Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.ABO Blood-Group System: The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.Lewis Blood-Group System: A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Rh-Hr Blood-Group System: Erythrocyte isoantigens of the Rh (Rhesus) blood group system, the most complex of all human blood groups. The major antigen Rh or D is the most common cause of erythroblastosis fetalis.Kell Blood-Group System: Multiple erythrocytic antigens that comprise at least three pairs of alternates and amorphs, determined by one complex gene or possibly several genes at closely linked loci. The system is important in transfusion reactions. Its expression involves the X-chromosome.Kidd Blood-Group System: A group of antigens consisting principally of Jk(a) and Jk(b), determined by allelic genes. Amorphs are encountered. Antibodies of these substances are usually weak and quite labile, stimulated by erythrocytes.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Duffy Blood-Group System: A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.MNSs Blood-Group System: A system of universal human blood group isoantigens with many associated subgroups. The M and N traits are codominant and the S and s traits are probably very closely linked alleles, including the U antigen. This system is most frequently used in paternity studies.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Blood Group Incompatibility: An antigenic mismatch between donor and recipient blood. Antibodies present in the recipient's serum may be directed against antigens in the donor product. Such a mismatch may result in a transfusion reaction in which, for example, donor blood is hemolyzed. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984).Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Fucosyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of fucose from a nucleoside diphosphate fucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid molecule. Elevated activity of some fucosyltransferases in human serum may serve as an indicator of malignancy. The class includes EC; EC; EC; EC Grouping and Crossmatching: Testing erythrocytes to determine presence or absence of blood-group antigens, testing of serum to determine the presence or absence of antibodies to these antigens, and selecting biocompatible blood by crossmatching samples from the donor against samples from the recipient. Crossmatching is performed prior to transfusion.Glycophorin: The major sialoglycoprotein of the human erythrocyte membrane. It consists of at least two sialoglycopeptides and is composed of 60% carbohydrate including sialic acid and 40% protein. It is involved in a number of different biological activities including the binding of MN blood groups, influenza viruses, kidney bean phytohemagglutinin, and wheat germ agglutinin.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.P Blood-Group System: A blood group related to the ABO, Lewis and I systems. At least five different erythrocyte antigens are possible, some very rare, others almost universal. Multiple alleles are involved in this blood group.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Lutheran Blood-Group System: A complex blood group system having pairs of alternate antigens and amorphic genes, but also subject to a dominant independently segregating repressor.I Blood-Group System: A blood group related both to the ABO and P systems that includes several different antigens found in most people on erythrocytes, in milk, and in saliva. The antibodies react only at low temperatures.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Norovirus: A genus in the family CALICIVIRIDAE, associated with epidemic GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The type species, NORWALK VIRUS, contains multiple strains.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.FucoseCancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Mice, Inbred BALB CAnion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte: A major integral transmembrane protein of the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE. It is the anion exchanger responsible for electroneutral transporting in CHLORIDE IONS in exchange of BICARBONATE IONS allowing CO2 uptake and transport from tissues to lungs by the red blood cells. Genetic mutations that result in a loss of the protein function have been associated with type 4 HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Hemagglutination: The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).Glycosphingolipids: Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Trisaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.Galactosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylgalactosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Glycoconjugates: Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Mice, Inbred C57BLImmune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Amino Sugars: SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Caliciviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by CALICIVIRIDAE. They include HEPATITIS E; VESICULAR EXANTHEMA OF SWINE; acute respiratory infections in felines, rabbit hemorrhagic disease, and some cases of gastroenteritis in humans.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Helicobacter pylori: A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Polyomavirus: A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Adhesins, Escherichia coli: Thin, filamentous protein structures, including proteinaceous capsular antigens (fimbrial antigens), that mediate adhesion of E. coli to surfaces and play a role in pathogenesis. They have a high affinity for various epithelial cells.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Plasmodium vivax: A protozoan parasite that causes vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species is found almost everywhere malaria is endemic and is the only one that has a range extending into the temperate regions.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Melanoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Rhamnose: A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Immunotherapy, Adoptive: Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Gastric Mucosa: Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Norwalk virus: The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Polyomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses, infecting mainly MAMMALS, and containing a single genus: POLYOMAVIRUS.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Sarcoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced neoplasms of CONNECTIVE TISSUE in animals to provide a model for studying human SARCOMA.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Wilms Tumor: A malignant kidney tumor, caused by the uncontrolled multiplication of renal stem (blastemal), stromal (STROMAL CELLS), and epithelial (EPITHELIAL CELLS) elements. However, not all three are present in every case. Several genes or chromosomal areas have been associated with Wilms tumor which is usually found in childhood as a firm lump in a child's side or ABDOMEN.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Cross-Priming: Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.HLA-A1 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.Fibrosarcoma: A sarcoma derived from deep fibrous tissue, characterized by bundles of immature proliferating fibroblasts with variable collagen formation, which tends to invade locally and metastasize by the bloodstream. (Stedman, 25th ed)Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
Cytotoxic T cells which recognize these tumor antigens may in turn be primed by the tumor antigen-presenting cells. In contrast ... these cytotoxic T cells circulate through the blood stream and are thus able to destroy remaining tumor cells in distant parts ... In 2004, it was postulated for the first time that the immune system might be responsible for these "off-target" anti-tumor ... such as ipilimumab or pembrolizumab has greatly increased the number of abscopally responding patients in selected groups of ...
The removal of A and B antigens still does not address the problem of the Rh blood group antigen on the blood cells of Rh ... or group) classification systems currently recognized. A very rare (in modern medicine) mismatch in this, or any other serotype ... studies have observed that a relative down-regulation of GTA and GTB occurs in oral carcinomas in association with tumor ... The ABO blood group". Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens. Retrieved 24 March 2007. Farr A (1 April 1979). "Blood group serology ...
... blood-forming cells, and germ cells Liane B. Russell (born c. 1923), Austrian-born US mouse geneticist and radiation biologist ... Venezuelan-US immunologist who won Nobel Prize for human leukocyte antigen system Kurt Benirschke (born 1924), German-US ... British expert on blood groups, along with wife Ruth Sanger Sheldon C. Reed (1910-2003), American pioneer in genetic counseling ... tumor suppressor genes Joseph Sambrook (born 1939), British viral geneticist Avery A. Sandberg, US internist, discovered XYY in ...
