A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. Activated Smad3 can bind directly to DNA, and it regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.
A signal transducing adaptor protein and tumor suppressor protein. It forms a complex with activated RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS. The complex then translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES.
An inhibitory smad protein that associates with TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA RECEPTORS and BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It negatively regulates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS by inhibiting PHOSPHORYLATION of RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and plays an essential role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and is essential for PHYSIOLOGICAL ANGIOGENESIS.
A family of proteins that are involved in the translocation of signals from TGF-BETA RECEPTORS; BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS; and other surface receptors to the CELL NUCLEUS. They were originally identified as a class of proteins that are related to the mothers against decapentaplegic protein, Drosophila and sma proteins from CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS and regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A family of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS that bind BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that mediate SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS through SMAD PROTEINS.
A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with high affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They can interact with and undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II. They signal primarily through RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.
Carnivores of genus Mustela of the family MUSTELIDAE. The European mink, which has white upper and lower lips, was widely trapped for commercial purposes and is classified as endangered. The American mink, lacking a white upper lip, is farmed commercially.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A TGF-beta subtype that was originally identified as a GLIOBLASTOMA-derived factor which inhibits the antigen-dependent growth of both helper and CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTES. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta2 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Receptors for ACTIVINS are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES, thus also named activin receptor-like kinases (ALK's). Activin receptors also bind TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. As those transmembrane receptors of the TGF-beta superfamily (RECEPTORS, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA), ALK's consist of two different but related protein kinases, Type I and Type II. Activins initiate cellular signal transduction by first binding to the type II receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II ) which then recruit and phosphorylate the type I receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I ) with subsequent activation of the type I kinase activity.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS. They are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. The major type II activin receptors are ActR-IIA and ActR-IIB.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The founding member of the nodal signaling ligand family of proteins. Nodal protein was originally discovered in the region of the mouse embryo primitive streak referred to as HENSEN'S NODE. It is expressed asymmetrically on the left side in chordates and plays a critical role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
They are glycopeptides and subunits in INHIBINS and ACTIVINS. Inhibins and activins belong to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
A genus, Muntiacus, of the deer family (Cervidae) comprising six species living in China, Tibet, Nepal, India, the Malay Peninsula, and neighboring island countries. They are usually found in forests and areas of dense vegetation, usually not far from water. They emit a deep barklike sound which gives them the name "barking deer." If they sense a predator they will "bark" for an hour or more. They are hunted for their meat and skins; they thrive in captivity and are found in many zoos. The Indian muntjac is believed to have the lowest chromosome number in mammals and cell lines derived from them figure widely in chromosome and DNA studies. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed., p1366)
A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
... and Smad1-Dependent Enhancers in the Smad7 Gene Differentially Interpret Bone Morphogenetic Protein Concentrations". Mol. Cell ... "GATA-6 DNA binding protein expressed in human gastric adenocarcinoma MKN45 cells". FEBS Lett. 414 (2): 333-7. doi:10.1016/S0014 ... "Cysteine-rich LIM-only proteins CRP1 and CRP2 are potent smooth muscle differentiation cofactors". Dev. Cell. 4 (1): 107-18. ... the distal lung epithelial development is stunted in transgenic mice models The progenitor cells, or stem cells, for alveolar ...
"The MAD-related protein Smad7 associates with the TGFbeta receptor and functions as an antagonist of TGFbeta signaling". Cell. ... transducing the TGF-β signal from the cell surface to the cytoplasm. The encoded protein is a serine/threonine protein kinase. ... The protein encoded by this gene forms a heteromeric complex with type II TGF-β receptors when bound to TGF-β, ... Mochizuki T, Miyazaki H, Hara T, Furuya T, Imamura T, Watabe T, Miyazono K (July 2004). "Roles for the MH2 domain of Smad7 in ...
"The MAD-related protein Smad7 associates with the TGFbeta receptor and functions as an antagonist of TGFbeta signaling". Cell. ... Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 7 or SMAD7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SMAD7 gene. SMAD7 is a protein ... Some previous study showed over-expression of Smad7 in pancreatic cells but there was a recent study showed a low Smad7 ... "The MAD-related protein Smad7 associates with the TGFbeta receptor and functions as an antagonist of TGFbeta signaling". Cell. ...
"Bone morphogenetic protein receptor complexes on the surface of live cells: a new oligomerization mode for serine/threonine ... "Physical and functional interaction of murine and Xenopus Smad7 with bone morphogenetic protein receptors and transforming ... The bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type IA also known as BMPR1A is a protein which in humans is encoded by the BMPR1A ... "Characterization of bone morphogenetic protein-6 signaling pathways in osteoblast differentiation". J. Cell Sci. 112 (20): 3519 ...
Unlike the R-Smads, Smad7 protein is typically under-expressed in diseased kidney cells. This loss of TGF-B inhibition results ... In adult cells, TGF-β inhibits cell cycle progression, stopping cells from making the G1/S phase transition. This phenomenon is ... maintaining multi-potency in stem cells, and promoting continuous cell cycling. Therefore, downregulating ID proteins is a ... Yan X, Liao H, Cheng M, Shi X, Lin X, Feng XH, Chen YG (January 2016). "Smad7 Protein Interacts with Receptor-regulated Smads ( ...
"A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". Cell. 125 (4): ... Disruption of interactions between WWP2 and SMAD7 can stabilize SMAD7 protein levels and prevent TGF-β induced Epithelial- ... The family of proteins is known to possess ubiquitin-protein ligase activity. The encoded protein contains 4 tandem WW domains ... "Latent membrane protein 2A of Epstein-Barr virus binds WW domain E3 protein-ubiquitin ligases that ubiquitinate B-cell tyrosine ...
"Physical and functional interaction of murine and Xenopus Smad7 with bone morphogenetic protein receptors and transforming ... "The role of activin type I receptors in activin A-induced growth arrest and apoptosis in mouse B-cell hybridoma cells". Cell. ... independent signaling pathways in mammary epithelial Cells". Mol. Cell. Biol. 22 (8): 2586-97. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.8.2586- ... Cell. Biol. 15 (7): 3479-86. doi:10.1128/mcb.15.7.3479. PMC 230584. PMID 7791754. Xu J, Matsuzaki K, McKeehan K, Wang F, Kan M ...
