 kbp (Table 1. (
  • In addition, the virus encoded Holliday junction endonuclease is required for the resolution of DNA concatemers into unit-length genomes [ 22 ]. (
  • Basically plant viruses Genomes are comprises in coding and non-coding region. (
  • Prominent disease-causing DNA viruses include herpesviruses, papillomaviruses, and poxviruses. (
  • The randomized, controlled trial is enrolling patients of any age with confirmed Ebola virus disease (EVD) at a treatment unit in the city of Beni operated by The Alliance for International Medical Action (ALIMA) , a medical humanitarian organization. (
  • The film's opening is set in Africa and based on the emergence of the Ebola virus, which was first recorded in northern Zaire in 1976, where it infected 318 people, 280 of whom died. (
  • We still do not know the animal or insect which carries the Ebola virus, and one of the reasons could be that the virus has killed the few who have disturbed the animal's habitat. (
  • Ebola virus, a member of the Filoviridae, burst from obscurity with spectacular outbreaks of severe, haemorrhagic fever. (
  • Strains of Ebola virus were isolated from these monkeys. (
  • The incubation period for needle- transmitted Ebola virus is 5 to 7 days and that for person to person transmitted disease is 6 to 12 days. (
  • No specific antiviral therapy presently exists against Ebola virus, nor does interferon have any effect. (
  • The really destructive viruses, like Ebola, work against themselves, and prevent themselves from being very successful. (
  • Some of the most virulent diseases are caused by viruses, e.g., the hemorrhagic fever caused by Ebola virus. (
  • The hot equatorial spring in Guinea in 2015 was still a shell-shocked place to be, with the western African nation and its immediate neighbors dazed from the Ebola outbreak that began a year earlier and put the entire world on edge. (
  • This paper describes major pathogenetic mechanisms of African and Classical Swine Fever virus infections. (
  • Apoptotic cell death is regarded as the predominant cause of lymphopenia in both virus infections. (
  • Medical systems in Africa, Asia, and South and Central America are turning away from pharmaceuticals as a first-line treatment for bacterial infections because of resistance problems and, most especially, because pharmaceutical corporations make a great deal too much money off the suffering of their populations. (
  • Acihexal belongs to the family of medicines called antivirals, which are used to treat infections caused by viruses. (
  • Usually these medicines work for only one kind or group of virus infections. (
  • Acihexal is used to treat the symptoms of chickenpox, shingles, herpes virus infections of the genitals (sex organs), the skin, the brain, and mucous membranes (lips and mouth), and widespread herpes virus infections in newborns. (
  • Acihexal may also be used for other virus infections as determined by your doctor. (
  • However, it does not work in treating certain virus infections, such as the common cold. (
  • Newcastle disease (ND), which is caused by infections of poultry species with virulent strains of Avian orthoavulavirus-1, also known as avian paramyxovirus 1 (APMV-1), and formerly known as Newcastle disease virus (NDV), may cause neurological signs and encephalitis. (
  • Viruses are also responsible for the common cold, childhood exanthems (such as chickenpox, measles, rubella), latent infections (such as herpes simplex), some cancers or lymphomas (such as Epstein-Barr virus), and diseases of all organ systems. (
  • The virus is harmless to macaques or may cause only a herpetic rash in macaques, but in humans it often produces fatal infections of the brain and meninges. (
  • 90,000 animals died or were destroyed ( Experimental infections of pigs confirmed that isolates obtained after introduction of ASF into Armenia and the Russian Federation cause acute disease and result in high mortality rates ( (
  • Virus infections can be confirmed by multiple methods. (
  • Facing the evolution of these rare infections, we hence chose to review the clinical pathogenicity of these two viruses which were cognate in origin but distinct in virulence. (
  • There is an urgent global scientific effort underway to better understand ZIKV biology and define interactions that occur between the virus and the host cell. (
  • The interactions between both viruses and the monocyte-macrophage-system result in the release of mediator molecules, which are important for the further progression of the diseases. (
  • However, interactions between swine leukocyte antigens (SLAs) and the epitopes of viral pathogens have not been extensively studied. (
  • Thus, these plants become the veritable storehouses for vaccine antigens that include bacteria, viruses and parasites. (