Unlike for SV40, the MCV small T antigen directly transforms rodent cells in vitro. The middle tumor antigen is used in model ... This system retains the distinction between avian and mammalian viruses, grouping the avian subset into the genus ... round cell tumors. Blood tests to detect MCV antibodies have been developed and show that infection with the virus is ... "Polyoma small and middle T antigens and SV40 small t antigen form stable complexes with protein phosphatase 2A". Cell. 60 (1): ...
The US biotech company Vaccinogen is evaluating BCG as an adjuvant to autologous tumour cells used as a cancer vaccine in stage ... Because the living bacilli evolve to make the best use of available nutrients, they become less well-adapted to human blood and ... It is still available and recommended for high-risk groups. Philippines: BCG vaccine started in the Philippines in 1979 with ... Black GF, Weir RE, Floyd S (2002). "BCG-induced increase in interferon-gamma response to mycobacterial antigens and efficacy of ...
The Yt antigen system (also known as Cartwright) is present on the membrane of red blood cells and helps determine a person's blood type. The antigens are found on the protein acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme which helps break down acetylcholine. The Yt system features two alleles, Yt(a) and Yt(b). Antibodies against the Yt system can lead to transfusion reactions such as hemolytic anemia. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) 112100 - OMIM page on Yt antigen Bartels, CF; Zelinski, T; Lockridge, O (1993). "Mutation at codon 322 in the human acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) gene accounts for YT blood group polymorphism". American Journal of Human Genetics. 52 (5): 928-36. PMC 1682033 . PMID 8488842. Yt at BGMUT Blood ...
The term human blood group systems is defined by International Society of Blood Transfusion as systems in the human species where cell-surface antigens-in particular, those on blood cells-are "controlled at a single gene locus or by two or more very closely linked homologous genes with little or no observable recombination between them", and include the common ABO and Rh- (Rhesus) antigen systems, as well as many others; thirty-five major human systems are identified as of November 2014. In addition to the ABO and Rh systems, the antigens expressed on blood cell membrane surfaces include 346 red blood cell ...
... , also known as hemolytic icterus or hemolytic anemia, is a disease most commonly seen in kittens and foals, but has also been reported in puppies. In the kitten this is referred to as "fading kitten syndrome." It occurs when the mother has antibodies against the blood type of the newborn. In cats, the antibodies are already present in the queen's blood before parturition. The blood group antigens are similar in structure to the antigen of a common bacteria in the gut of cats leading to antibody formation. Kittens obtain the majority of their immune response from the colostrum, and are not born with a strong immune response. When they absorb the mother's antibodies against their blood type it causes lysis of the red blood cells leading to anemia. ...
The Kell antigen system (also known as Kell-Cellano system) is a group of antigens on the human red blood cell surface which are important determinants of blood type and are targets for autoimmune or alloimmune diseases which destroy red blood cells. Kell can be noted as K, k, or Kp. The Kell antigens are peptides found within the Kell protein, a 93-kilodalton transmembrane zinc-dependent endopeptidase which is responsible for cleaving endothelin-3. The KEL gene encodes a type II transmembrane glycoprotein that is the highly polymorphic Kell blood group antigen. The Kell glycoprotein links via a single disulfide bond to the XK membrane protein that carries the Kx antigen. ...
Galactoside 2-alpha-L-fucosyltransferase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FUT1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000174951 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000008461 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: FUT1 fucosyltransferase 1 (galactoside 2-alpha-L-fucosyltransferase, H blood group)". Ball SP, Tongue N, Gibaud A, Le Pendu J, Mollicone R, Gérard G, Oriol R (July 1991). "The human chromosome 19 linkage group FUT1 (H), FUT2 (SE), LE, LU, PEPD, C3, APOC2, D19S7 and D19S9". Annals of Human Genetics. 55 (Pt 3): 225-33. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.1991.tb00417.x. PMID 1763885. Larsen RD, Ernst LK, Nair RP, Lowe JB (September 1990). "Molecular cloning, sequence, and expression of a human GDP-L-fucose:beta-D-galactoside 2-alpha-L-fucosyltransferase cDNA that can form the H blood group ...
... (sometimes called isoimmunity) is an immune response to nonself antigens from members of the same species, which are called alloantigens or isoantigens. Two major types of alloantigens are blood group antigens and histocompatibility antigens. In alloimmunity, the body creates antibodies against the alloantigens, attacking transfused blood, allotransplanted tissue, and even the fetus in some cases. Alloimmune (isoimmune) response results in graft rejection, which is manifested as deterioration or complete loss of graft function. In contrast, autoimmunity is an immune response to the self's own antigens. (The allo- prefix means "other", whereas the auto- ...
... (GYPC; CD236/CD236R; glycoprotein beta; glycoconnectin; PAS-2') plays a functionally important role in maintaining erythrocyte shape and regulating membrane material properties, possibly through its interaction with protein 4.1. Moreover, it has previously been shown that membranes deficient in protein 4.1 exhibit decreased content of glycophorin C. It is also an integral membrane protein of the erythrocyte and acts as the receptor for the Plasmodium falciparum protein PfEBP-2 (erythrocyte binding protein 2; baebl; EBA-140). The antigen was discovered in 1960 when three women who lacked the antigen made anti-Gea in response to pregnancy. The antigen is named after one of the patients - a Mrs Gerbich. The following year a new but related antigen was discovered in a Mrs Yus for whom an antigen in this system is also named. In 1972 a numerical system for the ...
By 1870, Memphis's population of 40,000 was almost double that of Nashville and Atlanta, and it ranked as the second-largest city in the South after New Orleans.[30] The population of Memphis continued to grow after 1870, even when the Panic of 1873 hit the US hard, particularly in the South. The Panic of 1873 resulted in expanding Memphis's underclasses amidst the poverty and hardship wrought by the panic, giving further credence to Memphis as a rough, shiftless city. Leading up to the outbreak in 1878, it had suffered two yellow fever epidemics, cholera, and malaria, which gave Memphis a reputation as a sickly city and a filthy one. It was unheard of for a city with a population as large as that of Memphis not to have any waterworks; the city still relied for supplies entirely on collecting water from the river and rain cisterns, and it had no way to remove sewage.[30] The combination of a swelling population, especially of lower and working classes, and the abysmal health and sanitary ...