"Entrez Gene: STRAP serine/threonine kinase receptor associated protein". Datta PK, Moses HL (May 2000). "STRAP and Smad7 ... "Regulation of the polarity protein Par6 by TGFbeta receptors controls epithelial cell plasticity". Science. 307 (5715): 1603-9 ... "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs". Genome ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038/ ...
"Cell type-specific inhibition of the ETS transcription factor ER81 by mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase ... and TAK1-mediated up-regulation of the transforming growth factor beta inhibitor Smad7 via the ETS protein ER81". The Journal ... "Specificities of protein-protein and protein-DNA interaction of GABP alpha and two newly defined ets-related proteins". Genes ... ETV1+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e. ...
These proteins then typically bind to the common mediator Smad or co-SMAD SMAD4. Smad complexes then accumulate in the cell ... SMAD1, SMAD5 and SMAD8 are activated in response to BMPs bone morphogenetic protein or GDP signals. SMAD6 and SMAD7 may be ... R-Smad+Proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e. ... In response to signals by the TGF-β superfamily of ligands these proteins associate with receptor kinases and are ...
... prostate cancer cells involves Smad7-dependent activation of p38 by TGF-beta-activated kinase 1 and mitogen-activated protein ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7-interacting protein 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the TAB1 gene ... This protein can also interact with and activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (MAPK14/p38alpha), and thus represents ... "Entrez Gene: MAP3K7IP1 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7 interacting protein 1". "TAB1 (human)". www.phosphosite ...
protein C-terminus binding. • proline-rich region binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • nucleoplasm. • cell nucleus. • ... "Yes-associated protein (YAP65) interacts with Smad7 and potentiates its inhibitory activity against TGF-beta/Smad signaling" ... YAP1 (yes-associated protein 1), also known as YAP or YAP65, is a protein that acts as a transcriptional regulator by ... cell morphogenesis. • vasculogenesis. • embryonic heart tube morphogenesis. • positive regulation of cell proliferation. • ...
T cells accumulate in the skin; these are thought to secrete cytokines and other proteins that stimulate collagen deposition. ... An intracellular pathway (consisting of SMAD2/SMAD3, SMAD4, and the inhibitor SMAD7) is responsible for the secondary messenger ... The patient's white blood cells are destroyed with cyclophosphamide and rabbit antibodies against the white blood cells. Then, ... destruction of red blood cells). Apart from the high blood pressure, hematuria (blood in the urine) and proteinuria (protein ...
... can induce Smad7 expression to reverse the growth inhibition of B cells induced by TGF-β. TGF-β also blocks B cell activation ... This complex remains in the cell until it is bound by another protein called Latent TGF-β-Binding Protein (LTBP), forming a ... Both cells increase their production of TGF-β. This TGF-β acts on the surrounding stromal cells, immune cells, endothelial and ... Li MO, Flavell RA (August 2008). "TGF-beta: a master of all T cell trades". Cell. 134 (3): 392-404. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.07. ...
Cell. 130 (4): 651-62. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.06.050. PMID 17719543. S2CID 16684837. v t e. ... E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase SMURF2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SMURF2 gene. SMURF2 has been shown to interact ... Kavsak P, Rasmussen RK, Causing CG, Bonni S, Zhu H, Thomsen GH, Wrana JL (Dec 2000). "Smad7 binds to Smurf2 to form an E3 ... Kavsak P, Rasmussen RK, Causing CG, Bonni S, Zhu H, Thomsen GH, Wrana JL (Dec 2000). "Smad7 binds to Smurf2 to form an E3 ...
This kinase mediates signal transduction induced by TGF beta and morphogenetic protein (BMP), and controls a variety of cell ... TAK1 kinase-mediated neurite outgrowth by Smad6 and Smad7". Genes Cells. 6 (12): 1091-1099. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2443.2001.00483. ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. ... Mihaly SR, Ninomiya-Tsuji J, Morioka S (November 2014). "TAK1 control of cell death". Cell Death and Differentiation. 21 (11): ...
Datta PK, Moses HL (2000). "STRAP and Smad7 Synergize in the Inhibition of Transforming Growth Factor β Signaling". Mol. Cell. ... The SMAD proteins are homologs of both the drosophila protein, mothers against decapentaplegic (MAD) and the C. elegans protein ... SMAD family member 6, also known as SMAD6, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SMAD6 gene. SMAD6 is a protein that, ... TAK1 kinase-mediated neurite outgrowth by Smad6 and Smad7". Genes Cells. 6 (12): 1091-9. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2443.2001.00483.x. ...
In cancer cells, EP300 mutations prevent the gene from producing any functional protein. Without p300, cells cannot effectively ... Grönroos E, Hellman U, Heldin CH, Ericsson J (September 2002). "Control of Smad7 stability by competition between acetylation ... These mutations result in the loss of one copy of the gene in each cell, which reduces the amount of p300 protein by half. Some ... "Cells degrade a novel inhibitor of differentiation with E1A-like properties upon exiting the cell cycle". Mol. Cell. Biol. 20 ( ...
... s serve many biological roles inside the cell. Chromatin is a combination of proteins and DNA found in ... Smad7, importin-α, Ku70, YAP1, E1A adenovirus protein, and S-HDAg (hepatitis delta virus small delta antigen). p300/CBP have ... structural proteins, polyamines, and proteins involved in nuclear import. Acetylation of these proteins can alter their ability ... Histones comprise the protein portion of chromatin. There are five different histone proteins: H1, H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. A core ...
... and has a potential role in protein trafficking". J. Cell Sci. 117 (Pt 16): 3679-89. doi:10.1242/jcs.01212. PMID 15252135. ... "Smurf1 regulates the inhibitory activity of Smad7 by targeting Smad7 to the plasma membrane". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (42): 39919-25 ... This gene encodes a ubiquitin ligase that is specific for receptor-regulated SMAD proteins in the bone morphogenetic protein ( ... Cell Biol. 10 (8): 994-1002. doi:10.1038/ncb1760. PMID 18641638. S2CID 19216909. Fukunaga E, Inoue Y, Komiya S, Horiguchi K, ...
