A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Compounds consisting of chains of AMINO ACIDS alternating with CARBOXYLIC ACIDS via ester and amide linkages. They are commonly cyclized.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.
A genus of OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae. Most species are obligatory parasites and many are plant pathogens.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.
Membrane proteins that allow the exchange of hydrogen ions for potassium ions across the cellular membrane. The action of these antiporters influences intracellular pH and potassium ion homeostasis.
The application of LEECHES to the body to draw blood for therapeutic purposes. Such medicinal leeching, an ancient medical practice, is still being used in microsurgery and the treatment of venous congestion or occlusion.
A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Inorganic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule.
Laboratory examination used to monitor and evaluate platelet function in a patient's blood.
Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.
Aquatic vertebrate sensory system in fish and amphibians. It is composed of sense organs (canal organs and pit organs) containing neuromasts (MECHANORECEPTORS) that detect water displacement caused by moving objects.
The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
Methods for cultivation of cells, usually on a large-scale, in a closed system for the purpose of producing cells or cellular products to harvest.
Inflammation of any segment of the ILEUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The founding member of the sodium glucose transport proteins. It is predominately expressed in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the SMALL INTESTINE.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
Auditory and visual instructional materials.
A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.
The educational process of instructing.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Ability of ERYTHROCYTES to change shape as they pass through narrow spaces, such as the microvasculature.
Oxygen-carrying RED BLOOD CELLS in mammalian blood that are abnormal in structure or function.
The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.
Anemia characterized by larger than normal erythrocytes, increased mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH).
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.
A type of extracellular vesicle, containing RNA and proteins, that is secreted into the extracellular space by EXOCYTOSIS when MULTIVESICULAR BODIES fuse with the PLASMA MEMBRANE.
Extracellular vesicles generated by the shedding of CELL MEMBRANE blebs.
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Other compounds containing D-amino acids are tyrocidine and valinomycin. These compounds disrupt bacterial cell walls, ... They are also abundant components of the peptidoglycan cell walls of bacteria, and D-serine may act as a neurotransmitter in ... The D-alanine in peptidoglycans that comprise bacterial cell walls helps its host resist attack by proteolytic enzymes. Several ... September 2017). "Full color palette of fluorescent d-amino acids for in situ labeling of bacterial cell walls". Chemical ...
"Copper Binding Agents Acting as Copper Ionophores Lead to Caspase Inhibition and Paraptotic Cell Death in Human Cancer Cells". ... Anion effects on valinomycin-cation complexes". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 104 (15): 4085-4091. doi:10.1021/ ... "Copper Binding Agents Acting as Copper Ionophores Lead to Caspase Inhibition and Paraptotic Cell Death in Human Cancer Cells". ... These drugs act as ionophores by binding to ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane and making it leaky and permeable for K+ and ...
Family 1.G.11 Poxvirus Cell Entry Protein Complex (PEP-C) Family 1.G.12 The Avian Leukosis Virus gp95 Fusion Protein (ALV-gp95 ... Family 2.B.1 The Valinomycin Carrier Family 2.B.2 The Monensin Family 2.B.3 The Nigericin Family 2.B.4 The Macrotetrolide ... Family 1.A.82 The Hair Cell Mechanotransduction Channel (HCMC) Family 1.A.83 The SV40 Virus Viroporin VP2 (SV40 VP2) Family 1.A ... Family 2.B.9 The Cell Penetrating Peptide (CPP) Functional Family 2.B.10 The Synthetic CPP, Transportan Family 2.B.11 The ...
A number of cells are arranged as a cascade. After equilibration, the aqueous component of each cell is transferred to the ... a potassium ion-selective membrane electrode utilizes the naturally occurring macrocyclic antibiotic valinomycin. In this case ... A receptor is a protein molecule, embedded in either the plasma membrane or the cytoplasm of a cell, to which one or more ... For lanthanoid elements which are adjacent in the periodic table this ratio is not much greater than 1, so many cells are ...
... is obtained from the cells of several Streptomyces species, S. fulvissimus being a notable one. It is a member of ... Valinomycin is highly selective for potassium ions over sodium ions within the cell membrane. It functions as a potassium- ... Valinomycin from Fermentek. Valinomycin in the Pesticide Properties DataBase (PPDB). ... in infected Vero E6 cells. Valinomycin acts as a nonmetallic isoforming agent in potassium selective electrodes. This ionophore ...
The effect is loss of cellular membrane potential and eventually cell death. CytK is a pore-forming protein more related to ... similar to valinomycin produced by Streptomyces griseus) produced by nonribosomal peptide synthesis. Cereulide is believed to ... He presented with chills, tachypnea, and high-grade fever, his white blood cell count and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein ( ... While B. cereus vegetative cells are killed during normal cooking, spores are more resistant. Viable spores in food can become ...
In a digital microfluidic biochip, a group of (adjacent) cells in the microfluidic array can be configured to work as storage, ... For example, a K+ sensor was produced by incorporating valinomycin into a thin membrane. In 1953, Watson and Crick announced ...
Applying ionophores like valinomycin can create electrochemical gradients comparable to the gradients inside living cells. ... 1998). Essential Cell Biology: An Introduction to the Molecular Biology of the Cell. Garland Pub. ISBN 978-0-8153-2971-8. .. ... In cell biology, a vesicle is a structure within or outside a cell, consisting of liquid or cytoplasm enclosed by a lipid ... Plant cells have a large central vacuole in the center of the cell that is used for osmotic control and nutrient storage. ...
Devarajan, S.; Nair, C.M.K.; Easwaran, K.R.K.; Vijayan, M. (7 August 1980). "A novel conformation of valinomycin in its barium ... "Members: Structural, Cell and Molecular Biology". TWAS. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2010 ... pantothenate kinase and DNA binding protein in stationary phase cells. He has elucidated the specific structural features of ...
It is also one of the binding targets of C-reactive protein (CRP). Thus, when a cell is damaged, CRP binds to phosphocholine, ... Rose L, Jenkins AT (2006). "The effect of the ionophore valinomycin on biomimetic solid supported lipid DPPTE/EPC membranes". ...
And Beta-Adrenergic Blocking Agents on ATP Concentration and on Incorporation of 32Pi Into ATP in Rat Fat Cells". Biochemical ... Effects on Energized Ion Fluxes in the Presence of Valinomycin". Biochemical Pharmacology. 24 (18): 1701-5. doi:10.1016/0006- ...
A periplasmic binding protein, MppA, essential for the uptake of the cell wall murein tripeptide, L-alanyl-γ-D-glutamyl-meso- ... It has also been noted that glycine transport is inhibited by a protonophore, FCCP, or valinomycin plus nigericin, indicating ...
The result is that the cell or mitochondrion expends energy to generate a proton motive force, but the proton motive force is ... Tetraphenylphosphonium chloride Valinomycin Arsenate Uncoupling protein Not to be confused with the recreation drug, ...
... across the plasma membrane of the cell affected both the rate of Mg2+ uptake and the free Mg2+ content of the cell; ... Third, Mg2+ efflux was observed via Mrs2p upon the artificial depolarisation of the mitochondrial membrane by valinomycin. ... it mediates the transport of the ion through the tight junctions between cells that form an epithelial cell layer. In ... As a substitute, the uptake of 57Co2+ was measured and was shown to have a km of 82 μM and a Vmax of 354 pmol min−1 108 cells−1 ...
M. B. Sankaram, K. R. K. Easwaran (August 1982). "CD and nmr studies on the interaction of lithium ion with valinomycin and ... magnetic resonance spectroscopy and membrane biophysics and served as the founder chairman of the International Relations Cell ...
Live cells or tissues with intact cell membranes are not coloured. Since cells are very selective in the compounds that pass ... Hence, dead cells appear as a distinctive blue colour under a microscope. Since live cells are excluded from staining, this ... Strober, W (May 2001). Trypan blue exclusion test of cell viability. Current Protocols in Immunology. Appendix 3. pp. Appendix ... Trypan blue is commonly used in microscopy (for cell counting) and in laboratory mice for assessment of tissue viability.[5] ...
... stem cell factor MeSH D12.644.276.174.400.505 - interleukins MeSH D12.644.276.174.400.505.501 - interleukin-1 MeSH D12.644. ... valinomycin MeSH D12.644.641.325 - echinomycin MeSH D12.644.641.380 - ferrichrome MeSH D12.644.641.515 - mycobacillin MeSH ... hematopoietic cell growth factors MeSH D12.644.276.174.400.442.240 - colony-stimulating factors MeSH D12.644.276.174.400.442. ...
GAD65 and GAD67 synthesize GABA at different locations in the cell, at different developmental times, and for functionally ... β-cells of the pancreas, in varying ratios depending upon the species.[3] Together, these two enzymes maintain the only ... Cerebellar purjinke cells also reported a 40% downregulation, suggesting that affected cerebellar nuclei may disrupt output to ... "Spontaneous loss of T-cell tolerance to glutamic acid decarboxylase in murine insulin-dependent diabetes". Nature. 366 (6450): ...
"In vitro differentiation of cultured human CD34+ cells into astrocytes". Neurol India. 61 (4): 383-8. doi:10.4103/0028- ...
GABA can promote the replication and survival of β-cells[23][24][25] and also promote the conversion of α-cells to β-cells, ... "Long-Term GABA Administration Induces Alpha Cell-Mediated Beta-like Cell Neogenesis". Cell. 168 (1-2): 73-85.e11. doi:10.1016/j ... The β-cells secrete GABA along with insulin and the GABA binds to GABA receptors on the neighboring islet α-cells and inhibits ... Medium spiny cells are a typical example of inhibitory central nervous system GABAergic cells. In contrast, GABA exhibits both ...