The Kidd antigen system (also known as Jk antigen) is present on the membranes of red blood cells and the kidney and helps determine a person's blood type. The Jk antigen is found on a protein responsible for urea transport in the red blood cells and the kidney. The gene encoding this protein is found on chromosome 18. Three Jk alleles are Jk (a), Jk (b)and Jk3. Jk (a) was discovered by Allen et al. in 1951 and is named after a patient (Mrs Kidd delivered a baby with a haemolytic disease of the newborn associated with an antibody directed against a new antigen Jk (a). Whereas Jk (b) was discovered by Plant et al. in 1953, individuals who lack the Jk antigen (Jk null) are unable to maximally concentrate their urine. The Jk antigen is important in transfusion ...
Ecto-ADP-ribosyltransferase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ART4 gene. ART4 has also been designated as CD297 (cluster of differentiation 297). This gene encodes a protein that contains a mono-ADP-ribosylation (ART) motif. It is a member of the ADP-ribosyltransferase gene family but enzymatic activity has not been demonstrated experimentally. Antigens of the Dombrock blood group system are located on the gene product, which is glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored to the erythrocyte membrane. Allelic variants, some of which lead to adverse transfusion reactions, are known. Several antigens have been recognised in this family. These are DO*A, DO*JO1, DO*A-WL, DO*DOYA, DO*B, DO*B-WL, DO*B-SH-Q149K, DO*B-(WL)-I175N, DO*HY1, DO*HY2 and DO*DOMR. Model organisms have been used in the study of ART4 function. A conditional knockout mouse line called ...
Alexander Solomon Wiener was born in Brooklyn, New York, the son of George Wiener, an attorney who had emigrated from Russia in 1903, and Mollie (Zuckerman) Wiener. He attended Brooklyn public schools, graduating from Brooklyn Boys' High School at the age of 15. He was awarded scholarships to attend Cornell University where he continued his study of mathematics and even contributed mathematical problems to the American Mathematical Monthly. He majored in biology, however, receiving his A.B. in 1926. He then entered the Long Island College of Medicine where he was awarded an M.D. in 1930. During his time in medical school Wiener did research work on blood groups at the Jewish Hospital of Brooklyn and from 1930 to 1932 he interned there and kept up a lifelong affiliation with that institution as the head of the Division of Genetics and Biometrics (1933-1935) and as the head of the blood transfusion division until 1952. Since ...
Galactoside 2-alpha-L-fucosyltransferase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FUT2 gene. It affects the Lewis blood group.[citation needed] Approximately 20% of Caucasians are non-secretors due to the G428A (rs601338) and C571T (rs492602?) nonsense mutations in FUT2 and therefore have strong although not absolute protection from the norovirus GII.4.[citation needed] GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000176920 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000055978 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Ball SP, Tongue N, Gibaud A, Le Pendu J, Mollicone R, Gerard G, Oriol R (Feb 1992). "The human chromosome 19 linkage group FUT1 (H), FUT2 (SE), LE, LU, PEPD, C3, APOC2, D19S7 and D19S9". Ann Hum Genet. 55 (Pt 3): 225-33. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.1991.tb00417.x. PMID 1763885. "Entrez Gene: FUT2 fucosyltransferase 2 (secretor status included)". Reguigne-Arnould I; Couillin P; Mollicone R; ...
... is an umbrella reference for Seattle's culture of non-sexualized clothing-optional and topfree events. Seattle is known for having a diversity of clothing-optional events, a large degree of creative energy in a wide range of different organizations and events, and enough tolerance for such phenomena to take place. While Seattle is known for its naked cyclists, clothing-optional activity in Seattle goes back much farther with nude and topfree use of areas of Magnuson Park, Washington Park Arboretum, Discovery Park, and Denny-Blaine Park. In the late 60s and early 70s, there was a far more rebellious mood and more group activity, including nudity. A lot centered on the University of Washington, with the main skinny-dipping area the NW corner of the Washington Park Arboretum. When the RH Thompson expressway construction was stopped, folks liked to dive off the unconnected ramps, but this all ended. Magnuson Park may not have been accessible to civilians until the late ...
Cytotoxic T cells which recognize these tumor antigens may in turn be primed by the tumor antigen-presenting cells. In contrast ... these cytotoxic T cells circulate through the blood stream and are thus able to destroy remaining tumor cells in distant parts ... In 2004, it was postulated for the first time that the immune system might be responsible for these "off-target" anti-tumor ... such as ipilimumab or pembrolizumab has greatly increased the number of abscopally responding patients in selected groups of ...
Acemannan has direct stimulatory effects on the immune system. Methods for treating cancer, viral diseases, respiratory and ... a number of conditions where the principal mechanism of resolution or cure requires intervention by the patients immune system ... cells of the body and directly alter the tumor cell surface so that the stimulated immune cells now recognize the tumor cells ... Acemannan had been shown to alter the bodys response to antigen, toxins, allergens and "self" antigens. Two cases of acemannan ...
... the tumour-associated antigen that is overexpressed on the cell surface of colorectal tumour cells. After the bsMAb has … ... The Kidd blood group is clinically significant because the Jk antibodies. The Kidd blood group is clinically significant ... The immune system responses, thats, symptomatic infusion reactions and the forming of anti-TF2 antibodies which were observed ... The human being antibodies against TF2 recognized in half from the individuals werent present during the next TF2 infusion (i. ...
... and dendritic cells in the affected tissues. Such a description excludes diseases in which infiltration of these cells occurs ... The histiocytoses encompass a group of diverse disorders characterized by the accumulation and infiltration of variable numbers ... Histiocytoses and disorders of the reticuloendothelial system. Handin RI, Lux SE, Stossel TP. Blood: Principles and Practice of ... and other solid tumors. The LCH-Malignancy Study Group of the Histiocyte Society. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 1998 Apr. 12(2): ...