Cell. Biol. 13 (8): 4505-12. doi:10.1128/mcb.13.8.4505. PMC 360062. PMID 8336698. Sidhar SK, Clark J, Gill S, Hamoudi R, Crew ... Transcription factor E3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TFE3 gene. TFE3, a member of the helix-loop-helix family ... "Synergism between transcription factors TFE3 and Smad3 in transforming growth factor-beta-induced transcription of the Smad7 ... Cell. Biol. 23 (11): 3707-20. doi:10.1128/mcb.23.11.3707-3720.2003. PMC 155231. PMID 12748276. Steingrimsson E, Tessarollo L, ...
... cell-free extracts for biochemical studies of proteins encoded by human disease genes: A unique advantage of the ... In a recent study, mutations in the SMAD7 locus were revealed to associate with human colorectal cancer. The mutations lay in ... The multiciliated cells of the Xenopus epidermis have recently been developed as the first in vivo test-bed for live-cell ... Xenopus egg extracts have provided numerous insights into the basic biology of cells with particular impact on cell division ...
... cardiac HL1 and H9C2 cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells. AGGF1 directly and indirectly interacts with many proteins. There ... SMAD7 and Aggf1 directly interact in the liver to inhibit fibrogenesis. The presence of DNMT3b will repress AGGF1 by acting on ... it also has activity in mast cells, cardiac cells, Kupffer cells and hematopoietic stem cells. AGGF1 mRNA has been detected in ... By blocking vascular permeability and regulating vascular smooth muscle cell phenotypic switching, AGGF1 protein therapy is ...
... cell-free extracts for biochemical studies of proteins encoded by human disease genes: A unique advantage of the ... In a recent study, mutations in the SMAD7 locus were revealed to associate with human colorectal cancer. The mutations lay in ... "Cell. 131 (5): 980-993. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.09.027. ISSN 0092-8674. PMC 2200633. PMID 18045539.. ... "Cell. 135 (6): 1053-1064. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.10.049. ISSN 1097-4172. PMC 2782666. PMID 19070576.. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a type B histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that is involved in the rapid acetylation of newly ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. S2CID 7827573. Hillier LW, Graves TA, Fulton RS, et al. (2005). "Generation and ... Grönroos E, Hellman U, Heldin CH, Ericsson J (2002). "Control of Smad7 stability by competition between acetylation and ... Cell. 5 (6): 905-15. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80256-7. PMID 10911985. Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2002). " ...
Cell-cell adhesion complexes are essential for the formation of complex animal tissues. β-catenin is part of a protein complex ... Edlund S, Lee SY, Grimsby S, Zhang S, Aspenström P, Heldin CH, Landström M (February 2005). "Interaction between Smad7 and beta ... "A novel cell-cell junction system: the cortex adhaerens mosaic of lens fiber cells". Journal of Cell Science. 116 (Pt 24): 4985 ... β-catenin is a dual function protein, involved in regulation and coordination of cell-cell adhesion and gene transcription. In ...
Liu J, Wang H, Huang C, Qian H (Dec 2014). "Subcellular localization of MTA proteins in normal and cancer cells". Cancer ... Salot S, Gude R (Jan 2013). "MTA1-mediated transcriptional repression of SMAD7 in breast cancer cell lines". European Journal ... MTA1 participates in physiological functions in the normal and cancer cells. MTA1 is one of the most upregulated proteins in ... Metastasis-associated protein MTA1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MTA1 gene. MTA1 is the founding member of the ...
"Entrez Gene: catenin (cadherin-associated protein)".. *↑ Nelson WJ (Apr 2008). "Regulation of cell-cell adhesion by the ... "Interaction between Smad7 and beta-catenin: importance for transforming growth factor beta-induced apoptosis". Molecular and ... "A novel cell-cell junction system: the cortex adhaerens mosaic of lens fiber cells". Journal of Cell Science 116 (Pt 24): 4985- ... Spatio-temporal appearance of proteins involved in cell-cell contact and communication. Formation of two distinct N-cadherin/ ...
The WW domain is one of the smallest protein modules, composed of only 40 amino acids, which mediates specific protein-protein ... Cell. 122 (3): 421-34. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.06.007. PMID 16096061. S2CID 14139806. Zhao B, Kim J, Ye X, Lai ZC, Guan KL ( ... "Structural basis for the versatile interactions of Smad7 with regulator WW domains in TGF-β Pathways". Structure. 20 (10): 1726 ... These include; dystrophin, a multidomain cytoskeletal protein; utrophin, a dystrophin-like protein; vertebrate YAP protein, ...
Here we demonstrate that Smad7 is an inhibitor … ... when the type I receptor phosphorylates the MAD-related protein ... The MAD-related protein Smad7 associates with the TGFbeta receptor and functions as an antagonist of TGFbeta signaling Cell. ... Smad7 prevents TGFbeta-dependent formation of Smad2/Smad4 complexes and inhibits the nuclear accumulation of Smad2. Smad7 ... Furthermore, mutations in Smad7 that interfere with receptor binding disrupt its inhibitory activity. These studies thus define ...
Smad7 Protein / Animals / Metabolism / Mouth Diseases Language: English Journal: Protein & Cell Year: 2015 Type: Article ... Smad7 Protein / Animals / Metabolism / Mouth Diseases Language: English Journal: Protein & Cell Year: 2015 Type: Article ... Animals , Humans , Mouth Diseases , Metabolism , Pathology , Smad7 Protein , Metabolism , Stomatitis , Metabolism , Pathology ... Smad7, the negative regulator of TGFβ signaling, inhibits both NF-κB and TGFβ activation and thus plays a pivotal role in the ...