Y. Orihara; T. Furuya (1990). "Production of theanine and other γ-glutamyl derivatives by Camellia sinensis cultured cells". ... Plant Cell Reports. 9 (2): 65-68. doi:10.1007/BF00231550. PMID 24226431.. ...
Michael C. Flickinger (5 April 2010). Encyclopedia of Industrial Biotechnology: Bioprocess, Bioseparation, and Cell Technology ... Glutamate acts on ionotropic and metabotropic (G-protein coupled) receptors.[21] In the opposing postsynaptic cell, glutamate ... Ninety-five percent of the dietary glutamate is metabolized by intestinal cells in a first pass.[26] ... Nerve impulses trigger release of glutamate from the presynaptic cell. ...
The existence of a specific GHB receptor was predicted by observing the action of GHB and related compounds that primarily act on the GABAB receptor, but also exhibit a range of effects which were found not to be produced by GABAB activity, and so were suspected of being produced by a novel and at the time unidentified receptor target. Following the discovery of the "orphan" G-protein coupled receptor GPR172A, it was subsequently found to be the GHB receptor whose existence had been previously predicted.[1] The rat GHB receptor was first cloned and characterised in 2003[2] followed by the human receptor in 2007.[3] ...
The Effect of Valinomycin on Potassium and Sodium Permeability of HK and LK Sheep Red Cells. Daniel C. Tosteson, P. Cook, ... The Effect of Valinomycin on Potassium and Sodium Permeability of HK and LK Sheep Red Cells ... The compound had relatively little effect on the active extrusion of sodium from HK sheep red blood cells or on the Na + K- ... A cyclic depsipeptide antibiotic, valinomycin, was found to produce increased selective permeability of the plasma membranes of ...
Valinomycin is obtained from the cells of several Streptomyces species, S. fulvissimus being a notable one. It is a member of ... Valinomycin is highly selective for potassium ions over sodium ions within the cell membrane. It functions as a potassium- ... Valinomycin from Fermentek. Valinomycin in the Pesticide Properties DataBase (PPDB). ... in infected Vero E6 cells. Valinomycin acts as a nonmetallic isoforming agent in potassium selective electrodes. This ionophore ...
Cell Biol. Int. 2006, 30( 3), 197-204.. Abdalah, R., et al. Valinomycin-induced apoptosis in Chinese hamster ovary cells. ... Valinomycin, is used as a potassium ionophore shown to induce cell death. Due to the ion-selective nature of valinomycin, it is ... not protect the disruption of the inner mitochondrial membrane potential induced by potassium ionophores in intact K562 cells. ...
The compound had relatively little effect on the active extrusion of sodium from HK sheep red blood cells or on the Na + K- ... was found to produce increased selective permeability of the plasma membranes of HK and LK sheep red blood cells to potassium ... stimulated ATPase activity of membranes derived from these cells. It is proposed that the selective cation permeability ... The effect of valinomycin on potassium and sodium permeability of HK and LK sheep red cells. ...
Other compounds containing D-amino acids are tyrocidine and valinomycin. These compounds disrupt bacterial cell walls, ... They are also abundant components of the peptidoglycan cell walls of bacteria, and D-serine may act as a neurotransmitter in ... The D-alanine in peptidoglycans that comprise bacterial cell walls helps its host resist attack by proteolytic enzymes. Several ... September 2017). "Full color palette of fluorescent d-amino acids for in situ labeling of bacterial cell walls". Chemical ...
Reduced BiP levels in valinomycin-treated cancer cells can thus result in cell death under ER stress conditions, which are ... Valinomycin. The macrocycle valinomycin, isolated from an Actinomycete culture, is a known potassium anionophore [96]. ... 2) was discovered as a cytotoxic antitumor drug and prevents growth of various cancer cell lines by inducing G1 cell cycle ... Selective cytotoxic activity of valinomycin against HT-29 Human colon carcinoma cells via down-regulation of GRP78. Biol Pharm ...
MD simulation results could be a prerequisite for studying a more complex scenario-for estimating ion transport in the cell ... Valinomycins molecular structure efficiently surrounds the K+ ion, as this structure has to exactly correspond to the K+ ion ... It is obtained that capturing a К+(Na+) ion in the valinomycin cavity is not possible for all values of the electric field ... Each of the two kinds of ions (К+ or Na+) has its own critical electric field associated with ion binding to valinomycin, for ...
... inhibits cell migration, blocks microtubule assembly, and arrests cells in metaphase; used to synchronize cells and for ... Valinomycin Cayman Chemical. A cyclododecadepsipeptide potassium-selective ionophore antibotic; induces apoptosis in several ... inhibits cell proliferation by inducing p53-dependent apoptosis in various human cancer cells (IC50s = 5.4, 51.9, 3.2, 33.9, ... that inhibits cell proliferation both in B-Raf mutated and wild-type melanoma cell lines. ...
Cation/proton antiporters (CPAs) play a major role in maintaining living cells homeostasis and are divided in two main groups ... play a major role in maintaining living cells homeostasis. CPAs are commonly divided into two main groups, CPA1 and CPA2, and ... Whereas valinomycin/K+ had no effect on the Na+-induced dequenching by the mutant, it increased it dramatically in the WT. The ... Cells of the E. coli mutant EP432 lacking the Na+/H+ antiporter genes nhaA and nhaB42 were transformed with plasmids containing ...
1 B, lanes 5 and 6). Unlike ups1Δ cells, ups2Δ and ups3Δ single deletion cells as well as ups2Δups3Δ cells double deletion ... As a negative control, 10 µg/ml valinomycin was added to the reactions (−ΔΨ). WT, wild type. ... 1 E, their mitochondrial import was slower in ups1Δ cells than in wild-type cells. We also analyzed pb2(167)-DHFR, a precursor ... Cells containing tubular mitochondria were scored. Values are mean ± SD (n = 3). At least 300 cells were visualized in each ...
Your Name) has sent you a message from Plant Cell Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Plant Cell web ... D) ABC3 rescues the valinomycin sensitivity associated with the loss of orthologous pmd1+ locus in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. ... C) Cell viability was assessed with phloxine B staining in vegetative mycelia from the wild type (gray bars) or abc3Δ (black ... B) The abc3Δ strain fails to elicit proper HR-associated host cell death. Barley leaves challenged with the wild type or abc3Δ ...
Neurons are the most energy and oxygen-demanding cell types, thus require large amounts of energy. The energy of neurons is ... Mitochondria are dynamic organelles, and essential for energy conversion, neuron survival, and cell death. As mitochondrial ... Valinomycin activates mitophagy via the PINK/Parkin signaling pathway. N2a/APP695swe cells treated with valinomycin for 3h can ... Johnson, G. V., and Stoothoff, W. H. (2004). Tau phosphorylation in neuronal cell function and dysfunction. J. Cell Sci. 117, ...
Valinomycin- and staurosporine-treated cells were used as positive controls. Caspase activation was measured using the CaspaTag ... Cells in S phase decreased from 24% to 4%, with no change in the percent of cells in G2/M phase. The cell-cycle effects were ... Analysis of the cell cycle distribution after treatment of SKBr3 cells with CP-654577. SKBr3 cells were treated as indicated ... SKBr3 cells were seeded in 24-well plates at a density of 100,000 cells/well and used the next day. A, SKBr3 cells were ...
"Valinomycin"-cells treated with 10 μM valinomycin then washed and measured in 0 K+ buffer, "SQI-Et-valinomycin"-cells treated ... "SQI-Et-valinomycin, 0 Na+"-cells treated with 10 μM SQI-Et plus 10 μM valinomycin then washed and measured in 0 Na+ 0 K+ buffer ... Cells were incubated with valinomycin (10 μM) in Na+ K+ buffer for 5 min at 37 C., extracellular buffer was withdrawn, and ... Ionophore(s) (valinomycin and/or SQI-Et) were incorporated into cell plasma membrane by addition from 10 mM stock solutions in ...
Quercetin mitigates valinomycin-induced cellular stress via stress-induced metabolism and cell uptake Gerard Gonzales (UGent) ... Flow cytometric method for the detection of flavonoids in cell lines Charlotte Grootaert (UGent) , Gerard Gonzales (UGent) , ... Natural Fe isotope fractionation in an intestinal Caco-2 cell line model Maria del Rosario Florez Garcia (UGent) , Yulia ... Synthesis of novel curcuminoids accommodating a central β-enaminone motif and their impact on cell growth and oxidative stress ...
... including assays for cell viability, DNA damage, mitotoxicity, autophagy, apoptosis, and cell proliferation. ... We have applied our extensive expertise in fluorescent labeling technologies and cell-based assays to create solutions tailored ... HepG2 cells were plated on collagen-coated plates, treated with various doses of valinomycin for 24 hr, and stained with the ... primary and stem cells, complex co-cultures of live cells, and three-dimensional cell models), real-time analysis, user- ...
gradient-stimulated [14C]butyrate uptake in normal ileal villus cell BBMV. Voltage clamping with valinomycin also did not ... gradient in villus cell BBMV (Fig.1 A). Gradients of pH and. further stimulated [14C]butyrate uptake in villus cell BBMV. ... exchange in villus cell BBMV. gradient-stimulated [14C]butyrate uptake is significantly diminished in villus cell BBMV from ... gradient-stimulated [14C]butyrate uptake in inflamed ileal villus cell BBMV. Voltage clamping with valinomycin also did not ...
