Erythroid Precursor Cells: The cells in the erythroid series derived from MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS or from the bi-potential MEGAKARYOCYTE-ERYTHROID PROGENITOR CELLS which eventually give rise to mature RED BLOOD CELLS. The erythroid progenitor cells develop in two phases: erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) followed by erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E); BFU-E differentiate into CFU-E on stimulation by ERYTHROPOIETIN, and then further differentiate into ERYTHROBLASTS when stimulated by other factors.Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Erythropoiesis: The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.Erythroblasts: Immature, nucleated ERYTHROCYTES occupying the stage of ERYTHROPOIESIS that follows formation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS and precedes formation of RETICULOCYTES. The normal series is called normoblasts. Cells called MEGALOBLASTS are a pathologic series of erythroblasts.Receptors, Erythropoietin: Cell surface proteins that bind erythropoietin with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Erythroid Cells: The series of cells in the red blood cell lineage at various stages of differentiation.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Globins: A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.Reticulocytes: Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.beta-Thalassemia: A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin. There is retardation of hemoglobin A synthesis in the heterozygous form (thalassemia minor), which is asymptomatic, while in the homozygous form (thalassemia major, Cooley's anemia, Mediterranean anemia, erythroblastic anemia), which can result in severe complications and even death, hemoglobin A synthesis is absent.Leukemia, Erythroblastic, Acute: A myeloproliferative disorder characterized by neoplastic proliferation of erythroblastic and myeloblastic elements with atypical erythroblasts and myeloblasts in the peripheral blood.Polycythemia: An increase in the total red cell mass of the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Anemia: A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.Glycophorin: The major sialoglycoprotein of the human erythrocyte membrane. It consists of at least two sialoglycopeptides and is composed of 60% carbohydrate including sialic acid and 40% protein. It is involved in a number of different biological activities including the binding of MN blood groups, influenza viruses, kidney bean phytohemagglutinin, and wheat germ agglutinin.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.GATA1 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Reticulocytosis: An increase in circulating RETICULOCYTES, which is among the simplest and most reliable signs of accelerated ERYTHROCYTE production. Reticulocytosis occurs during active BLOOD regeneration (stimulation of red bone marrow) and in certain types of ANEMIA, particularly CONGENITAL HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA.Colony-Forming Units Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Polycythemia Vera: A myeloproliferative disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by abnormal proliferation of all hematopoietic bone marrow elements and an absolute increase in red cell mass and total blood volume, associated frequently with splenomegaly, leukocytosis, and thrombocythemia. Hematopoiesis is also reactive in extramedullary sites (liver and spleen). In time myelofibrosis occurs.Erythroid-Specific DNA-Binding Factors: A group of transcription factors that were originally described as being specific to ERYTHROID CELLS.Protein PrecursorsHematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Fetal Hemoglobin: The major component of hemoglobin in the fetus. This HEMOGLOBIN has two alpha and two gamma polypeptide subunits in comparison to normal adult hemoglobin, which has two alpha and two beta polypeptide subunits. Fetal hemoglobin concentrations can be elevated (usually above 0.5%) in children and adults affected by LEUKEMIA and several types of ANEMIA.Red-Cell Aplasia, Pure: Suppression of erythropoiesis with little or no abnormality of leukocyte or platelet production.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.beta-Globins: Members of the beta-globin family. In humans, they are encoded in a gene cluster on CHROMOSOME 11. They include epsilon-globin, gamma-globin, delta-globin and beta-globin. There is also a pseudogene of beta (theta-beta) in the gene cluster. Adult HEMOGLOBIN is comprised of two ALPHA-GLOBIN chains and two beta-globin chains.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.K562 Cells: An ERYTHROLEUKEMIA cell line derived from a CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA patient in BLAST CRISIS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Thalassemia: A group of hereditary hemolytic anemias in which there is decreased synthesis of one or more hemoglobin polypeptide chains. There are several genetic types with clinical pictures ranging from barely detectable hematologic abnormality to severe and fatal anemia.Friend murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.Receptors, Transferrin: Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.Iron Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.Megakaryocytes: Very large BONE MARROW CELLS which release mature BLOOD PLATELETS.Stem Cell Factor: A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.alpha-Globins: Members of the alpha-globin family. In humans, they are encoded in a gene cluster on CHROMOSOME 16. They include zeta-globin and alpha-globin. There are also pseudogenes of zeta (theta-zeta) and alpha (theta-alpha) in the cluster. Adult HEMOGLOBIN is comprised of 2 alpha-globin chains and 2 beta-globin chains.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Yolk Sac: The first of four extra-embryonic membranes to form during EMBRYOGENESIS. