Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2: A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1: A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in a broad variety of mammalian cell types. Its expression is regulated by the action of CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE. Several isoforms of this enzyme subtype are encoded by distinct genes.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Dibutyryl Cyclic GMP: N-(1-Oxobutyl)-cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate)-2'-butanoate guanosine. A derivative of cyclic GMP. It has a higher resistance to extracellular and intracellular phosphodiesterase than cyclic GMP.Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Paramecium tetraurelia: A species of ciliate protozoa. It is used in biomedical research.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Nucleotides, CycliceIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Protein Kinase C-alpha: A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunits: Specific enzyme subunits that form the active sites of the type I and type II cyclic-AMP protein kinases. Each molecule of enzyme contains two catalytic subunits.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type I: A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in SMOOTH MUSCLE tissues and plays a role in regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Two isoforms, PKGIalpha and PKGIbeta, of the type I protein kinase exist due to alternative splicing of its mRNA.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II: A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.Isoquinolines: A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Peptide T: N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Guanylate Cyclase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.6.1.2.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.PhosphoproteinsAdenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.1-(5-Isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-Methylpiperazine: A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit: A type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIBETA SUBUNIT.Protamine Kinase: An aspect of protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37) in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate: A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Benzylamines: Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.Protein Kinase C-epsilon: A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.PurinonesProtein Kinase C beta: PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II: A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed predominantly in INTESTINES, BRAIN, and KIDNEY. The protein is myristoylated on its N-terminus which may play a role its membrane localization.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 4: A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in neuronal tissues; T-LYMPHOCYTES and TESTIS. The activity of this enzyme is regulated by its phosphorylation by CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.3',5'-Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to yield guanosine-5'-phosphate.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Casein Kinase II: A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases: Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Methylene Blue: A compound consisting of dark green crystals or crystalline powder, having a bronze-like luster. Solutions in water or alcohol have a deep blue color. Methylene blue is used as a bacteriologic stain and as an indicator. It inhibits GUANYLATE CYCLASE, and has been used to treat cyanide poisoning and to lower levels of METHEMOGLOBIN.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.RNA, Double-Stranded: RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.p21-Activated Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.MAP Kinase Kinase 1: An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Nitroprusside: A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine: A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASESProto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Sirtuins: A homologous family of regulatory enzymes that are structurally related to the protein silent mating type information regulator 2 (Sir2) found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sirtuins contain a central catalytic core region which binds NAD. Several of the sirtuins utilize NAD to deacetylate proteins such as HISTONES and are categorized as GROUP III HISTONE DEACETYLASES. Several other sirtuin members utilize NAD to transfer ADP-RIBOSE to proteins and are categorized as MONO ADP-RIBOSE TRANSFERASES, while a third group of sirtuins appears to have both deacetylase and ADP ribose transferase activities.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases: A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Phorbol 12,13-Dibutyrate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL which, in addition to being a potent skin tumor promoter, is also an effective activator of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C). Due to its activation of this enzyme, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate profoundly affects many different biological systems.Sirtuin 1: A sirtuin family member found primarily in the CELL NUCLEUS. It is an NAD-dependent deacetylase with specificity towards HISTONES and a variety of proteins involved in gene regulation.Egtazic Acid: A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.MAP Kinase Kinase 4: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.Casein Kinases: A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.DiglyceridesPhorbol Esters: Tumor-promoting compounds obtained from CROTON OIL (Croton tiglium). Some of these are used in cell biological experiments as activators of protein kinase C.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Staurosporine: An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)MaleimidesProtein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.DNA-Activated Protein Kinase: A serine-threonine protein kinase that, when activated by DNA, phosphorylates several DNA-binding protein substrates including the TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and a variety of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Carbazoles: Benzo-indoles similar to CARBOLINES which are pyrido-indoles. In plants, carbazoles are derived from indole and form some of the INDOLE ALKALOIDS.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.Guanosine Monophosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety and found widely in nature.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.3-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Protein Kinases: Highly conserved protein-serine threonine kinases that phosphorylate and activate a group of AGC protein kinases, especially in response to the production of the SECOND MESSENGERS, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,-biphosphate (PtdIns(3,4)P2) and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3).Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.OxadiazolesPyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Alkaloids: Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.Mice, Inbred C57BLNuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.3',5'-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Rod Cell Outer Segment: The portion of a retinal rod cell situated between the ROD INNER SEGMENT and the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. It contains a stack of photosensitive disk membranes laden with RHODOPSIN.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Androstadienes: Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Bucladesine: A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Enzyme Activators: Compounds or factors that act on a specific enzyme to increase its activity.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8: A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 43 and 48 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Second Messenger Systems: Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.I-kappa B Kinase: A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Phosphoserine: The phosphoric acid ester of serine.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Thymidine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa: A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
EC 2.7.11.12 Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases and the Cardiovascular System cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinases at the US ... National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. ... cGMP-dependent protein kinase or Protein Kinase G (PKG) is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that is activated by cGMP ... "A crystal structure of the cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase I{beta} dimerization/docking domain reveals molecular details of ...