... human leukaemic K562 cells were monitored after exposure to staurosporine and valinomycin. The DEP response curves showed the ... human cancer cells/red blood cells; and rodent fibroblasts/red blood cells. A single-pass protocol can enrich cells with cell ... The cell cycle is the process of tightly integrated events leading to cell growth, DNA replication and cell division. Cell ... cell loss. A two-pass protocol can process 300,000,000 cells in under 30 minutes, with cell recovery of up to 96.4% and cell ...
... cell line development - cell culture optimization - toxicology assays ... Phenotype MicroArrays for Mammalian cells & Characterization - Biolog - mammalian cellular assays - bioprocess - ... Easy, robust protocols with any cell type - adherent or suspension cells, transformed cell lines or primary cells ... Assays need only 20,000 to 40,000 cells per well. •Novel tetrazolium dye chemistry provides a terminal electron acceptor in ...
Integrated cellular responses were measured at 24 and 72 hours using high-content imaging and included cell loss, membrane ... Integrated cellular responses were measured at 24 and 72 hours using high-content imaging and included cell loss, membrane ... Cells were plated at two different densities: 1500 cells/well for plates assigned to the 24 h time point and 1000 cells/well ... A separate microplate was prepared with 8.33 mM of valinomycin solution for positive control wells; final concentration was 33 ...
... with valinomycin (Accardi et al. 2004). The experiment was carried out in a stirred cell, where electrodes continuously ... They were suspended in a stirred cell in low-Cl− solution with low buffering power, and the suspension was monitored ... 2002 Substrate-dependent reversal of anion transport site orientation in the human red blood cell anion-exchange protein, AE1. ... The flux reaction was initiated by addition of valinomycin. A representative experiment is shown, with dashed lines ...
Lyso-Tracker red, NP-EGTA, OGB5N, valinomycin, FTMRD, BZiPAR, TRD, and RGD were purchased from Molecular Probes/Invitrogen ( ... For pH measurements, cells were stimulated with 10 nM CCK at 35°C for 60 min in the presence of the cell-impermeant ratiometric ... Cell Preparation and Extracellular Solutions.. Mouse pancreatic acinar cells were isolated by collagenase digestion as ... Isolated clusters of acinar cells were incubated in extracellular solution containing a cell-impermeant fluorescent tracer: ...
The s-BLM was widely applied as a cell membrane model and sensing material of biosensors and biomolecular devices. An electrode ... based on s-BLM modified with valinomycin was fabricated. Utilizing Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), the influence of temperature on the ...
When assayed in buffer without potassium, cells were hyperpolarized, due to valinomycin-mediated potassium efflux. Cell ... cells had lower Δψ values than the ATR− cells. Nisin addition at 250 s depleted the Δψ of ATR− cells but not of ATR+ cells. ... cells had reduced Δψ values and therefore resistance to nisin and valinomycin, similar to that for the ATR+ cells. This also ... cells to levels close to the dead cell control in ∼50 s. Subsequent addition of valinomycin further reduced Δψ to zero (Fig. 2c ...
Cause of AMI ... rationale- intracellular enzymes in myocardial cells are released when cells are ... , PowerPoint PPT ... nigericin and valinomycin.. 63. Fig. 9.12 p.173 64. Respiration/ATP stoichiometry*Per molecule of phosphate and 1/2 O2 ... reactions of a cell take place. They do not affect the equilibrium constant. ... Most uncouplers cause the cell to increase oxygen respiration rate *Examples of uncouplers are dinitrophenol (DNP) , ...
In addition, it was possible to depolarize the membranes of hypoxic nongrowing cells by using the ionophore valinomycin (known ... Mtb cells were centrifuged and resuspended in Dubos liquid medium with varying pH to a cell density of ≈1 × 109 cfu/ml. [14C] ... The health span of supercentenarians might be partly explained by the expansion of T cells that kill infected or abnormal cells ... The dissipation of the ΔpH was observed when the cells were exposed to nigericin but not to rifampicin or valinomycin (Table 2 ...
1984) K+-valinomycin and chloride conductance of the human red cell membrane. Influence of the membrane protonophore ... 0.4 mmol/lcells, which can be compared with 88-105 mmol/lcells and 5.9-11.3 mmol/lcells, respectively, reported for RBC from ... 2003) in Red Cell Membrane Transport in Health and Disease, K+-Cl− cotransport in vertebrate red cells, eds Bernhardt I, Ellory ... 2009) Hereditary stomatocytosis and cation leaky red cells - recent developments. Blood Cell Mol Dis 42(3):216-22. ...
... in the cell, selectively dissipating the transmembrane potential (Δψ). The treatment of the cells with nigericin or valinomycin ... Whole-cell transport assays.The SbmA transport kinetics were measured by using E. coli whole-cell transport assays. A time ... Cells expressing endogenous or recombinant SbmA transport larger amounts of Bac7 than do cells that are sbmA deficient, in ... To correlate the uptake of Bac7(1-35)-BY with the ATP concentration of the cells, we measured the ATP level in bacterial cells ...
Applying ionophores like valinomycin can create electrochemical gradients comparable to the gradients inside living cells. ... 1998). Essential Cell Biology: An Introduction to the Molecular Biology of the Cell. Garland Pub. ISBN 978-0-8153-2971-8. .. ... In cell biology, a vesicle is a structure within or outside a cell, consisting of liquid or cytoplasm enclosed by a lipid ... Plant cells have a large central vacuole in the center of the cell that is used for osmotic control and nutrient storage. ...
Cell wall invertase was demonstrated histochemically. Further study of fructose uptake at a concentration at which the ... Uptake was not affected by valinomycin plus K+ and was stimulated by fusicoccin. Fructose and glucose uptake was not pH- ...
  • The linear rates of GSH efflux from primary cultured RCEC were determined in cells maintained in NaCl-buffer (135 mM NaCl), choline chloride-buffer (135 mM choline-Cl - ), high K + buffer (135 mM KCl and 5 mM NaCl) with or without 1 µM potassium ionophore valinomycin, and NaCl-buffer with 1 µM valinomycin. (arvojournals.org)
  • Increasing K + conductance using the specific ionophore valinomycin (10 μmol l -1 ) or removal of extracellular Cl - after an instant drop in AO fluorescence resulted in a reversal of luminal acidity. (biologists.org)
  • Daniele RP, Holian S (1976) A potassium ionophore (valinomycin) inhibits lymphocyte proliferation by its effects on the cell membrane. (springer.com)
  • Potassium ionophore valinomycin triggers an increase of the cytoplasinic calcium concentration. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Valinomycin-induced apoptosis in Chinese hamster ovary cells. (alfa.com)
  • Apoptosis is triggered in both SKBr3 and another high erbB2-expressing cell line, BT474, by exposure to 1 μ m CP-654577, but this effect is not observed in MCF7 cells that express low erbB2. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Levels of activated Akt, an important positive regulator of cell survival, are reduced within 2 h of exposure to 250 n m CP-654577, and this may contribute to the increased apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We have applied our extensive expertise in fluorescent labeling technologies and cell-based assays to create solutions tailored to the specific requirements of HCS, including assays for cell viability, DNA damage, mitotoxicity, autophagy, apoptosis, and cell proliferation. (thermofisher.com)
  • These include very rapid apoptosis measurement, effect of ion channel blockers on cytoplasm composition, drug resistance in cancer cells and antibiotic resistance in bacteria. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Integrated cellular responses were measured at 24 and 72 h using high-content imaging and included cell loss, membrane permeability, mitochondrial function, and apoptosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • We showed previously that Jurkat cells treated with MG rapidly undergo apoptosis via c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In this study, we examined whether phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) can prevent MG-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Taken together, these results suggest that PMA-induced ERK activation can protect Jurkat cells from methylglyoxal-induced apoptosis and that activated ERK exerts its antiapoptotic effects on mitochondria by inhibiting activated JNK-induced permeabilization of the outer mitochondrial membrane. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that rapid activation of the ERK pathway after PMA treatment protects Jurkat cells from MG-induced apoptosis. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The protection of cells against MG-induced apoptosis by PMA involves inhibition of mitochondrial depolarization and of caspase cleavage. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Selective amino acid restriction targets mitochondria to induce apoptosis of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells," Journal of Cellular Physiology , vol. 209, no. 2, pp. 522-534, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • We recently (1996) reported that glossophaiyngeal nerve sectioning induced apoptosis of taste bud cells in the mouse circumvallate papillae. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Thus, the trophic substance released from gustatory nerves, that causes differentiation and maintains taste bud cells, may have an inhibitory effect on apoptosis of taste bud cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • An immunohistochemical reaction for Bcl-2 and Bcl-x, which inhibit apoptosis, revealed positive staining of the epithelial cells in all layers of the epithelium and taste bud cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The result shows that a rise in the intracellular content of calcium ion induces apoptosis of taste bud cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We are examining whether apoptosis of the taste bud cells after nerve sectioning would be interfered by treatment of various kinds of growth factors such as BDNF and GDNF. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] M. Takeda: 'Induction of apoptosis by valinomycin in mouse taste buds'日本解剖学会東北北海道連合地方会. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Head and neck cancer cell lines are resistant to mitochondrial-depolarization-induced apoptosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • PURPOSE: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to defects in the apoptotic pathway, and solid tumors, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), exhibit defects in apoptosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: HNSCC cell lines JHU-011, -012 and -019, and a leukemia control cell line HL-60 were assayed for DeltaPsim after valinomycin treatment by staining with mitochondrial-membrane-potential-specific probe JC-1 and stained with apoptosis-specific probe annexin-V to measure their rate of apoptosis by FACS. (biomedsearch.com)