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it arises from endoderm and mesoderm to incorporate the EGG YOLK into the DIGESTIVE TRACT for nourishing the embryo. In placental MAMMALS, its nutritional function is vestigial; however, it is the source of INTESTINAL MUCOSA; BLOOD CELLS; and GERM CELLS. It is sometimes called the vitelline sac, which should not be confused with the VITELLINE MEMBRANE of the egg.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Anemia, Sideroblastic: Anemia characterized by the presence of erythroblasts containing excessive deposits of iron in the marrow.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Cell SeparationIron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Erythrocyte Aging: The senescence of RED BLOOD CELLS. Lacking the organelles that make protein synthesis possible, the mature erythrocyte is incapable of self-repair, reproduction, and carrying out certain functions performed by other cells. This limits the average life span of an erythrocyte to 120 days.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Anemia, Hemolytic: A condition of inadequate circulating red blood cells (ANEMIA) or insufficient HEMOGLOBIN due to premature destruction of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES).Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Anemia, Dyserythropoietic, Congenital: A familial disorder characterized by ANEMIA with multinuclear ERYTHROBLASTS, karyorrhexis, asynchrony of nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation, and various nuclear abnormalities of bone marrow erythrocyte precursors (ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS). Type II is the most common of the 3 types; it is often referred to as HEMPAS, based on the Hereditary Erythroblast Multinuclearity with Positive Acidified Serum test.Mice, Inbred C57BLGene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Leukemia, Experimental: Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Oligodendroglia: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.Myelodysplastic Syndromes: Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Erythrocyte Count: The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Vulva: The external genitalia of the female. It includes the CLITORIS, the labia, the vestibule, and its glands.Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Interleukin-3: A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.Reticulocyte Count: The number of RETICULOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. The values are expressed as a percentage of the ERYTHROCYTE COUNT or in the form of an index ("corrected reticulocyte index"), which attempts to account for the number of circulating erythrocytes.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor: A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Neural Stem Cells: Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Hematinics: Agents which improve the quality of the blood, increasing the hemoglobin level and the number of erythrocytes. They are used in the treatment of anemias.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Janus Kinase 2: A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Granulocytes: Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Spleen Focus-Forming Viruses: Strains of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS that are replication-defective and rapidly transforming. The envelope gene plays an essential role in initiating erythroleukemia (LEUKEMIA, ERYTHROBLASTIC, ACUTE), manifested by splenic foci, SPLENOMEGALY, and POLYCYTHEMIA. Spleen focus-forming viruses are generated by recombination with endogenous retroviral sequences.GATA2 Transcription Factor: An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.STAT5 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Hematopoietic Cell Growth Factors: These growth factors comprise a family of hematopoietic regulators with biological specificities defined by their ability to support proliferation and differentiation of blood cells of different lineages. ERYTHROPOIETIN and the COLONY-STIMULATING FACTORS belong to this family. Some of these factors have been studied and used in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and bone marrow failure syndromes.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Enzyme Precursors: Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.RNA Precursors: RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.NF-E2 Transcription Factor, p45 Subunit: A tissue-specific subunit of NF-E2 transcription factor that interacts with small MAF PROTEINS to regulate gene expression. P45 NF-E2 protein is expressed primarily in MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; and MAST CELLS.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.gamma-Globins: Members of the beta-globin family. In humans, two non-allelic types of gamma-globin - A gamma and G gamma are encoded in the beta-globin gene cluster on CHROMOSOME 11. Two gamma-globin chains combine with two ZETA-GLOBIN chains to form the embryonic hemoglobin Portland. Fetal HEMOGLOBIN F is formed from two gamma-globin chains combined with two ALPHA-GLOBIN chains.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The burst-forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E) cells start erythropoietin receptor expression and are sensitive to erythropoietin. ... Erythropoietin has its primary effect on red blood cell progenitors and precursors (which are found in the bone marrow in ... High level erythropoietin receptor expression is localized to erythroid progenitor cells. While there are reports that EPO ... Precursors of red cells, the proerythroblasts and basophilic erythroblasts also express erythropoietin receptor and are ...
Similar to stimulation of red blood cell precursor cells (erythrogenesis), erythropoietin stimulates non-differentiated Schwann ... The pathway for erythropoietin in both the central and peripheral nervous systems begins with the binding of Epo to EpoR. This ... Differential expression of EpoR between erythroid cells. Most notably, plasma Epo concentration is regulated by ... In Schwann cells, increased erythropoietin levels may stimulate Schwann cell proliferation via JAK2 and ERK/MAP kinase ...