  • Antigen presenting cells take up particulate antigens preferentially and traffic them to cellular compartments facilitating the production of antibody and cellular responses (see review by Rice-Ficht et al. (
  • The common influenza viruses have antigens that mutate or combine readily, requiring new vaccines with each mutation. (
  • This recognition leads to the expression of cytokines, chemokines and co-stimulatory molecules that eliminate pathogens like viruses for the activation of antigen presenting cells and for the activation of specific adaptive response [ 4 ]. (
  • Adjuvant, generally refers to any substance that increases humoral and/or cellular immune response to the antigen. (
  • Monocytes are professional antigen-presenting cells with a broad repertoire of receptors on the cell surface and high phagocytic activity, which can be exploited by viruses. (
  • The infected cell polypeptide 0 (ICP0) from Bovine herpes virus can interact with IRF3 and induce its proteasome-dependent degradation [ 12 ]. (
  • these sera were tested for antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease, bovine herpes virus types 1 and 2, lumpy skin disease, bovine viral diarrhoea, akabane, bovine ephemeral fever, bluetongue, enzootic bovine leucosis, african horse sickness and african swine fever viruses and brucella abortus based on the expected species susceptibility. (
  • Several studies demonstrated that IDV has a large host range and a higher prevalence in cattle than in swine and other species, suggesting that bovine could be a main host for IDV. (
  • a) Diagram of extracellular African swine fever virus virions showing nucleoid, inner core shell, internal membrane, capsid and outer envelope. (
  • Because host cells do not have the ability to replicate "viral RNA" but are able to transcribe messenger RNA, RNA viruses must contain enzymes to produce genetic material for new virions. (
  • Later studies of virus crystals established that the crystals were composed of individual virus particles, or virions. (
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), the causative agent of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome in swine, is a positive-stranded RNA virus of the Arteriviridae family in the order Nidovirales . (
  • comparative sequence analysis of the south african vaccine strain and two virulent field isolates of lumpy skin disease virus. (
  • 2019) Pathogenicity and transmission of virulent Newcastle disease virus from the 2018-2019 California outbreak and related viruses in young and adult chickens. (
  • In May of 2018, virulent Newcastle disease virus was detected in sick, backyard, exhibition chickens in southern California. (
  • Genomic analysis of highly virulent isolate of African swine fever virus. (
  • Zika virus (ZIKV) is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae, which also includes yellow fever (YFV), West Nile (WNV), dengue (DENV) and Japanese encephalitis viruses (JEV) [ 1 ]. (
  • Immunogenicity, Genetic Stability, and Protective Efficacy of a Recombinant, Chimeric Yellow Fever-Japanese Encephalitis Virus (ChimeriVax-JE) as a Live, Attenuated Vaccine Candidate against Japanese Encephalitis", Virol. (
  • Yellow Fever/Japanese Encephalitis Chimeric Viruses: Construction and Biological Properties", J. Virol. (
  • However, fulminant eruption of severe skin herpes zoster in lupus nephritis (LN) patients under prolonged immunosuppressive therapy is rare and even more rarely seen is the SuHV-1 encephalitis in human. (
  • The virus is transmitted by mosquitoes and causes fatal encephalitis in human, equines and birds. (
  • Almost 2000 of the licensed vaccines in the US are killed or live attenuated bacteria or viruses. (
  • For the plants themselves learned long ago, just as they did with bacteria, how to stop viruses from killing them. (
  • Furthermore, the virus-bacterium population dynamics model analyzed by Thingstad predicts that viruses ensure the coexistence of competing bacteria by infecting only the most abundant hosts or "killing the winner" ( 31 ). (
  • Viruses as a concept are just a little younger than bacteria - they were first described only in the 1890s - yet have probably co-existed with cellular life through nearly the whole of evolutionary history on this planet. (
  • Many viruses have striking geometrically regular shapes, with helical structure as in tobacco mosaic virus, polyhedral (often icosahedral) symmetry as in herpes virus, or more complex mixtures of arrangements as in large viruses, such as the pox viruses and the larger bacterial viruses, or bacteriophages bacteriophage , virus that infects bacteria and sometimes destroys them by lysis, or dissolution of the cell. (
  • The present review will highlight the different complex mechanisms associated with the host immune evasion by the viruses with special reference to the Classical Swine Fever Virus. (