  • All cell lines demonstrated complete mitochondrial depolarization within 24 h, however, only the control cell line HL-60 underwent apoptosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In addition, HNSCC cell lines did not demonstrate cytoplasmic cytochrome c release despite significant mitochondrial membrane depolarization, while HL-60 cell initiated apoptosis and cytochcrome c release after 24 h of treatment. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Head and neck cancer cell lines exhibit defects in mitochondrial-membrane-depolarization-induced apoptosis as well as impaired release of cytochrome c despite significant mitochondrial membrane depolarization. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The predominant physiological function of mitochondria is the generation of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation, but additional functions include the generation and detoxification of reactive oxygen species, involvement in some forms of apoptosis, regulation of cytoplasmic and mitochondrial matrix calcium, synthesis and catabolism of metabolites and the transport of the organelles themselves to correct locations within the cell. (biochemj.org)
  • There are three major morphologically and biochemically distinct types of cell death: apoptosis (type 1 cell death), autophagy (type 2 cell death), and necrosis (type 3 cell death). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Because secondary necrosis is an end stage of apoptosis it can be discriminated from primary necrosis by occurrence of apoptotic and necrotic cell death parameters. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 15 , 16 Many viruses are known to cause these types of cell death, for example HIV (apoptosis), 17 hepatitis C virus (autophagy), 18 bovine parvovirus (necrosis), 19 and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (secondary necrosis). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 19 On the other hand apoptosis induced in H-1 infection progresses to a necrotic cell death state in specific cell types. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A cyclic depsipeptide antibiotic, valinomycin, was found to produce increased selective permeability of the plasma membranes of HK and LK sheep red blood cells to potassium but not to sodium ions. (rupress.org)
  • The compound had relatively little effect on the active extrusion of sodium from HK sheep red blood cells or on the Na + K-stimulated ATPase activity of membranes derived from these cells. (rupress.org)
  • The decreased proton motive force (PMF) of ATR + cells increased their resistance to nisin, the action of which is enhanced by energized membranes. (asm.org)
  • However, hyperpolarizing cell membranes with 1 µM valinomycin in the NaCl incubation buffer stimulated efflux rates more than two-fold into apical fluid. (arvojournals.org)
  • In addition, MALDI-TOF-MS was used to screen a library of 8 phosphonium cations and subsequently rank their ability to penetrate membranes and accumulate in cells. (snmjournals.org)
  • dependent and -independent K^+ channels throughout receptive and basolateral membranes of bullfrog taste cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • part of the present confusion, due to discrepant results, comes from the lack of background information on the channels present in noninfected red blood cell membranes. (asmscience.org)
  • Extracts from these plants were able to disrupt the cell membranes of V. cholerae cells, causing increased membrane permeability, a clear decrease in cytoplasmic pH, cell membrane hyperpolarization, and a decrease in cellular ATP concentration in all strains tested. (asm.org)
  • Opritov, V. 2004-10-10 00:00:00 The inside-out vesicles of plasma membranes were isolated from pumpkin stem cells, and the kinetics of sucrose efflux induced by the K+-diffusion potential (ΔψD) was studied by measuring light transmission. (deepdyve.com)
  • The inside-out vesicles of plasma membranes were isolated from pumpkin stem cells, and the kinetics of sucrose efflux induced by the K+-diffusion potential (ΔψD) was studied by measuring light transmission. (deepdyve.com)
  • Agents examined in this study included staphylococcal alpha-toxin and gramicidin, both of which selectively permeabilize plasma membranes for monovalent ions, the ionophores nigericin and valinomycin, and the Na+/K+ ATPase inhibitor ouabain. (nih.gov)
  • In this paper, I first discuss how our understanding of cell membranes went from invisible boundaries to fluid lipid bilayers. (rupress.org)
  • Red blood cells have been chosen for this evaluation as a convenient model with nearly absent genomic and rapid posttranscriptional changes in function and minimal interferences between the ion fluxes in the external and intracellular membranes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cells are encapsulated by membranes that form a barrier between the inside of the cell and the outside world. (elifesciences.org)
  • These membranes primarily consist of fatty molecules called lipids, but they are also packed with proteins such as ion channels and transporters that control which molecules pass in and out of the cell. (elifesciences.org)
  • It is however possible that within cell membranes, the CIC transporter proteins switch between their dimer and monomer forms. (elifesciences.org)
  • diluted E. coli CIC protein from natural cell membranes into large synthetic membranes to reduce the number of proteins far below the amount normally seen in cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • The influence of valinomycin-induced K+-diffusion potential ( Delta Psi D) on hydrolytic activity of H+-ATPase at 24 degrees and 6 degrees C was studied on plasma membranes (PM) isolated from Cucurbita pepo stem cells. (eurekamag.com)
  • Transport of anions through neuronal cell-membranes by receptor-channel proteins. (mpg.de)
  • Uptake was not affected by valinomycin plus K + and was stimulated by fusicoccin. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Valinomycin is a naturally occurring dodecadepsipeptide used in the transport of potassium and as an antibiotic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many Streptomyces strains are known to produce valinomycin (VLM) antibiotic and the VLM biosynthetic gene cluster (vlm) has been characterized in two independent isolates. (jove.com)
  • Synergistic inhibition of L-proline transport was observed with clomipramine after addition of either of the ionophores valinomycin or nigericin. (sciencemag.org)
  • In two human cell lines (K562 and U937), we have studied by flow cytometry the changes in membrane potential provoked by the K+ ionophor valinomycin, a drug known to affect mitochondrial membrane potential, while the K+/H+ ionophor nigericin, known to affect intracellular pH but not mitochondrial membrane potential, was used as control. (nih.gov)
  • K + -depletion was necessary but not sufficient to induce RCD as inferred from the effects of valinomycin, NH 4 Cl or nigericin which released a percentage of K + similar to that released by lactoferrin without affecting cell viability. (mdpi.com)
  • 3. If the external pH is varied between 5.5 and 8.0, 3-deoxy-2-oxo-D-gluconate uptake is gradually inhibited by valinomycin plus K+ ions, whereas the inhibition caused by nigericin is concomitantly relieved, thus reflecting the relative contribution of deltapH and deltapsi to the total protonmotive force at each external pH. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Valinomycin is highly selective for potassium ions over sodium ions within the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • This difference is important for maintaining the selectivity of valinomycin for the transport of potassium ions (and not sodium ions) in biological systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of this work is to estimate the value of the electric field (potentials) for the system of valinomycin + К+ and Na+ ions based on a molecular dynamics (MD) study. (scirp.org)
  • Each of the two kinds of ions (К+ or Na+) has its own critical electric field associated with ion binding to valinomycin, for which to exist, the ion has to remain localized inside the valinomycin cavity. (scirp.org)
  • Forester, T.R., Smith, W. and Clarke, J.H.R. (1995) Capture of potassium ions by valinomycin: A molecular dynamics simulation study. (scirp.org)
  • 1 Red blood cells (RBC) from patients with CHC have increased membrane permeability to Na + and K + ions, which is particularly pronounced at 0°C. 1 - 6 In rare cases, these patients' RBC have a deficiency of stomatin accompanied by mental retardation, seizures, cataracts, and hepatosplenomegaly. (haematologica.org)
  • Although the membrane that surrounds a cell is effective at separating the inside of a cell from the outside environment, certain molecules and ions must enter or leave the cell for it to work correctly. (elifesciences.org)
  • Transporters that are found in all organisms include the sodium/proton antiporters, which exchange protons from inside the cell with sodium ions from outside. (elifesciences.org)
  • Under these conditions the sodium/proton antiporter adopts an 'inward-open' state, where the substrate-binding site-the region where the ions bind to be transported-of the transporter is open towards the cell interior. (elifesciences.org)
  • The process is stimulated when the membrane potential is collapsed by valinomycin in the presence of K+ ions. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cyclosporin A does not protect the disruption of the inner mitochondrial membrane potential induced by potassium ionophores in intact K562 cells. (alfa.com)
  • Use of a bacterial two-hybrid system coupled to SEC-MALLS (size exclusion chromatography coupled with multiangle laser light scattering) analyses established that SbmA is a homodimer in the membrane, and treatment of the cells with arsenate or ionophores indicated that the peptide transport mediated by SbmA is driven by the electrochemical gradient. (asm.org)
  • 5) Various combinations of different ionophores reconstituted into PVC were found to potentiate the ability to discriminate various salt stimuli, and then enables us to simulate the real salt responses in the taste cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Dimethyl- and trimethyl- β-CD interacted with the phospholipids but the effect was negligible compared to the effect of valinomycin. (elsevier.com)
  • Properties of signal peptide-specific systems are highlighted for the development of new therapeutic and antimicrobial applications, as compounds can target signal peptides from either host cells or pathogens and thereby selectively prevent translocation of those specific proteins. (springer.com)
  • Eisenman, G. and Alvarez, O. (1992) Ionic selectivity of proteins: Lessons from molecular dynamics simulations on valinomycin. (scirp.org)
  • Transport vesicles can move molecules between locations inside the cell, e.g., proteins from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus . (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of these proteins mature in the Golgi apparatus before going to their final destination which may be to lysosomes , peroxisomes , or outside of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins travel within the cell inside of transport vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • To investigate the levels at which the expression of nuclear and mitochondrially encoded proteins is coordinated, we established an Arabidopsis thaliana cell culture system to modulate mitochondrial biogenesis in response to sugar starvation and refeeding. (plantcell.org)