In recent times, targeting the immune system to improve impaired host immune responses becomes a reasonable approach to improve ... In recent times, targeting the immune system to improve impaired host immune responses becomes a reasonable approach to improve ... Dendritic Cells (DCs) Therapy. Dendritic cells recognize fungus by pattern recognition receptors and process fungal antigens. ... Toxicities of chimeric antigen receptor T cells: recognition and management. Blood 127, 3321-3330. doi: 10.1182/blood-2016-04- ...
Hospital in London and reported his method of agglutination of white blood cells against what is known today as MHC antigens ( ... In 1955 Bernard joined Ted Hauschkas cancer research group at Roswell Park, where he continued his pioneering work in tumor ... inheritance of human leucocyte antigens. II. The recognition of individual specificities of the main system. In ... He was one of the first to recognize the value of studying different ethnic populations in order to understand ...
... not control individuals produced antibodies that specifically recognized antigens expressed in HTLV-1-infected human T-cells. ... An antigen detected in the blood during the incubation period of serum hepatitis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1968; 60: 814-21. ... DNA tumor viruses: discovery of the p53 tumor suppressor. Tumor viruses are classified in two general groups based on whether ... genes designed to kill or block the growth of tumor cells or boost the immune system to target and destroy such cells. Although ...
... including checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive cell therapy. There are several FDA-approved treatment options for children and ... Tumor-associated antigens (TAAs): proteins often expressed at abnormally high levels on tumor cells that can be used to target ... Lymphocytes circulate throughout the body via blood and the lymphatic system. Lymph nodes, a key structure of the lymphatic ... bispecific T cell engager, BiTE) designed to target the CD19 antigen on B cell lymphoma and the CD3 antigen on T cells, ...
Like benign tumors, malignant tumors do not respond to body mechanisms that limit cell growth.. ..... Click the link for more ... Janskys discovery of the four human blood groups (1907) led to the use of blood transfusions and the development of the theory ... an antibody that is mass produced in the laboratory from a single clone and that recognizes only one antigen. Monoclonal ... and the discovery of the capillary system of the blood filled the final gap in Harveys explanation of blood circulation. ...
T-cell epitopes was found to induce strong anti-Tn IgG antibodies that specifically recognized Tn-expressing human tumor cells ... MGL is preferentially expressed by DCs and macrophages-the most potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the immune system- ... Stimulation of dendritic cells via the dectin-1/Syk pathway allows priming of cytotoxic T-cell responses. Blood 2008;112(13): ... MAG antigens are based on a dendrimeric lysine core with 4 arms linked to a peptide backbone that contains a CD4+ T-cell ...
Vaccine ingredients basically fit into three groups: • Antigens - Protein cells or cell envelopes from bacteria and viruses • ... Accelerates cell growth synergistically with yeast. Displays other various effects on immune system including altered blood ... It has been shown to weaken the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) and subsequently activate seizures. It is also known to promote tumor ... Or they might recognize that so is Dr. Larry Palevsky, a board certified NY pediatrician, who for ten years routinely gave ...
... on the observation that dizygotic cattle twins of different sires expressed both sets of paternal blood group antigens as a ... The role of direct presentation by donor dendritic cells in rejection of minor histocompatibility antigen-mismatched skin and ... the treatment of hematological diseases relied on supralethal doses of irradiation to ablate tumor cells and ensure donor cell ... It has been long recognized that there is a spectrum of acceptance of allograft acceptance, with skin at one end being ...
Characterization of neural cell lines derived from SV40 large T antigen induced primitive neuroectodermal tumors; Brain Pathol ... 8. Reasoning by analogy: SV40 is a proven cancer virus, based on experimental animal model systems, analogous tumor systems, in ... The cellular 107K protein that binds to adenovirus E1A also associates with the large T antigens of SV40 and JC virus. Cell 58 ... Experimental evidence suggests that human peripheral blood cells and B and T-lymphocytes are vectors for the transfer of SV40 ...
... defiance rates of this bacterium DC pulsed with killed autologous primary ovarian tumor cells induced antigen-specific T cells ... Examination showed: A blood study showed the following results: Blood pressure 80/60 mm Hg Free thyroxine 49 This is active ... Eruption in this system refers to the emergence of a tooth from the alveolar bone, in contrast to the Ubelaker (1978) blueprint ... INTRODUCTION While migraine is a well-recognized phenomenon in adults, it is habitually overlooked or minimized in children and ...
... defiance rates of this bacterium DC pulsed with killed autologous primary ovarian tumor cells induced antigen-specific T cells ... 250mg antabuse mastercard[/url] symptoms high blood sugar. ... Interactive systems: Feedback unceasingly a once, proportionality, and · Real-time systems: Handle deadlines, predictability ... XEvil can recognize and solve different types or captcha with high precision,. without depending of difficulty, distortion, ...
Make research projects and school reports about Immune System easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia ... and pictures about Immune System at ... cells is made by a group of white blood cells known lymphocytes ... helper T cells). Lymphocytes recognize antigens by characteristics on the surface of the antigen-carrying molecules. ... The immune system can seek out and destroy disease germs, infected cells, and tumor cells. The immune system includes the ...
Unlike for SV40, the MCV small T antigen directly transforms rodent cells in vitro. The middle tumor antigen is used in model ... This system retains the distinction between avian and mammalian viruses, grouping the avian subset into the genus ... round cell tumors. Blood tests to detect MCV antibodies have been developed and show that infection with the virus is ... "Polyoma small and middle T antigens and SV40 small t antigen form stable complexes with protein phosphatase 2A". Cell. 60 (1): ...
TLRs are transmembrane proteins expressed not later than immunocompetent cells such as antigen presenting cells (APCs) and ... At pres- ent there are multiple check in groups assessing the involvement of the unaffected system and inflammatory processes ... This approximate permits aggregation of pre- and post-chemotherapy exposure tumor combination and blood and allows essential ... Individual immunoglobulins are specific in favour of however the same or two closely related antigens, even so they may be able ...