... stands for Colony Forming Unit-Hematopoietic . It arises from CFU-GEMM (via BFU-E, which stands for "erythroid burst-forming units") and gives rise to proerythroblasts. Understanding the murine CFU-e assay (analogous to human assay): CFU-e is a stage of erythroid development between the BFU-e stage and the pro-erythroblast stage. CFU-e colony assay is designed to detect how many colony-forming-units of erythroid lineage there are in a hematopoietic tissue (bone marrow, spleen, or fetal liver), which may be reflective of the organism's demand for oxygen delivery to the tissues or a hematopoietic disorder. Early erythroid progenitors are found at a quite low frequency relative to later stages of erythroid differentiation, such as the pro-erythroblast and the basophilic erythroblast stages which can be detected by flowcytometry directly ex-vivo (Socolovsky et al. 2001 PMID 11719363). Furthermore, unlike for the ...
... s are immature red blood cells, typically composing about 1% of the red blood cells in the human body. In the process of erythropoiesis (red blood cell formation), reticulocytes develop and mature in the bone marrow and then circulate for about a day in the blood stream before developing into mature red blood cells. Like mature red blood cells, in mammals reticulocytes do not have a cell nucleus. They are called reticulocytes because of a reticular (mesh-like) network of ribosomal RNA that becomes visible under a microscope with certain stains such as new methylene blue and Romanowsky stain. To accurately measure reticulocyte counts, automated counters use a combination of laser excitation, detectors and a fluorescent dye that marks RNA and DNA (such as titan yellow or polymethine). Reticulocytes can be distinguished from other circulating ...
Red blood cells (RBCs), also called erythrocytes, are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues-via blood flow through the circulatory system. RBCs take up oxygen in the lungs, or gills of fish, and release it into tissues while squeezing through the body's capillaries. The cytoplasm of erythrocytes is rich in hemoglobin, an iron-containing biomolecule that can bind oxygen and is responsible for the red color of the cells. The cell membrane is composed of proteins and lipids, and this structure provides properties essential for physiological cell function such as deformability and stability while traversing the circulatory system and specifically the capillary network. In humans, mature red blood cells are flexible and oval biconcave disks. They lack a cell nucleus and most organelles, in order to accommodate maximum space for ...
சிவப்பணுவாக்கி (Erythropoietin, erythropoetin, erthropoyetin, EPO, hemopoietin அல்லது hematopoietin) என்பது சிவப்பணு உற்பத்தியைக் (erythropoiesis) கட்டுப்படுத்தும் கிளைக்கோப்புரத இயக்குநீராகும். இது, எலும்பு மச்சையிலுள்ள சிவப்பணு முன்னோடிகளுக்கானச் சைட்டோக்கைனாகும் (புரத சமிக்ஞை மூலக்கூறு). மனித சிவப்பணுவாக்கியின் மூலக்கூறு நிறை 34 கிலோ டால்டன்கள். குழல்வெளி நுண்குழல்கள், அண்மைச்சுருள் நுண்குழல்களுடன் தொடர்பு கொண்ட, ...
2 kg. The volume of blood removed was calculated by subtracting the weight of the empty collection container from that of the container filled with blood. They found that the mean volume of blood drawn for the 578 tests exceeded that requested by the hospital laboratory by 19.0% ± 1.8% per test. The main factors of overdraw was: collection in blood containers without fill-lines, lighter weight infants and critically ill infants being cared for in the NICU.[citation needed] Recombinant EPO (r-EPO) may be given to premature infants to stimulate red blood cell production. Brown and Keith (1999) studied two groups of 40 very low birth weight (VLBW) infants to compare the erythropoietic response between two and five times a week dosages of recombinant human erythropoietin (r-EPO) using the same dose. They established that more frequent dosing of the same weekly amount of r-EPO generated a significant and continuous increase in Hb in VLBW infants. The infants that received five dosages had 219,857 ...
... s regulate the differentiation and proliferation of particular progenitor cells. Made available through recombinant DNA technology, they hold tremendous potential for medical uses when a person's natural ability to form blood cells is diminished or defective. Recombinant erythropoietin (EPO) is very effective in treating the diminished red blood cell production that accompanies end-stage kidney disease. Erythropoietin is a sialoglycoprotein hormone produced by peritubular cells of kidney Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and granulocyte CSF are given to stimulate white blood cell formation in cancer patients who are receiving chemotherapy, which tends to kill their red bone marrow cells as well as the cancer cells. Thrombopoietin shows great promise for preventing platelet depletion during ...
... stands for Colony Forming Unit-Hematopoietic . It arises from CFU-GEMM (via BFU-E, which stands for "erythroid burst-forming units") and gives rise to proerythroblasts. Understanding the murine CFU-e assay (analogous to human assay): CFU-e is a stage of erythroid development between the BFU-e stage and the pro-erythroblast stage. CFU-e colony assay is designed to detect how many colony-forming-units of erythroid lineage there are in a hematopoietic tissue (bone marrow, spleen, or fetal liver), which may be reflective of the organism's demand for oxygen delivery to the tissues or a hematopoietic disorder. Early erythroid progenitors are found at a quite low frequency relative to later stages of erythroid differentiation, such as the pro-erythroblast and the basophilic erythroblast stages which can be detected by flowcytometry directly ex-vivo (Socolovsky et al. 2001 PMID 11719363). Furthermore, unlike for the ...
