Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
A family of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT actin-binding proteins found throughout eukaryotes. They remodel the actin CYTOSKELETON by severing ACTIN FILAMENTS and increasing the rate of monomer dissociation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Actin capping proteins are cytoskeletal proteins that bind to the ends of ACTIN FILAMENTS to regulate actin polymerization.
Very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly from AMANITA phalloides (Agaricaceae) or death cup; causes fatal liver, kidney and CNS damage in mushroom poisoning; used in the study of liver damage.
Reduced (protonated) form of THIAZOLES. They can be oxidized to THIAZOLIDINEDIONES.
A 90-kDa protein produced by macrophages that severs ACTIN filaments and forms a cap on the newly exposed filament end. Gelsolin is activated by CALCIUM ions and participates in the assembly and disassembly of actin, thereby increasing the motility of some CELLS.
A family of low molecular weight proteins that bind ACTIN and control actin polymerization. They are found in eukaryotes and are ubiquitously expressed.
A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)
A complex of seven proteins including ARP2 PROTEIN and ARP3 PROTEIN that plays an essential role in maintenance and assembly of the CYTOSKELETON. Arp2-3 complex binds WASP PROTEIN and existing ACTIN FILAMENTS, and it nucleates the formation of new branch point filaments.
Proteins which participate in contractile processes. They include MUSCLE PROTEINS as well as those found in other cells and tissues. In the latter, these proteins participate in localized contractile events in the cytoplasm, in motile activity, and in cell aggregation phenomena.
A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.
A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
A PROFILIN binding domain protein that is part of the Arp2-3 complex. It is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and binds ATP.
A component of the Arp2-3 complex that is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and that binds ATP. It is expressed at higher levels than ARP2 PROTEIN and does not contain a PROFILIN binding domain.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).
A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Compounds consisting of chains of AMINO ACIDS alternating with CARBOXYLIC ACIDS via ester and amide linkages. They are commonly cyclized.
A member of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family that is found at high levels in NERVE CELLS. It interacts with GRB2 ADAPTOR PROTEIN and with CDC42 PROTEIN.
Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.
WASP protein is mutated in WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME and is expressed primarily in hematopoietic cells. It is the founding member of the WASP protein family and interacts with CDC42 PROTEIN to help regulate ACTIN polymerization.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
11- to 14-membered macrocyclic lactones with a fused isoindolone. Members with INDOLES attached at the C10 position are called chaetoglobosins. They are produced by various fungi. Some members interact with ACTIN and inhibit CYTOKINESIS.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A family of crosslinking filament proteins encoded by distinct FLN genes. Filamins are involved in cell adhesion, spreading, and migration, acting as scaffolds for over 90 binding partners including channels, receptors, intracellular signaling molecules and transcription factors. Due to the range of molecular interactions, mutations in FLN genes result in anomalies with moderate to lethal consequences.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.
A tomographic technique for obtaining 3-dimensional images with transmission electron microscopy.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
A type of permanent damage to muscles and nerves that results from prolonged lack blood flow to those tissues. It is characterized by shortening and stiffening of the muscles.
Rare leukoencephalopathy with infantile-onset accumulation of Rosenthal fibers in the subpial, periventricular, and subependymal zones of the brain. Rosenthal fibers are GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN aggregates found in ASTROCYTES. Juvenile- and adult-onset types show progressive atrophy of the lower brainstem instead. De novo mutations in the GFAP gene are associated with the disease with propensity for paternal inheritance.
The fraudulent misrepresentation of the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
Facilities or services which are especially devoted to providing palliative and supportive care to the patient with a terminal illness and to the patient's family.
Some cellular examples include: *Microfilaments (actin filaments). *Microtubules. *Intermediate filaments. *Myofilaments ( ... composed of myosin or actin). Filaments are also highly dynamic in nature and far from a static structure that acts as a stable ...
Actin is also believed to be important. Axe EL, Walker SA, Manifava M, Chandra P, Roderick HL, Habermann A, Griffiths G, ... Kern A, Dikic I, Behl C (2015). "The integration of autophagy and cellular trafficking pathways via RAB GAPs". Autophagy. 11 ( ... Kruppa AJ, Kendrick-Jones J, Buss F (2016). "Myosins, Actin and Autophagy". Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark). 17 (8): 878-90. doi: ... Aguilera MO, Berón W, Colombo MI (2012). "The actin cytoskeleton participates in the early events of autophagosome formation ...
Cellular mechanisms[editar]. Pronuclear migration[editar]. Nucleus is gray; Spindle pole body (SPB) is black circle; ... Microtubules (MTs) are black bars; actin filaments are gray cables; actin patches are small gray circles. (A) Nuclear ... A shmoo is a projection of the cellular membrane which is the site of initial cell fusion in plasmogamy. After plasmogamy, the ... resulting in many cellular changes that increase resistance to stress. Gamete formation in multicellular fungi occurs in the ...
Rubin CI, Atweh GF (October 2004). "The role of stathmin in the regulation of the cell cycle". Journal of Cellular Biochemistry ... "Structural plasticity in actin and tubulin polymer dynamics". Science. 325 (5943): 960-3. doi:10.1126/science.1168823. PMC ... Rubin CI, Atweh GF (October 2004). "The role of stathmin in the regulation of the cell cycle". Journal of Cellular Biochemistry ... Changes in the cytoskeleton are important because the cytoskeleton is a scaffold required for many cellular processes, such as ...
Rohn, J. L.; Baum, B. (4 January 2010). "Actin and cellular architecture at a glance". Journal of Cell Science. 123 (2): 155- ...
"Cellular chirality arising from the self-organization of the actin cytoskeleton". Nature Cell Biology. 17 (4): 445-457. doi: ... ongoing research has begun to focus on cellular level symmetry-breaking mechanisms (e.g. cytoskeletal chirality, ciliary flow) ...
Hubberstey A, Yu G, Loewith R, Lakusta C, Young D (June 1996). "Mammalian CAP interacts with CAP, CAP2, and actin". Journal of ... Cellular Signalling. 13 (6): 389-400. doi:10.1016/S0898-6568(01)00160-7. PMID 11384837. Bradley JR, Pober JS (October 2001). " ... Cellular Biochemistry. 61 (3): 459-66. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4644(19960601)61:3. 3.0.CO;2-E. PMID 8761950. VanArsdale TL, ...
Hubberstey A, Yu G, Loewith R, Lakusta C, Young D (Jun 1996). "Mammalian CAP interacts with CAP, CAP2, and actin". Journal of ... Cellular Biochemistry. 61 (3): 459-66. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4644(19960601)61:3. 3.0.CO;2-E. PMID 8761950. "Entrez Gene: CAP2 ... However, the protein appears to be able to interact with adenylyl cyclase-associated protein and actin. CAP2 has been shown to ...
... is a cellular probe for filamentous actin. It consists of a portion of the amino terminal actin binding region of the ... Later studies determined that amino acids 9-40 were sufficient for F-actin binding. F-Tractin is one of a number of F-actin ... Initial studies determined that amino acids 9-52 from the rat ITPKA were useful as a live-cell reporter for actin filaments. ... Melak M, Plessner M, Grosse R (2017). "Actin visualization at a glance". J Cell Sci. 130 (3): 525-530. doi:10.1242/jcs.189068. ...
... regulates cellular adhesion and actin dynamics. In normal cells IQGAP1 localizes to areas of high actin turnover. This ... IQGAP1 binds actin and influences actin dynamics by localizing to the leading edge and recruiting actin polymerization ... IQGAP1 is a scaffold protein involved in regulating various cellular processes ranging from organization of the actin ... Actin is a major building block of every eukaryotic cell's cytoskeleton. Actin dynamics play a major role in cell motility ( ...
Gamma-actin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTG1 gene. Gamma-actin is widely expressed in cellular cytoskeletons ... Gamma-actin is eventually replaced by sarcomeric alpha-actin isoforms, with low levels of gamma-actin persisting in adult ... Human gamma-actin is 41.8 kDa in molecular weight and 375 amino acids in length. Actins are highly conserved proteins that are ... In vertebrates, three main groups of actin isoforms, alpha, beta and gamma have been identified. The alpha actins are found in ...
Other proteins that are known to interact with NM IIA include the actin binding protein tropomyosin 4.2 and a novel actin ... Toothaker LE, Gonzalez DA, Tung N, Lemons RS, Le Beau MM, Arnaout MA, Clayton LK, Tenen DG (October 1991). "Cellular myosin ... England K, Ashford D, Kidd D, Rumsby M (June 2002). "PKC epsilon is associated with myosin IIA and actin in fibroblasts". ... Actin, desmin, myosin, and tropomyosin". The American Journal of Pathology. 142 (1): 221-30. PMC 1886840. PMID 8424456. Lalwani ...
Actin-capping protein, CapZ appears to affect the localization of PKCε to Z-lines and modulates the cardiomyocyte response to ... PKC family members phosphorylate a wide variety of protein targets and are known to be involved in diverse cellular signaling ... Pyle WG, Hart MC, Cooper JA, Sumandea MP, de Tombe PP, Solaro RJ (Jun 2002). "Actin capping protein: an essential element in ... England K, Ashford D, Kidd D, Rumsby M (Jun 2002). "PKC epsilon is associated with myosin IIA and actin in fibroblasts". ...
Actin is a protein that is essential for different cellular functions. The α-actin serves as a main component for muscle fiber ... It was found that deep sea fish have more salt bridges in their actins compared to fish inhabiting the upper zones of the sea. ... Some Deep-sea fish developed pressure tolerance through the change in mechanism of their α-actin. In some species that live in ... Substitution in the active sites of actin result in significant changes in the salt bridge patterns of the protein, which ...
These cytochalasins bind to actin and affect actin polymerization. In fact, chaetoglobosin A is highly toxic in animal cells, ... The cytochalasin mycotoxins, chaetoglobosins A and C, disrupt cellular division and movement in mammalian cells. ... whereas glucose enters the cell undigested for cellular metabolism. Even though glucose is the most preferred carbon source, C ...
Subsequent actin polymerization creates a "phagocytic cup", an actin-based structure normally formed around foreign materials ... This mode of direct cell-to-cell spread involves a cellular mechanism known as paracytophagy. Ramaswamy V, Cresence VM, Rejitha ... thereby inducing actin nucleation at a specific area of the bacterial cell surface. Actin polymerization then propels the ... Motility in the intracellular space is provided by actin assembly-inducing protein, which allows the bacteria to use the host ...
"Intersectin adaptor proteins are associated with actin-regulating protein WIP in invadopodia". Cellular Signalling. 27 (7): ... associates with actin filaments, recruits N-WASP from the nucleus, and mediates mobilization of actin from stress fibers in ... WIPF1 has an N-terminal profilin binding domain, two actin binding WH2 domains, a central polyproline stretch, and a C-terminal ... This gene encodes a protein that plays an important role in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. Overexpression of WIP ...
Microfilaments are composed of the most abundant cellular protein known as actin. During contraction of a muscle, within each ... Actin cables are bundles of actin filaments and are involved in the transport of vesicles towards the cap (which contains a ... Actin-like proteins are actin in eukaryotes and MreB, FtsA in prokaryotes. An example of a WACA-proteins, which are mostly ... The G-actin monomer combines to form a polymer which continues to form the microfilament (actin filament). These subunits then ...
Takeya R, Sumimoto H (November 2003). "Fhos, a mammalian formin, directly binds to F-actin via a region N-terminal to the FH1 ... Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. 92 (1): 29-41. doi:10.1002/jcb.20031. PMID 15095401. S2CID 40202935. Gill MB, Roecklein- ... Gasteier JE, Schroeder S, Muranyi W, Madrid R, Benichou S, Fackler OT (May 2005). "FHOD1 coordinates actin filament and ... Westendorf JJ, Koka S (May 2004). "Identification of FHOD1-binding proteins and mechanisms of FHOD1-regulated actin dynamics". ...
This protein facilitates actin-microtubule interactions at the cell periphery and couples the microtubule network to cellular ... Karakesisoglou I, Yang Y, Fuchs E (2000). "An epidermal plakin that integrates actin and microtubule networks at cellular ... Microtubule-actin cross-linking factor 1, isoforms 1/2/3/5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MACF1 gene. MACF1 ... The N-terminal segment has an actin binding domain and the C-terminal segment has a +TIP binding site as well as microtubule ...
"Sendai virus recruits cellular villin to remodel actin cytoskeleton during fusion with hepatocytes". Mol. Biol. Cell. 28 (26): ...
Actin-containing cellular protrusions dubbed "streamers" have been observed in cultured B cells. Vesicular transport in ... Cellular stress by rotenone or TNF-α was also shown to induce TNT formation between epithelial cells. Inflammation by ... Myopodia are actin-rich cytoplasmic extensions which have been observed in embryonic Drosophila. Similar structures have been ... The first type are less than 0.7 micrometers in diameter, contain actin and carry portions of plasma membrane between cells in ...
"An unconventional Arithmetic Logic Unit design and computing in Actin Quantum Cellular Automata". Microsystem Technologies. doi ... actin-based). Adder (electronics) Address generation unit Load-store unit Binary multiplier Execution unit A.P.Godse; D.A.Godse ...
Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • cytosol. • membrane. • cell-cell junction. • focal adhesion. • microtubule organizing center ... "GRB2 links signaling to actin assembly by enhancing interaction of neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASp) with actin- ... "Molecular and Cellular Biology. 22 (2): 567-77. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.2.567-577.2002. PMC 139731 . PMID 11756552.. ... "Molecular and Cellular Biology. 22 (24): 8721-34. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.24.8721-8734.2002. PMC 139861 . PMID 12446789.. ...
... there are little or no cellular organelles present in the microvilli. Each microvillus has a dense bundle of cross-linked actin ... The nucleation of actin fibers occurs as a response to external stimuli, allowing a cell to alter its shape to suit a ... Actin filaments, present in the cytosol, are most abundant near the cell surface. These filaments are thought to determine the ... Myosin 1a functions through a binding site for filamentous actin on one end and a lipid binding domain on the other. The plus ...
Warner-Schmidt JL, Flajolet M, Maller A, Chen EY, Qi H, Svenningsson P, Greengard P (Feb 2009). "Role of p11 in cellular and ... The S100 protein is implicated in exocytosis and endocytosis by reorganization of F-actin. The p11 protein is linked with the ... Kube E, Weber K, Gerke V (Jun 1991). "Primary structure of human, chicken, and Xenopus laevis p11, a cellular ligand of the Src ... Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology. 279 (6): L1103-9. doi:10.1152/ajplung.2000.279.6.l1103. PMID 11076800. Donier E, ...