We performed proteomic profiling of 332 antigens in two cell lines and four primary tumors, and showed that CD47, a cell- ... Blood loss was relatively low for both groups. Although there were more postoperative complications among cirrhotics (38 vs. 13 ... Performance of a novel TNM staging system for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors versus the current AJCC staging system Qadan, M ... Failure to recognize cardiac metastatic disease will ultimately lead to progressive tumor embolization and cardiac failure if ...
Blood coagulum downstream from a bleeding source in the kidney (eg, renal cell carcinoma, angioma, angiomyolipoma, ... In the group with diabetes, women outnumbered men, and in the group of patients without diabetes, men outnumbered women, ... Urinary antigens as markers of papillary toxicity. I. Identification and characterization of rat kidney papillary antigens with ... these calyces represent the most proximal aspect of the renal collecting system and are lined with transitional cells. ...
... they have not yet encountered an antigen as precursor T-helper cells). Note that precursors of Th cells normally recognize ... Mucosal Immune System Organization. Generally, foreign antigens and pathogens are encountered through ingestion or by ... Polio-virus-specific MHC class II-restricted CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from orally vaccinated ... cells producing gamma interferon, interluken 2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor beta, and these T cells often develop following ...
D exerts an inhibitory effect on the adaptive immune system by modifying the capacity of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to ... dendritic cells. 22]. encoded by the Gc (group-specific component) gene. these gene polymorphisms may disturb vitamin D ... available in cell membranes to promote glucose uptake [90]. The indirect effect may be via its important and well-recognized ... TNF α: tumor necrosis factor α.30.1. Gc1F/Gc2. 95% CI = 1. Therefore. In type 1 DM. NF-κB: nuclear factor κB. while the Fok1. A ...
In addition, weak-positive SARS-CoV antigens at 1 day p.i. and a few virus antigen-positive cells at 3 days p.i. were detected ... Numbers of animals per group were as follows: (a) WT, n = 4 per group (male, 2; female, 2); TMPRSS2-KO (KO), n = 4 per group ( ... changes in T-cell populations within the thymus and peripheral blood of their Tg mice and that peripheral blood T-cell ... which recognizes specifically dsRNA and localizes to endosomes (44), recognized viral RNA within the endosomal component. Thus ...
Cells were isolated and DNA was extracted from both the cells trapped within the tampon and the primary tumor. ... Fetal antigen 2 (FA2) in human fetal osteoblasts, cultured osteoblasts and osteogenic osteosarcoma cells. ... The effect of the antitumor antibiotic bruneomycin on antibody formation in response to immunization with sheep red blood cells ... Recognizing pitfalls in breast cancer follow-up: a necessity--reply. A clinical trial of Gingkco Biloba Extract in patients ...
  • By 24 h p.i. a high-titer serum viremia had seeded infectious virus systemically, coincident with the systemic induction of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-12 (IL-12) p40, IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and IL-6. (
  • TLR-4-deficient cells elaborated reduced amounts of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-12 (IL-12), and IL-10, even though ingestion via SR-A was unaffected in these cells. (
  • SV40 is a powerful carcinogen that, in vitro , transforms human mesothelial cells. (
  • Vitamin D has in vitro and in vivo effects on pancreatic β-cells and insulin sensitivity. (
  • In vitro , activation induces virus-cell membrane fusion at the cell surface. (
  • IFN-α/β-mediated restriction of TR339 infection was mimicked in vitro in peritoneal exudate cells from 129 Sv/Ev versus IFN-α/βR −/− mice. (
  • Recently, improved methods for the in vitro generation of large numbers of DCs from peripheral blood monocytes have been established, thus allowing a more precise characterization of the events leading to maturation and activation of DCs under well-defined experimental conditions. (
  • Experimental evidence has clearly indicated that cancerous immunoglobulins play significant roles in the growth and proliferation of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. (
  • Following transfections of specific siRNA plasmids, which resulted in down regulation of cancerous immunoglobulin expression, it was found that there was significant growth inhibition of cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo [3, (
  • In vitro experiments analyzing TH1/TH2 differentiation in purified T-cell cultures established that T-cell-derived VIP pretended T-cell differentiation favoring the advancement of TH2 at the expense of TH1 cells (J. Blueberries, cranberries and strawberries every check phytochemicals buy 100mg kamagra oral jelly free shipping erectile dysfunction treatment raleigh nc. (
  • Although this substitution does not increase class I MHC binding of the peptide, the resulting APL possesses increased potency in inducing CTLs against CEA in vitro , presumably through altered interactions at the level of the T cell receptor, leading to enhanced ZAP-70 phosphorylation ( 12 , 13 ). (
  • In recent years, several groups have begun to explore the use of DCs loaded in vitro with tumor-associated antigens as therapeutic vaccines ( 15 ). (
  • Bacterial pili and Opa/Opc proteins are required for attachment to these cells ( 40 , 42 ), and meningococci, sensitive to uptake by neutrophils, are potent activators of leukocytes in vitro ( 14 , 32 ). (
  • Clinical differential diagnoses range from seborrheic dermatitis and chronic otitis media to acute leukemias, lymphomas, myeloproliferative disorders, storage diseases, Rosai-Dorfman syndrome, and solid tumors. (
  • [ 76 ] and GI involvement are often, but not always, associated with systemic disease and must be differentiated from immune deficiency, leukemia, and metastatic solid tumors. (
  • Different from other solid tumors, how to efficiently deliver the RITs to intracranial tumors is more critical and needs to be solved urgently. (
  • First, RITs are much smaller in molecular size, which makes it more efficient to penetrate into solid tumors than mAbs. (
  • He discovered that lima bean lectin would agglutinate red cells of human blood type A but not those of O or B. The seeds of Lotus tetragonobolus can agglutinate group O specifically, and Bandairaea simplicofolia is specific to group B. The specificity of lectins is so sharply defined that they can differentiate among blood subgroups. (
  • The first proof that sugars could serve as specificity determinants came from the discovery that influenza virus could agglutinate red cells only In the presence of the membrane bound sialic acids. (
  • A critical issue for the first generation is the nonspecific binding of the toxin part to normal cells, which not only compromises the specificity of immunotoxins but also causes severe systemic side effects. (
  • Background: Radiolabelled antibody focusing on of cancer is limited by slow blood clearance. (
  • The trivalent bispecific antibody construct, TF2, binds divalently to CEACAM5, the tumour-associated antigen that is overexpressed on the cell surface of colorectal tumour cells. (