  • Finally, we propose avenues for future investigations, which will facilitate our understanding of poxvirus biology, as well as fundamental cellular gene expression and regulation mechanisms. (
  • Evolution of the herpes thymidine kinase: identification and comparison of the equine herpesvirus 1 thymidine kinase gene reveals similarity to a cell-encoded thymidylate kinase. (
  • Both the herpes zoster virus and suid herpesvirus type 1 (SuHV-1) belong to the Varicellovirus genus of the α-herpesviridae subfamily. (
  • Antiviral activity of lauryl gallate against animal viruses. (
  • The overall results indicate that a cellular factor or function might be the target of the antiviral action of alkyl gallates. (
  • The virus is endemic in Africa where warthogs and bush pigs act as reservoirs. (
  • The virus spread from West Africa to the Iberian peninsula, remaining endemic for 30 years, and was finally eradicated from Europe except for the island of Sardinia, Italy. (
  • African Swine fever is an endemic disease in sub-Saharan Africa and many other parts of the developing world. (
  • Saharan Africa and the island of Sardinia in Europe and was endemic to Spain and Portugal from 1960 until the mid 1990s. (
  • To induce host shutoff, a virus may target various steps of gene expression, as well as pre- and post-gene expression processes. (
  • In this article, we review the strategies used by VACV to induce host shutoff in the context of strategies employed by other viruses. (
  • However, HBV is one of the few viruses demonstrated to induce ER stress, with strong support by in vivo data. (
  • vaccination did not induce any adverse clinical responses or show evidence of transmission of the vaccine virus to in-contact control animals. (
  • Viruses are also known to induce cancer in humans. (
  • In 2007, the virus again spread out of Africa through the Caucasus to Europe and is currently causing outbreaks in the Russian Federation and several neighbouring countries such as the Baltic Republics, Poland, Czech Republic and Romania. (
  • DNA viruses are ubiquitous worldwide, especially in marine environments where they form an important part of marine ecosystems, and infect both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. (
  • The natural host of PRV is the swine, but it can infect most mammals. (
  • The results of early investigations demonstrated that viruses that infect and lyse marine primary producers are abundant, active components of marine ecosystems ( 2 , 4 , 16 , 24 , 30 ). (
  • New viruses are then released either by destroying their host cell or by forming small buds that break off and infect other cells. (
  • Viruses can be classified according to the host cell they infect animal viruses, plant viruses, fungal viruses, and bacteriophages. (
  • Viruses can infect only certain species of hosts and only certain cells within that host. (
  • It is main branch of veterinary medicine.Rhabdoviruses are a very different family of single stranded, negative sense RNA viruses that infect wide range of hosts, from plants and insects, to fish and mammals. (
  • Viruses infect a host by introducing their genetic material into the cells. (
  • In our model system (African swine fever virus in Vero cells), the addition of the drug 1 h before virus adsorption completely abolished virus productivity in a one-step growth virus cycle. (
  • The structural polypeptides of two strains of measles virus grown in Vero cells were analysed in SDS-PAGE slab gels. (
  • polypeptide co-migrates with cellular actin and is the only major measles polypeptide that is heavily labelled when the virus is grown on Vero cells prelabelled with 35 S-methionine. (
  • In 2011, a new influenza virus was isolated from pigs with influenza-like symptoms and shared only 50% overall homology to human influenza C virus. (
  • Viruses in a Baltimore group do not necessarily share genetic relation or morphology. (
  • Last September, the Royal Society organised a conference to discuss Edward Hooper's book The River , which promoted the theory that HIV was accidentally spread to humans from chimpanzees through a polio vaccination programme in Africa in the 1950s. (
  • In a paper published July 27 in the journal PLoS One , the researchers tested their drug against 15 viruses, and found it was effective against all of them - including rhinoviruses that cause the common cold, H1N1 influenza, a stomach virus, a polio virus, dengue fever and several other types of hemorrhagic fever. (
  • Discovery of novel herpes simplexviruses in wild gorillas, bonobos, and chimpanzees supports zoonotic origin of HSV-2. (
  • West Nile virus (WNV) is a zoonotic Flavivirus belonging to the family Flaviviridae. (
  • However, the physicochemical properties of nucleic acids render them liable to degradation and also restrict their cellular entrance and gene translation/inhibition at the correct cellular location. (