2003). "Actin reorganization is abnormal and cellular ATP is decreased in Hailey-Hailey keratinocytes". J. Invest. Dermatol. ...
Lavoie JN, Lambert H, Hickey E, Weber LA, Landry J (January 1995). "Modulation of cellular thermoresistance and actin filament ... In conjunction with p38 MAP kinase, this kinase is known to be involved in many cellular processes including stress and ... April 2007). "Smooth muscle alpha-actin expression and myofibroblast differentiation by TGFbeta are dependent upon MK2". ... Molecular and Cellular Biology. 15 (1): 505-16. doi:10.1128/MCB.15.1.505. PMC 232001. PMID 7799959. Sutherland C, Alterio J, ...
"Human muscle LIM protein dimerizes along the actin cytoskeleton and cross-links actin filaments". Molecular and Cellular ... At the microfilaments, MLP is implicated in actin remodeling (or actin dynamics) through its interaction with cofilin-2 (CFL2 ... Esposito G, Santana LF, Dilly K, Cruz JD, Mao L, Lederer WJ, Rockman HA (December 2000). "Cellular and functional defects in a ... Other cellular changes included alterations in intracellular calcium handling, local loss of mitochondria and energy deficiency ...
cellular protein metabolic process. · ventricular cardiac muscle cell development. · cellular response to hypoxia. ... Association of emerin with nuclear and cytoplasmic actin is regulated in differentiating myoblasts. Biochem. Biophys. Res. ... cellular component disassembly involved in execution phase of apoptosis. · activation of signaling protein activity involved in ... Dysfunction of lamin A triggers a DNA damage response and cellular senescence. DNA Repair (Amst.). 2006, 5 (2): 286-9. PMID ...
Through the interaction of β-catenin and α-catenin, actin and E-cadherin are linked, providing the cell with a means of stable ... Catenins play roles in cellular organization and polarity long before the development and incorporation of Wnt signaling ... A-catenin can bind to β-catenin and can also bind actin. B-catenin binds the cytoplasmic domain of some cadherins. Additional ... β-catenin acts by anchoring the actin cytoskeleton to the junctions, and may possibly aid in contact inhibition signaling ...
Bertram C, Hass R (2009). «Cellular senescence of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) is associated with an altered MMP-7/HB- ... regulation of actin filament polymerization. •stress fiber assembly. Sources: Amigo / QuickGO. Ortólogos. ...
Cellular component. • nuclear membrane. • membrane. • mitochondrion. • ciliary rootlet. • neuron projection. • gamma-secretase ... "Interaction of presenilins with the filamin family of actin-binding proteins". J. Neurosci. 18 (3): 914-22. PMC 2042137. PMID ... cellular response to DNA damage stimulus. • heart looping. • blood vessel development. • membrane protein ectodomain ... cellular protein metabolic process. • neurogenesis. • intracellular signal transduction. • protein processing. • protein ...
"An actin homolog of the archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum that retains the ancient characteristics of eukaryotic actin". J. ... Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences (CMLS). 54 (4): 305-308. doi:10.1007/s000180050156.. ... Photosynthesis, cellular respiration and fermentation. Reproduction. Asexual reproduction, horizontal gene transfer. Asexual ... Frols et al.[150][152] and Ajon et al.[151] hypothesized that cellular aggregation enhances species specific DNA transfer ...
"Molecular and Cellular Biology. 20 (13): 4754-64. doi:10.1128/mcb.20.13.4754-4764.2000. PMC 85905. PMID 10848601.. ... The TATA box is also found in 40% of the core promoters of genes that code for the actin cytoskeleton and contractile apparatus ... Tripathi, G. (2010). Cellular and Biochemical Science. New Delhi: I.K. International Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. pp. 373-374. ... TATA-containing genes are not involved in essential cellular functions such as cell growth, DNA replication, transcription, and ...
"Molecular and Cellular Biology. 7 (1): 541-544. doi:10.1128/MCB.7.1.541. PMC 365100. PMID 3550423.. ... He first realised that the addition of bovine fetal calf serum (FCS) to Swiss 3T3 cells increased the polymerisation of actin ... "Molecular and Cellular Biology. 31 (1): 81-91. doi:10.1128/MCB.01001-10. PMC 3019857. PMID 20974804.. ... These findings were published in Molecular and Cellular Biology (MCB).[6] Alan Hall showed the specificity of Rho in the ...
1997). "Actin-binding protein-280 binds the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) activator SEK-1 and is required for tumor ... Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. ... "Actin-binding protein-280 binds the stress-activated protein ...
Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 holoenzyme complex. • plasma membrane. • membrane. ... Humbert S, Dhavan R, Tsai L (2000). "p39 activates cdk5 in neurons, and is associated with the actin cytoskeleton". J. Cell Sci ...
Other problems become apparent due to aging of bodily and cellular maintenance processes. The treatment of primary ... Beta-actin deficiency Localized juvenile periodontitis Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome Specific granule deficiency Shwachman-Diamond ...
Actins have a variety of roles in synaptic functioning. In pre-synaptic neurons, actins are involved in synaptic vesicle ... "Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine. 19 (10): 2352-64. doi:10.1111/jcmm.12648. PMC 4594677. PMID 26223362.. ... Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • mitochondrion. • nuclear speck. • cytoplasmic vesicle. • ... "Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology. 38 (3): 579-593. doi:10.1007/s10571-017-0510-4. PMC 5835061. PMID 28623429.. ...
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences (CMLS) 54 (4): 305-308. doi:10.1007/s000180050156.. [Ligazón morta] ... "An actin homolog of the archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum that retains the ancient characteristics of eukaryotic actin". J. ... Cavicchioli, R (2007). Archaea: Molecular and Cellular Biology (en inglés). American Society for Microbiology. ISBN 1-55581-391 ... 2008). "UV-inducible cellular aggregation of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus is mediated by pili ...
actin binding. • RNA binding. • cadherin binding. Cellular component. • integral component of membrane. • cytoskeleton. • brush ... actin cytoskeleton. • extracellular exosome. • stress fiber. • plasma membrane. • Z disc. • cytoplasm. • cell cortex. • focal ... Filamin B, beta (FLNB), also known as Filamin B, beta (actin binding protein 278), is a cytoplasmic protein which in humans is ... actin cytoskeleton organization. • epithelial cell morphogenesis. • multicellular organism development. • cytoskeletal ...
Cellular component. • membrane. • cell surface. • integral component of membrane. • recycling endosome. • intracellular. • ... cortical actin cytoskeleton organization. • embryonic digestive tract development. • leukocyte migration. • lipopolysaccharide- ... cellular response to organic cyclic compound. • positive regulation of fever generation. • extracellular matrix organization. • ... cellular response to nicotine. • positive regulation of podosome assembly. • regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic ...
actin binding. • protein kinase binding. • small GTPase binding. • Rac GTPase binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • cell- ... actin cytoskeleton. • extracellular exosome. • cytoskeleton. • cytosol. • actin filament. • phagocytic vesicle. Biological ... actin filament-based movement. • endosomal transport. • actin filament polymerization. • regulation of T cell antigen ... actin polymerization or depolymerization. • T cell receptor signaling pathway. • T cell activation. • regulation of catalytic ...
Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • cell junction. • cytoskeleton. • focal adhesion. • cell membrane. Biological process. • cell ... "Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 67 (7): 1025-48. doi:10.1007/s00018-009-0213-1. PMC 2836406. PMID 19937461.. ... in regulation of cellular motility and migration.[13] Because of the high degree of homology in interaction domains and some ... with functional roles in influencing cellular adhesion, migration and drug resistance.[26][27] Changes in CASS4 may also be ...
Actins have a variety of roles in synaptic functioning. In pre-synaptic neurons, actins are involved in synaptic vesicle ... "Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine. 19 (10): 2352-64. doi:10.1111/jcmm.12648. PMC 4594677. PMID 26223362.. ... Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • mitochondrion. • nuclear speck. • cytoplasmic vesicle. • ... "Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience. 8: 170. doi:10.3389/fncel.2014.00170. PMC 4064707. PMID 24999318.. ...
Cellular component. • integral component of membrane. • membrane. • platelet alpha granule membrane. • platelet dense granule ... P-selectin attaches to the actin cytoskeleton through anchor proteins that are still poorly characterized. ...
This self-tolerance means that lymphocytes should not incite an immune response against human cellular antigens. Sometimes, ...
Cellular localization. Proteins in different cellular compartments and structures tagged with green fluorescent protein (here, ... Proteins also have structural or mechanical functions, such as actin and myosin in muscle and the proteins in the cytoskeleton ... "Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters. 14 (1): 1-22. doi:10.2478/s11658-008-0024-7. PMC 6275871. PMID 18839074.. ... Cellular functions. Proteins are the chief actors within the cell, said to be carrying out the duties specified by the ...
... such as β-actin mRNA.[9] Upon export from the nucleus, actin mRNA associates with ZBP1 and the 40S subunit. The complex is ... The presence of AU-rich elements in some mammalian mRNAs tends to destabilize those transcripts through the action of cellular ... Spatial regulation of bold beta-actin translation by Src-dependent phosphorylation of ZBP1 Nature04115. ... "Contradictory mRNA and protein misexpression of EEF1A1 in ductal breast carcinoma due to cell cycle regulation and cellular ...
cortical actin cytoskeleton organization. • protein localization. • lens development in camera-type eye. • cellular protein ... Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • cytosol. • postsynaptic membrane. • membrane. • cell-cell junction. • bicellular tight ... "Molecular and Cellular Biology. 21 (5): 1475-83. doi:10.1128/MCB.21.5.1475-1483.2001. PMC 86693. PMID 11238884.. ... "Molecular and Cellular Biology. 22 (6): 1778-91. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.6.1778-1791.2002. PMC 135599. PMID 11865057.. ...
Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • cytosol. • nuclear membrane. • membrane. • nuclear matrix. • nuclear envelope lumen. • cell ... ALOX5 binds with the F actin-binding protein, coactin-like protein. Based on in vitro studies, this protein binding serves to ... or are the cellular receptors responsible for mediating the cellular responses to the down-stream ALOX products LTC4 and LTD4 ( ... Hu Y, Li S (2016). "Survival regulation of leukemia stem cells". Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 73 (5): 1039-50. doi: ...
Generation of pressure is dependent on formin-mediated F-actin nucleation[71] and Rho kinase (ROCK)-mediated myosin II ... organelles and cell membrane into two new cells containing roughly equal shares of these cellular components.[2] Mitosis and ... Rounding forces are driven by reorganization of F-actin and myosin (actomyosin) into a contractile homogeneous cell cortex that ... There are prokaryotic homologs of all the key molecules of eukaryotic mitosis (e.g., actins, tubulins). Being a universal ...
Cellular component. • nucleoplasm. • actin cytoskeleton. • cell nucleus. Biological process. • cellular glucose homeostasis. • ... cellular response to starvation. • multicellular organism development. • regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • ...
Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • cytosol. • neurofilament. • growth cone. • myelin. • TSC1-TSC2 complex. • axon. • neuron ... Thompson AB, Mead SH (December 2018). "Review: Fluid biomarkers in the human prion diseases". Molecular and Cellular ...
He found that muscles contain actin, which when combined with the protein myosin and the energy source ATP, contract muscle ... where his work focused on the chemistry of cellular respiration. This work landed him a position as a Rockefeller Foundation ... Szent-Györgyi continued his work on cellular respiration, identifying fumaric acid and other steps in what would become known ...
Motor proteins connect the transport vesicles to microtubules and actin filaments to facilitate intracellular movement.[1] ... Cellular processes. *Cytoskeleton. Hidden categories: *Articles with short description. *Short description is different from ... Intracellular transport that requires quick movement will use an actin-myosin mechanism while more specialized functions ... to particular intracellular locations by attaching them to molecular motors that haul them along microtubules and actin ...
cellular component, the parts of a cell or its extracellular environment;. *molecular function, the elemental activities of a ... Gene product: Actin, alpha cardiac muscle 1, UniProtKB:P68032. GO term: heart contraction ; GO:0060047 (biological process). ...
These proteins are thought to provide the cellular scaffolding necessary for the actin-myosin complex to undergo contraction. ... actin. Each F actin strand is composed of a string of subunits called globular (G) actin. Each G actin has an active site that ... The filaments of actin and myosin then form linkages. After binding, myosin pulls actin filaments toward each other, or inward ... Myofilaments are the filaments of myofibrils, constructed from proteins,[1] principally myosin or actin. Types of muscle are ...
Cellular control of actin nucleation.. Welch MD1, Mullins RD.. Author information. 1. Department of Molecular and Cell Biology ... in the past five years has focused on the regulation of actin nucleation-the formation of new actin filaments from actin ... that nucleates new actin filaments for various cellular structures with numerous functions. This review focuses on our current ... that regulate its activity comprise the only known cellular actin-nucleating factors and may represent a universal machine, ...
We have previously shown that changes in the cytoplasmic F- and G-actin ratios reflect bladder cancer risk. To determine ... a highly conserved protein comprising cell stress fibers and other cellular structures, is found in both the cytoplasm and ... indicating the cellular change in actin was attributed to a shift between F- and G-actin proteins rather than to net actin ... and F-actin in comparison to the BC cells. After incubation with 4-ABP, F-actin decreased and G-actin increased in both ...
... crosslinked actin network lying immediately beneath the plasma membrane of animal cells. Myosin motors exert contractile forces ... Actin cortex mechanics and cellular morphogenesis Trends Cell Biol. 2012 Oct;22(10):536-45. doi: 10.1016/j.tcb.2012.07.001. ... The cortex is a thin, crosslinked actin network lying immediately beneath the plasma membrane of animal cells. Myosin motors ... In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the structural organization, composition, and mechanics of the actin cortex, ...
The yeast actin cytoskeleton: from cellular function to biochemical mechanism ... Retrograde actin flow drives intracellular and cellular movement. Previous work in the Pon laboratory showed that actin cables ... The yeast actin cytoskeleton: from cellular function to biochemical mechanism (0) by James B Moseley, Bruce L Goode ... actin cables are composed of short parallel actin filaments, mostly of identical orientations [38]. Actin cables are very ...
... a handful of nucleation-promoting factors and formins were the only molecules known to directly nucleate actin filament ... A nucleator arms race: cellular control of actin assembly Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2010 Apr;11(4):237-51. doi: 10.1038/nrm2867. ... stimulate ARP2/3 activity at distinct cellular locations. Formin nucleators with additional biochemical and cellular activities ... However, the past several years have seen a surge in the discovery of mammalian proteins with roles in actin nucleation and ...
