Zygote: The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer: A technique in assisted reproduction (REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, ASSISTED) consisting of hormonal stimulation of the ovaries, follicular aspiration of preovulatory oocytes, in-vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes at the pronuclear stage (before cleavage).Blastocyst: A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.Fertilization: The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.Phaeophyta: A division of predominantly marine EUKARYOTA, commonly known as brown algae, having CHROMATOPHORES containing carotenoid PIGMENTS, BIOLOGICAL. ALGINATES and phlorotannins occur widely in all major orders. They are considered the most highly evolved algae because of their well-developed multicellular organization and structural complexity.Cleavage Stage, Ovum: The earliest developmental stage of a fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) during which there are several mitotic divisions within the ZONA PELLUCIDA. Each cleavage or segmentation yields two BLASTOMERES of about half size of the parent cell. This cleavage stage generally covers the period up to 16-cell MORULA.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Embryo Culture Techniques: The technique of maintaining or growing mammalian EMBRYOS in vitro. This method offers an opportunity to observe EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT; METABOLISM; and susceptibility to TERATOGENS.Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Morula: An early embryo that is a compact mass of about 16 BLASTOMERES. It resembles a cluster of mulberries with two types of cells, outer cells and inner cells. Morula is the stage before BLASTULA in non-mammalian animals or a BLASTOCYST in mammals.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic: An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Embryo Implantation: Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.Nuclear Transfer Techniques: Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell.Blastomeres: Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Germ Cells, Plant: The reproductive cells of plants.Haploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Ectogenesis: Embryonic and fetal development that takes place in an artificial environment in vitro.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Fallopian Tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.Parthenogenesis: A unisexual reproduction without the fusion of a male and a female gamete (FERTILIZATION). In parthenogenesis, an individual is formed from an unfertilized OVUM that did not complete MEIOSIS. Parthenogenesis occurs in nature and can be artificially induced.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Alstroemeria: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain allergens, tuliposide A and tulipalin A.Fetal Viability: The potential of the FETUS to survive outside the UTERUS after birth, natural or induced. Fetal viability depends largely on the FETAL ORGAN MATURITY, and environmental conditions.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Animals, Inbred Strains: Animals produced by the mating of progeny over multiple generations. The resultant strain of animals is virtually identical genotypically. Highly inbred animal lines allow the study of certain traits in a relatively pure form. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Superovulation: Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.5-Methylcytosine: A methylated nucleotide base found in eukaryotic DNA. In ANIMALS, the DNA METHYLATION of CYTOSINE to form 5-methylcytosine is found primarily in the palindromic sequence CpG. In PLANTS, the methylated sequence is CpNpGp, where N can be any base.Triploidy: Polyploidy with three sets of chromosomes. Triploidy in humans are 69XXX, 69XXY, and 69XYY. It is associated with HOLOPROSENCEPHALY; ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE; PARTIAL HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; and MISCARRAGES.Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Ovule: The element in plants that contains the female GAMETOPHYTES.Pollen Tube: A growth from a pollen grain down into the flower style which allows two sperm to pass, one to the ovum within the ovule, and the other to the central cell of the ovule to produce endosperm of SEEDS.Gametogenesis: The process of germ cell development from the primordial GERM CELLS to the mature haploid GAMETES: ova in the female (OOGENESIS) or sperm in the male (SPERMATOGENESIS).Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal: Neoplasms composed of primordial GERM CELLS of embryonic GONADS or of elements of the germ layers of the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the gonads or present in an embryo or FETUS.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.PakistanMitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Ulva: A genus of GREEN ALGAE in the family Ulvaceae. Commonly know as sea lettuces, they grow attached to rocks and KELP in marine and estuarine waters.Chlorophyta: A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.Volvox: A genus of GREEN ALGAE in the family Volvocaceae. They form spherical colonies of hundreds or thousands of bi-flagellated cells in a semi-transparent gelatinous ball.Stem Cell Research: Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.Pseudoalteromonas: A genus of GRAM-NEGATIVE AEROBIC BACTERIA of marine origin. Many species were formerly classified under ALTEROMONAS.Lupinus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is a source of SPARTEINE, lupanine and other lupin alkaloids.