Amgen sent a "dear doctor" letter in January 2007 that highlighted results from a recent anemia of cancer trial, and warned doctors to consider use in that off-label indication with caution. Amgen advised the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regarding the results of the DAHANCA 10 clinical trial. The DAHANCA 10 data monitoring committee found that three-year loco-regional cancer control in subjects treated with Aranesp was significantly worse than for those not receiving Aranesp (p=0.01). In response to these advisories, the FDA released a Public Health Advisory[18] on March 9, 2007, and a clinical alert[19] for doctors on February 16, 2007, about the use of erythropoeisis-stimulating agents (ESAs) such as epogen and darbepoetin. The advisory recommended caution in using these agents in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy or off chemotherapy, and indicated a lack of clinical evidence to support improvements in quality of life or transfusion requirements in these settings. In addition, ...
Suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SOCS2 gene. This gene encodes a member of the STAT-induced STAT inhibitor (SSI), also known as suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS), family. SSI family members are cytokine-inducible negative regulators of cytokine signaling. The expression of this gene can be induced by a subset of cytokines, including erythropoietin, GM-CSF, IL10 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). The protein encoded by this gene is found to interact with the cytoplasmic domain of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R), and thus is thought to be involved in the regulation of IGF1R mediated cell signaling. Knockout studies in mice also suggested a regulatory role of this gene in IGF-1 related growth control. SOCS2 has been shown to interact with insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor and erythropoietin receptor. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000120833 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...
சிவப்பணுவாக்கி (Erythropoietin, erythropoetin, erthropoyetin, EPO, hemopoietin அல்லது hematopoietin) என்பது சிவப்பணு உற்பத்தியைக் (erythropoiesis) கட்டுப்படுத்தும் கிளைக்கோப்புரத இயக்குநீராகும். இது, எலும்பு மச்சையிலுள்ள சிவப்பணு முன்னோடிகளுக்கானச் சைட்டோக்கைனாகும் (புரத சமிக்ஞை மூலக்கூறு). மனித சிவப்பணுவாக்கியின் மூலக்கூறு நிறை 34 கிலோ டால்டன்கள். குழல்வெளி நுண்குழல்கள், அண்மைச்சுருள் நுண்குழல்களுடன் தொடர்பு கொண்ட, ...
... (16 November 1869 - 1 June 1957) was a French physician born in Limoges. He served as médecin des hôpitaux in Paris, becoming a professor of therapeutic medicine in 1918 to the Paris medical faculty. In 1922 he was elected as a member to the Académie de Médecine. In 1906 he coined the term hémopoïétine (hemopoietin) to define a humoral factor he believed was responsible for regulation of red blood cell production. This being based on experiments with laboratory rabbits that he conducted with his graduate student Clotilde-Camille DeFlandre. They noticed that an increase of reticulocytes in normal rabbits occurred following the injection of blood plasma taken from anemic donor rabbits who had earlier been subject to bloodletting. Findings from their research were published in a paper titled Sur l'activité hémopoïétique du sérum au cours de la régénération du sang (On the hemopoietic activity of serum during the regeneration of blood). Carnot was the author of numerous ...
Cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CISH gene. CISH orthologs have been identified in most mammals with sequenced genomes. CISH controls T cell receptor (TCR) signaling, and variations of CISH with certain SNPs are associated with susceptibility to bacteremia, tuberculosis and malaria. The protein encoded by this gene contains a SH2 domain and a SOCS box domain. The protein thus belongs to the cytokine-induced STAT inhibitor (CIS), also known as suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) or STAT-induced STAT inhibitor (SSI), protein family. CIS family members are known to be cytokine-inducible negative regulators of cytokine signaling. The expression of this gene can be induced by IL-2, IL-3, GM-CSF and EPO in hematopoietic cells. Proteasome-mediated degradation of this protein has been shown to be involved in the inactivation of the erythropoietin receptor. CISH is induced by T cell receptor (TCR) ligation ...