Molecular Architectures of Actin-Based Cellular Processes. Actin plays important roles in many biological processes, such as ... We aim to understand how the native molecular architectures of actin-based cellular processes give rise to force generation and ... We use cryo-electron tomography, and develop methodologies allowing for quantitative analysis of cellular actin networks ... Actin filaments can assemble into a variety of architectures, including branched and crosslinked networks, parallel bundles, ...
Cellular chirality arising from the self-organization of the actin cytoskeleton.. [Yee Han Tee, Tom Shemesh, Visalatchi ... Cellular mechanisms underlying the development of left-right asymmetry in tissues and embryos remain obscure. Here, the ... Thus, actin cytoskeleton self-organization provides built-in machinery that potentially allows cells to develop left-right ... A radially symmetrical system of actin bundles consisting of α-actinin-enriched radial fibres (RFs) and myosin-IIA-enriched ...
Globular actin (G-actin) can be polymerized to fibrous actin (F-actin) by profilin (26 , 27) , and F-actin is depolymerized ... Thus, a question of why G-actin is accumulated in the nucleus during cellular senescence arises. In our study, because actin ... Nuclear Accumulation of Globular Actin as a Cellular Senescence Marker. In Hae Kwak, Hong Seok Kim, Ok Ran Choi, Min Sook Ryu ... Nuclear Accumulation of Globular Actin as a Cellular Senescence Marker. In Hae Kwak, Hong Seok Kim, Ok Ran Choi, Min Sook Ryu ...
... suggesting a complex interplay between the actin cytoskeleton and cellular adhesions in coordinating cellular response to ... I have investigated the role of palladin in regulating the plasticity of the actin cytoskeleton and cellular force generation ... However, the role of actin crosslinkers in general, and palladin in particular, in cellular force generation and mechanosensing ... Several observations suggest that proteins that crosslink actin filaments may play an important role in cellular ...
Akt-actin interaction resulted in actin cytoskeleton cortical remodeling associated with cell migration, revealing actin as a ... Phosphorylation of actin by Akt.A, reverse immunoprecipitation was performed with antibody against actin and followed by Akt ... The results show that actin was recognized by PAS antibody under cell stimulation by FGF-2 and that actin phosphorylation was ... Recombinant Akt was mixed with actin and ATP. A phosphorylation of actin was detected by Western blotting with PAS antibody ...
Cellular membrane remodeling by fronts and waves of actin polymerization. Abstract: During macropinocytosis, cells remodel ... Sonderforschungsbereich 910Cellular membrane remodeling by fronts and waves of actin polymerization ... E. Bernitt, H.-G. Dobereiner, N. S. Gov, and A. Yochelis, Fronts and waves of actin polymerization in a bistability-based ... Here we show, based on both experimental data and theoretical analysis, that CDRs are propagating fronts of actin ...
Cellular membrane remodeling by fronts and waves of actin polymerization. Abstract: During macropinocytosis, cells remodel ... E. Bernitt, H.-G. Dobereiner, N. S. Gov, and A. Yochelis, Fronts and waves of actin polymerization in a bistability-based ... Here we show, based on both experimental data and theoretical analysis, that CDRs are propagating fronts of actin ... This endocytotic mechanism relies on the collapse and closure of precursory structures, which are propagating actin-based, ring ...
... lead to faster F-actin turnover in the dendritic spines of PCs. We also detect accelerated F-actin turnover upon interference ... lead to faster F-actin turnover in the dendritic spines of Purkinje cells. We also detect accelerated F-actin turnover upon ... inhibition of formins that are responsible for polymerization of linear actin filaments does not cause faster F-actin turnover ... inhibition of formins that are responsible for polymerization of linear actin filaments does not cause faster F-actin turnover ...
... actin-dependent bacterial movement, and pathogen dissemination. This review highlights a diverse group of obligate ... actin-dependent bacterial movement, and pathogen dissemination. This review highlights a diverse group of obligate ... eukaryotic-like motifs that mimic host proteins to exploit signaling and modify specific cytoskeletal components such as actin ... eukaryotic-like motifs that mimic host proteins to exploit signaling and modify specific cytoskeletal components such as actin ...
Molecular & Cellular Proteomics January 1, 2011, First published on September 27, 2010, 10 (1) M110.001172; DOI: 10.1074/mcp. ... Molecular & Cellular Proteomics January 1, 2011, First published on September 27, 2010, 10 (1) M110.001172; DOI: 10.1074/mcp. ... Your Name) has sent you a message from Molecular & Cellular Proteomics Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see ... A QUICK Screen for Lrrk2 Interaction Partners - Leucine-rich Repeat Kinase 2 is Involved in Actin Cytoskeleton Dynamics. Andrea ...
Expression of wild-type actin, which increases the amount of G-actin but does not alter the F-actin/G-actin ratio, reduced the ... The expression of an actin S14C mutant, which favors F-actin formation and increases the F-actin/G-actin ratio (25), stimulated ... In contrast, the actin R62D mutant, which is unable to polymerize and decreases the F-actin/G-actin ratio, inhibited MRTF ... by enhancing actin polymerization and the depletion of monomeric G-actin with consequent dissociation of G-actin from MRTF-A ...
observed that Human Papilloma Virus 8 (HPV8) especially affects the expression of proteins which interact with actin. In ... Antibody in current publication: Actin-Cytoskeleton as cellular target for Human Papillomavirus 8. By conducting a proteome ... Source: Baki Akgül et al (2009) Proteomic analysis reveals the actin cytoskeleton as cellular target for the human ... actin. . In addition the authors noted that 5. , 6. and 14. are upregulated by HPV8. For their publication the authors used the ...
3A). The head domain has conserved ATP- and actin-binding sites, and this domain has been suggested to be important in actin ... showed that both Rictor and mTOR knockdown in HeLa cells resulted in a disrupted actin cytoskeleton arrangement, with actin ... A Rictor-Myo1c Complex Participates in Dynamic Cortical Actin Events in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes. G. Nana Hagan, Yenshou Lin, Mark A. ... 1 to 5 are consistent with a model in which Myo1c and Rictor both act in a pathway that results in cortical actin remodeling. ...
A large number of proteins sit at the interface between actin networks and membranes, playing diverse roles such as... ... Actin filament assembly typically occurs in association with cellular membranes. ... Actin filament assembly typically occurs in association with cellular membranes. A large number of proteins sit at the ... Schwintzer L, Koch N, Ahuja R, Grimm J, Kessels MM, Qualmann B (2011) The functions of the actin nucleator Cobl in cellular ...
Annexin 2 is a phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate binding protein recruited to actin assembly sites at cellular membranes ... Annexin 2 is a phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate binding protein recruited to actin assembly sites at cellular membranes ... Annexin 2 is a phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate binding protein recruited to actin assembly sites at cellular membranes ... Annexin 2 is a phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate binding protein recruited to actin assembly sites at cellular membranes ...
F-actin)-an essential component of the cytoskeleton that builds up many higher order structures, such as stress fibers, ... F-Actin-A Crucial Protein for Cellular Function and Motility. In most eukaryotic cells, actin is the most abundant protein. As ... Polymeric, filamentous F-actin. The monomeric G-actin has the ability to polymerize, thereby creating the F-actin polymer ... G-actin has the ability to polymerize, resulting in the F-actin polymer. This process is reversible, allowing the actin ...
Large-scale curvature sensing by directional actin flow drives cellular migration mode switching. January 23, 2019Research news ... The actin cable at the concave edge is located at the front, followed by transverse actin fibres that are oriented in the same ... Directing actin flow. Further observation of actin dynamics in real-time using live cell microscopy revealed a difference in ... Conversely, at negative curvatures the actin flow was anterograde, i.e. towards the cell membrane where the actin cable was ...
We welcome your input and comments. Please use this form to recommend updates to the information in ZFIN. We appreciate as much detail as possible and references as appropriate. We will review your comments promptly ...
Cellular Component. GO:0071564 npBAF complex Contributing signatures. Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to ... Actin-like protein 6A (ACL6A, also known as BAF53A) is a subunit of the ATP-dependent SWI/SNF-like BAF chromatin remodelling ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Correlation between effects of 24 different cytochalasins on cellular structures and cellular events and those on actin in ... Correlation between effects of 24 different cytochalasins on cellular structures and cellular events and those on actin in ... contraction of actin cables, formation of hairy filaments containing actin, and inhibition of lymphocyte capping; (b) a low ... The following effects were tested for each of 24 cytochalasins; (a) four high dose (2-20 muM) effects on the cellular level: ...
The dynamic microfilament system: cellular organization of actin and profilin and their association with cell signalling. ... It binds to actin and controls its polymerizability. In addition to that, it appears to be an important link between the ... The proteins actin and myosin play central roles in this system. They form superstructures inside the cell, converting chemical ... actin complex into cells. The results strengthen the view that profilin plays a role in the activation of the microfilament ...
DRR1 enhances actin bundling, the cellular F-actin content, and serum response factor (SRF)-dependent transcription, while it ... Cellular actin-dependent processes were analyzed in transfected HeLa cells with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching ( ... as well as on actin-dependent cellular processes. Methods: DRR1 domains were cloned and expressed as recombinant proteins to ... Conclusions: DRR1 impacts actin dynamics in several ways with implications for cytoskeletal dynamics in stress physiology and ...
PALABRAS CLAVE: mesenchymal stem cell, mechanobiology, cellular mechanics, membrane tether, actin cytoskeleton, electric fi eld ... Target Genes and Cellular Regulators of the Мус Transcription Complex Critical Reviews™ in Eukaryotic Gene Expression, Vol.8, ... While cellular biomechanical properties are significantly altered during stem-cell specification to a particular phenotype, the ... Control of cell behaviors might be feasible through manipulation of the cellular biomechanical properties using various ...
"ACTIN 92". This conference focused on the fundamental properties and cellular functions of actin and actin- based ... Basic Properties of the Actin Molecule and Actin-Based Microfilament Systems. * Front Matter Pages 1-1 ... Roberto Colombo, University of Milan (Italy). This third gathering of researchers devoted to the study of actin and actin- ... Evidence for an F-Actin Like Conformation in the ACTIN:DNASE I Complex ...
  • Although cells possess multiple mechanisms for initiating actin polymerization, attention in the past five years has focused on the regulation of actin nucleation-the formation of new actin filaments from actin monomers. (nih.gov)
  • The Arp2/3 complex and the multiple nucleation-promoting factors (NPFs) that regulate its activity comprise the only known cellular actin-nucleating factors and may represent a universal machine, conserved across eukaryotic phyla, that nucleates new actin filaments for various cellular structures with numerous functions. (nih.gov)
  • Inside the cell body, actin cables are composed of short parallel actin filaments, mostly of identical orientations [38]. (psu.edu)
  • At the division site, a cytokinetic ring is composed of short parallel actin filaments, with identical orientations or mixed polarities depending on the stage of cell division [40]. (psu.edu)
  • All these processes are facilitated by the dynamical and mechanical properties of actin filaments, and their ability to exert or resist against forces generated in a cellular environment. (mpg.de)
  • Actin filaments can assemble into a variety of architectures, including branched and crosslinked networks, parallel bundles, and anti-parallel contractile fibers. (mpg.de)
  • Several observations suggest that proteins that crosslink actin filaments may play an important role in cellular mechanosensitivity. (umd.edu)
  • In contrast, inhibition of formins that are responsible for polymerization of linear actin filaments does not cause faster F-actin turnover. (frontiersin.org)
  • F-actin comprises a meshwork of branched and linear filaments and provides structural support to dendritic spines. (frontiersin.org)
  • In support of this view, annexin 2 is found at membrane sites that function as assembly points for actin filaments. (biologists.org)
  • The monomeric G-actin has the ability to polymerize, thereby creating the F-actin polymer filaments (also named actin filaments or microfilaments). (ibidi.com)
  • This process is reversible, allowing the actin monomers to dissociate again from the ends of the actin filaments. (ibidi.com)
  • The shape changes necessary for cell migration depends on dynamic organization and force generation from the cell's internal actomyosin cytoskeleton, which is made up of structural actin filaments and contractile myosin motor proteins. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • Actin dynamics and rearrangements of actin filaments are crucial during structural and functional alterations of neurons in response to stress shaping synaptic plasticity and behavior [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • and (c) two in vitro effects: an inhibition of actin filament elongation (the high affinity effect [low dose effect] in vitro) and an effect on viscosity of actin filaments(the low affinity effect [high dose effect] in vitro). (rupress.org)
  • From the data obtained with the 24 cytochalasins, we have calculated correlation coefficients of 0.87 and 0.79 between an effect in vivo, inhibition of capping, and an effect in vitro, inhibition of actin filament elongation, as well as between inhibition of capping and another effect in vitro, effect on viscosity of actin filaments, respectively. (rupress.org)
  • In non-muscle cells, they are part of a highly dynamic system called the microfilament system, where the basic component are filaments formed from actin. (diva-portal.org)
  • In addition to that, it appears to be an important link between the transmembrane signalling and the mechanisms that polymerize actin into filaments. (diva-portal.org)
  • F-actin-capping proteins bind in a Ca 2+ -independent manner to the fast growing ends of actin filaments (barbed end) thereby blocking the exchange of subunits at these ends. (uniprot.org)
  • Unlike other capping proteins (such as gelsolin and severin), these proteins do not sever actin filaments. (uniprot.org)
  • Actin filaments form part of the cytoskeleton and play essential roles in regulating cell shape and movement. (abcam.com)
  • Phostensin, a protein phosphatase 1 F-actin cytoskeleton-targeting subunit encoded by KIAA1949 , consists of 165 amino acids and caps the pointed ends of actin filaments. (mdpi.com)
  • Our data indicate that the N -terminal region of phostensin (1-129) cannot bind to actin filaments and cannot retard the pointed end elongation of gelsolin-actin seeds. (mdpi.com)
  • Furthermore, the C -terminal region of phostensin (125-165) multiply bind to the sides of actin filaments and lacks the ability to block the pointed end elongation, suggesting that the actin-binding motif is located in the C -terminal region of the phostensin. (mdpi.com)
  • These results suggest that phostensin might fold into a rigid structure, allowing the N -terminus to sterically hinder the binding of C -terminus to the sides of actin filament, thus rendering phostensin binding to the pointed ends of actin filaments. (mdpi.com)
  • It is mainly concentrated at the cell periphery and colocalizes with actin filaments and protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). (mdpi.com)
  • Phostensin binds to the pointed ends of actin filaments, but not to actin monomers, the sides of filaments or the barbed ends of filaments [ 1 , 5 , 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Introduction of constitutively active SRF-VP16 into Srf( − / − ) ES cells, on the other hand, strongly induced expression of FA components and F-actin synthesis, leading to a dramatic reorganization of actin filaments into stress fibers and lamellipodia. (rupress.org)
  • Remodelling of preexisting actin filaments into such structures is mainly controlled by members of the Rho family of GTPases ( Nobes and Hall, 1995 ). (rupress.org)
  • RhoA activation leads to the formation of actin stress fibers, consisting of long bundles of filaments traversing the cell ( Ridley and Hall, 1992 ). (rupress.org)
  • We identify cycling of actin filaments onto and off of subsets of cellular mitochondria. (nature.com)
  • They play a leading role not only in muscle cells: Actin filaments are one of the most abundant proteins in all mammalian cells. (phys.org)