... where it stimulates a protein kinase called cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. By phosphorylating proteins, cyclic AMP- ... G proteins). The two most well-studied cyclic nucleotides are cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP), while cyclic CMP (cCMP) ... Cellular concentrations of cyclic nucleotides can be very low, in the 10−7M range, because metabolism and function are often ... Eckly-Michel A, Martin V, Lugnier C (September 1997). "Involvement of cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases in cyclic AMP ...
Protein kinase activationEdit. cGMP is involved in the regulation of some protein-dependent kinases. For example, PKG (protein ... cGMP; 3',5'-cyclic GMP; Guanosine cyclic monophosphate; Cyclic 3',5'-GMP; Guanosine 3',5'-cyclic phosphate ... cGMP is a common regulator of ion channel conductance, glycogenolysis, and cellular apoptosis. It also relaxes smooth muscle ... Francis SH, Corbin JD (August 1999). "Cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases: intracellular receptors for cAMP and cGMP ...
"Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase regulates vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype". Journal of Vascular Research. 34 (4): 245 ... Its cellular effects may or may not be mediated by second messengers, but should have specific cellular and molecular targets. ... which is a heterodimeric enzyme with subsequent formation of cyclic-GMP. Cyclic-GMP activates protein kinase G, which causes ... Lincoln, T. M.; Cornwell, Taylor (March 1990). "cGMP-dependent protein kinase mediates the reduction of Ca2+ by cAMP in ...
cGMP is involved in the regulation of some protein-dependent kinases. For example, PKG (protein kinase G) is a dimer consisting ... Numerous cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE) can degrade cGMP by hydrolyzing cGMP into 5'-GMP. PDE 5, -6 and -9 are cGMP ... cGMP is produced slowly and has a more sustained life than cAMP, which has implicated it in long-term cellular responses to ... cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP) Francis SH, Corbin JD (August 1999). "Cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases: ...
"Synergism between calcium and cyclic GMP in cyclic AMP response element-dependent transcriptional regulation requires ... Shimomura A, Ogawa Y, Kitani T, Fujisawa H, Hagiwara M (Jul 1996). "Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II potentiates ... This protein binds the cAMP response element, a DNA nucleotide sequence present in many viral and cellular promoters. The ... The protein is phosphorylated by several protein kinases, and induces transcription of genes in response to hormonal ...
"Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase regulates vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype". Journal of Vascular Research. 34 (4): 245 ... Recent findings suggest strong cellular crosstalk of NO and H 2S, demonstrating that the vasodilatatory effects of these two ... Lincoln, T. M.; Cornwell, Taylor (March 1990). "cGMP-dependent protein kinase mediates the reduction of Ca2+ by cAMP in ... increased cGMP triggers an increase in protein kinase G (PKG) activity. PKG reduces intracellular Ca2+ in vascular smooth ...
... cyclic GMP) from guanosine triphosphate (GTP). The soluble cGMP activates cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinase G (PKG or ... Nitric oxide is known to be produced by cellular organelles, including mitochondria, peroxisomes, and chloroplasts. It plays a ... PKG is a kinase that phosphorylates a number of proteins that regulate calcium concentrations and calcium sensitization, ... The neuronal enzyme (NOS-1) and the endothelial isoform (NOS-3) are calcium-dependent and produce low levels of this gas as a ...