દરિયા-સ્તરના દબાણે સ્વસ્થ માનવ શ્વસન હવામાં ધમનીય લોહીના નમૂના પૈકીનો લગભગ 98.5% જેટલો પ્રાણવાયુ Hgb(હિમોગ્લોબિન) સાથે ભળી જાય છે. લગભગ 1.5% જેટલા નમૂના અન્ય રક્ત પ્રવાહીઓમાં ભળી જાય છે અને હિમોગ્લોબિન સાથે સંકળાતો નથી. સસ્તનોમાં અને અન્ય અનેક જાતોમાં હિમોગ્લોબિનના કણો એ પ્રાણવાયુના પ્રાથમિક પરિવાહકો છે(અપવાદ માટે જુઓ નીચે). હિમોગ્લોબિનની પ્રાણવાયુ બંધનકર્તા ક્ષમતા અંદાજે 1.36 અને.37 ...
The burst-forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E) cells start erythropoietin receptor expression and are sensitive to erythropoietin. ... Erythropoietin has its primary effect on red blood cell progenitors and precursors (which are found in the bone marrow in ... High level erythropoietin receptor expression is localized to erythroid progenitor cells. While there are reports that EPO ... Precursors of red cells, the proerythroblasts and basophilic erythroblasts also express erythropoietin receptor and are ...
2. EPO stimulates stem cells within the bone marrow which differentiate into erythroid precursors. START HERE 1: Erythropoietin ... Red cells are examined along with white cells, granulocyte precursors, blast cells. Red cells appear paler in their centre of ... Red cells are examined along with white cells, granulocyte precursors, blast cells. Red cells appear paler in their centre of ... Red cells are examined along with white cells, granulocyte precursors, blast cells. Red cells appear paler in their centre of ...
The burst-forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E) cells start erythropoietin receptor expression and are sensitive to erythropoietin. ... Erythropoietin has its primary effect on red blood cell progenitors and precursors (which are found in the bone marrow in ... Precursors of red cells, the proerythroblasts and basophilic erythroblasts also express erythropoietin receptor and are ... "Erythropoietin". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House.. *↑ "erythropoietin - definition of erythropoietin in English from ...
... the first morphologically recognizable erythroid precursor is the pronormoblast. This cell can undergo four to five cell ... erythropoietin (. EPO) is the regulatory hormone. EPO is required for the maintenance of committed erythroid progenitor cells ... The process is regulated through a series of steps beginning with the hematopoietic stem cell. Stem cells are capable of ... The erythron is a dynamic organ made up of a rapidly proliferating pool of marrow erythroid precursor cells and a large mass of ...
Origins of Blood Cells flashcards from Madeline Libin ... CMP--, committed precursor cells MEP and GM. MEP (erythroid ... First recognizable cells: rubriblast/proerythroblast- first cell we can see on a microscope. blue nucleus. nucleus starts to ... Bone marrow: multipotential stem cell--,unipotential stem cell--,myeloblast. Myeloblast=first recognizable cells. Big, pinky ... Stimulates proliferation of erythroid progenitors (precursors). Fundamental stimulus to EPO production is hypoxia--, if levels ...
... is tightly regulated by a mechanism that monitors whether or not there is adequate oxygen getting to tissues and other cells. ... Hypoxia is detected by the peritubular fibroblasts of the kidneys which causes erythropoietin (EPO) to be released. The EPO ... The role of red blood cells is to carry oxygen. Just like anything in the body, this ... About a 10 day head start in maturation. The CFU-Es (Colony-forming unit-erythroid) are red blood cell progenitor cells that ...
Similar to stimulation of red blood cell precursor cells (erythrogenesis), erythropoietin stimulates non-differentiated Schwann ... The pathway for erythropoietin in both the central and peripheral nervous systems begins with the binding of Epo to EpoR. This ... Differential expression of EpoR between erythroid cells. Most notably, plasma Epo concentration is regulated by ... In Schwann cells, increased erythropoietin levels may stimulate Schwann cell proliferation via JAK2 and ERK/MAP kinase ...
Classical methods of identifying erythroid progenitors in tissue rely on the ability of these cells to give rise to red cell ... The cells were subsequently cultured in medium containing growth factors other than erythropoietin (Epo) to maintain their ... Their erythroid precursor progeny are identified based on morphological criteria. Neither of these classical methods allow ... Erythropoiesis involves a dynamic process that begins with committed erythroid burst forming units (BFU-Es) followed by rapidly ...
Erythroid cells and erythroid progenitor cells. Isoform EPOR-F is the most abundant form in EPO-dependent erythroleukemia cells ... Erythropoietin receptor precursor. *MGC138358. see all. * Function. Receptor for erythropoietin. Mediates erythropoietin- ... The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end ... hypersensitivity of erythroid progenitors to erythropoietin, erythropoietin low serum levels, and no increase in platelets nor ...
1 CFU-E subsequently generate a cascade of morphologically recognizable erythroid precursors that undergo 3-4 maturational cell ... Nevertheless, civilizations started from murine embryonic control cells proliferate for much longer intervals of period.15 ... Crimson bloodstream KRN 633 IC50 cell (RBC) creation is certainly governed by many exogenous elements, including erythropoietin ... cells for transfusion therapy. Launch In the adult, all bloodstream cells are eventually made from hematopoietic control cells ...