  • Filamin A, the Arp2/3 complex, and the morphology and function of cortical actin filaments in human melanoma cells. (nih.gov)
  • Microfilaments (gF, [1]) are linear filaments built up from the globular protein actin (G-actin, molecular weight of 43 kDa). (ebrary.net)
  • The actin filaments participate also in the linkage of transmembrane (e.g., cell surface receptors) to cytoplasmic proteins. (ebrary.net)
  • Figure 2.16 The organization of actin filaments in two types of epithelial cells, namely, fibroblasts and keratinocytes, visualized using phalloidin fluorescently labeled using Alexa Fluor 488. (ebrary.net)
  • It is believed that the diverse range of structures formed by actin enabling it to fulfill such a large range of functions is regulated through the binding of tropomyosin along the filaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • [4] Actin homologs from prokaryotes and archaea polymerize into different helical or linear filaments consisting of one or multiple strands. (wikipedia.org)
  • We are interested in the molecular organization of actin structures in their native environment, and how it enables actin filaments to exert or resist against forces. (mpg.de)
  • The protein actin forms filaments that provide cells with mechanical support and driving forces for movement. (sciencemag.org)
  • they depend on interactions of actin monomers and filaments with numerous other proteins. (sciencemag.org)
  • Actin and its bacterial counterparts polymerize into filaments ( Fig. 1 ) that offer myriad advantages to cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Actin is essential for the survival of most cells: Filaments provide internal mechanical support, tracks for movements of intracellular materials, and force to drive cell movements. (sciencemag.org)
  • Essentially all eukaryotes have genes for actin, and most have genes for myosin motor proteins that generate forces on actin filaments ( 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • In animals, actin filaments complement two other cytoskeletal polymers, microtubules and intermediate filaments ( Fig. 1B ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Actin filaments are red and bacteria are green. (sciencemag.org)
  • A bundle of actin filaments and a network of intermediate filaments are labeled. (sciencemag.org)
  • C ) Electron micrograph of the network of branched actin filaments at the leading edge (top) of a motile keratocyte. (sciencemag.org)
  • Actin and myosin were discovered during the 1940s in muscle, where the two proteins comprise highly regular arrays of filaments that make up more than half of the total protein. (sciencemag.org)
  • Two decades later, actin and myosin were discovered in other cells ( 4 , 5 ), revealing that muscle filaments are a specialized example of a common cellular system. (sciencemag.org)
  • Actin filaments appeared to accumulate between mitochondria and INF2-enriched ER membranes at constriction sites. (sciencemag.org)
  • Thus, INF2-induced actin filaments may drive initial mitochondrial constriction, which allows Drp1-driven secondary constriction. (sciencemag.org)
  • Actin filaments between the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria promote mitochondrial fission. (sciencemag.org)
  • Both formation of filaments, and actin's action as a molecular switch can be regulated by a variety of factors, including interactions with specific motifs, which mediate actin-protein interactions by binding to actin's hydrophobic cleft formed by subdomains 1 and 3. (eu.org)
  • Its polymerization kinetics are unusual, permitting only short, unstable F-actin filaments. (elifesciences.org)
  • A good candidate to form such connections is the protein actin, which in many organisms forms filaments that guide the transport of cargo molecules in the cell. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, previous research indicated that actin in T. gondii is incapable of forming these stable filaments. (elifesciences.org)
  • The actin filaments provide mechanical support for the cell, determine the cell shape, and enable cell movements through the use of lamellipodia, filopodia, or pseudopodia (cell extensions used for movement). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Actin filaments can also participate in certain cell junctions, such as those in cytoplasmic streaming when the cell cytoplasm is flowing, and in contraction of the cell during cytokinesis (division of the cell cytoplasm following nucleus division). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • It is as a polymer, F-actin, that it appears as thin filaments, which are interwoven with thick myosin filaments. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Much like the microtubules, which are also protein structures found in the cytoskeleton, actin filaments are polar and have two oppositely charged ends. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Another important component in filament production is the Arp2/3 complex, which nucleates new actin filaments while bound to existing filaments, thus creating a branched network. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Actin filaments are assembled in two general types of structures: bundles and networks. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Actin-binding proteins dictate the formation of either structure since they cross-link actin filaments. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Actin filaments have the appearance of a double-stranded helix. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In non-muscle actin bundles, the filaments are held together by actin-bundling proteins and/or cationic species so that they are parallel to each other. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Although rickettsiae moved more slowly, the actin filaments comprising the actin comet tail were significantly more stable, with an average half-life approximately three times that of L. monocytogenes (100.6 ± 19.2 s versus 33.0 ± 7.6 s, respectively). (asm.org)
  • In muscle, two long strands of beadlike actin molecules are twisted together to form a thin filament, bundles of which alternate and interdigitate with bundles of thick filaments formed of myosin, the most abundant protein found in muscle. (britannica.com)
  • Myosin works as a motor, hydrolyzing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to release energy in such a way that a myosin filament moves along an actin filament, causing the two filaments to slide past each other. (britannica.com)
  • Actin filaments are also an important component of the cytoskeleton in various cell types, where they are dynamic structures, continuously assembling and disassembling. (britannica.com)
  • In nonmuscle cells, meshworks of actin filaments play a role in different types of cellular movement. (britannica.com)
  • Among the central cytoskeletal regulators are actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin, which depolymerizes actin filaments, and twinfilin, which sequesters actin monomers and caps filament barbed ends. (rcsb.org)
  • Assembly of actin filaments, followed by centripetal displacement relative to the leading cell margin, has been observed in a wide variety of motile cells and appears to be a fundamental property of directed growth processes and cell migration (Cramer et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Here we show that Ta0583 assembles into bundles of filaments similar to those formed by eukaryotic actin. (asm.org)
  • An actin protein is the monomeric subunit of two types of filaments in cells: microfilaments, one of the three major components of the cytoskeleton, and thin filaments, part of the contractile apparatus in muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This review focuses on our current understanding of the mechanism of actin nucleation by the Arp2/3 complex and NPFs and how these factors work with other cytoskeletal proteins to generate structurally and functionally diverse actin arrays in cells. (nih.gov)
  • Northern blot analysis showed the expression of the beta-actin gene was only approximately 20% lower in 4-ABP-treated PC cells than in untreated controls, indicating the cellular change in actin was attributed to a shift between F- and G-actin proteins rather than to net actin synthesis. (cdc.gov)
  • Actin polarity is thought to be crucial for the inheritance of various organelles =-=(22)-=- and may be important for the asymmetric distribution of damaged proteins, as well. (psu.edu)
  • However, the past several years have seen a surge in the discovery of mammalian proteins with roles in actin nucleation and dynamics. (nih.gov)
  • Mass spectrometry analysis (MALDI-TOF and MS-MS) of SDS-PAGE-separated Akt co-immunoprecipitates allowed the identification of 10 proteins: α -actinin, valosin-containing protein, inhibitor κB kinase, mortalin, tubulin β, cytokeratin 8, actin, 14-3-3σ, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and heat shock protein HSP27. (mcponline.org)
  • A subset of effectors contains eukaryotic-like motifs that mimic host proteins to exploit signaling and modify specific cytoskeletal components such as actin and microtubules. (frontiersin.org)
  • The cytoskeleton is a three-dimensional network of polymeric proteins that provides structural support and assists numerous vital cellular functions. (frontiersin.org)
  • A large number of proteins sit at the interface between actin networks and membranes, playing diverse roles such as initiation of actin polymerization, modulation of membrane curvature, and signaling. (springer.com)
  • Here, we review the structure and function of mammalian BAR domain proteins and the many ways in which they are interconnected with the actin cytoskeleton. (springer.com)
  • Project: Structure function analysis of the interaction of actin binding proteins with cellular or physiological ligands. (ugent.be)
  • We will study protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions of actin binding proteins.We aim to understand the complex regulation of these proteins with respect to cytoskeletal dydnamics, signal transduction, cell adhesion, blood coagulation etc. (ugent.be)
  • We will make mutants of several actin binding proteins and investigate their biochemical behaviour. (ugent.be)
  • Tir recruits the adaptor protein Nck and in turn a number of actin-regulating proteins such as N-WASP and the Arp 2/3 complex. (biologists.org)
  • In contrast to GFP-actin and its alternatives such as actin-binding proteins, LifeAct does not interfere with actin dynamics in vivo and in vitro . (ibidi.com)
  • Methods: DRR1 domains were cloned and expressed as recombinant proteins to perform in vitro analysis of actin dynamics (binding, bundling, polymerization, and nucleation). (mdpi.com)
  • This third gathering of researchers devoted to the study of actin and actin-associated proteins was organized by Dr. James E. Estes, Albany Stratton V A Medical Center and Dr. Paul 1. (springer.com)
  • The proteins actin and myosin play central roles in this system. (diva-portal.org)
  • Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility and are ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells. (abcam.com)
  • Actins are highly conserved proteins expressed in all eucaryotic cells. (abcam.com)
  • The actin treadmilling cycle is temporally and spatially coordinated by signaling cascades that target actin binding proteins, such as ADF/cofilin and profilin ( Beckerle, 1998 ). (rupress.org)
  • Vinculin and zyxin are adaptors for other FA proteins, such as α-actinin, talin, F-actin, and VASP. (rupress.org)
  • When a muscle is activated, it is the proteins myosin and actin that go to work. (phys.org)
  • Proteins involved in actin-filament-based processes, specifically CDC42 and members of the ARP2/3 complex are crucial for establishment of Japanese encephalitis virus infection. (nih.gov)
  • Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility, and maintenance of the cytoskeleton. (genetex.com)
  • We discuss possible roles for Cax proteins in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. (genetics.org)
  • Several actin-binding proteins participate in the morphological changes that occur during amoeboid movement. (pasteur.fr)
  • Actin is a family of globular multi-functional proteins that form microfilaments . (wikipedia.org)
  • The evolutionary origin of actin can be traced to prokaryotic cells , which have equivalent proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • A large number of illnesses and diseases are caused by mutations in alleles of the genes that regulate the production of actin or of its associated proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequent research identified numerous proteins that regulate actin, analyzed their mechanisms of action, and linked the proteins to cellular processes. (sciencemag.org)
  • This book discusses in detail the structural, evolutionary and functional role of actin and its regulatory proteins in gliding motility in apicomplexan organisms, a unique phenomenon found in actin-myosin cytoskeletal elements. (springer.com)
  • The book also explores the potential of different actin regulators, namely formin, profilin, actin depolymerization factor (ADF), capping proteins (CPα and CPβ), cyclase-associated protein (CAP) and coronin 13-24 as potential drug targets against malaria. (springer.com)
  • As the chief components of the gliding motor, the actin-regulator proteins are characterized by unique features that make them promising targets for structure-based drug design. (springer.com)
  • Actin is a core structural component of the cytoskeleton, which owing to its ability to contract, polymerize and interact with a wide range of proteins influences many cellular functions such as the control of cell shape, motility, and polarity, as well as cellular transport. (eu.org)
  • RPEL motifs and WH2 motifs are present in a wide range of proteins and bind actin monomers in a hydrophobic cleft. (eu.org)
  • Formins are widespread actin-polymerizing proteins that play pivotal roles in a number of processes, such as cell polarity, morphogenesis, cytokinesis, and cell migration. (genetics.org)
  • Introduction Profilins are small actin-binding proteins that are essential for all eukaryotic cells. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • These activities depend on their interactions with three major cellular ligands: globular actin (G-actin) polyproline-containing proteins and phosphatidylinositols (e.g. phosphatidylinositol 4 5 site for the Rho-associated kinase ROCK [6]. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Actin is one of two major muscle proteins that play a crucial role in muscle cell contraction, the other protein being myosin . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • A relatively simple and ubiquitous protein, being found in most cells, Actin nonetheless demonstrates the extraordinary complexity-and one might say beauty-of creation, requiring a precise order of amino acids folded into a precise three-dimensional shape, and needing myosin, end capping proteins, ATP, and cell signaling mechanisms to function in muscle contraction. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Actin is one of the most abundant proteins in many eukaryotic cells, with concentrations of over 100 μM. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • End-capping proteins such as CapZ prevent the addition or loss of monomers at the filament end where actin turnover is unfavorable, like in the muscle apparatus. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • At first, I purified actomyosin preparations, which were thought to be composed of actin, myosin, and regulatory proteins. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in cell motility, structure and integrity. (wikipedia.org)
  • SRF may bring a number of other proteins to the promoter of skeletal actin, such as androgen receptor, and thereby contribute to induction of skeletal actin gene expression by androgenic (often termed "anabolic") steroids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two other muscle proteins, tropomyosin and troponin, regulate the temporary fusion of actin and myosin that results in the contraction of muscle. (britannica.com)
  • Both interact with actin through an ADF homology (ADF-H) domain, which is also found in several other actin-binding proteins. (rcsb.org)
  • However, in the absence of an atomic structure for the ADF-H domain in complex with actin, the mechanism by which these proteins interact with actin has remained unknown. (rcsb.org)
  • This domain binds between actin subdomains 1 and 3 through an interface that is conserved among ADF-H domain proteins. (rcsb.org)
  • In mitochondrial proteomes, simultaneously with the expression of viral proteins, the level of intact actin and tubulin was highly up-regulated. (jimmunol.org)
  • Realizing that Banga's coagulating myosin preparations contained actin as well, Szent-Györgyi called the mixture of both proteins actomyosin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coupling between the two cytoskeleton components is introduced in form of transient binding of actin-MT crosslinkers, or by proteins that interact both with actin and MT plus-end-binding proteins. (tudelft.nl)
  • For over a decade, the actin-related protein 2/3 (ARP2/3) complex, a handful of nucleation-promoting factors and formins were the only molecules known to directly nucleate actin filament formation de novo. (nih.gov)
  • Jasnin M., Crevenna A.H.: Quantitative analysis of filament branch orientation in Listeria actin comet tails. (mpg.de)