  • Recent clinical data in A-867744 patients with advanced pancreatic tumor recommend a fractionated dosing routine utilizing a 90Y-labelled antibody provided in conjunction with low-dose (radiosensitising) gemcitabine can offer disease control as well as objective reactions (Sea et al , 2012), providing trustworthiness to going after 90Y of 177Lu for patients instead. (
  • In vivo DC-targeting strategies, based on Tn-MGL interactions, constitute a promising strategy for enhancing antigen presentation and inducing potent antibody response. (
  • The B lymphocyte's antigen receptor is a membrane-bound version of the antibody it will secrete if activated. (
  • Recombinant immunotoxins (RITs) refer to a group of recombinant protein-based therapeutics, which consists of two components: an antibody variable fragment or a specific ligand that allows RITs to bind specifically to target cells and an engineered toxin fragment that kills the target cells upon internalization. (
  • In particular, an ensemble of data obtained in different model systems has pointed out the importance of type I IFN in enhancing antibody production ( 11 ) and supporting the proliferation, functional activity, and survival of certain T cell subsets ( 12 )( 13 )( 14 )( 15 )( 16 ). (
  • In 1987, RP215 monoclonal antibody (Mab) was initially generated against the OC-3-VGH ovarian cancer cell line and found to react with a carbohydrate-specific epitope of CA215 glycoproteins expressed by cancer cells [20, (
  • antibody light chains and carbonyl groups of glycated peptides. (
  • We proposed that binding through a single strong interaction to an antibody would be an appropriate mechanism for the sequestration and clearance of chemically damaged proteins and cells. (
  • 19. A method for producing a monoclonal antibody according to claim 18, wherein said stable derivative is selected from the group of phosphorus-containing moieties consisting of phosphorodithioate, phosphorothioate, methylphosphonate, and phosphoramidate. (
  • Defects in pancreatic β-cell function, insulin sensitivity, and systemic inflammation all contribute to the development of type 2 DM. (
  • 90% of colorectal, gastric, and pancreatic cancers, 70% of nonsmall cell lung cancer, and 50% of breast cancer ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • Abstract The aim of the study was to assess the activity of fucoidan on the uterine sarcomas (MES-SA and ESS-1) and carcinosarcoma cell lines (SK-UT-1 and SK-UT-1B) and its toxicity on the human skin fibroblasts (HSF). (
  • In mice, MGL + CD103 − dermal DCs efficiently captured and processed glycosylated Tn antigen in vivo, inducing a potent major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-restricted T-cell response. (
  • Strategies based on CLR on DC targeting in vivo represent an effective means to enhance antigen uptake and presentation by DCs. (
  • It presents us with possibilities for in vivo imaging of host-pathogen interactions which are unparalleled in mammalian model systems. (
  • Although DCs are rare in the blood, we found that treatment of advanced cancer patients with Flt3 ligand, a hematopoietic growth factor, expanded DCs 20-fold in vivo . (
  • Later identification of mammalian tumor viruses in the 1930s by Richard Shope and John Bittner, and in the 1950s by Ludwik Gross, sparked the first intense interest in tumor virology by suggesting the possibility of a similar causal role for viruses in human cancers. (
  • This change in attitude opened the door in the 1960s and 1970s for the discovery of the first human tumor viruses-EBV, hepatitis B virus, and the papillomaviruses. (
  • Tumor virologists additionally recognized that viruses could serve as powerful discovery tools, leading to revolutionary breakthroughs in the 1970s and 1980s that included the concept of the oncogene, the identification of the p53 tumor suppressor, and the function of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor. (
  • The subsequent availability of more advanced molecular technologies paved the way in the 1980s and 1990s for the identification of additional human tumor viruses-human T-cell leukemia virus type 1, hepatitis C virus, and Kaposi's sarcoma virus. (
  • Type I IFNs are cytokines spontaneously expressed at low levels under normal physiological conditions ( 5 ), whose expression is highly enhanced soon after cell exposure to viruses or other stimuli ( 6 ). (
  • Cell viability was assessed with MTT test, apoptosis with caspase-3 activity and cell cycle by assessment of DNA synthesis. (
  • The tested agent induced apoptosis in all cell cultures used in the experiment. (
  • Fucoidan do not only affect proliferation but induces apoptosis in selected uterine sarcoma and carcinosarcoma cell lines, so it has potential to be used as cytotoxic agent. (
  • The increase in susceptibility to apoptosis following activation, may also be responsible for the decrease in the expression of activation molecules and CD40L, decrease in Th2 cytokines synthesis, and in the number of T and B circulating cells. (
  • To arrive at an understanding of the potential mechanisms underlying the development of cutaneous lupus, we discuss the role of ultraviolet light-mediated induction of apoptosis, antigen presentation, genetic factors, and mediators of inflammation. (
  • Antigen presentation occurs when degradation products of protein antigens become attached to molecules encoded by a group of genes called the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) and displayed on cell surfaces. (
  • Purpose Herein, we assessed the expression of all SLIT-ROBO family in bone marrow (BM) biopsy of AML patients and control group on both protein and RNA levels. (
  • During this process, the receptor-binding molecule must trigger the viral fusion protein to mediate fusion and entry of the virus into a cell. (
  • Finding which portions of a protein or whole pathogen contribute to a T cell immune response is an active area of research. (
  • Selecting the most appropriate method depends on the source proteins involved in the response being identified and available to the investigator, and also the accessibility of blood samples from those individuals thought to have an existing response to the protein. (
  • Where such information and samples are on hand, a method that is conceptually simple (but laborious nevertheless) is to synthesise each possible peptide fragment generated from the protein of interest and use a functional assay such as ELISPOT (3) to test available blood samples for a memory immune response. (
  • They suggested that the hemagglutination by Con-A might be the consequence of a reaction between the protein with carbohydrates on the surface of the red cells. (
  • Expression levels of HO-1, TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA were semiquantitatively analyzed using a real-time PCR technique, and HO-1 protein level was determined by immunoblotting in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. (
  • Intradermal immunization with Tn-glycopeptides induced high levels of Th2 cytokines-even in the presence of unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanosine-and was associated with increased expansion of the germinal center B-cell population. (