The present invention relates to compositions comprising a novel recombinant virus which replicates selectively in cells or ... to hypoxia and stimulates erythropoiesis by binding to its receptor expressed on erythroid progenitor and precursor cells. EPO ... 2) was used as a starting material for the generation and testing of a bi-directional hypoxia/HIF-responsive promoter. The pBI ... The HRE present within the 3′-flanking region of the erythropoietin (EPO) gene and 5′-flanking region of the VEGF gene are less ...
Down regulates expression of stem cell growth factor receptor (KIT). Acts as an effector of EpoR (erythropoietin receptor) in ... The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end ... controlling KIT expression and may play a central role in erythroid differentiation during the switch between proliferation and ... mediator that relays suppressing signals from the chemokine receptor CXCR4 to beta-2 integrin LFA-1 in hematopoietic precursors ...
In the presence of EPO, bone marrow erythroid precursor cells proliferate and. Recombinant erythropoietin is a 165-amino acid ... Each biologic starts with a cell bank designed to produce that specific protein. Cells that most effectively produce the ... 1 It increases the red blood cell production by binding to the EPO receptor EPOR on the surface of erythroid precursor cells in ... also termed KITLG and erythropoietin EPO for the proliferation and survival of erythroid cells von Lindern et al, 2004; ...
Repression of c-kit and its downstream substrates by GATA-1 inhibits cell proliferation during erythroid maturation. Mol Cell ... For example, in erythroid precursors, GATA-2 induces Gata1 and Kit transcription (50). GATA-1 represses Kit transcription (52, ... Though efforts have begun to correct genetic defects in patient-derived induced-pluripotent cells (181, 182), the path to ... 53) to promote prodifferentiation erythropoietin signaling (54) and represses Gata2 transcription (43, 55-57). In HSPCs, GATA-2 ...
... and nonexistence of erythroid precursors in the bone marrow [1]. Causes of pure red blood cell aplasia vary from immunological ... antibodies mediated damage to red cell precursors or erythropoietin, and toxic suppression of the bone marrow are the ... Further work-up with bone marrow biopsy confirmed pure red blood cell aplasia. A detailed review of recently started ... Yang G, Cheng Q, Liu S, Zhang X: Pure red cell aplasia due to anti-erythropoietin antibodies or isoniazid? A case report from a ...
Thus, in this culture system designed to measure erythroid development from primary committed erythroid precursors, erythroid- ... A commentary on this article begins on page 6573.. ABBREVIATIONS. EPO,. erythropoietin;. EPOR,. EPO receptor;. cEPOR,. ... committed erythroid progenitor cells, hematopoietic precursor cells from embryonic day 13 fetal liver were infected and ... Erythropoietin (EPO) is required for red blood cell development, but whether EPO-specific signals directly instruct erythroid ...
... erythroid cells at given stages of differentiation 3-5. However transformed cell lines can only partially mimic erythroid cells ... The cells were subsequently cultured in medium containing growth factors other than erythropoietin (Epo) to maintain their ... Their erythroid precursor progeny are identified based on morphological criteria. Neither of these classical methods allow ... Erythropoiesis involves a dynamic process that begins with committed erythroid burst forming units (BFU-Es) followed by rapidly ...
... erythropoietin. The present invention teaches using Erythropoetin to treat anemia caused by the combined treatment of Ribavirin ... Inhibitory effects of zidovudine in erythroid progenitor cells: reversal with a combination of erythropoietin and interleukin-3 ... Since the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy began in 1995, HIV patients are living longer and suffering more ill ... of reticulocytes released from the bone marrow into the circulation and reduces apoptosis among late erythroid precursors, ...
Moderate erythroid hyperplasia is present in the bone marrow Beginning in the second trimester and continuing throughout ... amplitude glandular epithelial cells and pre-secretory alveolar cells of the breast.. Gastric emptying time appears to be ... Normal precursor of calcitonin. Most of this is incorporated in hemoglobin or myoglobin Increase at the end of the third ... erythropoietin level. neutrophil activation. This peaks early during the third trimester and corresponds to maximal Account in ...
Hi erythroid precursors and the relationship to erythroid response; to characterize molecular targets relevant to lenalidomide ... Low erythropoietin response profile-rhu-erythropoietin and epoetin alfa-naïve patients receiving ,= 2U packed (p)RBC/month for ... Patients must not have prior history of malignancy other than MDS (except basal cell or squamous skin cell carcinoma or ... the treating physician may prefer to await the results prior to starting a new cycle; if a cycle is started, and based on the ...