  • In contrast, loss of either Rictor or Myo1c inhibits phosphorylation of the actin filament regulatory protein paxillin at tyrosine 118. (asm.org)
  • Actin filament assembly typically occurs in association with cellular membranes. (springer.com)
  • The part of an actin filament where the structure forks. (zfin.org)
  • DRR1 enhances actin bundling, the cellular F-actin content, and serum response factor (SRF)-dependent transcription, while it diminishes actin filament elongation, cell spreading, and actin treadmilling. (mdpi.com)
  • The results strengthen the view that profilin plays a role in the activation of the microfilament system, and provides evidence that the profilin:actin complex is the precursor for filament formation and that dissociation of the complex is a crucial step in the polymerization reaction. (diva-portal.org)
  • Seems to contact the mother actin filament. (uniprot.org)
  • Here, we have verified the existence of an actin-binding motif in the C -terminal domain of phostensin using colocalization, F-actin co-sedimentation and single filament binding assays. (mdpi.com)
  • Further analyses indicate that phostensin binding to the pointed end of actin filament requires N -terminal residues 35 to 51. (mdpi.com)
  • Integrins are transmembrane receptors that, upon activation, bind extracellular ligands and link them to the actin filament (F-actin) cytoskeleton to mediate cell adhesion and migration. (pnas.org)
  • Two such fibers are twisted around each other in a helix to form a single actin filament with a diameter of about 7 nm. (ebrary.net)
  • Within a cell, there are two types of actin filament organization. (ebrary.net)
  • Micrographs of actin filament structures in cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Furthermore, testin RNAi induced a dramatic disruption on the arrangement of actin filament bundles and a reduced F‐actin/G‐actin ratio. (popcouncil.org)
  • 1 Actin Filament Nucleation and Polymerization. (ufl.edu)
  • It acts via interactions with G-actin, thus promoting or inhibiting the filament assembly. (eu.org)
  • Actin is a globular structural protein that polymerizes in a helical fashion to form an actin filament (or microfilament ). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • ATP-actin then binds the plus (+) end, and the ATP is subsequently hydrolyzed, which reduces the binding strength between neighboring units and generally destabilizes the filament. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Based on this structure, we suggest a mechanism by which ADF/cofilin and twinfilin inhibit nucleotide exchange of actin monomers and present a model for how ADF/cofilin induces filament depolymerization by weakening intrafilament interactions. (rcsb.org)
  • Bray pioneered the investigation of growth cone motility and was the first to observe that inert particles placed on the growth cone surface would move in a retrograde direction, suggestive of an underlying centripetal membrane or actin filament flux (Bray, 1970). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Early studies also demonstrated that growth cone motility depends on actin filament assembly (Yamada and Wessells, 1973), and a critical role for actin assembly in axonal guidance emerged when axons in the developing grasshopper nervous system were shown to lose all path-finding capabilities upon treatment with cytochalasin (Bentley and Toroion-Raymond, 1986). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Later, studies characterizing actin dynamics in Aplysia growth cones in vitro suggested that the retrograde flux mentioned above is actually due to actin filament assembly at nucleation sites along the leading edge, followed by retrograde translocation and filament disassembly or recycling by means of severing at a proximal site. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In our initial characterization of actin filament dynamics in Aplysia growth cones, we noted that when cones were treated with 2-5 [[micro]molar] cytochalasin, retrograde flow did not appear to be markedly affected. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Specifically, Ta0583 forms a helix with a filament width of 5.5 nm and an axial repeating unit of 5.5 nm, both of which are comparable to those of eukaryotic actin. (asm.org)
  • Importantly, the relaxation behaviour of the cell can be characterised by a material model with two time constants that have previously been found to predict mechanical behaviour of actin and intermediate filament networks. (diva-portal.org)
  • This indicates that actin and intermediate filament networks are instrumental in providing elastic stiffness in response to applied forces, as well as governing the relaxation behaviour over shorter and longer time-scales, respectively. (diva-portal.org)
  • Finally, we characterized a network of miR-142-3p targets which collectively control actin filament homeostasis, thereby ensuring proper execution of actin-dependent proplatelet formation. (elifesciences.org)
  • The ability of STARS to promote the nuclear localization of MRTFs and SRF-mediated transcription provides a potential muscle-specific mechanism for linking changes in actin dynamics and sarcomere structure with striated muscle gene expression. (asm.org)
  • At least two signaling pathways are known to modulate SRF activity, one involving the phosphorylation of ternary complex factors (TCFs) of the Ets domain family and another controlled by Rho family small GTPases and actin dynamics ( 9 , 11 , 13 , 14 , 22 , 29 ). (asm.org)
  • Further observation of actin dynamics in real-time using live cell microscopy revealed a difference in the direction of actin flow at the two curvatures. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • Downregulated in renal cell carcinoma 1 (DRR1) protein was characterized as the link between stress, actin dynamics, neuronal function, and cognition. (mdpi.com)
  • Conclusions: DRR1 impacts actin dynamics in several ways with implications for cytoskeletal dynamics in stress physiology and pathophysiology. (mdpi.com)
  • The activity of serum response factor (SRF), an essential transcription factor in mouse gastrulation, is regulated by changes in actin dynamics. (rupress.org)
  • Over 14 min, actin cycles through all mitochondrial subpopulations, locally enhancing mitochondrial dynamics, which facilitates network remodelling and content mixing. (nature.com)
  • The increased pERK1/2 was tightly correlated with spatiotemporal actin dynamics. (jneurosci.org)
  • Inhibition of actin polymerization reduces subtelomere dynamics, resulting in more confined territories and enrichment in subtelomeric contacts. (biologists.org)
  • Overall, interphase chromosome dynamics are modulated by the additive effects of cytoskeletal actin through forces mediated by the nuclear envelope and nuclear actin, probably through the function of actin in chromatin-remodeling complexes. (biologists.org)
  • In this study, we aimed at further investigating the potential influence of actin on chromosome dynamics. (biologists.org)
  • Lastly, the book proposes a mathematical model, based on kinetic data mining, to help understand the most vital regulators for actin polymerization dynamics. (springer.com)
  • We studied the organization and dynamics of the actin network in nonadhesive regions of cells bridging fibronectin-coated adhesive strips. (elsevier.com)
  • 1 Overview of Actin Dynamics. (ufl.edu)
  • Cell polarization is strictly linked to the reorganization of the cytoskeleton and in particular of the actin network, whose dynamics must be tightly controlled for polarized processes to occur properly. (genetics.org)
  • Profilin-1 (PFN1) plays an important role in the control of actin dynamics and could represent an important therapeutic target in several diseases. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Collectively, these data identify new roles for actin in the intracellular phase of the parasites lytic cycle and provide a robust new tool for imaging parasitic F-actin dynamics. (elifesciences.org)
  • Actin dynamics provide the driving force for many cellular processes including motility and endocytosis. (rcsb.org)
  • and in turn, how actin structures within the cell are affected by varying MT dynamics. (tudelft.nl)
  • Furthermore, cells need a tightly regulated and highly coordinated actin polymerization and depolymerization system for cell division (22 , 23) , thereby providing cell motility and adhesion and typical cell morphology. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Most members of this family have been implicated in cellular functions that require dynamic remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, such as endocytosis, organelle trafficking, cell motility, and T-tubule biogenesis in muscle cells. (springer.com)
  • The Arp2/3 complex promotes homologous recombination (HR) repair in response to DNA damage by promoting nuclear actin polymerization, leading to drive motility of double-strand breaks (DSBs) (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • This complex is located at the cell surface and is essential to cell shape and motility through lamellipodial actin assembly and protrusion. (nih.gov)
  • The beta and gamma actins co-exist in most cell types as components of the cytoskeleton, and as mediators of internal cell motility. (genetex.com)
  • A feature of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) relevant to tumour dissemination is the reorganization of actin cytoskeleton/focal contacts, influencing cellular ECM adherence and motility. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Actin participates in many important cellular processes, including muscle contraction , cell motility , cell division and cytokinesis , vesicle and organelle movement, cell signaling , and the establishment and maintenance of cell junctions and cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • This booklet provides the most recent advancements of those new multiscale methods of strength and stream powered via self-assembly approaches, with the desire to starting our views at the many parts of actin-based motility research. (seabearaircraft.com)
  • 3 Actin-Based Motility of Bacterial Pathogens. (ufl.edu)
  • 60 Implications for Actin-Based Motility. (ufl.edu)
  • Dynamic regulation of F-actin cytoskeleton is critical to numerous physical cellular processes, including cell motility, cell division and cytokinesis, cell signaling, and the establishment and maintenance of cell junctions and cell shape. (hindawi.com)
  • Actin-based motility (ABM) is a virulence mechanism exploited by invasive bacterial pathogens in the genera Listeria , Shigella , and Rickettsia . (asm.org)
  • Eukaryotic cells use actin polymerization to change shape, move, and internalize extracellular materials by phagocytosis and endocytosis, and to form contractile structures. (nih.gov)
  • Actin, a highly conserved protein comprising cell stress fibers and other cellular structures, is found in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of cells and responds to both epigenetic signals and altered gene expression occurring during tumorigenesis. (cdc.gov)
  • These structures provide architectural specificities for different regions of the cell, and can also organize into more complex actin-based machineries. (mpg.de)
  • Palladin is an actin-crosslinking protein that is found in the lamellar actin network, stress fibers and focal adhesions, cellular structures that are critical for mechanosensing of the physical environment. (umd.edu)
  • However, the effect of topography on fluctuations of intracellular structures, which arise from motor driven activity on a viscoelastic actin network are not known. (umd.edu)
  • This endocytotic mechanism relies on the collapse and closure of precursory structures, which are propagating actin-based, ring-shaped vertical undulations at the dorsal (top) cell membrane, a.k.a. circular dorsal ruffles (CDRs). (tu-berlin.de)
  • LifeAct stains filamentous actin structures in living or fixed eukaryotic cells and tissues. (ibidi.com)
  • This anterograde flow drives the assembly of distinct, polarized actin structures at these regions of negative curvature. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • Interestingly, the formation of these polarized actin structures in response to negative curvature was observed in single cells and cell sheets migrating on a 2D surface, and in cells embedded in 3D fibrous networks. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • These defects correlate with defective formation of cytoskeletal structures, namely actin stress fibers and focal adhesion (FA) plaques. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, using ES cell genetics, we demonstrate for the first time the importance of SRF for the formation of actin-directed cytoskeletal structures that determine cell spreading, adhesion, and migration. (rupress.org)
  • PIP 2 cortical structures overlap with F-actin, and coincide with the actin regulators RHO-1 and CDC-42, as well as ECT-2. (biologists.org)
  • Particle image velocimetry analysis revealed that PIP 2 and F-actin cortical movements are coupled, with PIP 2 structures moving slightly ahead of F-actin. (biologists.org)
  • He and colleagues pioneered the use of super resolution microscopy to determine the molecular organization of large cellular structures at the nanoscale. (nih.gov)
  • The most prominent actin structures in cells cultured on flat surfaces are stress fibers (SFs), which have been further classified into different subclasses (Fig 1A) [5,6]. (scisurf.com)
  • Cb labels filamentous actin structures within the parasite cytosol and labels an extensive F-actin network that connects parasites within the parasitophorous vacuole and allows vesicles to be exchanged between parasites. (elifesciences.org)
  • In addition to the evolutionary origin of eukaryotic cellular structures, the origins of eukaryote-specific components, including the cytoskeleton, have generated a great deal of interest. (asm.org)
  • In biomechanics, a complete understanding of the structures and mechanisms that regulate cellular stiffness at a molecular level remain elusive. (diva-portal.org)
  • Actin is a multifunctional protein that forms microfilaments presented either as a free monomer called G-actin or as a polymer microfilament called F-actin. (hindawi.com)
  • Elevation of the level of full-length PVR also gave rise to prominent phenotypes, characterized by higher levels of actin microfilaments at the basolateral areas of the cells and irregular folding of the tissue. (biologists.org)
  • G-actin monomers inhibit SRF activity, whereas polymerization of actin in response to serum stimulation and RhoA signaling stimulates SRF activity by depleting the cellular pool of inhibitory G-actin ( 9 , 13 , 25 , 29 ). (asm.org)
  • The individual subunits of actin (monomers) are known as globular actin, or for short G-actin. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The process of actin polymerization starts with the association of three G-actin monomers into a trimer. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Akt protein modulates the function of several downstream substrates involved in the regulation of cell survival, cell cycle progression, and cellular growth. (mcponline.org)
  • Moreover, altered regulation of the neuronal actin cytoskeleton has been implicated in neuropsychiatric diseases such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we investigated whether myosin XVI plays a role for actin cytoskeleton regulation in the dendritic spines of cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs), a neuronal cell type crucial for motor learning, social cognition and vocalization. (frontiersin.org)
  • There are indications that the myosin might be involved in actin cytoskeleton regulation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Interestingly, another function attributed to mTORC2 is the regulation of actin organization ( 23 ), particularly under serum-restimulated conditions ( 12 ), but the mechanisms behind this have not been defined. (asm.org)
  • Functions as actin-binding component of the Arp2/3 complex which is involved in regulation of actin polymerization and together with an activating nucleation-promoting factor (NPF) mediates the formation of branched actin networks. (uniprot.org)
  • 19 , 20 Moreover, the overexpression of either dominant-negative or constitutively active RhoA prohibits induction of actin stress fibers and morphological restructuring, 19 demonstrating that shear modulation of short-term signaling events, such as temporal regulation of RhoA activity, is crucially linked to long-term outcomes of exposing endothelial cells to flow. (ahajournals.org)
  • Verprolin was originally found to play an important role in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton in yeast. (jimmunol.org)
  • The current review provides mechanistic insight into actin cytoskeletal regulation of cortical development in the context of this malformation of cortical development. (harvard.edu)
  • We have previously shown that changes in the cytoplasmic F- and G-actin ratios reflect bladder cancer risk. (cdc.gov)
  • To determine whether nuclear actin is also altered and how nuclear and cytoplasmic actin alterations are interrelated in transformation, an in vitro model of carcinogen-induced transformation consisting of 2 human uroepithelial cell lines immortalized by infection with SV-40 was studied. (cdc.gov)
  • Cytoplasmic and nuclear F- and G-actin were determined by QFIA on individual cells using fluorochrome-labeled phallicidin and DNase, I, respectively. (cdc.gov)
  • Before exposure to 4-ABP, the PC cells had lower cytoplasmic F-actin content, higher cytoplasmic G-actin content, but similar levels of nuclear G- and F-actin in comparison to the BC cells. (cdc.gov)