... through a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism". Biochem J. 466 (2): 379-390. doi:10.1042/bj20140881. PMID 25422863. Milo, Ron ... Pugh Jr, E. N.; Lamb, T. D. (1990). "Cyclic GMP and calcium: The internal messengers of excitation and adaptation in vertebrate ... Without the mitotic spindle, cellular division cannot occur. Although young leaves have a higher need for calcium, older leaves ... Calcium coordination plays an important role in defining the structure and function of proteins. An example a protein with ...
... inducing a signaling cascade that results in the activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) and an ultimate decrease in ... In addition to this, it has already been shown that NO stimulates increased cyclic GMP (cGMP) levels in the smooth muscle cells ... As they work as a functional unit, alterations in their interactions at the cellular level can impair HR in the brain and lead ... When these proteins are active, they turn on SREBP2 which inhibits LRP-1. LRP-1 helps the brain remove amyloid beta. Therefore ...
"Localization of the human gene for the type I cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase to chromosome 10". Cytogenetics and Cell ... Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. ... 5-trisphosphate receptor by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase ... of a novel male germ cell-specific cGMP-dependent protein kinase-anchoring protein by cGMP-dependent protein kinase Ialpha". ... cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1, alpha isozyme is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKG1 gene. PRKG1 has been shown ...
... through a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism". Biochem J. 466 (2): 379-390. doi:10.1042/bj20140881. PMID 25422863.. ... Pugh Jr, E. N.; Lamb, T. D. (1990). "Cyclic GMP and calcium: The internal messengers of excitation and adaptation in vertebrate ... Cellular divisionEdit. Calcium is a necessary ion in the formation of the mitotic spindle. Without the mitotic spindle, ... Activation of protein kinase C. Further reading: Function of protein kinase C. ...
Protein Kinase B). This kinase is involved in cell survival and inhibition of apoptosis, cellular growth and maintenance of ... "Cyclic GMP signaling is involved in the luteinizing hormone-dependent meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes". Biology of ... These proteins activate protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) that phosphorylates various proteins important for capacitation and ... Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase/Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase) regulates gene transcription through successive kinase ...
CNG channel activity is controlled by the interaction between cGMP-dependent protein kinase and G1 protein because of cGMP's ... "Induction by cyclic GMP of cationic conductance in plasma membrane of retinal rod outer segment". Nature. 313 (6000): 310-3. ... cAMP and cGMP mediate several cellular responses such as acrosomal exocytosis, or the fusion of the male sperm to the female ... Cyclic nucleotide gated channel alpha-subunits include Cyclic nucleotide-gated channel alpha 1 Cyclic nucleotide-gated channel ...
5-trisphosphate receptor by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 269 (12): 8701-7. PMID ... trisphosphate receptor with 4.1N protein in neurons". Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences. 22 (2): 271-83. doi:10.1016/s1044- ... Hirota J, Ando H, Hamada K, Mikoshiba K (Jun 2003). "Carbonic anhydrase-related protein is a novel binding protein for inositol ... ITPR1 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on ...
Cyclic GMP binds to the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG1) which phosphorylates several proteins that results in decreased ... Cmls-Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 62, 1198-1220. Lin, C. S. (2004). "Tissue expression, distribution, and regulation of ... cGMP binding proteins and protein kinase G (PKG). The effect on PKG reduces levels of calcium leading to relaxation of smooth ... Their function is to degrade intracellular second messengers such as cyclic adenine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine ...
"Direct phosphorylation of brain tyrosine hydroxylase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase: mechanism of enzyme activation". ... protein binding. • amino acid binding. • monooxygenase activity. • protein domain specific binding. Cellular component. • ... Roskoski R, Roskoski LM (Jan 1987). "Activation of tyrosine hydroxylase in PC12 cells by the cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP second ... that are phosphorylated by a variety of protein kinases.[12][25] Ser40 is phosphorylated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase.[ ...
"Direct phosphorylation of brain tyrosine hydroxylase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase: mechanism of enzyme activation". ... Roskoski R, Roskoski LM (Jan 1987). "Activation of tyrosine hydroxylase in PC12 cells by the cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP second ... Like other cellular proteins, tyrosine hydroxylase is also a possible target for damaging alterations induced by ROS. This ... that are phosphorylated by a variety of protein kinases. Ser40 is phosphorylated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Ser19 ( ...