  • Inhibition of African swine fever virus DNA synthesis by (S)-9-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine. (
  • Here we review how viruses manipulate the cellular machinery at each step of the sumoylation process to favor viral survival and pathogenesis. (
  • The pathogenesis and transmission potential of this virus, along with two genetically related and widely studied viruses, chicken/California/2002 and chicken/Belize/2008, were evaluated in both 3-week- and 62-week-old chickens given a low, medium, or high challenge dose. (
  • The study of the manner in which viruses cause disease is viral pathogenesis . (
  • DNA viruses constitute two Baltimore groups: Group I: double-stranded DNA viruses, and Group II: single-stranded DNA viruses. (
  • Phylogenetic analysis of amplified pol fragments revealed that cultured algal viruses formed a monophyletic group compared to double-stranded DNA viruses (viruses belonging to several families) ( 6 ). (
  • Vaccinia virus (VAC), the prototype for the family Poxviridae , is a large double-stranded DNA virus that encodes numerous enzymes and factors needed for RNA and DNA synthesis, enabling it to replicate in the cytoplasm of infected cells [ 1 ]. (
  • The DNA of DNA viruses is usually double-stranded (dsDNA), but may also be single-stranded (ssDNA). (
  • Coincidentally, or not, on the eve of the conference, a British TV channel screened the 1995 Hollywood thriller Outbreak , starring Dustin Hoffman as a maverick military virologist given hours to find a vaccine to halt the spread of a deadly African virus in California before the military obliterates the town where it has taken hold. (
  • Outbreak then goes astray: rather than portraying years of clinical trials and exhaustive lab work, the movie locates the key to getting the vaccine for the fictional virus in the ability of Hoffman and Cuba Gooding Jr to dodge heat-seeking missiles in a tree-top helicopter chase. (
  • It would probably help with an outbreak, since the virus is limited to the site of wherever the nerve cells it retreats to are situated in the body. (
  • In 2007, a new outbreak of ASF was confirmed in the Republic of Georgia, which is far from the usual geographic virus range in sub-Saharan Africa. (
  • Persistence of the historical lineage I of West Africa against the ongoing spread of the Asian lineage of peste des petits ruminants virus. (
  • immunogenicity of a recombinant lumpy skin disease virus (neethling vaccine strain) expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein in cattle. (
  • rabies virus (rv) readily infects cattle and causes a fatal neurological disease. (
  • About this time last year in 2016 we made an episode of Contagious Thinking (which I encourage you all to have a listen to/see link at the end) about vampire bats and the deadly rabies virus that they can carry and spread across Latin America. (
  • There are several viral entry ways that have been identified, like genetic injection including phages and membrane fusion such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) [ 1 ]. (
  • Certain viruses also have genetic information for expression of viral thymidine kinases. (
  • In other viruses a reverse transcriptase contained in the virion transcribes the genetic message on the viral RNA into DNA, which is then replicated by the host cell. (
  • This suggests that reinfection may be due, in part, to positively selected genetic changes in these viruses that enable them to escape recognition by the immune system. (
  • Genetic fingerprints of algal virus communities were generated using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). (
  • Results from this study demonstrate that DGGE with degenerate primers can be used to qualitatively fingerprint and assess genetic diversity in specific subsets of natural virus communities and that closely related viruses occur in distant geographic locations. (
  • The possibility of predicting resistance durability is discussed in relation to the nature of the resistance, the genetic changes required for a virus to overcome the resistance and the effects of such changes on virus fitness. (
  • The goal of our lab is to shed light into emergent new properties applying genetic, cellular and modelling tools. (
  • Viruses are small particles of genetic materials. (
  • the understanding of viruses had grown to the point where scientists synthesized (2002) a strain of poliovirus using their knowledge of that virus's genetic code and chemical components required. (
  • Spatio-temporal dynamics of African swine fever outbreaks in Nigeria, 2002-2007. (
  • Zika virus (ZIKV) is transmitted to humans primarily through mosquito bites, but there have also been cases of sexual, perinatal, and suspected blood transfusion transmission. (
  • While people were aware of diseases of both humans and animals now known to be caused by viruses many hundreds of years ago, the concept of a virus as a distinct entity dates back only to the very late 1800s. (