Mapping cell surface proteins and their erythropoietin thrombopoietin synergy. Regime might also be a logical inner surfaces of ... There was agreement normal erythroid precursors damage accumulates until (a Siderosomes are The means by recognition of the ... When people started Eye are generally generated a novel and the man a defect in they domesticated chicken the Twelve was ... Iron stains of irreversibly sickled cells illustrated with PowerPoint world with higher cell anemia contains in excess as ...
... hepatocyte precursors, plasma cells, plasma cell precursors (B cells), T cells or T cell precursors are known in the art. Cells ... erythroid cells were predominantly immature, nucleated cells of yolk sac origin, while +/+ erythroid cells were 80% liver- ... with cultures using erythropoietin alone or erythropoietin, IL-1, IL-3, and G-CSF. All three of the 55 WO 01/49717 PCT/USOO/ ... XBP-1 expression in the developing liver of wild type mice The fetal liver begins its development as an outpouching of foregut ...
Erythropoietin (Epo) leads to the proliferation and differentiation of erythroid precursors, but is also involved in diverse ... rather than mature osteoprogenitor cells - into osteoblasts, resulting in new bone formation (see the related article beginning ... T cell Ig mucin (Tim) molecules modulate CD4+ T cell responses. In keeping with the view that Tim-1 generates a stimulatory ... Mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) are a multipotent population of cells that can differentiate into muscle, bone, fat, ...
... resident bone marrow macrophages provide erythroblasts with interactions that are essential for erythroid development. New ... Once RBC have matured, these cells remain in circulation for about 120 days. At the end of their life span, RBC are cleared by ... Once RBC have matured, these cells remain in circulation for about 120 days. At the end of their life span, RBC are cleared by ... In addition, we will discuss the interactions between these two cell types during transfer of immune complexes and pathogens ...
erythroid precursor cells in the bone marrow and in this way it. affects the production of red cells (1, 2).. Chronic renal ... Start Page. 144. Pagination. 144-148. Date Published. 06/2015. Type of Article. Original. ... of erythropoietin and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. Exp. Cell Res. 2012; 318(9): 1068-1073.. 3. Bhatta S, Aryal G, Kafle ... The level of erythropoietin is difficult to interpret in the. context of renal failure. Three studies examined the levels of. ...
  • Bcl-3 was originally identified as a putative oncogene and cloned from a chromosomal breakpoint in the t(14;19) translocation, which is found in some cases of chronic B-cell lymphocytic leukemias ( 31 ). (asm.org)
  • Erythroferrone is not required for the glucoregulatory and hematologic effects of chronic erythropoietin treatment in mice. (irsd.fr)
  • The primary disease process in AMM is a clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorder which results in chronic myeloproliferation and atypical megakaryocytic hyperplasia. (bionity.com)
  • In mammals, O 2 is transported to tissues bound to the hemoglobin contained within circulating red cells. (mhmedical.com)
  • Just like anything in the body, this is tightly regulated by a mechanism that monitors whether or not there is adequate oxygen getting to tissues and other cells. (mlseducate.com)
  • Widely expressed in a variety of organs, tissues, and cell types such as epidermoid, hematopoietic, and neuronal cells. (abcam.com)
  • Excessive intracellular iron catalyzes the generation of reactive oxygen species that can cause extensive damage to cells and tissues, with resulting dysfunction of the liver, heart or endocrine glands. (haematologica.org)
  • Haemoglobin is a molecule made up of iron and protein, which carries oxygen in the red blood cells in the blood around the body from the lungs to the tissues (e.g. muscles or brain) where this oxygen is essential to the functioning of the tissues. (enetmd.com)
  • Hence, it can be said that growth factors exhibit their effects on various types of cells and initiate a cascade of cellular functions in different types of tissues. (jacobspublishers.com)
  • They have the ability to differentiate into all of the mature blood cell types and tissues. (lecturio.com)
  • Protozoans comprise a large, diverse assortment of microscopic or near-microscopic organisms that live as single cells or in simple colonies and that show no differentiation into tissues. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In higher organisms, a division of labor has evolved in which groups of cells have differentiated into specialized tissues tissue, in biology, aggregation of cells that are similar in form and function and the intercellular substances produced by them. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2 In the circulation, hepcidin binds to FPN1 on the plasma membrane of cells in various tissues and induces its internalization, ubiquitination, and degradation, which blocks the flux of iron into the blood stream. (ashpublications.org)
  • When EPO binds to its ligand on the red blood cell activates the JAK2-STAT pathway, which ends in and up-regulation of transcription for BCL-2, which is an anti-apoptotic protein. (mlseducate.com)
  • Through retroviral transduction, these ligand-independent activated chimeric receptors were expressed in primary erythroid progenitors ex vivo and in vivo . (pnas.org)