  • After incubation with 4-ABP, F-actin decreased and G-actin increased in both cytoplasm and nuclei of PC cells and cytoplasmic F-actin fibers were lost, but only cytoplasmic actin was altered in the BC cells. (cdc.gov)
  • When nuclear export of the actin was induced by 12- O -tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, DNA synthesis of the senescent cells increased significantly, accompanied with changes of morphologic and biochemical profiles, such as increased RB protein phosphorylation and decreased expressions of p21 WAF1 , cytoplasmic p-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and caveolins 1 and 2. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 17178911 ). In addition to its role in the cytoplasmic cytoskeleton, the Arp2/3 complex also promotes actin polymerization in the nucleus, thereby regulating gene transcription and repair of damaged DNA (Probable). (uniprot.org)
  • The other actins, such as beta- and gamma-cytoplasmic, striated muscle and myocardium are not stained by this alpha smooth muscle Actin antibody. (abcam.com)
  • Actin, gamma 1, encoded by this gene, is a cytoplasmic actin found in nonmuscle cells. (genetex.com)
  • The cortex has recently attracted increasing attention and its functions in cellular processes such as cytokinesis, cell migration, and embryogenesis are progressively being dissected. (nih.gov)
  • In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the structural organization, composition, and mechanics of the actin cortex, focusing on the link between molecular processes and macroscopic physical properties. (nih.gov)
  • In fungi the actin cytoskeleton is involved in numerous cellular processes including: cell polarity, cytokinesis, endocytosis, exocytosis, bud site selection, cell wall remodelling and cell shape d. (psu.edu)
  • Actin plays important roles in many biological processes, such as establishing cell polarization, accommodating protruding and retracting activities of motile cells, maintaining the physical integrity of the cell, and sensing environmental forces. (mpg.de)
  • We aim to understand how the native molecular architectures of actin-based cellular processes give rise to force generation and rigidity-sensing. (mpg.de)
  • The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an atypical serine/threonine kinase that integrates intracellular and extracellular signals from numerous pathways to regulate key cellular processes, including metabolism and cell growth. (asm.org)
  • To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms, we undertook a domain analysis of DRR1 and probed the effects on actin binding, polymerization, and bundling, as well as on actin-dependent cellular processes. (mdpi.com)
  • Cellular actin-dependent processes were analyzed in transfected HeLa cells with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and confocal microscopy. (mdpi.com)
  • Lpd was expressed in F-actin-rich distal dendritic processes and was required for both basal and M-Ras-mediated dendrite development. (jneurosci.org)
  • Many of these processes are mediated by extensive and intimate interactions of actin with cellular membranes . (wikipedia.org)
  • Actin therefore contributes to processes such as the intracellular transport of vesicles and organelles as well as muscular contraction and cellular migration . (wikipedia.org)
  • Actin contributes to biological processes such as sensing environmental forces, internalizing membrane vesicles, moving over surfaces, and dividing the cell in two. (sciencemag.org)
  • Actin is the most abundant protein in highly developed cells and has diverse functions in processes like cell stabilization, cell division and muscle. (innovations-report.com)
  • THE ability to polarize is a fundamental property of all types of cells, being crucial for numerous cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and morphogenesis. (genetics.org)
  • Physical limits of stability emerge as one important element of the cellular response that complements the structural changes affected by regulatory systems in response to mechanical processes. (uni-hd.de)
  • Furthermore, the intracellular localization of VP4, its interaction with lipid rafts, and its targeting to the cell surface were shown to be prevented by jasplakinolide, implying a role for actin in these processes. (asm.org)
  • The actin cytoskeleton regulates many important cellular processes in the brain, including cell division and proliferation, migration, and cytokinesis and differentiation. (harvard.edu)
  • These developmental processes can be regulated through actin dependent vesicle and organelle movement, cell signaling, and the establishment and maintenance of cell junctions and cell shape. (harvard.edu)
  • Genes causal for PH have also been implicated in actin-dependent processes. (harvard.edu)
  • microRNAs serve a very important regulatory role in our bodies and are involved in virtually all cellular processes, including the production of all classes of blood and immune cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • however, there is a growing body of work indicating that the cooperative functioning of actin and microtubules is a central element for many cellular key processes, including cell division, cell migration, and adhesion. (tudelft.nl)
  • Recently, MRTF-A/MAL was shown to associate with G-actin, resulting in its sequestration in the cytoplasm of NIH 3T3 cells. (asm.org)
  • In the course of the immunofluorescence microscope study on cytochalasin-treated cells using actin antibody, we have found that aspochalasin D, a 10-isopropylcytochalasin, strongly induced the formation of rodlets containing actin in the cytoplasm of the treated fibroblasts. (rupress.org)
  • In the cytoplasm, actin exists in a dynamic interplay between its monomeric form, G-actin, and its polymerized form F-actin. (biologists.org)
  • Many modern species of prokaryotes use actin relatives to maintain asymmetrical shapes and to move DNA through the cytoplasm. (sciencemag.org)
  • There, RPEL-mediated G-actin binding (regulated by Rho-signalling controlled actin polymerization) causes the protein's retention in the cytoplasm by blocking the NLS and thus prevents the formation of the MRTF-SRF transcription- activating complex. (eu.org)
  • In the cytosol (fluid component of cytoplasm), actin is predominantly bound to adenosine triphosphate , or ATP. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The actin tail associated with intracytoplasmic rickettsiae remained stationary in the cytoplasm as the organism moved forward. (asm.org)
  • In this paper, we have elucidated the role of filamentous actin (F-actin) in regulating elastic and viscous properties of the cytoplasm and the nucleus. (diva-portal.org)
  • We found that the treatment with LatB not only reduced cellular stiffness, but also greatly increased the relaxation rate for the cytoplasm in the peripheral region and in the vicinity of the nucleus. (diva-portal.org)
  • The cortex is a thin, crosslinked actin network lying immediately beneath the plasma membrane of animal cells. (nih.gov)
  • Heinrich D., Ecke M., Jasnin M., Engel U., Gerisch G.: Reversible membrane pearling in live cells upon destruction of the actin cortex. (mpg.de)
  • Abou-Kheir W, Isaac B, Yamaguchi H, Cox D (2008) Membrane targeting of WAVE2 is not sufficient for WAVE2-dependent actin polymerization: a role for IRSp53 in mediating the interaction between Rac and WAVE2. (springer.com)
  • Annexin 2 is a Ca 2+ -regulated membrane protein and an F-actin-binding protein enriched at actin assembly sites both, on the plasma membrane and on endosomal vesicles. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, the direct interaction of annexin 2 with PtdIns(4,5) P 2 is a means of specifically recruiting the annexin 2-p11 complex to sites of membrane-associated actin assembly. (biologists.org)
  • Although all annexins share this core domain, they show a certain degree of non-overlapping specificity with respect to their cellular target membrane. (biologists.org)
  • Moreover, annexin 2 and its ligand p11 are recruited to actin assembly sites at the plasma membrane of HeLa cells, infected with non-invading entheropathogenic Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) (EPEC). (biologists.org)
  • In positive curvature induced lamellipodia, the flow of actin was retrograde, i.e. away from the cell membrane in the opposite direction to the protrusion. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • Conversely, at negative curvatures the actin flow was anterograde, i.e. towards the cell membrane where the actin cable was located. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • Actin stress fibers are linked to integrins at the inner surface of the plasma membrane involving a multicomponent protein complex called focal adhesion (FA) * ( Critchley, 2000 ). (rupress.org)
  • In OT neurons, OT initially increased F-actin, particularly at membrane subcortical areas, and then decreased it after 30 min. (jneurosci.org)
  • In intact animals, suckling increased ERK1/2 activation in the cytosol and membrane subcortical area F-actin formation in OT neurons, whereas it increased F-actin concentration in astrocytic somata. (jneurosci.org)
  • Furthermore, the Ena/VASP-binding region within Lpd was required for dendrite development, and its membrane targeting was sufficient to overcome the Sema4D-mediated reduction of dendritic outgrowth and disappearance of F-actin from distal dendrites. (jneurosci.org)
  • Various whole cell extracts (30 μg) were separated by 10% SDS-PAGE, and the membrane was blotted with alpha Sarcomeric Actin antibody (GTX101794) diluted at 1:1000. (genetex.com)
  • Overall, our work establishes that a lipid membrane component, PIP 2 , modulates actin organization and cell polarity in C. elegans embryos. (biologists.org)
  • Previous studies have described individual cellular elements with potential mechanosignaling properties, including ion channels, 6 integrins, 7 the glycocalyx, 8 cilia, 9 platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), 10 various receptors for humoral compounds, 11 the cytoskeleton, 12 and the plasma membrane, including lipid raft and caveolar subdomains. (ahajournals.org)
  • Thus, ubiquitylation of formin or a formin interactor(s) could promote formin binding to membrane and its ability to nucleate actin. (genetics.org)
  • developed a new tool of fluorescence markers that specifically bind to actin in T. gondii and found extensive actin networks that connected parasites with each other and also to the membrane of the parasitophorous vacuole. (elifesciences.org)
  • Lipid rafts (LRs), the specialized cholesterol- and glycosphingolipid-rich microdomains in the cellular membrane, have been reported to play an important role in the activation of B cells, including effects on B cell antigen receptor- (BCR-) initiated signal transduction, endocytosis of BCR-antigen complexes, loading of antigenic peptides onto MHC class II molecules, and receipt of helper signals via the CD40 receptor [ 6 , 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • the kinetics and thermodynamics of self-assembly, the dissipative nature of actin po- merization, the molecular interactions of monomeric and polymerized actin with regulators, the mechanical houses of actin gels, and extra lately the strength p- ducing motile and morphogenetic procedures equipped through the actin nanomachine in line with signaling, are all milestones in actin study. (seabearaircraft.com)
  • It exists in two forms: G-actin (monomeric globular actin) and F-actin (polymeric fibrous actin), the form involved in muscle contraction. (britannica.com)
  • Monomeric actin has a molecular mass of about 43 kDa and can polymerize to form F-actin, which comprises two protofilaments that form a right-handed double helix ( 6 , 13 , 23 , 29 ). (asm.org)
  • I further demonstrated that palladin bands along actin stress fibers undergo a complex diffusive motion with velocities aligned along the direction of ridges. (umd.edu)
  • Actin bundles, called stress fibers, bridge sites of adhesion to the substrate. (sciencemag.org)
  • The following loci were tagged: LMNB1 (lamin B1, nuclear envelope), TUBA1B (α-tubulin 1b, microtubules), ACTB (β-actin, actin stress fibers) by BFP, GFP and RFP respectively in the same cells (U2OS). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 1 Several, now classic, studies 2 - 5 illustrate that in vitro and in vivo, actin stress fibers orient parallel to the direction of flow and are prominent in endothelial cells subjected to high shear velocities. (ahajournals.org)
  • Here we demonstrate this approach for the contractility of actin stress fibers, which we investigate experimentally with UZOS-cells and theoretically with an active cable network model. (scisurf.com)
  • However, the role of actin crosslinkers in general, and palladin in particular, in cellular force generation and mechanosensing is not well known. (umd.edu)
  • A next step will be to further investigate the role of actin in T. gondii and other parasites using the tools developed by Periz et al. (elifesciences.org)
  • Although the contribution of actin to mitochondrial fission has been examined at the level of the individual organelle, much less is known about how the actin cytoskeleton regulates the mitochondrial fission/fusion balance on a cell-wide level. (nature.com)
  • Overall, our study sheds light on how repulsive guidance molecules regulate actin cytoskeleton in dendrites, revealing a novel mechanism that the M-Ras-Lpd system regulates actin-based dendrite remodeling by Sema/Plexin in rats or mice of either sex. (jneurosci.org)
  • Neurosteroid allopregnanolone regulates EAAC1-mediated glutamate uptake and triggers actin changes in Schwann cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • WASP expression is limited to hemopoietic cells, and WASP regulates the actin cytoskeleton. (jimmunol.org)
  • Together, the system built of FAs, SFs and actin networks regulates cell shape and the distribution of stresses on the substrate, thereby mediating the mechanical interactions of the cell with the extracellular environment [1,3,7]. (scisurf.com)
  • Via polymerization and depolymerization, the actin cytoskeleton regulates a number of cellular functions. (hindawi.com)
  • The actin cytoskeleton regulates many aspects of cellular and organismal biology. (sciencemag.org)
  • Cellular control of actin nucleation. (nih.gov)
  • Newly recognized nucleation-promoting factors, such as WASP and SCAR homologue (WASH), WASP homologue associated with actin, membranes and microtubules (WHAMM), and junction-mediating regulatory protein (JMY), stimulate ARP2/3 activity at distinct cellular locations. (nih.gov)
  • leton either directly or indirectly through its interactions with components of the actin/septin machinery (Fig. 4A). (psu.edu)
  • Recent studies have broadened understanding of molecular mechanisms controlling bacteria-cytoskeleton interactions and their impact on cellular infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • To investigate this question, we used live-cell imaging to examine the dynamic interactions of actin with mitochondria. (nature.com)
  • Coimmunoprecipitation showed that suckling increased molecular interactions between pERK1/2 and actin. (jneurosci.org)
  • This is the first demonstration that OT mediation of suckling-evoked bursts/milk ejections is via interactions between pERK1/2 and actin cytoskeleton. (jneurosci.org)
  • To better understand the origin of these movements, we used fluorescence microscopy, image analysis and chromosome conformation capture to quantify the actin contribution to chromosome movements and interactions in budding yeast. (biologists.org)
  • The function of actin in the cell is regulated in a variety of ways, including interactions with the RPEL motifs and WH2 motifs, which bind to actin's hydrophobic cleft formed by its subdomains 1 and 3. (eu.org)
  • P which is putatively stabilizing WH2- actin interactions. (eu.org)
  • However, the molecular mechanisms governing the interactions between adherens junction components and the actin cytoskeleton remain largely unresolved issues. (biologists.org)
  • We also detect accelerated F-actin turnover upon interference with the WRC, and upon inhibition of Arp2/3 that drives formation of branched F-actin downstream of the WRC. (frontiersin.org)
  • Together, our data establish myosin XVI as a regulator of the postsynaptic actin cytoskeleton and suggest that it is an upstream activator of the WRC-Arp2/3 pathway in PC spines. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cycling requires dynamic actin polymerization and is blocked by inhibitors of both Arp2/3 and formins. (nature.com)
  • We made the unexpected observation that filamentous actin (F-actin) cyclically associates with distinct mitochondrial subpopulations in an Arp2/3- and formin-dependent manner, to regulate mitochondrial networks within the cell. (nature.com)
  • Actin-Related Protein 2 (ARP2) and Virus-Induced Filopodia Facilitate Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Spread. (nih.gov)
  • Actin-related protein (Arp2) inserts into artificial lipid membranes. (nih.gov)
  • we show that drebrin and hCDC14A regulate the recruitment of the actin organizer Arp2 to centrosomes. (nih.gov)
  • Recently, the Toca-1 protein (transducer of Cdc42-dependent actin assembly) was identified as a crucial intermediate required for Cdc42-neural WASP (N-WASP)-Arp2/3 complex-induced actin polymerization in cell extracts ( 20 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Both polymerization and depolymerization of actin cytoskeleton were associated with bursts, but only polymerization facilitated OT-evoked bursts. (jneurosci.org)