Upon binding DNA, the protein cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase (cGAS) triggers reaction of GTP and ATP to form cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP). ... In response to cellular stress, such as DNA damage, cells will upregulate NKG2D ligands so that they may be recognized and ... This activity is dependent on cytosolic DNA. cGAS catalyzes formation of cGAMP in the presence of dsDNA. cGAS directly binds ... STING is also thought to activate the NF-κB transcription factor through the activity of the IκB kinase (IKK), though the ...
Yeast tRNA kinase then phosphorylates the 5'-hydroxyl group using adenosine triphosphate. Yeast tRNA cyclic phosphodiesterase ... can manifest as a deletion or truncation in the final protein. Splicing is catalyzed by the spliceosome, a large RNA-protein ... NAD-dependent 2'-phosphotransferase then removes the 2'-phosphate group. Splicing occurs in all the kingdoms or domains of life ... Although many splicing errors are safeguarded by a cellular quality control mechanism termed nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD ...
... which is a heterodimeric enzyme with subsequent formation of cyclic-GMP. Cyclic-GMP activates protein kinase G, which causes ... In plants, nitric oxide can be produced by any of four routes: (i) L-arginine-dependent nitric oxide synthase, (although the ... Green, SJ; Mellouk, S; Hoffman, SL; Meltzer, MS; Nacy, CA (1990). "Cellular mechanisms of nonspecific immunity to intracellular ... ADP ribosylation of proteins, protein sulfhydryl group nitrosylation, and iron regulatory factor activation. ·NO has been ...
Yeast tRNA kinase then phosphorylates the 5'-hydroxyl group using adenosine triphosphate. Yeast tRNA cyclic phosphodiesterase ... Protein splicing[edit]. Main article: Protein splicing. In addition to RNA, proteins can undergo splicing. Although the ... 3'OH of a free guanine nucleoside (or one located in the intron) or a nucleotide cofactor (GMP, GDP, GTP) attacks phosphate at ... Although many splicing errors are safeguarded by a cellular quality control mechanism termed nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD ...
"Cyclic AMP/GMP-dependent modulation of Ca2+ channels sets the polarity of nerve growth-cone turning". Nature. 423 (6943): 990-5 ... DCC and UNC-5 proteins mediate netrin-1 responses. The UNC-5 protein is mainly involved in signaling repulsion. DCC, which is ... In the first pathway, the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is bound to DCC and both undergo tyrosine phosphorylation upon netrin-1 ... Recently, scientists have characterized many of the cellular mechanisms by which netrin-1 binding to DCC motivates axonal ...
... excitability and protects neurons against excitotoxicity by a mechanism involving activation of receptors coupled to cyclic GMP ... Research by Mattson in the area of molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate neuronal plasticity and survival, in the ... His work also revealed a physiological role for the secreted form of amyloid precursor protein generated by alpha-secretase ... It enhances pancreatic islet beta-cell proliferation and glucose-dependent insulin secretion, and lowers blood glucose and food ...
... cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.36: now with EC 3.1.4.43 EC 3.1.4.37: 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase EC 3.1 ... ADP-dependent medium-chain-acyl-CoA hydrolase EC 3.1.2.20: acyl-CoA hydrolase EC 3.1.2.21: Dodecanoyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) ... protein-tyrosine-phosphatase EC 3.1.3.49: (pyruvate kinase)-phosphatase EC 3.1.3.50: sorbitol-6-phosphatase EC 3.1.3.51: ... Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. ... protein-synthesizing GTPase. Now EC 3.6.5.3, protein- ...
3',5'-cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase. *Protein kinase G. *G alpha subunit Gα *GNAO1 ... Ras protein signal transduction. • cell proliferation. • cellular response to hypoxia. • sensory perception of taste. • signal ... "Direct binding of G-protein betagamma complex to voltage-dependent calcium channels". Nature. 385 (6615): 446-50. doi:10.1038/ ... protein complex binding. • signal transducer activity. • protein binding. • GTPase activity. • GTPase binding. • G-protein ...