  • By combining the Exo1 and PITCh-directed donor vectors, we achieved convenient one-step knock-in of gene cassettes and floxed allele both in human cells and mouse zygotes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Addgene: Effective gene editing by high-fidelity base editor 2 in mouse zygotes. (addgene.org)
  • Hence, the aim of this study was to examine the difference in DNA methylation pattern between IVF- and Laser-IVF-derived mouse zygotes. (deepdyve.com)
  • Double strand break repair by capture of retrotransposon sequences and reverse-transcribed spliced mRNA sequences in mouse zygotes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The DSBs are subsequently repaired through non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR). Here, we demonstrate that DSBs introduced into mouse zygotes by the CRISPR/Cas system are repaired by the capture of DNA sequences deriving from retrotransposons, genomic DNA, mRNA and sgRNA. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Fusion of the cytoplasm of the 2 cells is completed in 5 min and the nuclei can be seen to fuse 30 min after the onset of copulation. (biologists.org)
  • The small apical cell with dense cytoplasm develops into embryo proper, and the large vacuolated basal cell differentiates into hypophysis and suspensor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CENTRIOLES, in the cytoplasm and basal bodies at the plasma membrane, are conserved microtubule-based organelles essential for cell division and cilium formation ( Nigg and Raff 2009 ). (genetics.org)
  • Consequently, these cells may resume the first cell cycle as androgenotes, very often with several types of mitotic activity taking place in different regions of the cell cytoplasm at the same time. (umn.edu)
  • Eukaryotic cells are advanced cells that have, at minimum, a cellular membrane surrounding cytoplasm, a cytoskeleton and membrane-covered organelles. (reference.com)
  • Inside the cell is the cytoplasm, a jelly-like material that supports the organelles found in the cell. (reference.com)
  • Polarization of the C. elegans zygote involves the asymmetric segregation of proteins at the cortex (top panel) and in the cytoplasm (bottom panel). (hhmi.org)
  • While the small, cytoplasm-rich apical daughter cell further develops into the embryo proper, the highly vacuolated basal cell gives rise to the suspensor, which delivers nutrients to the embryo and positions the embryo proper in the surrounding endosperm tissue of the developing seed. (plantcell.org)
  • Due to the unequal distribution of their cytoplasm, it is generally thought that maternal factors contributed by the egg regulate zygote and early embryo development. (plantcell.org)
  • A fertilised cell produced as the result of the combination of an ovum and a sperm. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • The inner mass of the blastula will produce the embryo, while the outer layer of cells will form the trophoblast, which eventually will provide nourishment to the ovum (Pritchard, MacDonald, and Gant, 1985). (writework.com)
  • C, The fertilized ovum, now called a zygote, is ready for the first mitotic cell division. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • the female sex cell (ovum) produced in the ovary that creates an embryo when fertilized by a male's sperm. (ferringfertility.com)
  • If an ovum has been released, and the couple have sex, a sperm can unite with it, fertilise it and make the first cell of a new baby. (cyh.com)
  • When the ovum was fertilised and became your first cells, these 'plans' or genes helped to decide lots of things about you, eg. (cyh.com)
  • The ovum is one of the largest cells in the human body, typically visible to the naked eye without the aid of a microscope or other magnification device. (wikipedia.org)
  • which are contributed by an ovum and the other half by a sperm cell. (forbes.com)
  • By quantitative real-time PCR, we validated the differential expression of 40 genes, with 6 transcripts of them specifically expressed in the apical or basal cell. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The production of genetically modified animals is essential for elucidating the roles of genes, but the traditional method, which involves homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells and the production of chimeric mice, is costly and time-consuming. (nature.com)
  • A Chlamydomonas zygote that contains chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) from both parents, such cells generally are rare since normally cpDNA is inherited uniparental from the mt+ mating type parent.These rare biparental zygotes allowed mapping of chloroplast genes by recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome is the same in all cells of our body, but only certain genes are turned on and other genes are switched off and this lead to specialization. (stackexchange.com)
  • That is, genes active in the neurons may not be active in muscle cells. (stackexchange.com)
  • For instance, genes for actin and myosin filaments are present in all animal cells, but these genes are active only in muscle cells. (stackexchange.com)
  • Genome editing tools such as the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated system (Cas) have been widely used to modify genes in model systems including animal zygotes and human cells, and hold tremendous promise for both basic research and clinical applications. (blogspot.com)
  • Given a stem cell with genes A B.... C D. Of course, we know that the human genome is composed of 3 trillion genes. (hubpages.com)
  • In our present discussion A B ....C D indicate the genes that are activated in the totipotent stem cells. (hubpages.com)
  • If this totipotent stem cell were polarized, A B genes take care of mitosis, or cell division that result in the same kind. (hubpages.com)
  • That is, A B result in two daughter cells each with the genes A B. Then genes C D differentiate. (hubpages.com)