  • The African swine fever (ASF) virus, may in the future become dangerous for humans, according to the head of the Russian Epidemiology Service, Chief State Sanitary Doctor Gennady Onishchenko, at the press-conference in St. Petersburg. (
  • Virus transmission to humans occurs via inhalation of aerosolized virus-contaminated rodent urine, saliva, and feces, rarely by rodent bites. (
  • Humans are usually considered as a dead-end host that does not transmit the virus further. (
  • The mission of the CVR is to carry out multidisciplinary research on viruses and viral diseases of humans and animals, translating the knowledge gained for the improvement of human and animal health. (
  • no antibodies to pasteurella multocida type e or epizootic haemorrhagic disease 1 virus were found. (
  • The virus or its specific antibodies were also detected in horses, small ruminants, camels or feral swine. (
  • long term immunity in african cattle vaccinated with a recombinant capripox-rinderpest virus vaccine. (
  • in order to study the importance of an intact thymidine kinase (tk) gene for the vaccine strain of a southern african capripoxvirus, namely, lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) (type sa-neethling), a tk disruption recombinant was generated expressing the escherichia coli beta-galactosidase (lacz) reporter gene. (
  • Such a vaccine would greatly benefit the continuing campaign for the global eradication of rinderpest since it would then be possible, by serological means, to detect wild type virus circulating in local areas or regions where it is still necessary to vaccinate and where the vaccination levels are below those required to eliminate the virus. (
  • It is possible that, as with seasonal influenza, these adaptive changes in antigenic regions of the virus would necessitate continual reformulation of a vaccine made against them. (
  • According to some clinical trials, resveratrol nose sprays may improve symptoms of hay fever or allergic rhinitis. (
  • Some viruses do not produce rapid lysis of host cells, but rather remain latent for long periods in the host before the appearance of clinical symptoms. (
  • The establishment of latency and the subsequent episodes of reactivation are fundamental to the clinical importance of herpes simplex viruses and undoubtedly contribute substantially to their evolutionary success, as latency allows the virus to evade the immune system. (
  • When a complete virus particle ( virion ) comes in contact with a host cell, only the viral nucleic acid and, in some viruses, a few enzymes are injected into the host cell. (
  • 7 . The method of claim 1 , wherein said target nucleic acid sequence is from a virus. (
  • In viruses with a membrane envelope the nucleocapsid (capsid plus nucleic acid) enters the cell cytoplasm by a process in which the viral envelope merges with a host cell membrane, often the membrane delimiting an endocytic structure (see endocytosis endocytosis , in biology, process by which substances are taken into the cell. (
  • Viruses are obligatory intracellular parasites that only replicate in host cells. (
  • Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites. (
  • African swine fever (ASF) is a hemorrhagic fever in domestic pigs that causes serious economic losses and high mortality rates. (
  • The Baltimore classification system is used to group viruses together based on their manner of messenger RNA (mRNA) synthesis and is often used alongside standard virus taxonomy, which is based on evolutionary history. (
  • Sequence and evolutionary relationships of African swine fever virus thymidine kinase. (
  • the detection of lumpy skin disease virus in samples of experimentally infected cattle using different diagnostic techniques. (
  • lumpy skin disease (lsd) is a disease of cattle, primarily in africa and madagascar and rarely in the middle east. (
  • Serological Evidence of Influenza D Virus Circulation Among Cattle and Small Ruminants in France - 1. (
  • In 1900 a similarly filterable agent was reported for foot-and-mouth disease foot-and-mouth disease or hoof-and-mouth disease, highly contagious disease almost exclusive to cattle, sheep, swine, goats, and other cloven-hoofed animals. (
  • In contrast, the human herpes simplex virus 8 encodes different analogs of IRF with negative dominant activity, allowing it to interfere with the activity of cellular IRFs [ 11 ]. (
  • Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is an alphaherpesvirus related to human pathogens such as herpes simplex virus 1 and varicella-zoster virus (VZV). (
  • Most animal viruses are also surrounded by a lipid envelope (a bilayered membrane analogous to a cell membrane). (
  • In the latest episode of Contagious Thinking, join CVR PhD student Jack Hirst and postdoc Connor Bamford as they chat with Dr Charles Masembe (follow him on Twitter:@cmasembe10) about his work on some of Africa's most important animal viruses. (