... plays a prominent role in stimulating liver fibrogenesis by myofibroblast-like cells derived from hepatic stellate cells (HSCs ... Smad2 Protein * Smad2 protein, rat * Smad7 Protein * Smad7 protein, rat * Trans-Activators ... plays a prominent role in stimulating liver fibrogenesis by myofibroblast-like cells derived from hepatic stellate cells (HSCs ... Differential regulation of TGF-beta signal in hepatic stellate cells between acute and chronic rat liver injury Hepatology. ...
... this activity is suppressed by the inhibitory Smad proteins Smad6 and Smad7 (5-7). As shown in Fig. 4 B and C, Smad7 reduced ... BMP2 significantly reduced the number of cells expressing microtubule-associated protein 2, a neuronal marker, and cells ... 156 cells per mm2 on day 0, 1,618 ± 117 cells per mm2 on day 2 without BMP2 pretreatment, and 1,740 ± 360 cells per mm2 on day ... Id proteins inhibit the function of myogenic bHLH proteins, such as MyoD, by a mechanism analogous to that used by Hes proteins ...
Unlike the R-Smads, Smad7 protein is typically under-expressed in diseased kidney cells. This loss of TGF-B inhibition results ... In adult cells, TGF-β inhibits cell cycle progression, stopping cells from making the G1/S phase transition. This phenomenon is ... maintaining multi-potency in stem cells, and promoting continuous cell cycling. Therefore, downregulating ID proteins is a ... Yan X, Liao H, Cheng M, Shi X, Lin X, Feng XH, Chen YG (January 2016). "Smad7 Protein Interacts with Receptor-regulated Smads ( ...
The MAD-related protein Smad7 associates with the TGFbeta receptor and functions as an antagonist of TGFbeta signaling. Cell. ... Cyclin D1 induction in breast cancer cells shortens G1 and is sufficient for cells arrested in G1 to complete the cell cycle. ... GADD34-PP1c recruited by Smad7 dephosphorylates TGFbeta type I receptor. J Cell Biol. 2004;164:291-300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Smad7 binds to Smurf2 to form an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets the TGF beta receptor for degradation. Mol Cell. 2000;6:1365- ...
An increased awareness on a molecular level of what mechanisms prostate cancer cells use to become mobile and start spreading ... TGF-β regulates the expression of the protein Smad7 - an active component in the TGF-β signalling chain. In healthy cells, ... IMAGE: Illustration of how the protein Smad7 enhances the development of tumors by regulating the gene expression of HDAC6 and ... in cancer cells, Smad7 can reinforce the development of tumors by regulating the gene expression of HDAC6 and c-Jun. ...
... and Smad1-Dependent Enhancers in the Smad7 Gene Differentially Interpret Bone Morphogenetic Protein Concentrations". Mol. Cell ... "GATA-6 DNA binding protein expressed in human gastric adenocarcinoma MKN45 cells". FEBS Lett. 414 (2): 333-7. doi:10.1016/S0014 ... "Cysteine-rich LIM-only proteins CRP1 and CRP2 are potent smooth muscle differentiation cofactors". Dev. Cell. 4 (1): 107-18. ... the distal lung epithelial development is stunted in transgenic mice models The progenitor cells, or stem cells, for alveolar ...
In a new study, researchers used an animal model to show proteins and immune cells in the gut may play a role ... Protein Smad7 activates immune cells in the intestines. The research team initially analysed the signal protein Smad7 in ... The medical researchers used an animal model to show that the protein Smad7 mobilises immune cells in the intestines which, in ... mice with a normal and those with a particularly high quantity of Smad7 in T-cells as well as mice without any Smad7 in T-cells ...
Smad7 is a protein important in cell interactions and stands for Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 7 protein ... Change from baseline of Smad7 (Mothers Against Decapentaplegic homolog 7) expression in the intestinal mucosa [ Time Frame: ...
... signaling by antagonizing the inhibitory action of SMAD6 and SMAD7. Has a key role in regulation of cell surface receptor- ... Does not cleave Lys-48-linked polyubiquitin chains (By similarity). Plays a role in signal transduction for cell growth and ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of ...
Bovine Primary Muscle Cells Proliferation and Differentiation via Targeting SMAD Nuclear Interacting Protein-1 and Smad7. ... A Protein@Inorganic Nano-Dumpling System for High-Loading Protein Delivery with Activatable Fluorescence and Magnetic Resonance ... Old, older, the oldest: red blood cell storage and the potential harm of using older red blood cell concentrates. ... Plant Cell. 2020 Jan 16. pii: tpc.00863.2019. doi: 10.1105/tpc.19.00863. [Epub ahead of print] ...
The MAD-related protein Smad7 associates with the TGFbeta receptor and functions as an antagonist of TGFbeta signaling. Cell 89 ... Selm and Smad7 transcripts are enriched in Atoh1BAC-GFP+ sorted cells compared with GFP− cells fivefold to sixfold (Fig. 2B). ... external granule cell layer) in the developing cerebellum, hair cells of the inner ear, and Merkel cells. Our work establishes ... 3C,F,I, 4B). The exception is Smad7 site A, which is located ∼38 kb 3′ of Smad7 in the Gm672 gene (Fig. 3H). Gm672 is expressed ...
Potentiates BMP (bone morphogenetic protein) signaling by antagonizing the inhibitory action of SMAD6 and SMAD7 (By similarity ... Does not cleave Lys-48-linked polyubiquitin chains (By similarity). Plays a role in signal transduction for cell growth and ... Protein-protein interaction databases. STRING: functional protein association networks. More...STRINGi. 10090. ... Protein-protein interaction databases. STRING: functional protein association networks. More...STRINGi. 10090. ...
Ab188712 is an active full length protein produced in Baculovirus infected Sf21 cells and has been validated in FuncS… ... Potentiates BMP (bone morphogenetic protein) signaling by antagonizing the inhibitory action of SMAD6 and SMAD7. ... Cell and tissue imaging tools. Cellular and biochemical assays. By product type. Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. ... Cell Biology. Epigenetics. Metabolism. Developmental Biology. By research area. Immunology. Microbiology. Neuroscience. Signal ...