  • Interestingly, the major protein band observed in Akt co-immunoprecipitates was found to be the cytoskeleton protein actin for which a 14-fold increase was observed in Akt-activated compared with non-activated conditions. (mcponline.org)
  • The strong positive correlation among low and high dose effects in vivo and those in vitro suggests that most of the effects caused by a cytochalasin, irrespective of doses or affected phenomena, might be attributed to the interaction between the drug and the common target protein, actin. (rupress.org)
  • Nuclear accumulation of globular actin (G-actin) and dephosphorylated cofilin was highly significant in the senescent HDF cells, accompanied with inhibition of LIM kinase (LIMK) -1 activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Mutations in the different genes that regulate actin production in humans can cause muscular diseases , variations in the size and function of the heart as well as deafness . (wikipedia.org)
  • A radially symmetrical system of actin bundles consisting of α-actinin-enriched radial fibres (RFs) and myosin-IIA-enriched transverse fibres (TFs) evolved spontaneously into the chiral system as a result of the unidirectional tilting of all RFs, which was accompanied by a tangential shift in the retrograde movement of TFs. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Model-based traction force microscopy reveals differential tension in cellular actin bundles. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • These actin bundles reflect an adaptive response to shear stress that may aid endothelial cells in withstanding elevated hemodynamic stress, as in the case of hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
  • These cellular forces are mainly generated by myosin II motors that interact with different types of actin networks and bundles [3,4]. (scisurf.com)
  • We evaluated the nuclear actin accumulation as a new marker of cellular senescence, using human diploid fibroblast (HDF), chondrocyte primary cultures, Mv1Lu epithelial cells, and Huh7 cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Significance of these findings was strengthened additionally by the fact that nuclear actin export of young HDF cells was inhibited by the treatment with leptomycin B and mutant cofilin transfection, whose LIMK-1 phosphorylation site was lost, and the old cell phenotypes were duplicated with nuclear actin accumulation, suggesting that nuclear actin accumulation was accompanied with G1 arrest during cellular senescence. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Nuclear actin accumulation was much more sensitive and an earlier event than the well-known, senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We show that both the cytoskeletal and nuclear actin drive local chromosome movements, independently of Csm4, a putative LINC protein. (biologists.org)
  • Remarkably, we show here that the Rictor protein is also present in cultured adipocytes in complexes containing Myo1c, a molecular motor that promotes cortical actin remodeling. (asm.org)
  • Taken together, our findings suggest that the Rictor-Myo1c complex is distinct from mTORC2 and that Myo1c, in conjunction with Rictor, participates in cortical actin remodeling events. (asm.org)
  • Most aspects of polarized growth in budding yeast arise from a precise arrangement of the cortical actin cytoskeleton during the cell cycle. (genetics.org)
  • Using a phospho-Akt substrate antibody, the phosphorylation of actin on an Akt consensus site was detected upon growth factor stimulation, both in cellulo and in vitro , suggesting that actin is a substrate of Akt kinase activity. (mcponline.org)
  • Rabbit polyclonal alpha smooth muscle Actin antibody. (abcam.com)
  • Alpha smooth muscle actin antibody (ab5694) stains smooth muscle cells in vessel walls, gut wall, and myometrium. (abcam.com)
  • Alpha smooth muscle actin antibody (ab5694) was raised against a synthetic peptide corresponding to N-terminus of actin from human smooth muscle. (abcam.com)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human Spleen, using gamma Actin(GTX101794) antibody(10 μg/ml). (genetex.com)
  • cellular target of the antibody. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • It binds to actin and controls its polymerizability. (diva-portal.org)
  • We found that ABP-120 from E. histolytica binds to F-actin. (pasteur.fr)
  • The model explains head coordination by showing that the lead head only binds to actin after the powerstroke in the trail head and that it only undergoes its powerstroke after the trail head unbinds from actin. (mendeley.com)
  • The protein cofilin binds to ADP-actin units and promotes their dissociation from the minus end and prevents their reassembly. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • One key transcription factor that activates skeletal actin gene expression is Serum Response Factor ("SRF"), a protein that binds to specific sites on the promoter DNA of the actin gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • E. Bernitt, H.-G. Dobereiner, N. S. Gov, and A. Yochelis, Fronts and waves of actin polymerization in a bistability-based mechanism of circular dorsal ruffles. (tu-berlin.de)
  • Previously, we described a muscle-specific actin-binding protein named striated muscle activator of Rho signaling (STARS) that also activates SRF through a Rho-dependent mechanism. (asm.org)
  • In contrast, the activation of SRF target genes in response to Rho signaling is dependent on actin polymerization and occurs through a TCF-independent mechanism ( 11 , 13 , 29 ). (asm.org)
  • This automatically created a concave shape across the non-adherent circle, which caused a rapid switch in the direction of actomyosin flow from retrograde to anterograde, resulting in assembly of an actin cable and a switch in migration mechanism. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • We propose that cyclic assembly of actin onto mitochondria modulates the fission/fusion balance, promotes network remodelling and content mixing, and thus may serve as an essential mechanism regulating mitochondrial network homeostasis. (nature.com)
  • Pioneering research on muscle established general principles that apply to actin assembly and function in all cells, including the mechanism used by myosin to produce force and movement from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis ( 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • However, the mechanism for Drp1 recruitment to mitochondria is unclear, although previous results implicate actin involvement. (sciencemag.org)
  • Because INF2 mutations can lead to Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, our results provide a potential cellular mechanism for this disease state. (sciencemag.org)
  • The chaperone TRiC uses a previously undescribed mechanism to perform actin folding. (innovations-report.com)
  • In this work, we show that the virus exits cells by a nonlytic, actin-dependent mechanism, and most importantly, we describe that VP4, the spike protein of the virus, is present on the cell surface and is incorporated into mature, infectious virus, indicating a novel pathway for the assembly of this protein. (asm.org)
  • Our data support a novel apical recycling model which indicates a critical role for actin patch-mediated endocytosis to maintain polarized growth at the apex. (psu.edu)
  • Smooth muscle alpha actin is of further interest because it is one of a few genes whose expression is relatively restricted to vascular smooth muscle cells. (abcam.com)
  • Control of cell behaviors might be feasible through manipulation of the cellular biomechanical properties using various external physical stimuli, including electric fields, mechanical stimuli, and genetic manipulation of the expression of particular genes. (begellhouse.com)
  • Gene expression analysis by MT-PCR indicated that ST repressed many genes which were induced by EGF (EGFR, CAV1, CTGF, CYR61, CD44, S100A4) and induced genes which alter the actin cytoskeleton (NLF1, NLF2, EPHB4). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Among its ~400 genes was the ancestral gene encoding actin ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • DNA sequences are provided for production of beta -actin or untranslated regions of beta -actin genes may be employed in conjunction with genes encoding for polypeptides for efficient expression in mammalian hosts. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Skeletal actin itself, when expressed, causes expression of several other "myogenic genes", which are essential to muscle formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Actin homologs, encoded by mreB genes, are conserved among rod-shaped, filamentous, and helical bacteria, suggesting that MreB protein is important for generating a nonspherical shape in bacteria ( 15 ). (asm.org)
  • Cdc42 and Rho1 -5, are key regulators of actin organization and remodelling in yeast (reviewed in Perez and Rincon 2010 ). (genetics.org)
  • New chapters cover Actin isoforms in cancer, Actin cytoskeleton regulators at invadopodia, Cytoskeletal Mechanics Drives Heterogeneity in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer, and more. (elsevier.com)
  • They cycle between the cytosol and the cytosolic surface of cellular membranes in a Ca 2+ -regulated manner which is mediated through the annexin core domain, a conserved Ca 2+ -lipid-binding module. (biologists.org)
  • Actin dynamically assembles onto the outer membranes of a subpopulation of healthy, elongated mitochondria to promote fission and to inhibit fusion. (nature.com)
  • In addition to serving as a precursor to PIP 3 , PIP 2 also stimulates actin polymerization, which is important for optimal movement and/or fusion of GLUT4-containing vesicle membranes to the cell surface ( 11 - 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • At late phases of infection mitochondrial fragmentation of actin was seen, indicating that actin fragments, fractins, are involved in disruption of mitochondrial membranes during apoptosis of virus-infected cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Due to the control we have in our reconstituted system, we can confront dynamic MTs with different types of actin networks to account for the diversity of cytoskeleton architectures. (tudelft.nl)
  • G-actin has the ability to polymerize, resulting in the F-actin polymer. (ibidi.com)
  • These actin molecules polymerize to form a long fiber. (ebrary.net)
  • In addition, ATP-actin units bound to profilin will dissociate from cofilin and are then free to polymerize. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Using redox-proteomics, we found that the actin-binding protein cofilin is a key target of oxidation that mediates induction of apoptosis by taurine chloramine, a physiological oxidant produced by activated neutrophils. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In treated cells, cofilin loses its affinity with actin and translocates from the cytosol to the mitochondria. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This conference focused on the fundamental properties and cellular functions of actin and actin- based microfilament systems. (springer.com)
  • It can be present as either a free monomer called G-actin (globular) or as part of a linear polymer microfilament called F-actin (filamentous), both of which are essential for such important cellular functions as the mobility and contraction of cells during cell division . (wikipedia.org)
  • The filamentous polymer composed of individual G-actin subunits is a microfilament and is called F-actin. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Myosin molecules take hold of actin molecules and pull, like rope pulling, in a process that gets energy from the use of the cellular fuel ATP. (phys.org)
  • Understanding actin-based biological phenomena will depend on identifying the participating molecules and defining their molecular mechanisms. (sciencemag.org)
  • Actin was needed to transport molecules between the parasites within a vacuole and was also found to enter the cells of the parasite. (elifesciences.org)
  • The actin cytoskeleton has also been reported to be involved in B cell activation by participating in the processing of the maturation of MHC class II molecules, internalization of BCR, and interaction between Fc RI and lipid raft components [ 8 , 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • These results provide insight into the mechanisms of cellular mechanosensing of the environment, suggesting a complex interplay between the actin cytoskeleton and cellular adhesions in coordinating cellular response to surface topography. (umd.edu)
  • Myosin XVI is a neuronally expressed unconventional myosin known to bind the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC), a regulator of filamentous actin (F-actin) polymerization. (frontiersin.org)
  • Induction of PtdIns(4,5) P 2 -enriched ruffles and PtdIns(4,5) P 2 -positive, actin-coated vacuoles by Arf6-mediated activation of PtdIns4 P 5-kinase also leads to a concomitant accumulation of the annexin 2-p11 complex and the PH domain. (biologists.org)
  • Actin-like protein 6A (ACL6A, also known as BAF53A) is a subunit of the ATP-dependent SWI/SNF-like BAF chromatin remodelling complex, which is essential for hemopoietic stem cell function [ PMID: 23018638 ] and neural development in mammals [ PMID: 17640523 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • It reports on the localization of profilin in cells and describes the effects of microinjecting normal and mutant profilins, and a chemically crosslinked profilin:actin complex into cells. (diva-portal.org)
  • Artificial tethering of actin to nuclear pores increased both nuclear pore complex (NPC) and subtelomere motion. (biologists.org)
  • An ATP-actin complex polymerizes faster and dissociates slower than an ADP-actin complex. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Here, we present the crystal structure of twinfilin's C-terminal ADF-H domain in complex with an actin monomer. (rcsb.org)
  • Intracellular bacteria encounter the host cytoskeletal components actin and microtubules throughout growth and have adapted to use these networks to facilitate infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • at early times postinfection, it has been found on the cell surface and associated with microtubules ( 2 ), cellular lipid rafts ( 3 ), the small GTPase Rab5, and the prenylated Rab acceptor PRA1 ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • Figure 1: TIRF images of dynamic microtubules in a polymerizing actin network. (tudelft.nl)
  • These characteristics make OT-evoked in vitro bursts and milk ejections suitable models for studying cellular mechanisms involved in burst generation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Furthermore, in vitro treatment of the cells with A771726 reduced the expression level of LRs, attenuated the overaggregation of LRs, and normalized the distribution of F-actin. (hindawi.com)
  • [5] Lastly, actin plays an important role in the control of gene expression . (wikipedia.org)
  • The causative gene underlying WAS encodes the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) ( 5 ), which plays an important role in hemopoietic cells in the assembly of actin cytoskeleton ( 6 , 7 ), in signal transduction ( 8 , 9 ), and in apoptosis ( 10 , 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Beta-actin gene and regulatory elements, preparation and use. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Actin, alpha skeletal muscle is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTA1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis of GFP-actin in cultured PCs shows that Myo16 knockout as well as PC-specific Myo16 knockdown, lead to faster F-actin turnover in the dendritic spines of PCs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Both domains appear to exhibit uniform retrograde flow relative to an external substrate reference as judged by actin fluorescence photobleaching studies (Lin and Forscher, 1995). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In addition, several pathogens have evolved to use host cell actin assembly for attachment, internalization, and cell-to-cell spread. (nih.gov)
  • Because cell growth rate is decreased dramatically and arrested irreversibly at the G1 phase with double nuclei in the senescent cells, it is highly probable that actin plays an important role in induction of growth arrest during cellular senescence. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These results suggest that the actin crosslinkers, such as palladin, and myosin motors coordinate for optimal cell function and to prevent aberrant behavior as in cancer metastasis. (umd.edu)
  • I have used nanofabricated substrates with parallel ridges to show that the cell shape, the actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesions all align along the direction of the ridges, exhibiting a biphasic dependence on the spacing between ridges. (umd.edu)
  • Interestingly, cortical remodeling of actin associated with cell migration was reversed by small interfering RNA directed against Akt, indicating the involvement of Akt in the dynamic reorganization of actin cytoskeleton germane to breast cancer cell migration. (mcponline.org)
  • The original discovery of Akt kinase as the cellular homolog of a viral oncogene already implied its pivotal role in cell growth and survival that, since then, has been verified in various cell systems, and Akt is increasingly regarded as a crucial player in cancer cell survival and growth (2). (mcponline.org)
  • As an important part of the cytoskeleton, actin is essential for cell stability and morphogenesis. (ibidi.com)