  • Members of the Notch family of transmembrane receptors are found on primitive hematopoietic precursors, and Notch ligand expression has been demonstrated on the surface of stromal cells, suggesting a role for Notch signaling in mammalian blood cell development. (wiley.com)
  • bounding of erythropoietin and epoetin alfa to EPO-R causes to cellular internalization, which includes the degradation of the ligand. (millionpharma.com)
  • We have analyzed the interleukin-4 (IL-4)-triggered mechanisms implicated in cell survival and show here that IL-4 deprivation induces apoptotic cell death but does not modulate Bcl-2 or Bcl-x expression. (asm.org)
  • I. To compare the rate of major erythroid response (MER) between lenalidomide monotherapy and combined treatment of lenalidomide and epoetin alfa in erythropoietin non-responsive low-/intermediate-1 (Int-1)-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients or erythropoietin treatment naïve patients with low probability of erythropoietin benefit. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Erythrocyte production is regulated by a negative feedback loop where oxygen levels determine plasma levels of erythropoietin (Epo). (frontiersin.org)
  • Delayed donor crimson cell engraftment and incomplete crimson cell aplasia (PRCA) take place in situations of main ABO mismatch between donor and receiver because of inhibition from the donor's erythroid progenitors by isohemagglutinins made by residual plasma cells. (at-406.net)
  • The transplanted PBSC allograft included 4.4 10*6/kg Compact disc34+ cells Lenvatinib reversible enzyme inhibition with significantly less than 15?mL RBC within this stem cell item. (at-406.net)
  • The development of resistance to these drugs may be the result of cancer cell heterogeneity, DNA damage repair mechanism, drug efflux, and cell death inhibition [ 3 ]. (plos.org)
  • Inhibition of vascular c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 improves obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. (uzh.ch)
  • Furthermore, inhibition of the SH3 domain of Son of Sevenless (SOS), which is an upstream adapter protein in EPO-induced erythroid differentiation, also reduced MASL1 expression and phosphorylation of Raf/MEK/ERK kinases that consequently reduced erythroid differentiation of EPO-induced CD34(+) cells. (unt.edu)
  • It is also inconsistent with the low levels of EPO receptors on those cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Renin is a protease that catalyzes the rate-limiting step of the renin-angiotensin system by cleaving angiotensinogen to angiotensin I. It is secreted from the juxtaglomerular cells through three main mechanisms: (1) baroreceptors in the afferent arteriole that sense a drop in arterial blood pressure, (2) a decreased concentration of sodium chloride at the macula densa, and (3) increased catecholamines that activate beta-adrenergic receptors on juxtaglomerular cells. (houstonmethodist.org)
  • Immunocytochemistry staining showed that LA7 cells express estrogen receptors (ERs) and EpoRs. (plos.org)
  • The hypothesis for this study was based on experimental studies showing that the renin-angiotensin system, particularly angiotensin II receptors, play an integral role in the regulation of cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and tumor progression. (blogspot.com)
  • EPO plays multiple biological roles by binding to EPO receptors (EPO-R) on diverse cell types, including erythroid progenitors, macrophages, pro-megakaryocytes, cancer cells, and neurons. (b-bic.org)
  • Launch In the adult, all bloodstream cells are eventually made from hematopoietic control cells (HSCs) that are mainly quiescent however able of comprehensive self-renewal. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • It is well known that all blood cells, including T and B lymphocytes, are generated from the pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells (HSCs). (jimmunol.org)
  • Here we provide evidence that the Ikaros family of DNA binding factors is critical for the activity of hemopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the mouse. (rupress.org)
  • As the half-life of mature hemopoietic cells varies from several hours to years, a continuous production of end-stage cells from hemopoietic stem cells (HSCs) 1 is required throughout the life span of the organism. (rupress.org)
  • Although almost all kinds of the mature blood cells can be generated from hESCs, there still lacks solid evidence for the generation of reconstituting hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from hESC or hiPSC. (intechopen.com)
  • HSCs were the first somatic stem cells to be discovered. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Clinically, HSCs or HSC-enriched fractions are used to treat blood related diseases, like leukemia, sickle cell disease, or the immune defect severe combined immune deficiency (SCID). (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Hereditary Spherocytosis (HS) is an inherited condition which affects the structure of red blood cells (RBCs). (statmed.org)
  • What this means is that EPO stimulates synthesis of red cell RNA, such as the production of hemoglobin. (mlseducate.com)
  • made of DNA (see nucleic acid nucleic acid, any of a group of organic substances found in the chromosomes of living cells and viruses that play a central role in the storage and replication of hereditary information and in the expression of this information through protein synthesis. (thefreedictionary.com)