... a signaling protein called Smad7 - into muscle cells. Smad7 then blocks two signaling proteins called Smad2 and Smad3, which ... By blocking those signals, Smad7 stops the breakdown of muscles. "Smad7 is the bodys natural break and, by inhibiting the ... A Smad7 Gene Therapy to Inhibit Age-Related Muscle Loss is in Development. Permalink , Read 2 Comments , Add a Comment , Posted ... There are always many ways to influence any specific process in cells and tissues. When it comes to enhanced muscle growth, the ...
The MAD-related protein Smad7 associates with the TGFbeta receptor and functions as an antagonist of TGFbeta signaling. Cell. ... Aging and cancer cell biology, 2007. Aging Cell. 6:261-263.. Campisi, J. 2008. Aging and cancer cell biology, 2008. Aging Cell ... Aging and cancer cell biology, 2007. Aging Cell. 6:261-263.. Campisi, J. 2008. Aging and cancer cell biology, 2008. Aging Cell ... Annu Rev Cell Biol. 6:597-641.. Massague, J. 2000. How cells read TGF-beta signals. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 1:169-178.. Massague ...
In particular, HMF induced Smad3 protein expression and suppressed Smad7 protein expression in UV-induced HDFn cells in a dose- ... and induced the expression of type I procollagen protein in UV-induced HDFn cells. Additionally, HMF inhibited ultraviolet B ( ... UVB)-induced phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) cascade signaling components-ERK, JNK, and c-Jun- ... cells. HMF also suppressed the expression of matrix metalloproteinases 1 (MMP-1) ...
Potentiates BMP (bone morphogenetic protein) signaling by antagonizing the inhibitory action of SMAD6 and SMAD7. Has a key role ... The protein network of HIV budding. Cell. 2003 Sep 19;114(6):701-13. PMID:14505570 ... Isoform 2 prevents stress-mediated cell death and accumulation of reactive oxygen species when expressed in yeast cells.[6] [7] ... Exp Cell Res. 2005 Mar 10;304(1):265-73. Epub 2004 Dec 1. PMID:15707591 doi:10.1016/j.yexcr.2004.11.003 ...
Mice that produced the Smad7 protein in the oral cavity were dramatically more resistant to radiation-induced oral mucositis ... The protein dampened two pathways known to contribute to oral mucositis, and promoted the migration of oral epithelial cells to ... the researchers explored topical use of the protein. The team used cultured bacteria to produce a combination protein of Smad7 ... Smad7 protein may keep oral mucositis at bay. Share this content: *facebook ...
Axin is a scaffold protein in TGF-beta signaling that promotes degradation of Smad7 by Arkadia. EMBO J. 2006 Apr 19;25(8):1646- ... Mol Cell Biol. 2002 Sep;22(18):6393-405. PMID:12192039 *↑ Liu W, Rui H, Wang J, Lin S, He Y, Chen M, Li Q, Ye Z, Zhang S, Chan ... occurs at a conserved groove on a face of the protein that is distinct from the G-protein interface of classical RGS proteins. ... Also component of the AXIN1-HIPK2-TP53 complex which controls cell growth, apoptosis and development.[26] [27] [28] [APC_HUMAN ...
... and Smad1-dependent enhancers in the Smad7 gene differentially interpret bone morphogenetic protein concentrations. Mol. Cell. ... 2004). Spatio-temporal activation of Smad1 and Smad5 in vivo: monitoring transcriptional activity of Smad proteins. J. Cell Sci ... 2003). BMP induction of Id proteins suppresses differentiation and sustains embryonic stem cell self-renewal in collaboration ... Developing live cell sentinel for Notch signaling. Cell signaling sentinel lines with 12×CSL-TA-mOrange response elements for ...
Smad7 Protein Interacts with Receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads) to Inhibit Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad Signaling. ... After collecting the total protein extracts, a BCA Protein Assay Kit (Beyotime, China) was used to quantitate the protein ... For protein extraction, the cultured BMSCs were lysed with RIPA buffer containing PMSF, and then cell lysis was centrifuged at ... Effect of parathyroid hormone-related protein in an in vitro hypertrophy model for mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis ...
Cells, Cultured. 5. 2019. 21022. 0.150. Why? Smad7 Protein. 2. 2012. 44. 0.150. Why? ...
Small molecule-based disruption of the Axin/beta-catenin protein complex regulates mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. Cell ... Axin is a scaffold protein in TGF-beta signaling that promotes degradation of Smad7 by Arkadia. EMBO J. 2006;25:1646-58. doi: ... Coexpression and protein-protein complexing of DIX domains of human Dvl1 and Axin1 protein. BMB Rep. 2010;43:609-13. doi: ... Protein Cell. 2014;5:186-93. doi:10.1007/s13238-014-0019-2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar ...
... inhibition of Smad6 and Smad7 on bone morphogenetic protein-and activin-mediated growth arrest and apoptosis of B cells. J. ... Publications] Koseki,T.: Accumulation of Bcl-Xs in mouse B cell hybridoma cells during activin A-mediated apoptosis. Cell. ... Publications] Koseki, T.: Accumulation of Bcl-Xs in mouse B cell hybridoma cells during activin A-mediated apoptosis. Cell. ... s in mouse B-cell hybridoma cells during activin A-mediated apoptosis. Cell. Singal. 10. 517-521 (1998). *. Description. 「研究成果 ...
... have identified one mechanism that regulates signaling events leading to cell migration and metastasis, showing that primary ... The cell then changes the proteins it makes to allow the cell to migrate. Ceramide produced by CerS4 binds to Smad7, a cellular ... This increased metastasis could be mitigated when the cell made more Smad7, which inhibited the TGF-beta receptor. ... Ultimately, ceramide prevents the cell from making the proteins necessary for migration. ...
... and treatment of cells with TGF-β stimulated localization of Smad7-Smurf2 complexes to TGF-β receptors at the cell membrane. It ... Kavsak et al. report that Smad7 may accomplish this by acting as an adaptor protein that recruits a ubiquitin ligase called ... receptor at the cell surface to the nucleus, other Smads such as Smad7 negatively regulate TGF-β signaling when they bind to ... supporting the notion that some cell-surface receptors may be down-regulated when an associated protein becomes ubiquitinated, ...