  • A totipotent stem cell is polarized such that genes in one end behave differently from how genes in another end behave. (hubpages.com)
  • Prokaryotic cells are single cells that evolved before eukaryotes, which are organisms whose cells contain nuclei and organelles. (reference.com)
  • Here, we collate what is known about the various cell cycle events and their regulators throughout the Plasmodium life-cycle, highlighting the differences between Plasmodium , model organisms and other apicomplexan parasites and identifying areas where further study is required. (springer.com)
  • Sexual reproduction occurs through a process called conjugation where two organisms come together and fuse their haploid cells to form a diploid zygote. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Unicellular organisms do NOT have specialized cells. (answers.com)
  • Organisms that are composed of many cells. (alison.com)
  • In the latest RVC podcast, Professor Dirk Werling describes the importance of the Innate Immune System in combating infection by micro-organisms and the tactics that some of these bugs use to evade these defences, with particular reference to his work on immune cell receptors in cattle. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • There are plenty single cell organisms out there. (berkeley.edu)
  • With the present-day 5 kingdom classification, all the eukaryotic (cells having distinct nuclei) algae are now in the kingdom Protista, whereas the blue-green algae Cyanobacteria (formerly Cyanophyta) and Prochlorophyta are in the kingdom Monera with the other prokaryotic (cells having no distinct nuclei) organisms (eg, bacteria ). (thecanadianencyclopedia.com)
  • Although examples of cell-suicide mechanisms have been described in single-celled organisms (reviewed in ref. 2 ), it is not yet known whether any similarity exists between the mechanisms of cell death in metazoans and unicellular organisms. (pnas.org)
  • In single-celled organisms, homologs of cell death molecules may be involved in cell death or may have unrelated roles. (pnas.org)
  • On the other hand, pollen (male reproductive organ = father) that is generated from different male species can attach to a single pistil, and even though it is within the same pistil, only the seed that is generated from its own sperm cells is considered as the father's child. (phys.org)
  • Although this process can be used for reproductive cloning, as in the case of Dolly the sheep, the technique can also be used for non-reproductive or therapeutic cloning, a process that could be used to create cells and tissues that would be immunologically compatible with the donor of the nuclear material. (encyclopedia.com)
  • one of the 2 reproductive cells (sperm or egg) that must unite to form an embryo. (ferringfertility.com)
  • A non-reproductive cell is a long nerve cell that does not reproduce because it is highly specialized. (answers.com)
  • During the process of plant body formation, the zygote elongates in the vertical direction and divides to form the embryo. (phys.org)
  • Following dissolution of the pronuclear membranes and fusion of the male and female genetic material, the zygote divides to form the two-cell embryo, each cell containing equal complements of genetic and cytoplasmic material. (nap.edu)
  • Embryo development from one-celled zygote to mature embryo is a critical part of the life cycle in higher plants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Zygotic genome activation ( ZGA ) is thought to occur gradually, with the initial steps of zygote and embryo development being primarily maternally controlled, and subsequent steps being governed by the zygotic genome. (plantcell.org)
  • Until now, it has been unknown whether paternal factors cooperate or conflict with each other to bring about zygote asymmetry. (phys.org)
  • In the C. elegans zygote, PAR asymmetry is initiated by a transient actomyosin contraction, which sweeps the PAR-3/PAR-6/PKC-3 complex toward the anterior pole of the egg. (nih.gov)
  • However, because of the difficulty to isolate the in vivo apical and basal cells of two-celled proembryo from ovule and ovary in higher plants, the transcriptome analysis of them hasn't been reported. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we developed a procedure for isolating the in vivo apical and basal cells of the two-celled proembryo from tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum ), and then performed a comparative transcriptome analysis of the two cells by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) combined with macroarray screening. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The small apical cell generates almost all the plant body, while the large basal cell forms the suspensor, which finally forms a part of root tip. (atlasofscience.org)
  • In the elongating zygote, F-actin aligned longitudinally and accumulated at the apical end as the apical cap (Fig. 1C). (atlasofscience.org)
  • These results suggested that MTs control directional cell elongation and F-actin is essential for nuclear movement to the apical region (Fig. 2B). (atlasofscience.org)
  • These mutations, however, have a dramatic effect on the distribution of several cell fate regulators. (biologists.org)
  • They also describe their analysis of off-target editing that led to unwanted mutations or changes in the zygotes' DNA. (asu.edu)
  • To understand the relation between the number of mutations that occur and the number of cells that carry a mutation, we must place somatic mutations in the context of cell lineage history. (pnas.org)
  • In other words, we must think of the body in relation to the lineage history descending from the single ancestral zygote and how mutations accumulate in that lineage history. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, even when introduced by nuclear microinjection, the stable incorporation of exogenous DNA in the embryo occurs in a mosaic fashion, although in many recipients the DNA enters a wider range of cell lineages than is typical after cytoplasmic injection. (biologists.org)