  • The committee stated that an improved pertussis vaccine (acellular antigens) merited unique treatment because of its potential for restoring public confidence in all immunization programs. (
  • Here we show that tolerance to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), which is overexpressed by the majority of lethal malignancies, can be reversed by immunization with a CEA-derived peptide. (
  • Type I interferons (IFNs) are cytokines exhibiting antiviral and antitumor effects, including multiple activities on immune cells. (
  • It harbors a number of immune cells including macrophages, B cells and T cells. (
  • The isolation of peritoneal cavity resident immune cells is tricky because of the lack of a defined structure inside the peritoneal cavity. (
  • Originally considered as simple antiviral substances, type I IFNs (especially IFN-α) have recently been reconsidered as important cytokines for the generation of a protective T cell-mediated immune response to virus infections and tumor growth ( 10 ). (
  • Some CVID patients may also present disturbances of the cellular immune response such as a decrease in the number and proportion of different lymphocyte populations, diminished lymphoproliferative response to mitogens and antigens, altered production of cytokines, and deficient expression of cell-surface molecules. (
  • There is evidence that activation of autoreactive T cells is facilitated by the induction of cytokines and the up-regulation of particular costimulatory molecules (CD80/CD86 and CD40), leading to autoimmunity. (
  • Thus, IFN-α/β protects the normal adult host from viral infection by rapidly conferring an antiviral state on otherwise permissive cell types, both locally and systemically. (
  • Ablation of the IFN-α/β system alters the apparent cell and tissue tropism of the virus and renders macrophage-DC-lineage cells permissive to infection. (
  • These data suggest that the innate immune system may play a role in determining the relative permissivity of host tissues to virus infection under different circumstances. (
  • Inflammation is commonly recognized as a localized response to tissue injury or infection that aids in the repair of damaged tissue and/or destruction of the harmful agent [ 4 ]. (
  • We compare the current knowledge about these processes in mammalian models and zebrafish and discuss recent studies using zebrafish infection models that have advanced our general understanding of the innate immune system. (
  • 1 , 2 Based on the association with HCV infection and autoimmunity, 3 it is conceivable that antigen stimulation may play a role in SMZL. (
  • Large numbers of neutrophils are recruited to sites of acute infection, and epithelial cells in the nasopharynx and choroid plexus may provide barriers to invasion. (
  • Infection process of incorporation of a pathogenic microorganism into the macroorganism or cells of a tissue culture. (
  • The abscopal effect is a phenomenon in the treatment of metastatic cancer where localized treatment of a tumor causes not only a shrinking of the treated tumor, but also a shrinking of tumors outside the scope of the localized treatment. (
  • Complete radiological and metabolic response of metastatic renal cell carcinoma to SU5416 (semaxanib) in a patient with probable von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, Urol Oncol, 22, 193. (
  • Fluorophore-marked transgenic lines are now available that allow unprecedented visualization of pathogen interactions with macrophages and neutrophils, the major phagocytic innate immune cell types of zebrafish larvae [ 7 - 11 ]. (
  • Indeed, although the two patients with transient grade ?3 bone marrow toxicity had a somewhat higher bone marrow absorbed dose, the radiation dose to the red marrow was very low, and therefore we suspect that underlying patient-specific factors (age, performance status, effects of prior treatments on haematopoietic stem cell reserve) likely contributed to these toxicities. (
  • The lesions of Langerhans cell histiocytosis can involve any bone and may be singular or multicentric. (
  • The earliest evidence for human cancer comes from bone tumors found in 4 million-year-old fossilized hominid remains and from nasopharyngeal carcinomas and osteogenic sarcomas seen in ancient Egyptian mummies from 3000 BCE ( 1 ). (
  • They originate from stem cells in the bone marrow. (
  • Bone metabolism, modulation of the immune response, and regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation are all biological functions of vitamin D. Vitamin D may play an important role in modifying the risk of cardiometabolic outcomes, including diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. (
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disease characterized by an indolent chronic phase during which immature myeloid cells increase in the peripheral blood and bone marrow, followed by an accelerated phase, associated with resistance to standard therapies, and terminates in blast crisis where undifferentiated blasts damage vital organs, leading in death. (
  • Mononuclear cells were obtained from bone marrow (n=62 cases), peripheral blood (n=44), spleen tissue (n=25) or locoregional lymph node (n=2). (
  • 28.Ischemia- and Filagra question mobilization of bone marrowвderived endo- thelial progenitor cells for neovascularization. (
  • The interaction of DCs with pathogens leads to migration to secondary lymphoid organs where they can initiate a specific T cell response. (
  • therefore, its main role is to recognize invading pathogens early and trigger an appropriate proinflammatory response [ 15 ]. (
  • PRRs located on endosomes identify microbes that have entered the phagolysosomal degradation pathway, and cytoplasmic PRRs recognize intracellular cytosolic pathogens or components of internalized microbes [ 18 ]. (
  • B1 cells are an important source of natural IgM providing early protection from a variety of pathogens (2-4). (
  • With multisystemic disease, Langerhans cell histiocytosis must be distinguished from familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHLH) and viral-associated hemophagocytic syndrome. (
  • As part of its charge, the committee was requested to develop a decisionmaking framework for selecting candidate vaccines of importance to the U.S. population and to use such a system to rank these candidate vaccines. (
  • To compare the health impacts of disease and the potential benefits of vaccines, a measurement system based on units of infant mortality equivalents was used. (
  • Indeed, since the report was issued, a number of acellular pertussis vaccines and new combinations of acellular pertussis vaccines with other antigens have been licensed in the United States. (
  • This has greatly restored confidence in childhood immunizations, which had been eroded previously by concerns about whole-cell pertussis vaccines. (
  • These cells are autoreactive in nature (5), but how they are controlled to prevent autoimmunity is still not understood completely. (
  • Discoveries of Gorer and Amos of the serology of the H-2 genetic system of murine histocompatibility and the subsequent discovery in both mouse and human (HLA system) that the transplantation antigens are controlled by closely linked loci with polymorphic alleles were fundamental in the development of clinical transplantation and the understanding of the genetics of the immune response. (