The MAD-related protein Smad7 associates with the TGFβ receptor and functions as an antagonist of TGFβ signaling. Cell 1997;89: ... B, Smad7 overexpression induces epithelial morphology in mesenchymal-like MIII cells and localization of E-cadherin at the cell ... Blue, cell nuclei were stained with 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. Localization of E-cadherin (green) at the cell-cell ... S1C). Furthermore, Smad7 overexpression caused a profound effect on the morphology of MIII cells elicited by the acquisition of ...
Thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) was predicted as a target gene for miR‑20b and knockdown of TXNIP increased cell ... One study showed that depletion of SMAD7 causes β cell aging (39). Another study also indicated that the activation of STAT3 is ... A) Cell viability was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8. (B) Cell senescence was detected by SA-β-gal staining. (C) The cell ... Cell viability, proportion of senescent cells and the cell cycle were respectively determined by Cell Counting Kit‑8, SA‑β‑ ...
  • Inhibitory Smad proteins, Smad6 and Smad7, repress the action of BMP2 by inhibiting the receptor-mediated phosphorylation of Smad1, -5, or -8 or by competing with Smad4 for the binding to Smad1, -5, and -8 ( 5 - 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Specifically, R-Smads are phosphorylated in the nucleus at the linker domain by CDK8 and 9, and these phosphorylations modulate the interaction of Smad proteins with transcriptional activators and repressors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although certain cytosolic Smad proteins transduce signals from an activated transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) receptor at the cell surface to the nucleus, other Smads such as Smad7 negatively regulate TGF-β signaling when they bind to the receptor. (sciencemag.org)
  • Because other Smad proteins bear the motif that is critical for interaction with Smurf2, it could be that Smads in general may function not only to regulate transcription but also to target specific proteins for destruction in response to TGF-β signaling. (sciencemag.org)
  • In our studies of TGFβ superfamily signaling components, we found that a protein null mutation of Smad2 , the only Activin subfamily R-Smad in the fruit fly, produces overgrown wing discs that resemble gain of function for BMP subfamily signaling. (biologists.org)
  • and (3) the TGF-β receptors directly interact with or phosphorylate non-Smad proteins, thus initiating parallel signalling that cooperates with the Smad pathway in eliciting physiological responses. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, non-Smad signal transducers under the control of TGF-β provide quantitative regulation of the signalling pathway, and serve as nodes for crosstalk with other major signalling pathways, such as tyrosine kinase, G-protein-coupled or cytokine receptors. (biologists.org)
  • Here, we discuss non-Smad signalling proteins downstream of the receptors for various TGF-β superfamily members. (biologists.org)
  • and (3) non-Smad proteins that directly interact with or become phosphorylated by TGF-β receptors and do not necessarily affect the function of Smads. (biologists.org)
  • Are non-Smad proteins points of convergence between signalling by TGF-β and other factors? (biologists.org)
  • Smad nuclear interacting protein 1 (SNIP1) is an evolutionarily conserved protein containing a forkhead-associated (FHA) domain that regulates gene expression through interactions with multiple transcriptional regulators. (nature.com)
  • B. Schmierer and C. S. Hill, "TGF β -SMAD signal transduction: molecular specificity and functional flexibility," Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology , vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 970-982, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • Early endosomal regulation of Smad-dependent signaling in endothelial cells," Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 277, no. 20, pp. 18046-18052, 2002. (hindawi.com)
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the anti-hepatic fibrosis effect of CPhGs and the monomers echinacoside and acteoside by inhibiting hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation, blocking the conduction of signaling pathways in transforming growth factor-β 1 (TGF-β 1 )/smad, and determine their in vitro hepatoprotective activity. (mdpi.com)
  • Liu, T. Phenylethanol Glycosides from Cistanche tubulosa Suppress Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation and Block the Conduction of Signaling Pathways in TGF-β 1 /smad as Potential Anti-Hepatic Fibrosis Agents. (mdpi.com)
  • Smad-dependent TGF-beta effects are blunted by antagonistic Smad7, which is transcriptionally activated as an immediate early response upon initiation of TGF-beta signalling in most cell types, thereby providing negative feedback regulation. (diva-portal.org)
  • Because Smad proteins transduce TGF-β signaling from the cytosol to the nucleus and HSP72 assists in protein folding and facilitates nuclear translocation, we investigated whether HSP72 inhibits TGF-β-induced EMT by modulating Smad expression, activation, and nuclear translocation. (asnjournals.org)
  • Because Smad3 transduces TGF-β signaling from the cytosol to the nucleus, 6 and HSP72 acts as a chaperone that facilitates the movement of proteins across the nuclear membrane, 13 , 19 , 20 we hypothesized that HSP72 inhibits TGF-β-induced EMT by interrupting Smad protein phosphorylation and its nuclear translocation and accumulation. (asnjournals.org)
  • BMP signaling is induced when a heterodimeric membrane kinase binds BMP and subsequently triggers Smad protein phosphorylation, similar to the mechanism of TGF-β pathway activation. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • TGF-β1 binds to its receptor, through which it activates intracellular Smad-dependent and -independent signaling pathways and regulates gene transcription and cell shape ( Derynck and Zhang, 2003 ). (rupress.org)
  • Smad-dependent transcription is further dependent on coactivators that stabilize Smad association with DNA, and these coregulators are both constitutive, such as p300, and cell type specific. (rupress.org)
  • In Smad signaling, the phosphorylated receptor complex recruits receptor-regulated Smad proteins (R-Smad), including Smad2 and Smad3, and activates them by phosphorylation. (molvis.org)
  • A potential mechanism for the role of miR-21 in fibrosis is through regulating the expression of an inhibitory Smad, Smad7. (rupress.org)