AMP-activated/SNF1 protein kinases: conserved guardians of cellular energy. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 8:774-785. doi:10.1038/ ... Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways by cyclic GMP and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase in contractile ... AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In dissecting the molecular mechanism, we identified cyclic GMP (cGMP)-dependent protein ... We show here that K-Ras is a substrate for cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases (PKGs). In intact cells, activated PKG2 ...
1997) Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase and cellular signaling in the nervous system. J Neurochem 68:443-456. ... Phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and calcium/calmodulin protein kinase; identification ... 1998) Cyclic-GMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Mol Cell Biol 18:6983-6994 ... 1994) High-affinity binding and localization of the cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase with the intermediate filament protein ...
Wang, X. and Robinson, P. J. (1997). Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase and cellular signaling in the nervous system. J. ... Ruth, P. (1999). Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases: understanding in vivo functions by gene targeting. Pharm. Ther. 82,355 - ... The cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase EGL-4 regulates olfactory adaptation in C. elegans. Neuron 36,1079 -1089. ... Engel, J. E., Xie, X. J., Sokolowski, M. B. and Wu, C. F. (2000). A cGMP-dependent protein kinase gene, foraging, modifies ...
Research Grants about cyclic gmp dependent protein kinases ... Department of Pathology, Division of Molecular and Cellular ... cyclic gmp dependent protein kinases. Summary. Summary: A group of enzymes that are dependent on cyclic GMP and catalyzes the ... cyclic nucleotide regulated protein kinases , cyclic gmp dependent protein kinases ... cyclic amp dependent protein kinases*enzyme inhibitors*phosphorylation*carbazoles*cyclic amp*thionucleotides*protein kinase ...
Center for Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases, Department of Cellular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA ... Plasmodium falciparum Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Interacts with a Subunit of the Parasite Proteasome. K. Govindasamy, ... Plasmodium falciparum Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Interacts with a Subunit of the Parasite Proteasome ... Plasmodium falciparum Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Interacts with a Subunit of the Parasite Proteasome ...
... phosphorylated and activated by purified cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase as well as by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase ... phosphorylated and activated by purified cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase as well as by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase ... phosphorylated and activated by purified cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase as well as by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase ... phosphorylated and activated by purified cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase as well as by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase ...
The α subunit is subject to direct phosphorylation by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) and dephosphorylation by ... Cellular excitability is modulated by the precise function of voltage-sensitive ion channels. Large conductance potassium ... These channels, important for neuronal firing and vascular tone, share many features with voltage-dependent Na+, Ca2+;, and K+ ... Maxi-K is subject to complex metabolic control control that also involves G proteins and phosphorylation/dephosphorylation ...
EC 2.7.11.12 Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases and the Cardiovascular System cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinases at the US ... National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. ... cGMP-dependent protein kinase or Protein Kinase G (PKG) is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that is activated by cGMP ... "A crystal structure of the cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase I{beta} dimerization/docking domain reveals molecular details of ...
... activating specific cGMP-dependent protein kinases (PKG). In addition to cAMP and cGMP, several cyclic dinucleotides have been ... Cyclic nucleotides, including cyclic AMP (cAMP), cyclic GMP (cGMP) and cyclic ADP-ribose, have been extensively studied as ... and continues through signaling cascades of intracellular enzymes and proteins to produce changes in cellular processes. ... cAMP modifies cell function in all eukaryotic cells, principally through the activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) ...
... which have increased cyclic-GMP-dependent protein kinase activity. These results suggest C. elegans gap junctions may act ... 2014 Cellular stress induces a protective sleep-like state in C. elegans. Curr. Biol. 24: 2399-2405. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2014.08. ... including egl-4/cyclic-GMP (cGMP)-dependent kinase, lin-12/glp-1/Notch receptors, aptf-1/AP2-family transcription factor, and ... 2009 cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I is implicated in the regulation of the timing and quality of sleep and wakefulness. ...