  • Normal eukaryotic cell functions rely on dedicated systems of protein traffic control that ensure correct assembly of specific sets of proteins in each membrane-bounded compartment or organelle ( Schatz and Dobberstein, 1996 ). (rupress.org)
  • A significant fraction of Escherichia coli proteins are transported across the cytoplasmic membrane for their cell envelope localization. (asm.org)
  • Proteins embedded in the cell membrane, called transporters, ensure this occurs. (elifesciences.org)
  • 1) In the experiments where channel proteins extracted from homogenates of the frog taste cell membrane were incorporated into an artificial membrane using the tip-dip method, we observed activity of channels having conductance similar to those obtained in (A). (2) It was difficult that channel proteins from taste cells were stably and readily employed as a taste sensor for a long period at the room temperature. (nii.ac.jp)
  • While the nutrient limited fed-batch technology is the standard of the cultivation of microorganisms and production of heterologous proteins in industry, despite its advantages in view of metabolic control and high cell density growth, shaken batch cultures are still the standard for protein production and expression screening in molecular biology and biochemistry laboratories. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It would take even longer before it was accepted that there existed hydrophobic proteins that were embedded within the membrane and that these proteins were responsible for selective permeability in cells. (rupress.org)
  • With a combination of intuitive experiments and quantitative thinking, the last century of cell membrane research has led us to a molecular understanding of the structure of the membrane, as well as many of the proteins embedded within. (rupress.org)
  • In this Milestones article, I review some of the key experiments that led to our current understanding of the cell membrane as a lipid bilayer that solvates proteins that span the membrane. (rupress.org)
  • The past 100 years take us from a time when we did not know the lipid bilayer and integral membrane proteins existed to the present, where the structure of membrane proteins, even in the context of the cell membrane, is becoming more and more accessible. (rupress.org)
  • Ion channel proteins ([http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mechanosensitive_channels MscL. (edaq.com)
  • Note the orientation of the protein so that its 'superstructure' is housed ouside the tethaPlasm]] Many proteins comprise lipohilic and hydrophilic sections and these affect the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein_tertiary_structure tertiary protein structure]. (edaq.com)
  • Quite often the lipophillic sections are associated with a cell, or organelle, membrane and so the proteins are known are known as [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Membrane_protein membrane proteins]. (edaq.com)
  • It is proposed that membrane proteins fold spontaneously inside of the cell membrane to adopt the structures that allow them to carry out their function. (elifesciences.org)
  • While it is generally understood why proteins fold spontaneously when they are in water, it is less clear why this occurs for membrane proteins in the oily cell membrane. (elifesciences.org)
  • In skeletal muscle mitoK overexpression induces a broad stress response, as indicated by the expression profile of specific genes, and activates cell proteolytic pathways to eliminate damaged organelles and dysfunctional proteins. (unipd.it)
  • abstract = "Little is known about the cellular and molecular regulation of the uptake process of the water‐soluble vitamin biotin into liver cells, the major site of biotin utilization and metabolism. (elsevier.com)
  • Here, we have investigated mitochondrial biology and energy metabolism in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and hESC-derived neural stem cells (NSCs). (biologists.org)
  • The many genetically modified cell lines and organisms that have been generated for the study of physiological and pathological mechanisms often show features that suggest compromised energy metabolism or mitochondrial dysfunction. (biochemj.org)
  • Our results demonstrate that IFNs may increase cell resistance to staphylococcal alpha-toxin via the regulation of lipid metabolism and suggest that interferons play a protective role during staphylococcal infections. (asm.org)
  • The K m in both apical and basolateral uptake studies for Na + was ∼14 1 mM and V max of 29 2 pmol/10 6 cells for apical studies and 19 2 pmol/10 6 cells for basolateral uptake were found. (arvojournals.org)
  • The time course of TPP uptake by C6 cells was then quantified using both MALDI-TOF-MS and liquid scintillation counting with 3 H-TPP. (snmjournals.org)
  • These data validated MALDI-TOF-MS as an alternative approach for accurately measuring uptake of phosphonium cations by cells. (snmjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, uptake profiles suggested that FTPP preserves the membrane potential-dependent uptake property of TPP in cell cultures. (snmjournals.org)
  • The aim of the present study was, therefore, to examine the mechanism(s) of biotin uptake by the cultured human‐derived liver cells, Hep G2. (elsevier.com)
  • Uptake to biotin by Hep G2 cells was appreciable and linear for up to 10 min of incubation. (elsevier.com)
  • The uptake process was Na+ gradient‐dependent as indicated by studies of Na+ replacement and pretreatment of cells with gramicidin and ouabain. (elsevier.com)
  • Pretreatment of Hep G2 cells with valinomycin did not alter biotin uptake. (elsevier.com)
  • The stoichiometric ratio of biotin to Na+ uptake in Hep G2 cells was also determined and found to be 1:1. (elsevier.com)
  • These findings demonstrate that biotin uptake by these cultured liver cells is mediated through a specialized carrier system that is dependent on Na+‐gradient, temperature, and energy and transports the vitamin by an electroneutral process. (elsevier.com)
  • These findings are similar to those seen with native liver tissue preparations and demonstrate the suitability of Hep G2 cells for in‐depth investigations of the cellular and molecular regulation of biotin uptake by the liver. (elsevier.com)
  • Changes in membrane potential are an early indication of injury in bacteria, and the ability of a cell to maintain a stable membrane potential can be determined by probe uptake or exclusion ( 26 ). (asm.org)
  • Broad inhibition of translocation is also an interesting target for the development of new anticancer drugs because cancer cells heavily depend on efficient protein translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum to support their fast growth. (springer.com)
  • Treatment of SKBr3 human breast cancer cells with CP-654577 reduces the levels of the activated form of mitogen-activated protein kinase, increases the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 kip1 and reduces expression of cyclins D and E. These biochemical changes result in a reduced level of phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein and an inhibition of cell-cycle progression at G 1 . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Inhibition of the F o F 1 ATPase enzyme complex by N ′- N ′-1,3-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide increased ATP levels in ATR − but not in ATR + cells, where ATPase activity was already low. (asm.org)
  • The calcium-mediated inhibition of rehydration was reversed by charybdotoxin, implying that rehydration was delayed in some cells by the Ca(++)-activated K(+) channel. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Cytosolic pH of hLf-treated cells decreased transiently (~0.3 pH units) and its inhibition prevented the RCD process, indicating that cytosolic acidification was a necessary and sufficient triggering signal. (mdpi.com)
  • Therefore, to survive within a red blood cell, the malaria parasite must alter the permeability of the host's plasma membrane by up-regulation of existing carriers or by creation of new permeation pathways (NPP).These pathways, indispensable for parasite growth, could be possible antimalarial targets for selective inhibition, as well as routes for drug delivery. (asmscience.org)
  • One of the main consequences of these hits is an inhibition of the production of cell-free viral particles. (europa.eu)
  • Cell growth inhibition by VCD.MDA-MB-231 and MBA-MD-468 cells were exposed to VCD treatment in cell culture. (nih.gov)
  • Ionic selectivity of valinomycin in the dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine monolayers. (mpg.de)
  • Mixed monolayers of valinomycin and dipalmitoylphosphatidic acid. (mpg.de)
  • Influence of Ca2+ and temperature on the interaction of gangliosides with valinomycin in mixed monolayers at the air/water interface. (mpg.de)
  • Valinomycin, is used as a potassium ionophore shown to induce cell death. (alfa.com)
  • We investigated the apoptotic response of 3 head and neck cancer cell lines treated with a mitochondrial-membrane-depolarizing agent, valinomycin, and studied the ability of depolarization to induce release of cytochrome c in these cell lines. (biomedsearch.com)
  • One proviso, in most experiments, is that overexpression of Parkin is typically used to identify mitochondrial E3 ligase substrates and to induce mitophagy because endogenous Parkin expression is low in many cell lines. (biologists.org)
  • 9 Lysis of cancer cells releases tumor-associated antigens that induce anticancer immunity and this type of treatment can also be seen as a cancer vaccine. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Aleutian mink disease virus, 25 feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV), 26 human parvovirus B19, 27 - 29 parvovirus H-1, 30 and rat parvovirus 31 have been reported to induce apoptotic cell death while bovine parvovirus infected cells are necrotic. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Dr Labeed principally leads research on the applications of dielectrophoresis (cell motion induced by non-uniform electric fields) to cell biology. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • In cell biology , a vesicle is a structure within or outside a cell , consisting of liquid or cytoplasm enclosed by a lipid bilayer . (wikipedia.org)
  • Providing our customers with innovative bioanalytical solutions for protein and cell biology for over 30 years. (moleculardevices.com)
  • Molecular Devices, LLC, the company that provides innovative bioanalytical solutions for protein and cell biology in life science research, is excited to announce the $1M expansion and opening of a new Research and Development Center located at Urstein Sued 17, 5412 Puch bei Hallein, Austria. (moleculardevices.com)
  • [email protected] e Cell Biology area, Faculty of Medicine, University of Castilla-La Mancha, 13071, Ciudad Real, Spain. (rsc.org)
  • Taken together, our developmental model provides an understanding of the metabolic transition from hESCs to more quiescent somatic cell types, and supports important roles for mitochondria and secretion in hESC biology. (biologists.org)