  • Activated type I receptors signal into cytoplasm through phosphorylation of Smad proteins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thus far, eight mammalian Smad proteins have been identified. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Upon activation, the receptors phosphorylate Smad proteins which serve as downstream mediators that enter the nucleus and finally trigger transcriptional responses of specific genes. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • In the present work, the crosstalk of NGF and TGF-ß/Smad signaling pathways is characterized in rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12) which are frequently used as a model system for neuronal differentiation. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Negative regulation is provided by Smad7 which was found to act as a potent inhibitor of Smad signaling not only in TGF-ß- but also in NGF-mediated cascades. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • The potential of NGF to activate the Smad pathway independent of TGF-ß might be of special importance in regulating expression of genes that are essential for the development and function of neuronal cells or of other NGF-sensitive cells, in particular those which are TGF-ß-resistant. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • TGFβ signals via type I and type II receptor serine/threonine kinases and intracellular Smad proteins that regulate transcription. (rupress.org)
  • We have identified an inducible gene target of TGFβ/Smad signaling, the salt-inducible kinase (SIK), which negatively regulates signaling together with Smad7. (rupress.org)
  • Smad7, a negative regulator of TGFβ/Smad signaling, is an immediate early gene target of the pathway (for review see Itoh and ten Dijke, 2007 ). (rupress.org)
  • Endogenous TGFβ1-induced SIK protein showed punctate nuclear, cytoplasmic, and peripheral localization ( Fig. 1 E ). SIK represents a new gene target of TGFβ/BMP7 Smad signaling. (rupress.org)
  • Canonical TGF-β signaling continues with the recruitment of receptor-activated Smad proteins (R-Smads: Smad2 and Smad3) to the active TβRI. (aacrjournals.org)
  • L. acidophilus also inhibited H. pylori -induced Smad7 transcription by inactivating the Jak1 and Stat1 pathways, which might activate the TGF-β1/Smad pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is well accepted that the TGF-β1 signaling pathway is positively regulated by receptor-associated Smad 2/3, but negatively by Smad7 [ 24 , 25 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • found that the TGF-β-induced activation of PI3K depends on another ubiquitin ligase-mediated mechanism and a SMAD protein but is independent of the kinase function of TβRI. (sciencemag.org)
  • The multifunctional cellular responses evoked by TGF-β are mediated by the canonical SMAD pathway and by noncanonical pathways, including mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways and the phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (AKT) pathway. (sciencemag.org)
  • Receptor-regulated Smad proteins, Smads 1 and 5, are intracellular mediators of bone morphogenetic protein signaling. (biologists.org)
  • Under certain conditions TGF-β inhibits T helper (Th1) and Th2 differentiation or induces regulatory T cell and Th17 development, mainly through the Smad-dependent signalling pathway. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • In addition to that, growing evidence implicates the involvement of non-Smad signalling pathways in T cell differentiation. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Upon blocking the canonical TGF-β-Smad signalling pathway, naive T cells differentiate into Th17 cells to a smaller extent. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Using a TGF-β downstream signalling phospho-protein antibody array, we show that PI3K/AKT/mTOR and p38 MAPK signalling pathways, which are independent of the canonical TGF-β-Smad cascade, are activated at specific phosphorylation sites during Th17 differentiation. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Besides the canonical signalling cascade of TGF-β, naïve T cells use non-Smad pathways to differentiate into the Th17 subset. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • The study also shows an entirely new function of Smad7 in the way that it can recruit Smad2 and Smad3 to the place of transcription for these genes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Smad7 then blocks two signaling proteins called Smad2 and Smad3 , which are activated by myostatin and other muscle-wasting hormones. (fightaging.org)
  • In particular, HMF induced Smad3 protein expression and suppressed Smad7 protein expression in UV-induced HDFn cells in a dose-dependent manner. (mdpi.com)
  • To further examine the direct action of GnRH (Leuprolide acetate) in the endometrium, we determined the effect of GnRH on endometrial stromal (ESC) and endometrial surface epithelial (HES) cells expression and activation of Smads (Smad3, -4 and -7), intracellular signals activated by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), a key cytokine expressed in the endometrium. (ufl.edu)
  • 5 to 30 min) dependent manner decreased the rate of Smad3 activation (phospho-Smad3, pSmad3), and altered Smad3 cellular distribution in both cell types. (ufl.edu)
  • Furthermore, co-treatment of the cells with GnRH + TGF-beta, or pretreatment with TGF-beta type II receptor antisense to block TGF-beta autocrine/paracrine action, in part inhibited TGF-beta activated Smad3. (ufl.edu)
  • These data suggest that SMAD3 has an important role in TGF‐β‐mediated regulation of T cell activation and mucosal immunity, and that the loss of these functions is responsible for chronic infection and the lethality of Smad3 ‐null mice. (embopress.org)
  • Different concentrations of CPhGs/echinacoside/acteoside increased the mRNA level and protein expression of smad7, and decreased the mRNA levels of smad2, smad3 and the protein expression of smad2, phospho-smad2 (p-smad2), smad3, phospho-smad3 (p-smad3) in HSC. (mdpi.com)
  • In vivo , induction of HSP72 by geranylgeranylacetone suppressed Smad3 phosphorylation in renal tubular cells after unilateral ureteral obstruction. (asnjournals.org)
  • In conclusion, HSP72 inhibits EMT in renal epithelial cells primarily by exerting domain-specific effects on Smad3 activation and nuclear translocation. (asnjournals.org)
  • In addition, TGF-β stimulates extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases as well as c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase, which in concert with Smad3 result in transcription of specific genes ( 10 - 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Interestingly, under our experimental conditions, halofuginone treatment led to reduced protein expression of Smad3, which was both dose- and time-dependent. (molvis.org)
  • We propose that targeted blockade of the STAT3/SMAD3 axis in tumor cells may represent a novel therapeutic approach to prevent the plasticity required for metastatic progression and tumor recurrence. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Here, we found that myostatin increased the phosphorylation of Smad3 in soleus and EDL muscles and promoted an increase in proteolysis in soleus and a decrease in protein turnover in EDL and C2C12 cell culture. (scielo.br)