  • On the one side, the growth and extension of actin-based lamellipoidal protrusions that allow the cell to 'crawl' outwards, on the other, the formation of large contractile actomyosin cables that can pull the cell forward while generating traction forces on the substrate. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • Low, Y. Toyama, theoretical physicists R. Voituriez, A. Callan-Jones and T. Shemesh and IBEC group leader Xavier Trepat found that at regions of positive curvature, cells developed lamellipodia for cell crawling, and at regions of negative curvature, strong actin cables assembled that followed the concave edge. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • Fortunately, the live cell imaging provided with the researchers with a potential clue - the switch in the direction of actin flow depending on curvature could potentially be the 'sensor' for switching the mode of migration. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • However, this study reveals how cells can sense larger cell-size curvature changes at a scale up to tens of micrometres, through dynamic adaptation of the actin flow. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • whereas, expression of alpha skeletal, alpha cardiac, alpha vascular and gamma enteric actins are more restricted to specialized muscle cell type. (abcam.com)
  • Further more, expression of smooth muscle alpha actin is regulated by hormones, cell proliferation and altered by pathological conditions including oncogenic transformation and atherosclerosis. (abcam.com)
  • While cellular biomechanical properties are significantly altered during stem-cell specification to a particular phenotype, the complexity of events associated with transformation of these precursor cells leaves many questions unanswered about morphological, structural, proteomic, and functional changes in differentiating stem cells. (begellhouse.com)
  • Using live-cell imaging, we investigate the role of the actin cytoskeleton in regulating mitochondrial fission and fusion. (nature.com)
  • It has recently emerged that clathrin functions as a scaffold for actin assembly, in the context of both pathogen infection and cell biology. (nature.com)
  • EGF induces EMT in the breast cancer cell line PMC42-LA and the kinase inhibitor staurosporine (ST) induces EMT in embryonic neural epithelial cells, with F-actin de-bundling and disruption of cell-cell adhesion, via inhibition of aPKC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ST in combination with EGF directed a greater EMT via actin depolymerisation and focal contact size reduction, resulting in a loosening of cell-ECM attachment along with Snail1-Zeb1/δEF1 induction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cytoskeletal forces in migrating cells generated by polymerization- or contractility-driven "retrograde flow" of F-actin from the cell leading edge have been hypothesized to mediate integrin activation for ligand binding. (pnas.org)
  • The actin regulatory protein ARP3 appeared at the Sertoli cell interface after testin RNAi without its protein level change, whereas overexpressing testin in Sertoli cells showed no effect on TJ barrier integrity. (popcouncil.org)
  • Sandra Schmid is the Endowed Cecil H. Green Distinguished Chair in Cellular and Molecular Biology in the Cell Biology department at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. (nih.gov)
  • Blocking WASP binding to verprolins impaired cell polarization but not actin polymerization. (jimmunol.org)
  • This implicates the spread-out redistribution of actin patches and cables within the bud and the extension of cables from the bud neck toward the mother cell. (genetics.org)
  • In the context of cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix, the forces that are generated within the actin cytoskeleton and transmitted through integrin-based focal adhesions are essential for the cellular response to environmental clues, such as the spatial distribution of adhesive ligands or matrix stiffness. (uni-hd.de)
  • By focusing on cell-matrix adhesion to flat elastic substrates, on which traction forces can be measured with high temporal and spatial resolution, we discuss our current understanding of the physical mechanisms that integrate a large range of molecular mechanotransduction events on cellular scales. (uni-hd.de)
  • The mean force contribution of the actin cortex and distributed networks can be assessed by fitting whole cell contraction models to traction maps reconstructed in TFM experiments as shown first for small cell colonies [26-28] and recently also for single cells [29,30]. (scisurf.com)
  • In this work, we found that the actin inhibitor jasplakinolide blocks the cell egress of rotavirus from nonpolarized MA104 cells at early times of infection, when there is still no evidence of cell lysis. (asm.org)
  • To investigate the possible changes in B cell subsets and in B cell expression patterns of lipid rafts (LRs) and F-actin in patients with SLE and whether leflunomide treatment may have effect on these changes. (hindawi.com)
  • The B cell subsets and LRs expression were determined by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, and F-actin expression was examined by confocal microscopy. (hindawi.com)
  • There were abnormalities in B cell subsets and LRs and F-actin expression of B cell from SLE patients. (hindawi.com)
  • Modulation of B cell expression of LRs and F-actin by LEF could be a potential therapeutic target for SLE. (hindawi.com)
  • When a signal for muscle contraction is sent along a nerve to a muscle cell , actin and myosin are activated. (britannica.com)
  • In conclusion, our results suggest that actin network interacts with mitochondria to regulate both antiviral and cell death signals during influenza A virus infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • Actin, a central component of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton, plays a crucial role in determining cell shape in addition to several other functions. (asm.org)
  • Recently, the structure of the archaeal actin homolog Ta0583, isolated from the archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum , which lacks a cell wall, was reported by Roeben et al. (asm.org)
  • The journal will consider contributions focusing on biochemistry and molecular biology, cell biology, molecular and cellular aspects of biomedicine, neuroscience, pharmacology and immunology. (springer.com)
  • We thus conclude that F-actin is a major determinant in not only providing elastic stiffness to the cell, but also in regulating its viscous behaviour. (diva-portal.org)
  • Skeletal alpha actin expression is induced by stimuli and conditions known to cause muscle formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • We investigated the roles of actin (ActA) and fimbrin (FimA) in hyphal growth in Aspergillus nidulans. (psu.edu)
  • It has not been possible to study actin in vivo and so its physiological roles have remained obscure, leading to models distinct from conventional actin behaviour. (elifesciences.org)
  • OBJECTIVE To discover if α smooth muscle actin expression and myofibroblastic differentiation are induced in synovial fibroblasts by cytokines found in the inflamed RA joint. (bmj.com)
  • METHODS Immunofluorescent microscopy and western blotting were used to examine different cultures of human synovial fibroblasts for expression of α actin in the presence of the cytokines transforming growth factor β (TGFβ1), interleukin 1α (IL1α), IL4, IL6, tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF). (bmj.com)
  • CONCLUSION In the presence of TGFβ1 or IL4, fibroblasts derived from synovial tissue or synovial fluid are induced to differentiate into myofibroblast-like cells containing the α smooth muscle form of actin. (bmj.com)
  • 4-6 Recently it has been shown that TGFβ1 can induce α actin expression in fibroblasts, and differentiation to myofibroblasts. (bmj.com)
  • In most eukaryotic cells, actin is the most abundant protein. (ibidi.com)
  • Until now, there have been no tools to visualize actin or the actin-binding protein fimbrin in live cells of a filamentous fungus. (psu.edu)
  • Cryo-electron tomography workflow (A-D) and actin architecture (E-G) in a thin protrusion assembled by Dictyostelium cells in response to a hole. (mpg.de)
  • Jasnin M., Ecke M., Baumeister W., Gerisch G.: Actin organization in cells responding to a perforated surface, revealed by live imaging and cryo-electron tomography. (mpg.de)
  • Here, the development of a chiral pattern of actomyosin was revealed by studying actin cytoskeleton self-organization in cells with isotropic circular shape. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Thus, actin cytoskeleton self-organization provides built-in machinery that potentially allows cells to develop left-right asymmetry. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In order to sense the physical properties of their environment, cells dynamically reorganize the structure of their actin cytoskeleton, a dynamic network of biopolymers, altering the shape and spatial distribution of protein assemblies. (umd.edu)
  • Tir is required for full pedestal formation, whereas a less pronounced actin assembly also occurs when bacteria that lack a functional Tir protein adhere to their host cells. (biologists.org)
  • With the new knowledge of this actin flow switch, scientists may be better able to understand how cells can continue migration during wound healing, or in situations where migration can be damaging such as the metastatic progression of cancer. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • Six distinct actin isotypes have been identified in mammalian cells. (abcam.com)
  • Reduced overall actin expression levels in Srf( − / − ) ES cells were accompanied by an offset treadmilling equilibrium, resulting in lowered F-actin levels. (rupress.org)
  • Recent data have shown that many pathogens are dependent on clathrin and actin for their entry into host cells. (nature.com)
  • U2OS cells with a cytoskeletal protein β-actin GFP tagged. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Here, we found that actin polymerization through ER-localized inverted formin 2 (INF2) was required for efficient mitochondrial fission in mammalian cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Microscopic and biochemical analyses revealed a PIP 2 -dependent loss of cortical filamentous actin (F-actin) in ET-1-treated cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The corrective effect of exogenous PIP 2 in ET-1-induced insulin-resistant cells was not present in cells where cortical F-actin remained experimentally depolymerized. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Superresolution microscopy revealed that, in untreated cells, DAAM1 formed patches with a similar spatial arrangement to the actin nodes. (elsevier.com)
  • Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry (MPIB) have demonstrated that actin, the most abundant protein in higher developed cells, does not have the inbuilt potential to fold and instead requires special assistance to fold into its active state. (innovations-report.com)
  • Of more interest to the researchers is the pattern of cellular signals that triggers the death of pigment stem cells, since melanoma is dangerous for the opposite reason -melanocytes proliferate uncontrollably to form tumors and are hard to kill with treatment. (innovations-report.com)
  • Observable increase in actin fibril size was noted in ATP treated cells. (uni.edu)
  • Finally, when cells exit mitosis upon inactivation of mitotic CDKs, actin repolarizes at the bud neck to support cytokinesis. (genetics.org)
  • Many essential cellular functions in health and disease are closely linked to the ability of cells to respond to mechanical forces. (uni-hd.de)
  • Thus it is essential to develop methods to measure cellular forces and to associate them with individual components of this system in order to understand how cells precisely control force generation. (scisurf.com)
  • The increased expression of LRs was associated with reduced expression of F-actin in the B cells from active SLE patients. (hindawi.com)
  • Abnormal expression of lipid rafts and F-actin on T cells in SLE patients has been studied well [ 10 - 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The expression pattern of LRs and F-actin on B cells in SLE patients remains not quite clear [ 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Among the molecular components of adherens junctions, cadherins and catenins comprise the core of an adhesive interaction that connects subapical actin belts of adjacent cells with each other ( Tepass, 2002 ). (biologists.org)
  • Cells use this transient increase in [[Ca.sup.2+]]i as a secondary messenger to regulate the actin--myosin interaction, (6) both in the animal and plant kingdoms. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • RESULTS A small but significant population of cells (14.4 ± 12.9%) expressed α actin under standard culture conditions. (bmj.com)
  • Upon treatment with TGFβ1 there was a pronounced increase in the number of cells expressing α actin (68.1 ± 5.49%), accompanied by a change in morphology to a myofibroblast-like phenotype. (bmj.com)
  • 3 These cells show several features of smooth muscle cells, including the expression of the cytoskeletal protein-smooth muscle actin. (bmj.com)
  • A time-lapse video of moving intracellular bacteria was obtained by laser-scanning confocal microscopy of infected Vero cells synthesizing β-actin coupled to green fluorescent protein (GFP). (asm.org)
  • Actin , protein that is an important contributor to the contractile property of muscle and other cells . (britannica.com)
  • Specifically, we performed colloidal-probe atomic force microscopy (AFM) on BjhTERT fibroblast cells incubated with Latrunculin B (LatB), which results in depolymerisation of F-actin, or DMSO control. (diva-portal.org)
  • By merely tuning two effective stiffness parameters, the model predicts experimental results in cells with a partly depolymerised actin cytoskeleton as well as in untreated control. (diva-portal.org)
  • Genome-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs) provide a posttranscriptional regulatory layer that controls the differentiation and function of various cellular systems, including hematopoietic cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • Aspenstrom P (1997) A Cdc42 target protein with homology to the non-kinase domain of FER has a potential role in regulating the actin cytoskeleton. (springer.com)
  • The interaction between Akt and actin was further confirmed by reverse immunoprecipitation, and confocal microscopy demonstrated a co-localization specifically induced under growth factor stimulation. (mcponline.org)
  • Actin and focal contacts (paxillin) were visualized by confocal microscopy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Discoveries that at once derive from and supply deeper perception into the elemental homes of actin are continually being made, making actin an ever beautiful study molecule. (seabearaircraft.com)
  • It is followed by a loop, comprising the critical leucine and lysine/arginine residues interacting directly with the actin molecule. (eu.org)
  • Lamellipodia formation by actin polymerization. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Continued retrograde flow in the absence of new actin assembly resulted in formation of an F-actin-free gap along the growth cone margin and eventual clearance (typically in about 3 min) of F-actin from lamellipodia and filopodia. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Calcium inhibition as an intracellular signal for actin-myosin interaction. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • namely, that [Ca.sup.2+] would activate the actin-myosin interaction. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The effect was the opposite of the known effect of [Ca.sup.2+], which activated the ATP-dependent interaction between actin and myosin. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Quantitative changes in cytoskeletal and nuclear actins during cellular transformation. (cdc.gov)
  • The focal assembly of actin induces local, Drp1-dependent fragmentation of the mitochondrial network. (nature.com)
  • In vertebrates, three main groups of actin isoforms, alpha, beta and gamma have been identified. (genetex.com)
  • Actin alpha 1 which is expressed in skeletal muscle is one of six different actin isoforms which have been identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular chirality arising from the self-organization of the actin cytoskeleton. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , the two formins Bni1 and Bnr1 play both separate and overlapping functions in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. (genetics.org)
  • To support diverse infection events, intracellular pathogens have evolved numerous methods to subvert host molecular signaling machinery that controls essential cellular functions. (frontiersin.org)
  • The cytoskeleton is a major host structural component manipulated by intracellular pathogens to drive cellular infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cellular mechanisms underlying the development of left-right asymmetry in tissues and embryos remain obscure. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Overall, this work has advanced our understanding of mechanisms that govern cellular responses to their physical environment. (umd.edu)
  • The observed phenotypic differences between the ABM of Listeria and Rickettsia may indicate fundamental differences in the mechanisms of actin recruitment and polymerization. (asm.org)