  • Obtaining a more complete understanding of the biology of pluripotent cells is important for maximising the benefits from these areas. (biologists.org)
  • The terms mitochondrial 'function' and 'dysfunction' are widely employed in bioenergetics and cell biology, but precise definition is difficult because different studies have different goals. (biochemj.org)
  • Home » Laboratory of Cell Biology » Suresh V. Ambudkar, Ph.D. (cancer.gov)
  • Cation/proton antiporters (CPAs) play a major role in maintaining living cells' homeostasis. (nature.com)
  • Unidirectional K + influx measurements showed that the patient's cells have abnormally high activities of the cation-proton exchanger and the K + ,Cl − co-transporter, which can account for the observed net movements of cations. (haematologica.org)
  • Non-selective cation channel in bullfrog taste cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The stability constant K for the potassium-valinomycin complex is nearly 100,000 times larger than that of the sodium-valinomycin complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Volume-responsive sodium and proton movements in dog red blood cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Coupling between sodium and proton movements in dog red blood cells was investigated directly using the fluorescent probe 3,3'- dipropylthiadicarbocyanine (diSC35) and indirectly by measurement of potassium movements through valinomycin channels. (cdc.gov)
  • Red blood cells were prepared from fresh blood samples from mongrel dogs and analyzed for sodium, potassium, chlorine , and water content. (cdc.gov)
  • The sodium permeability pathway became progressively activated as the dog red blood cells shrunk below their normal volume. (cdc.gov)
  • The large sodium fluxes that occurred in the presence of cell shrinkage were determined to not be conductive in nature. (cdc.gov)
  • The authors conclude that the sodium/proton exchange mechanism in dog red blood cells activated by cell shrinkage is electroneutrally coupled. (cdc.gov)
  • In calciuric normomagnesemic patients, sensitive to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (classic Bartter's syndrome), red blood cell Na + ,K + ,2Cl − cotransport was markedly reduced, calcium-dependent K + permeability was moderately increased, and up to 60% of sodium permeability was represented by cAMP-activated fraction (presumably human analog of β-isoform of Na + /H + exchange). (ahajournals.org)
  • Since hyperaldosteronism may cause increased cell permeability for sodium per se, 13 it is possible that at least part of the membrane alterations seen in Bartter-like syndromes can be attributed to the aldosterone effect rather than to the hereditary or genetic mechanisms. (ahajournals.org)
  • The efflux of intracellular potassium and the influx of sodium are followed by the loss of transmembrane potential, shutdown of ATP production, and predominantly necrotic cell death ( 3 ). (asm.org)
  • Varma, S., Sabo, D. and Rempe, S.B. (2008) K+/Na+ selectivity in K-channels and valinomycin: Over-coordination vs cavity-size constraints. (scirp.org)
  • Eisenman, G., Aqvist, J. and Alvarez, O. (1991) Free energies underlying ion binding and transport in protein channels: Free energy perturbation simulations of ion binding and selectivity for valinomycin. (scirp.org)
  • We have recently identified a novel low molecular-weight inhibitor of p185 erbB2 kinase, with selectivity for that kinase relative to the closely related EGFr tyrosine kinase, and report here the biochemical and biological effects of that agent on breast cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Mitochondria are dynamic organelles, and essential for energy conversion, neuron survival, and cell death. (frontiersin.org)
  • Substrates or inhibitors permeate the cell membrane and enter mitochondria, stimulating or inhibiting production of NAD(P)H or FADH 2 which is then measured using a tetrazolium redox dye. (biolog.com)
  • Theoretical analysis indicated that the ratio of fluorescence intensity measured in mitochondria-rich and mitochondria-poor regions of cell was related with delta psi mit and yielded quantitative estimates of electrical potential with an accuracy of 10-20 mV. (nih.gov)
  • The permeabilization of Trypanosoma brucei procyclic and bloodstream trypomastigotes with digitonin permitted the quantitative estimation of a mitochondrial membrane potential of the order of 130-140 mV, in both forms, using safranine O. Dependence on substrate oxidation and response of the procyclic mitochondrial membrane potential to phosphate, FCCP, valinomycin, and Ca2+ indicate that these mitochondria behave similarly to vertebrate mitochondria regarding the properties of their electrochemical proton gradient. (nih.gov)
  • These ionic events, cytosolic accumulation of H + followed by K + -efflux, constituted the initiating signals of this mitochondria-mediated cell death. (mdpi.com)
  • We report that mitochondria from mammalian cells contain intrinsic NAD-dependent deacetylase activity. (rupress.org)
  • Here, we briefly summarize how defective mitochondria in a cell are specifically recognized and committed to mitophagy by PINK1 and Parkin. (biologists.org)
  • Dysfunction can be assessed in isolated mitochondria, in cells or in vivo , with different balances between precise experimental control and physiological relevance. (biochemj.org)
  • The best approach to assessing dysfunction depends on whether function is to be determined with isolated mitochondria, intact cells or in vivo , whether the assessment needs to be qualitative or quantitative, which assays are theoretically the most appropriate and informative, and which assays are technically the most accessible. (biochemj.org)
  • We start by reviewing approaches to monitor the basic processes of oxidative phosphorylation by isolated mitochondria and then discuss how to extend investigation into intact cells. (biochemj.org)
  • Techniques now exist to monitor mitochondrial bioenergetic function in cells with comparable precision to previous studies with isolated mitochondria. (biochemj.org)
  • Experiments performed in cells indicate that the overexpression of mitoK, the potassium permeant subunit of the channel, induces a decrease in mitochondrial Ca2+ transients evoked by agonist stimulation, a drastic reduction of mitochondria membrane potential, fragmentation of the mitochondrial network and derangement of the IMM ultrastructure, with the total collapse of the cristae. (unipd.it)
  • This project, developed in conjunction with the Eastman Dental Institute over many years, uses dielectrophoresis to discriminate between normal and cancerous epithelial cells taken from a brush biopsy of suspicious sites. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • To characterize GSH transport mechanisms across primary cultured pigmented rabbit conjunctival epithelial cells (RCEC). (arvojournals.org)
  • Membrane potential-driven GSH efflux was a major component of GSH transport in conjunctival epithelial cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • Conceivably, such processes may exist in the conjunctival (and corneal) epithelial cells to reabsorb various endogenous amines such as epinephrine, dopamine, histamine, and serotonin in the tear fluid. (arvojournals.org)
  • Among nucleated cells, epithelial and endothelial cells are more sensitive than are lymphocytes, mononuclear phagocytes, or fibroblasts, whereas neutrophils show a high degree of resistance to alpha-toxin-induced cytolysis ( 39 ). (asm.org)
  • Recent studies demonstrated that epithelial cells cope with the subcytolytic concentrations of alpha-toxin and related pore-forming toxins by activating mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) or caspase-1-mediated mechanisms of plasma membrane repair ( 9 , 11 , 12 ). (asm.org)
  • The protective effects of IFNs were evident in human cell lines of epithelial, monocytic, and fibroblast origin and in primary mouse splenocytes. (asm.org)
  • potently and selectively inhibits the growth of endothelial cells (IC50 1 protease activity. (thomassci.com)
  • Ischemia-induced stimulation of cerebral microvascular endothelial cell Na-K-Cl cotransport involves p38 and JNK MAP kinases. (agscientific.com)
  • Objective- Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are potent vasodilators produced by endothelial cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • EETs inhibited platelet adhesion to endothelial cells under static and flow conditions. (ahajournals.org)
  • Stable overexpression of cytochrome P450 2C9 in EA.hy926 cells (EA.hy2C9 cells) resulted in release of EETs and a factor that hyperpolarized platelets and inhibited their adhesion to endothelial cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusions- EETs hyperpolarize platelets and inactivate them by inhibiting adhesion molecule expression and platelet adhesion to cultured endothelial cells in a membrane potential-dependent manner. (ahajournals.org)
  • To examine whether decreases in fluid shear stress affect endothelial cytosolic pH, carboxy-seminaphthorhodafluor-1-loaded rat aortic endothelial cells were cultured in glass microcapillary tubes and examined during abrupt reductions in laminar flow. (ahajournals.org)
  • When endothelial cells cultured in microcapillary tubes are exposed for brief periods (2 to 5 minutes) to an abrupt increase in fluid shear stress from 0.3 to 13.4 dyne/cm 2 in a bicarbonate buffer, pH i decreases by 0.09 pH unit and then returns to baseline after flow is reduced back to control levels. (ahajournals.org)
  • Endothelial cells were cultured from the descending thoracic aortas of 2- to 4-month-old Wistar rats by the primary explant technique. (ahajournals.org)
  • MALDI-TOF-MS spectra clearly revealed that TPP was easily identified from cell lysates even as early as 10 min after incubation and that levels as low as 0.11 fmol of TPP per cell could be detected, suggesting the high sensitivity of this technique. (snmjournals.org)
  • Preincubation of dense SSRBCs with DIDS (4,4'-di-isothiocyanato-2,2'-disulfostilbene) inhibited the generation of light cells during fast oxy/deoxy cycling, but not during oxy incubation. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Light-cell generation was inhibited by 1 mM bumetanide during both oxy incubation and oxy/deoxy cycling, providing evidence that a bumetanide-sensitive, deoxy-independent pathway, previously described in circulating light SSRBCs, also contributes to the rehydration of high-density SSRBCs. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The incubation with valinomycin for 10 min. (nih.gov)
  • These kits for DNA damage, mitotic index, general viability, and other cytotoxicity-related assays have been validated across multiple platforms and cell types. (thermofisher.com)
  • Cell viability decreased in parallel with changes in membrane potential, demonstrating a temporal correlation between bactericidal activity and membrane depolarization. (asm.org)
  • Using MHBc and Mueller-Hinton agar, bacterial cell viability was determined by following National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines ( 16 ). (asm.org)
  • 2016) Quercetin stimulates insulin secretion and reduces viability of INS-1 rat insulinoma cells. (uni-salzburg.at)