... which have increased cyclic-GMP-dependent protein kinase activity. These results suggest C. elegans gap junctions may act ... The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying arousal threshold changes during sleep are not fully understood. We report ... Loss of EGL-4 or innexin proteins suppressed UNC-79 loss-of-function sleep and arousal defects. In Drosophila, the ion channel ... Ras-Dependent Cell Fate Decisions Are Reinforced by the RAP-1 Small GTPase in Caenorhabditis elegans ...
Sulindac independently modulates extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase signaling ... Mesenchymal progenitor cells as cellular vehicles for delivery of oncolytic adenoviruses Svetlana Komarova, Yosuke Kawakami, ... Semisynthetic homoharringtonine induces apoptosis via inhibition of protein synthesis and triggers rapid myeloid cell leukemia- ...
... paralogs of the kinase peptides, and methods of identifying modulators of the kinase peptides. ... the kinase peptides of the present invention. The present invention specifically provides isolated peptide and nucleic acid ... The cyclic-AMP dependent protein kinases (PKA) are important members of the STK family. Cyclic-AMP is an intracellular mediator ... cyclic GMP, inositol triphosphate, phosphatidylinositol, 3,4,5-triphosphate, cyclic-ADPribose, arachidonic acid,diacylglycerol ...
2005) Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase regulates CCAAT enhancer-binding protein beta functions through inhibition of ... Cyclic GMP has been proposed to regulate axonal development, but the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the formation ... 2003) Hippocampal cGMP-dependent protein kinase I supports an age- and protein synthesis-dependent component of long-term ... 2002) Involvement of cyclic GMP and protein kinase G in the regulation of apoptosis and survival in neural cells. Neurosignals ...
Sulindac independently modulates extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase signaling ... The cellular phenotype of AZ703, a novel selective imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ... Combined inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways results in ... Mesenchymal progenitor cells as cellular vehicles for delivery of oncolytic adenoviruses. Svetlana Komarova, Yosuke Kawakami, ...
... cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase; cGK, cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase; FAK, focal adhesion kinase; GBSS, Geys balanced ... VASP is a prominent substrate for both cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Evidence ... Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase is required for thrombospondin and tenascin mediated focal adhesion disassembly. J. Cell ... Progress in understanding the mechanism and function of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase. Adv. Pharmacol. 26: 115. ...
Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases * Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors * Sildenafil Citrate * Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases ... Journal of Cellular Physiology. 211, 1, p. 197-204 8 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ... The phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor sildenafil stimulates angiogenesis through a protein kinase G/MAPK pathway. Pyriochou, A., ...
Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase and cellular signaling in the nervous system. J Neurochem. 68:443-56. Wanner, R., and B . ... PKG I cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase type I PKG U cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase type II pM pico Molar PMSF phenyl ... and cGMP-dependent protein kinases, protein kinase C , calmodulin-dependent protein kinase U and casein kinase LT. Eur J ... Cyclic-GMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits the Ras/Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 18:6983-94. Surks ...
Epinephelus coioides; cAMP-dependent protein kinase; cyclic AMP; cyclic GMP; forskolin; nitric oxide; protein kinase C; ... Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 2014 v.382 pp. 66-73. ISSN:. 0303-7207. Subject:. AMP-activated protein kinase; Toll-like ... mitogen-activated protein kinase; noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus; selenoproteins. Abstract:. ... Carrageenan (CGN) has ... Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 2014 v.382 pp. 344-345. ISSN:. 0303-7207. Subject:. cyclic AMP; lesions (animal); liver; ...
... where it stimulates a protein kinase called cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. By phosphorylating proteins, cyclic AMP- ... G proteins). The two most well-studied cyclic nucleotides are cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP), while cyclic CMP (cCMP) ... Cellular concentrations of cyclic nucleotides can be very low, in the 10−7M range, because metabolism and function are often ... Eckly-Michel A, Martin V, Lugnier C (September 1997). "Involvement of cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases in cyclic AMP ...
Protein kinase activationEdit. cGMP is involved in the regulation of some protein-dependent kinases. For example, PKG (protein ... cGMP; 3,5-cyclic GMP; Guanosine cyclic monophosphate; Cyclic 3,5-GMP; Guanosine 3,5-cyclic phosphate ... cGMP is a common regulator of ion channel conductance, glycogenolysis, and cellular apoptosis. It also relaxes smooth muscle ... Francis SH, Corbin JD (August 1999). "Cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases: intracellular receptors for cAMP and cGMP ...