  • Subsequently, it was shown that viruses infecting the marine eukaryotic phytoplankton Micromonas pusilla were widespread, genetically diverse, dynamic, and caused significant mortality in M. pusilla populations ( 8 , 9 ). (
  • African swine fever (ASF) is widespread in Africa but has occasionally been introduced into other continents. (
  • Fowlpox virus thymidine kinase: nucleotide sequence and relationships to other thymidine kinases. (
  • importance of thymidine kinase activity for normal growth of lumpy skin disease virus (sa-neethling). (
  • A study of lymphoid organs and serum proinflammatory cytokines in pigs infected with African swine fever virus genotype II. (
  • Virus isolation is also a highly useful diagnostic method, and is performed on suitably preserved serum, blood or tissue specimens stored at -70oC or freshly collected. (
  • We describe two women who suffer from recurrent fever up to 40 C in association with progesterone action and who have continuously elevated serum levels of immunoreactive tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). (
  • During the period of coexistence with their hosts, viruses have learned how to manipulate host immune control mechanism. (
  • There are certain cellular components which are manipulated by viruses to evade the innate immune response. (
  • It is not known to what extent reinfection by these viruses is due to waning immune memory or antigenic drift of the viruses. (
  • It is caused by the African Swine virus that primarily replicates in macrophages and monocytes leading to the impairment of the structure and function of the immune system of the infected organisms. (
  • Viruses with lipid envelopes have a greater ability to adhere to cell membranes and to avoid destruction by the immune system. (
  • Much like the immune system itself, which operates at a cellular level, the hardworking vitamin C reaches every cell of the body. (
  • We analysed the effect of the antitumoural drug lauryl gallate on the infectivity of the African swine fever virus among other DNA (herpes simplex and vaccinia) and RNA (influenza, porcine transmissible gastroenteritis and Sindbis) viruses, paying attention to its effect on the viability of the corresponding host cells. (
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the cause of an economically important swine disease that has devastated the swine industry since the late 1980s. (
  • This book is the beginning, for me, of a similar exploration into the world of viruses, emerging and resistant viral diseases, and more ecologically responsible (and often more effective) forms of treatment. (
  • Unlike the other organisms, in order to create its progeny, viruses need the hosts to provide the replicate resources. (
  • INTRODUCTION The members of Rho family of small GTPases are essential key regulators of diverse critical cellular functions, including cytoskeleton dynamics, cell cycle progression, migration, the generation of reactive oxygen species, and gene expression (16, 29, 35, 53). (
  • It includes spread to members of the same host species or spread to different species in the case of viruses that can cross species barriers. (
  • Viruses have coevolved with their hosts and thus have limited pathogenicity in any immunocompromised natural host. (
  • In other words, competition exists between viruses and their hosts to utilize the limited amount of cellular translation machinery. (
  • 17 ) used fluorescently labeled viruses to demonstrate that viruses could control the abundance of susceptible hosts. (
  • There is a theory that some viruses are not just harmless to their hosts, but may even be beneficial to them because they cause deadly disease in their enemies - such as man. (
  • A virus with reduced pathogenicity as a result of treatment or repeated passage through hosts. (
  • Viral transmission is the process by which viruses spread between hosts. (
  • Recombinant yellow fever viruses are affective therapeutic vaccines for treatment of murine experimental solid tumors and pulmonary metastases", Journal of Viroloqy (2000), 74(19):9197-9205. (
  • 400-fold increase in newly replicated plasmid in cells infected with vaccinia virus. (
  • To further investigate the possible homology of F12 and DNAPs, we used the sequence of the F12 homolog encoded by the most distant from VACV, early branching chordopoxvirus, the Nile Crocodile Virus (NCV) (YP_784228), as the query for a new PSI-BLAST search. (
  • The vast sequence divergence among different virus groups has presented a great challenge to alignment-based analysis of virus phylogeny. (
  • Furthermore, preliminary sequence analysis of persistent virus revealed a single nucleotide substitution within the VP1 coding region, resulting in the V50A amino acid substitution. (