  • In these assays, probes may be found to passively diffuse through the cell wall of bacteria, acting as an indicator of a loss of membrane integrity, which frequently is taken as an indicator of cell viability ( 22 ). (asm.org)
  • Measurements of these forms of energy, such as membrane potential, cytoplasmic pH, and ATP synthesis, can be used as indicators of loss of cell viability. (asm.org)
  • Progenitor cells in the adult organism, such as multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs), must possess the unique properties of long-term viability and self-maintenance, while remaining in what is typically a quiescent state. (biologists.org)
  • A) Cells were treated with increasing concentrations of VCD in the absence (0.0 mM) or presence (25 mM) of glucose for 48 h and cell viability was determined by MTT assay. (nih.gov)
  • Removal of glucose by itself (in the absence of VCD) did not substantially interfere with cell viability during this 48-hour period (not shown). (nih.gov)
  • B) Cells were exposed to VCD in the presence of various concentrations of glucose (as indicated) for 48 h and cell viability was determined by MTT assay. (nih.gov)
  • The 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was shared by James Rothman , Randy Schekman and Thomas Südhof for their roles in elucidating (building upon earlier research, some of it by their mentors) the makeup and function of cell vesicles, especially in yeasts and in humans, including information on each vesicle's parts and how they are assembled. (wikipedia.org)
  • Discovery of cytoglobin and its roles in physiology and pathology of hepatic stellate cells. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology 302.3 (2011): C505-C517. (agscientific.com)
  • In 1918, the year the Journal of General Physiology was founded, there was little understanding of the structure of the cell membrane. (rupress.org)
  • Throughout this time, the Journal of General Physiology has been a pivotal resource for the presentation and discussion of research that is the foundation of the field of cell membrane biophysics. (rupress.org)
  • Exposure of trout hepatocytes to hypertonicity induced a decrease in acridine orange (AO) fluorescence, indicating a corresponding decrease in pH inside the lumen of acidic compartments (pH L ). Pre-exposure of cells to the specific V-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 (0.3 μmol l -1 ) increased AO fluorescence - unmasking H + leaks under steady-state conditions - and partially removed the hypertonicity-induced pH L decrease. (biologists.org)
  • Under steady-state conditions, while a slight and brief pH L increase was measured upon exposure of cells to valinomycin, Cl - removal, unexpectedly, induced a decrease in pH L , indicating a role for extracellular Cl - in limiting luminal acidification. (biologists.org)
  • This was confirmed by the substantial pH L decrease measured upon exposure of cells to the anion exchanger inhibitor SITS (0.5 mmol l -1 ). (biologists.org)
  • In this work, changes in membrane integrity, membrane potential, internal pH (pH in ), and ATP synthesis were measured in V ibrio cholerae cells after exposure to extracts of edible and medicinal plants. (asm.org)
  • Using four fluorogenic techniques, we studied the membrane integrity of V. cholerae cells after exposure to these four extracts. (asm.org)
  • To demonstrate the system, human leukaemic K562 cells were monitored after exposure to staurosporine and valinomycin. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Originally identified as a sequence up-regulated by the exposure of cerebellar granule cells to subtoxic concentrations of N -methyl- d -aspartate, BNPI mediates the Na + -dependent accumulation of P i in Xenopus oocytes ( 15 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Here we show that prior exposure to interferons (IFNs) prevents alpha-toxin-induced membrane permeabilization, the depletion of ATP, and cell death. (asm.org)
  • Thus the rheological action of cetiedil citrate on human erythrocytes is mediated by an effect on cell hydration. (iospress.com)
  • The interactions between cyclodextrins (CDs) and selected cell membrane phospholipids, liposomes and human erythrocytes were studied. (elsevier.com)
  • Image segmentation, a key aspect of HCS assays and the first step of automated image acquisition and analysis, involves separating objects of interest (cells) from background or other features not relevant to the analysis and allows demarcation of cells in their appropriate spatial context. (thermofisher.com)
  • STEP 2: Start the assays by adding 2x cell suspension to all wells. (biolog.com)
  • This note demonstrates neuronal toxicity screening via automated endpoint and live-cell assays using iPSCs and Molecular Devices instrumentation and software. (moleculardevices.com)
  • This biologically relevant cell type paired with high-content imaging and analysis makes neurotoxicity assays valuable for screening lead compounds and potentially reduces pre-clinical development costs and the need for animal experimentation. (moleculardevices.com)
  • A vesicle released from the cell is known as an extracellular vesicle . (wikipedia.org)
  • Secretory vesicles hold the enzymes that are used to make the cell walls of plants , protists , fungi , bacteria and Archaea cells as well as the extracellular matrix of animal cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • hPCFT/HCP1 expressed transiently in human embryonic kidney 293 cells mediated the transport of folate at an acidic extracellular pH of 5.5 in a manner independent of Na + and insensitive to membrane potential, but its transport activity was absent at near-neutral pH. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The central role of K+ depletion for inducing IL-1 beta maturation was demonstrated in cells permeabilized with alpha-toxin: processing of pro-IL-1 beta was totally blocked when cells were suspended in medium that contained high K+, but could be induced by replacing extracellular K+ with Na+, choline+ or sucrose. (nih.gov)
  • STEP 1: Prepare and pipet assay mixture containing cell permeabilizing buffer and redox dye into appropriate wells. (biolog.com)
  • Circular dichroism and affinity chromatography studies were used to investigate the ability of SbmA to bind the peptide, and a whole-cell transport assay with fluorescently labeled peptide allowed the determination of transport kinetic parameters with a calculated K m value of 6.95 ± 0.89 μM peptide and a V max of 53.91 ± 3.17 nmol/min/mg SbmA. (asm.org)
  • The continuous and dashed lines represent the O 2 concentration (left axis) and the oxygen consumption rate (right axis, OCR normalized to cell number) measured simultaneously every 0.1 s throughout the time-course of the assay. (omicsonline.org)
  • For intact cells, the best assay is the equivalent measurement of cell respiratory control, which reports the rate of ATP production, the proton leak rate, the coupling efficiency, the maximum respiratory rate, the respiratory control ratio and the spare respiratory capacity. (biochemj.org)
  • In the present review, we address how to assay mitochondrial dysfunction in a way that is straightforward yet yields the most physiologically relevant, unambiguous and informative results in these genetic models, in tissues and cells from patients, and in response to bioactive compounds. (biochemj.org)
  • As determined by MTT assay, VCD was highly cytotoxic in the absence of glucose, with an IC50 of about 120 nM in both cell lines (Fig. 1A). (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, cellular demarcation with HCS CellMask™ stains enables automated image analysis software to determine where the cytoplasm of one cell ends and another begins, a parameter that cannot be measured accurately with a nuclear counterstain alone. (thermofisher.com)
  • We therefore investigated the site of intracellular trypsinogen activation by using an established cellular model of acute pancreatitis: supramaximal stimulation of pancreatic acinar cells with cholecystokinin. (pnas.org)
  • For this reason, vesicles are a basic tool used by the cell for organizing cellular substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to pH, cell hydration state (i.e. cell volume) represents another dynamic parameter of cellular homeostasis that changes within minutes in response to alterations in environmental conditions or hormonal stimulation. (biologists.org)
  • These cells, thought to derive from dense SSRBCs that have rehydrated, may represent a terminal cellular phase. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • When expressed stably as a protein fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP-hPCFT/HCP1) in MDCKII cells, GFP-hPCFT/HCP1 was mainly localized at the apical membrane, and the cellular accumulation of MTX was higher from the apical side than from the basal side. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Additionally, these cells might yield insights into the processes underlying cellular senescence, cancer and ageing ( Zeng, 2007 ). (biologists.org)
  • The transition from a pluripotent stem cell through progressive stages of differentiation probably involves dynamic changes in the energy demand for cellular processes, depending on the needs of the individual cell types. (biologists.org)
  • Triple-negative breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 were treated with VCD under different conditions known to trigger increased expression of GRP78, and a variety of cellular processes were analyzed. (nih.gov)
  • As a result, cellular ATP levels were quickly depleted under hypoglycemic conditions, and common cellular functions, including general protein synthesis, deteriorated and resulted in cell death. (nih.gov)
  • Valinomycin is obtained from the cells of several Streptomyces species, S. fulvissimus being a notable one. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crifo C, Capuozzo E, Cucco C, Zupi G, Salerno C (1991) Valinomycin-induced modulation of Adriamycin resistance and cationic probe distribution in MCF-7 cell lines. (springer.com)
  • Rouzaire-Dubois B, Dubois JM (1991) A quantitative analysis of the role of K channels in mitogenesis in neuroblastoma cells. (springer.com)
  • The effects of the flavonoid quercetin on cell proliferation and voltage-dependent K + current were studied on mouse neuroblastoma×glioma hybrid cells. (springer.com)
  • In the presence of 1 % fetal calf serum, quercetin inhibited both cell proliferation and K + current with effective doses inducing half-maximum effects of 10 μM and 70 μM respectively. (springer.com)
  • Valinomycin (1 nM) antagonized 80 % of the growth-inhibitory effects of 10 μM quercetin. (springer.com)
  • Ranelletti FO, Ricci R, Larocca LM, Maggiano N, Capelli A, Scambia G, Benedetti-Panici P, Mancuso S, Rumi C, Piantelli M (1992) Growth-inhibitory effects of quercetin and presence of type-II estrogen-binding sites in human colon-cancer cell lines and primary colorectal tumors. (springer.com)
  • We found that the intracellular concentration of ATP is five to six times lower in hypoxic nonreplicating Mtb cells compared with aerobic replicating bacteria, making them exquisitely sensitive to any further depletion. (pnas.org)
  • This is the first report of the presence of a Ca2+ transport mechanism in an eukaryotic cell devoid of complete tricarboxylic acid cycle and respiratory chain, the activities of which are known to be regulated by changes in intramitochondrial calcium concentration in other cells. (nih.gov)