Potential protein kinase C regulation of cyclic GMP signal in isolated adrenocortical carcinoma cells of rat. FEBS Letters 227 ... the ANF-dependent rise of cyclic GMP in the intact cells was dose-dependent. By affinity cross-linking technique, a predominant ... UCLA Symposia on Molecular and Cellular Biology, New Series Vol 81, Needleman P (Eds), pp 77-96 (1988), Alan R. Liss, Inc, New ... An activator of protein kinase C (phorbol dibutyate) attenuates atrialnatriuretic-factor-stimulated cyclic GMP accumulation in ...
These findings suggest that HBO(2)-induced acute antinociception might be due to activation of a NO-cyclic GMP-protein kinase G ... The enhanced phosphorylation of APP in these rats was not relevant to either c-Jun N-terminal kinase or cyclin-dependent kinase ... It indicates that heavy metal bioadsorption on yeast has much relation with its cellular molecule basis. With the adsorping, ... induced acute antinociception might involve a NO-cyclic GMP-protein kinase G-ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channel pathway. ...
... dependent protein kinases. Using the motility of Plasmodium berghei ookinetes as a signalling paradigm, we show that the cyclic ... Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / metabolism * Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / physiology* ... A global analysis of cellular phospholipids demonstrates that in gliding ookinetes PKG controls phosphoinositide biosynthesis, ... dependent protein kinases. Using the motility of Plasmodium berghei ookinetes as a signalling paradigm, we show that the cyclic ...
The cAMP-dependent protein kinase and cGMP-dependent protein kinase are major intrace … ... Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / metabolism* * Cyclic GMP / metabolism* * Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / ... and the actions of these enzymes account for much of the cellular responses to increased levels of cAMP or cGMP. This review ... The cAMP-dependent protein kinase and cGMP-dependent protein kinase are major intracellular receptors for these nucleotides, ...
  • and (2) Inhibition of MP by the protein kinase C-potentiated inhibitor protein of 17 kDa (CPI-17). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated as a mediator of many cellular processes, including endothelium-dependent relaxation of blood vessels, chemical communication between peripheral nerves and smooth muscle, inhibition of platelet aggregation, immune responses, and neurotransmission. (ahajournals.org)
  • Ferroptosis can be induced by a broad spectrum of cellular and pharmacological triggers, including excessive iron loading, inhibition of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4) and the GSH/glutamine antiporter system Xc - as well as iron chelating and blockage of ROS formation and lipid peroxidation 308-310 . (hemeoxygenase.com)
  • Blocking cyclic GMP did not prevent the inhibition of migration by NO. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusions- In cells overexpressing SERCA, the cyclic GMP-independent, redox regulation of SERCA cysteine-674 is required for the inhibition of cell migration by both exogenous and endogenously generated NO. (ahajournals.org)
  • 20 nm in diameter, and are exclusive platforms for Raf recruitment and MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation. (asm.org)
  • VASP is believed to play an important role in controlling the cytoskeletal organization because it binds filamentous actin (F-actin) and profilin, a protein that forms complexes with G-actin and regulates actin dynamics ( 2 , 11 , 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • cAMP regulates cellular functions primarily by activating PKA. (mcponline.org)
  • Conclusions- PKG positively regulates proteasome activities and proteasome-mediated degradation of misfolded proteins, likely through posttranslational modifications to proteasome subunits. (ahajournals.org)
  • Using these tools, the field has revealed that cyclic di-GMP directly regulates many cellular functions through allosteric binding. (springer.com)
  • Phenotypes of PhdA-dominant interfering mutations suggest that PhdA is an adaptor protein that regulates F-actin localization in response to chemoattractants and links PI3K to the control of F-actin polymerization at the leading edge during pseudopod formation. (rupress.org)
  • The mammalian FZR1 protein (also known as CDH1), encoded by Fzr1 , is one of two well-established co-activators of the APC/C, which is an E3 ligase that regulates mitotic and meiotic progression through the ubiquitylation and subsequent degradation of key sets of substrates ( Peters, 2006 ). (biologists.org)