  • The application of hematopoietic cell transplantation for induction of immune tolerance has been limited by toxicities associated with conditioning regimens and to graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). (
  • In parallel with the progressive improvements in clinical results has come an explosion in immunology, transplantation biology, immunogenetics, cell and molecular biology, pharmacology, and other relevant biosciences, with knowledge burgeoning at a rate not dreamed of by the original pioneers. (
  • This review will also provide examples to illustrate key points, and will pay particular attention to prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) as a prototypical target for mAb-based therapy. (
  • However, there is so far no consent on the optimal radiation regimen needed to increase the chance of abscopal tumor regression. (
  • After vaccination, two of 12 patients experienced dramatic tumor regression, one patient had a mixed response, and two had stable disease. (
  • Most Brazilian CVID patients included in this study show a decrease in T and B lymphocyte counts in the peripheral blood. (
  • A morphologically unprepossessing circulating cell, the lymphocyte, was recognized in the early 1960s to be immunologically competent and primarily responsible for the rejection phenomenon. (
  • In the century since its inception, the field of tumor virology has provided groundbreaking insights into the causes of human cancer. (
  • This rich history promises that tumor virology will continue to contribute to our understanding of cancer and to the development of new therapeutic and preventive measures for this disease in the 21st century. (
  • Cancer as a disease was recognized several thousand years ago. (
  • Immunotherapy is class of treatments that take advantage of a person's own immune system to help kill cancer cells. (
  • The presence of HPV in cervical cancer is consistent among a large number of studies, regardless of the HPV testing system used. (
  • His principle practice is at Stanford Hospital and the Stanford Cancer Center, but he is also a staff surgeon at the Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, serving our veteran patients. (
  • The epidemiology of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has changed with a new pattern of disease emerging - a form of adenocarcinoma in mostly younger female patients, who are never or light smokers and more frequently in East Asian populations. (
  • In those patients who achieve a complete response to conventional therapy, small amounts of surviving cancer cells are mopped up by the immune system, which becomes more effective again when the disease burden is reduced (1). (
  • This review will focus on the successful application of mAbs as a modality of cancer treatment and will address the barriers and impediments associated with inefficient delivery of mAbs to target cells. (
  • The capacity of the immune system to recognize malignant cells and defend against cancer has long been appreciated. (
  • These abilities to target malignant cells and affect an antitumor response form the underlying basis for modern mAb-based cancer therapy. (
  • Based on these studies, it is reasonable to postulate that cancerous immunoglobulins play important roles in the modulation of the innate immune system to allow the growth and survival of cancer cells within the human body. (
  • Consequently, RP215 in its humanized forms may be utilized to target cancer cells for potential therapeutic purposes. (
  • Immunoglobulins expressed by cancer cells were initially reported more than a decade ago [1- (
  • However, the expressions of cancerous immunoglobulins in almost all cancer cells, tissues, and cell lines, could also be demonstrated through other biological and immunological methods. (
  • Based on these experimental observations, it was proposed that cancerous immunoglobulins were essential for the growth and proliferation of cancer cells. (
  • Particularly, the use of blood lipid lowering as a surrogate end point for cardiovascular disease provides a model for and insight into the issues that might surround the use of surrogates for cancer incidence in chemoprevention studies. (
  • One approach to this problem is to immunize with altered peptide ligands (APLs), peptides derived from native T cell epitopes that possess amino acid substitutions that either increase peptide affinity for the MHC peptide-binding groove or modify interactions through the T cell receptor ( 9 , 10 ). (
  • According to the American Brain Tumor Association, GBM accounts for 14.9% of all primary brain tumors and 55.4% of all gliomas in adults, and 12,390 new cases are predicted in 2017 [ 1 ]. (
  • This group of diseases is caused by known infectious agents. (
  • In fact, a recent PubMed search for the terms "aging and inflammation" revealed nearly 10000 publications in this area (Fig. 1 ) with this pair of risk factors implicated in the pathobiology of a wide variety of diseases and disorders across nearly every organ system (Fig. 2a ). (
  • Few studies have been conducted to investigate the role played by the regulatory systems in inflammatory diseases of humans, including BD. (
  • It is recognized that MS, SLE, and RA are different diseases and probably differ in etiology. (
  • Based on this new information, Frederick Hoffman and George Stahl proposed in 1695 that life consists of continuous and appropriate movement of body fluids, such as blood and lymph, through solid parts. (
  • Following the discovery of RP215 and its cognate antigen, CA215, many biological and immunological studies were performed [22,24- (
  • Resumo em inglês OBJECTIVE: given that the most common allergic manifestations (asthma, rhinitis, dermatitis, food allergies) occur during childhood, because the immune system can be induced into sensitization rather than into allergenic tolerance at the beginning of life, we analyzed the main immunological aspects of fetuses and infant in terms of allergic sensitization and response. (
  • Genetic syndromes with chromosomal disorders, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1) , familial acromegaly, McCune-Albright syndrome , and Carney syndrome, can also be associated with pituitary tumors. (
  • Vector DNA molecule, capable of incorporation of foreign DNA and of autonomous replication, serving as the instrument for introduction of genetic information into the cell. (
  • In consolidation, ignoring the current book of three broad population-based studies, there is no data that APRT improves all-inclusive survival in ESS and on the other hand modest affidavit that it improves locoregional tumor guidance, which appears to be excellent in any occurrence following surgery alone. (
  • Tc and Th cells are often termed CD8+ and CD4+ T cells, based on so-called "cluster designation" (CD) molecules found on their surface. (
  • These biomarkers include proliferation and differentiation indices, specific gene and general chromosome damage, cell growth regulatory molecules, and biochemical activities ( e.g., enzyme inhibition). (
  • Cloning the separation of mixtures of DNA molecules (e.g., recombinant plasmids, carrying in the composition of the vector molecule fragments of a foreign DNA) by inoculation on a nutrient agar of bacterial cells, into which DNA was introduced by transformation. (