  • This protein (which has been determined to be the gene product of the MDR1 gene in humans) facilitates active (i.e., energy-dependent) drug efflux from the cell, against a concentration gradient of (generally) lipophilic compounds, including many cytotoxic drugs. (google.com)
  • The membrane potential of the red blood cells was determined before and after cell shrinkage as the external potassium concentration at which there was no change in diSC35 fluorescence. (cdc.gov)
  • Other compounds containing D-amino acids are tyrocidine and valinomycin. (wikipedia.org)
  • These compounds disrupt bacterial cell walls, particularly in Gram-positive bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The procedure typically starts with the identification of lead biologic compounds or structure components, incorporation of radionuclides into the lead compound or its derivatives, and evaluation of radiolabeled agents in cell culture, animals, and humans. (snmjournals.org)
  • In this paper we present the development of a programmable, multi-channel DEP system for rapid biophysical assessment of populations of biological cells. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • FDG incorporation is enhanced by attenuation of P53 function in breast cancer cells in vitro," Journal of Nuclear Medicine , vol. 47, no. 9, pp. 1525-1530, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • Although stem cells collectively in vivo might be expected to rely primarily on anaerobic glycolysis for ATP supply, to minimise production of reactive oxygen species, we show that in vitro this is not so: hESCs generate an estimated 77% of their ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. (biologists.org)
  • However, when studied in vitro late apoptotic cells may lose membrane integrity and become necrotic. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 14 This terminal phase of in vitro cell death, called secondary necrosis, occurs in apoptotic cells in the absence of phagocytic cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In yeast, we reported the critical role of K + -efflux for the progress of the regulated cell death (RCD) induced by human lactoferrin (hLf), an antimicrobial protein of the innate immune system that blocks Pma1p H + -ATPase. (mdpi.com)
  • Changes in bioenergetic parameters were consistent with the increased resistance of ATR-induced (ATR + ) cells to the antimicrobial peptide nisin. (asm.org)
  • ATR-induced L. monocytogenes cells (ATR + ) but not the control cells (ATR − ) survive for at least 30 days at 4°C in a model fermented system where Lactococcus lactis produced lactic acid (pH 5.7) and nisin (50 μg/ml) ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • nisin and valinomycin were obtained from Sigma Chemical Company (St. Louis, Mo. (asm.org)
  • Cationic and anionic channels of apical receptive membrane in a taste cell contribute to generation of salt-induced receptor potential. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Kd = 2.4 nM) that inhibits cell proliferation both in B-Raf mutated and wild-type melanoma cell lines. (thomassci.com)
  • 7 , 8 Oncolytic virotherapy means the use of lytic viruses to kill tumor cells while normal cells are not infected by the virus. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Today, interest in HCS is generated by the prospects of using physiologically relevant cell models (primary and stem cells, complex co-cultures of live cells, and three-dimensional cell models), real-time analysis, user-friendly image analysis software and ready-to-use application packages, and less expensive instruments that make the technology accessible to more researchers. (thermofisher.com)
  • The second research line in applications is that of stem cells. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • The invention provides such immunological reagents for immunodiagnostic and therapeutic uses, for isolating lymphocytes and hematopoietic stem cells, and for anticancer drug development. (google.com)
  • High-content imaging using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) of human origin can be applied to examine neurotrophic, neuroprotective, or neurotoxic effects of pharmaceutical drug candidates or environmental contaminants. (moleculardevices.com)
  • Aberrant expression or activity of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr) or the closely related p185 erbB2 can promote cell proliferation and survival and thereby contribute to tumorigenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • They further confirm a role for K + channels in mitogenesis and cell proliferation. (springer.com)
  • Rouzaire-Dubois B, Dubois JM (1990) Tamoxifen blocks both proliferation and voltage-dependent K + channels of neuroblastoma cells. (springer.com)
  • Acute reductions in fluid shear stress are associated with endothelium-dependent vasoconstriction 11 and with proliferation of subjacent neointimal smooth muscle cells, which may be stimulated by growth factors derived from the endothelium. (ahajournals.org)
  • Recent studies performed by using two-photon microscopy identified formation of large Ω-shaped postexocytic structures in acinar cells stimulated with calcium-releasing secretagogues ( 34 - 36 ). (pnas.org)
  • What structures in the cell membrane function as ion channels? (studyblue.com)
  • Dielectrophoresis (DEP) has been used for many years for the analysis of the electrophysiological properties of cells. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • An analysis has been performed of the interaction processes for the system of valinomycin + К+(Na+) ion in water solvent. (scirp.org)
  • This is usually achieved by a combination of multiple cell processes the relative importance of which may be difficult to assess. (iospress.com)
  • These vacuoles take water from the cytoplasm and excrete it from the cell to avoid bursting due to osmotic pressure . (wikipedia.org)
  • Membrane-permeable Calcein AM is cleaved by esterases in live cells to produce green fluorescence in the cytoplasm. (moleculardevices.com)
  • It was evident that cells had invisible barriers separating the cytoplasm from the external solution. (rupress.org)
  • It is analogous to the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytoplasm cytoplasm] of a living cell. (edaq.com)
  • Effect of aqueous subphase exchange on the monolayer characteristics of valinomycin. (mpg.de)
  • Monolayer characteristics of valinomycin in the presence of various salts in aqueous subphase. (mpg.de)
  • A ) MCF7-wt control cells (DMSO-treated) showing the segmentation of nuclear and cytoplasmic boundaries created by the image analysis software. (thermofisher.com)
  • Current applications being explored include the measurement of cytoplasmic resistance in cardiac myocyes for cardiac action potential studies, which has shown that DEP is as accurate as tissue-strip measurement, and more accurate than other methods of suspended cell measurements. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Staphylococcal alpha-toxin induces primarily necrotic cell death via a mechanism that involves binding to the cell plasma membrane, oligomerization of the toxin, and formation of pores ( 3 , 8 ). (asm.org)
  • exchange was significantly reduced in villus cell BBM vesicles (BBMV) from chronically inflamed ileum. (physiology.org)
  • The membrane enclosing the vesicle is also a lamellar phase , similar to that of the plasma membrane , and intracellular vesicles can fuse with the plasma membrane to release their contents outside the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vesicles can also fuse with other organelles within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secretory vesicles contain materials that are to be excreted from the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a signal comes down an axon , the synaptic vesicles fuse with the cell membrane releasing the neurotransmitter so that it can be detected by receptor molecules on the next nerve cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • MD simulation results could be a prerequisite for studying a more complex scenario-for estimating ion transport in the cell membrane or physiological electric potential which is formed in the membrane or inside the cell relative to its surrounding medium. (scirp.org)
  • Electron micrograph of a cell containing a food vacuole (fv) and transport vacuole (TV) in a malaria parasite . (wikipedia.org)
  • Clomipramine (100 micromoles per liter or 0.2 nanomole per 1 X 10(6) cells) inhibited L-proline transport in promastigotes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Gentamycin Sulfate is used in cell and tissue culture and also for transport of cell cultures, certain clinical specimens containing viruses or specimens in which overgrowth of bacteria should be avoided. (agscientific.com)
  • 2. The method of claim 1 further comprising producing a hybridoma cell line that expresses a monoclonal antibody specific for P-glycoprotein in a biochemical conformation adopted in the presence of Pgp-mediated transport substrates or ATP depleting agents. (google.com)
  • demonstrated in HeLa cells that deletion of RFC1 gene from the genome does not result in any significant alteration of folate transport activity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Red blood cells have proven to be extremely useful as a model system to study the different membrane transport pathways, and there is a plethora of publications aimed at a detailed description of pumps, cotransporters, and specific carriers in the red blood cell membrane. (asmscience.org)
  • 2003 . Red Cell Membrane Transport in Health and Disease. (asmscience.org)
  • A special class of membrane protein is designed to facilitate the transport of cations or anions across the otherwise impermeable lipophilic cell membrane. (edaq.com)
  • Our studies with a triple mutant P-gp in a cys-less background demonstrate that when the primary binding site for cyclosporine A, tariquidar or valinomycin is disabled by mutagenesis, these drugs bind to alternate sites, which are capable of transport. (cancer.gov)
  • Valinomycin acts as a nonmetallic isoforming agent in potassium selective electrodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the ion-selective nature of valinomycin, it is used in ion-selective electrodes. (alfa.com)
  • CP-654577 is a potent inhibitor selective for p185 erbB2 , relative to EGFr tyrosine kinase, and selectively reduces erbB2 autophosphorylation in intact cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • They are also abundant components of the peptidoglycan cell walls of bacteria, and D-serine may act as a neurotransmitter in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calibration of the signal was performed by permeabilizing the cell membrane for monovalent cations using nystatin and gramicidin, and equilibrating the cell with a K(+)-free bath solution. (nih.gov)
  • Publications] M. Takeda: 'Expression of the neutral cell adhesion molecule in mouse taste buds after denervation'Journal of Electron Microscopy. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Masako Takeda, Yuko Suzuki, Nobuko Obara, Winrich Breipohl: 'Expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule in mouse taste buds after denervation. (nii.ac.jp)