  • Oxidative stress causes interprotein disulfide bond formation between two cysteine 42 (Cys 42 ) residues on adjacent chains in the PKGIα homodimer complex, rendering the kinase catalytically active, independently of cGMP. (sciencemag.org)
  • Excessive iron release and concomitant ROS production have been found to cause massive oxidative cell damage which culminates in lipid/protein peroxidation and ferroptosis induction 316 . (hemeoxygenase.com)
  • In the EEO method, the oxidative products of nicotine including cotinine, cotinine- N -oxide, trans -3′-hydroxycotinine, nornicotine, norcotinine, 4-oxo-4-(3-pyridyl)-butanoic acid, 4-hydroxy-4-(3-pyridyl)-butanoic acid, and nicotine- N′ -oxide were detected by tandem mass spectrometer to simulate the changes of nicotine and its derivatives in a time-dependent manner. (hindawi.com)
  • cGMP is a common regulator of ion channel conductance , glycogenolysis , and cellular apoptosis . (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulative Function of Extracelluar Regulated Protein Kinases and Telomerase in Apoptosis of Hepatocarcinomatous Cell SMMC- Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi = Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi = Chinese Journal of Hepatology. (jove.com)
  • Pubmed ID: 12223143 To study the changes of telomerase activity and protein expression of phosphorylated (activated) extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK1 and ERK2) in the course of inhibiting hepatocarcinomatous cell proliferation and inducing cell apoptosis by three kinds of chemotherapy drugs: Harringtonine (HRT), Vincristine (VCR), and Etoposide (Vp16). (jove.com)
  • We report here studies indicating that exisulind induces apoptosis in colon tumor cells by inhibiting cGMP PDE, causing a persistent increase in cellular cGMP, and inducing PKG. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is estimated that more than 1000 of the 10,000 proteins active in a typical mammalian cell are phosphorylated. (patentgenius.com)
  • In mammalian cells, cytosolic DNA triggers the production of type I interferons and other cytokines through the endoplasmic reticulum protein STING (also known as MITA, MPYS, or ERIS) ( 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Of these proposed mechanisms the NADPH-dependent oxidase system, similar to that present in mammalian neutrophils, has received the most attention. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The cytoskeletal protein actin is well conserved within apicomplexans but divergent from mammalian actins, and was primarily reported to function during host cell invasion. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Stable isotope labeling was used to confidently identify and differentially quantify target proteins and their preferential binding affinity for the three different cAMP analogs. (mcponline.org)
  • MAPK1 was confirmed as one of the identified target proteins via immunoblotting with an anti-MAPK1 antibody. (wikibooks.org)
  • Further research in the field of proteomics is expected to yield more efficient tools and techniques applicable to the identification and analysis of bioactive molecules and their target proteins. (wikibooks.org)
  • Diffusion of membrane proteins in the BLM will be suppressed by an Annexin-V network for extended observation times. (uni-jena.de)
  • Cells undergoing ferroptosis show characteristic morphological and biochemical features such as excessive lipid peroxidation, disintegration of mitochondria, and inactivation of cellular GSH-dependent anti-oxidant defense mechanisms 308 . (hemeoxygenase.com)
  • This section summarizes information regarding the site of action of CO 2 on the cerebral circulation and cellular mechanisms important in CO 2 -mediated changes in cerebral vascular tone. (asahq.org)
  • A split-luciferase protein complementation assay was used to test interaction between the PfPKG kinase domain (PfPKG E 706 A and PfPKG R 781 A) and a fragment of RPT1 (amino acids 114 to 420) or HSP90 (amino acids 228 to 518). (asm.org)
  • Amino acids critical for the activity of the parent cyclic peptide were uncovered using alanine-scanning, and a series of non-natural analogues synthesized and assessed. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Involvement of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and Rac in membrane ruffling induced by IL-2 in T cells. (unibas.ch)
  • In addition, Ca 2+ entry through voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels is an important regulator of gene transcription and cardiac cellular metabolism. (springer.com)
  • In addition, cocoa polyphenols increase sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs are transcription factors that bind to the sterol regulatory element DNA sequence TCACNCCAC. (diff.org)