  • Effect of dihydrotestosterone on the transcriptions and expressions of Smad3 and Smad4 in LNCaP cell line]. (wikipathways.org)
  • The work is to investigate expressions and roles of Smad3, Smad4 and Smad7 in pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis of rats. (cnki.com.cn)
  • Expressions of Smad3, Smad4 and Smad7 were observed by immunohistochemistry. (cnki.com.cn)
  • In normal pulmonary tissue, expressions of Smad3, Smad4 and Smad7 could be seen in the plasma of endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells of blood vessel. (cnki.com.cn)
  • The cells, in which Smad3, Smad4 and Smad7 are positive, are main target or effect cells related to the initiation and development of radiation pneumonia and fibrosis. (cnki.com.cn)
  • The mRNA expression of TGF-β1, Smad2, Smad3 and Smad7 were detected using real-time PCR and the protein expression of TGF-β1, Smad2, Smad3 and Smad7 were detected by Western blot. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Furthermore, mutations in Smad7 that interfere with receptor binding disrupt its inhibitory activity. (nih.gov)
  • We have further demonstrated ( 12 , 13 ) that BMP2 and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) act synergistically to induce neuroepithelial cells to become astrocytes by forming a complex of the respective downstream transcription factors, Smads and STAT3, bridged by p300. (pnas.org)
  • Potentiates BMP (bone morphogenetic protein) signaling by antagonizing the inhibitory action of SMAD6 and SMAD7. (uniprot.org)
  • Itoh F, Asao H, Sugamura K, Heldin CH, ten Dijke P, Itoh S. Promoting bone morphogenetic protein signaling through negative regulation of inhibitory Smads. (proteopedia.org)
  • Enhances TGF-beta signaling by recruiting the RNF111 E3 ubiquitin ligase and promoting the degradation of inhibitory SMAD7. (proteopedia.org)
  • Inhibitory Smads such as Smad6 and Smad7 has been reported to inhibit biological activities of TGFfbeta. (nii.ac.jp)
  • They provide a more accurate picture of an enzyme's influence in a cell in comparison to traditional transcriptomic or proteomic screens which do not account for differences in activity, caused by post translational modifications or other inhibitory effects. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although expression of the miR-106b-25 cluster is known to overcome TGF-β-mediated growth suppression via targeting p21 and BIM, we demonstrate for the first time that this same cluster can additionally target the inhibitory Smad7 protein, resulting in increased levels of the TGF-β type I receptor and downstream activation of TGF-β signaling. (ovid.com)
  • Is essential in skeletal muscle cell differentiation and in response to low nutrients mediates the inhibitory effect on skeletal myoblast differentiation which also involves 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT). (abcam.com)
  • For example, a large body of evidence has established that tumor cells, particularly malignant melanoma, elevate their PD-L1 expression in order to transmit inhibitory signals in several immune effector cells via binding to their PD-1 receptor. (hindawi.com)
  • While the direct effect of depleting SMAD7, an inhibitory molecule in the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1) pathway, may be therapeutic in UC, its indirect effect on CAC development is largely unknown. (ecco-ibd.eu)
  • This inhibitory effect requires the TGF-β type I receptor ALK5 and is independent of new protein synthesis. (asm.org)
  • Yan D, Wang X, Luo L, Cao X, Ge B. Inhibition of TLR signaling by a bacterial protein containing immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs. (labome.org)
  • These tissue-specific bHLH factors form heterodimers with ubiquitously expressed bHLH proteins such as E2A gene products, E12 and E47 ( 17 - 19 ), and thus activate the transcription of genes that have a CANNTG sequence (E box) in the promoter region ( 17 - 19 ). (pnas.org)
  • A similar screen done in the Caenorhabditis elegans protein SMA (from gene sma for small body size) revealed three genes, Sma-2, Sma-3, and Sma-4, that had similar mutant phenotypes to those of the TGF-B like receptor Daf-4. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription factor GATA-6, also known as GATA-binding factor 6 (GATA6), is protein that in humans is encoded by the GATA6 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Illustration of how the protein Smad7 enhances the development of tumors by regulating the gene expression of HDAC6 and c-Jun. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, Maréne Landström and her research group and colleagues can now show, contrary to previous belief, that, in cancer cells, Smad7 can reinforce the development of tumors by regulating the gene expression of HDAC6 and c-Jun. (eurekalert.org)
  • Robert Church: Well, assuming gene therapy follows much the same pattern as stem cell therapy, about 15 years after the first treatments become available via medical tourism. (fightaging.org)
  • Numerous types of extracellular signals exert their effect on cell function by regulating gene transcription. (biologists.org)
  • 4) Smad7 was an activin-inducible gene product and negatively regulated activin-induced growth arrest and apoptosis by inhibiting Smad2 phosphorylation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) was predicted as a target gene for miR‑20b and knockdown of TXNIP increased cell viability, inhibited cell senescence, reduced the expression of p16, p21, TXNIP, NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) and cleaved Caspase‑1 and reversed the promoting effects of the miR‑20b inhibitor and H2O2 on cell senescence. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The thrombomodulin (TM) gene was ablated in mice in a cell type-restricted manner from vascular endothelium by Cre-recombinase-mediated excision controlled by the endothelial cell lineage-specific Tie2 promoter. (jci.org)
  • This gene encodes a cytoplasmic protein which contains a regulation of G-protein signaling (RGS) domain and a dishevelled and axin (DIX) domain. (genecards.org)
  • AXIN1 (Axin 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and protein kinase binding . (genecards.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the sirtuin family of proteins, homologs to the yeast Sir2 protein. (genecards.org)
  • however, yeast sirtuin proteins are known to regulate epigenetic gene silencing and suppress recombination of rDNA. (genecards.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is included in class I of the sirtuin family. (genecards.org)
  • SIRT1 (Sirtuin 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Here we report on a novel mouse strain, denoted S7DeltaE1, with a deletion of exon I from the endogenous smad7 gene. (diva-portal.org)
  • thereby impairs DNMT1 methyltransferase-independent transcription repressor activity, modulates DNMT1 cell cycle regulatory function and DNMT1 -mediated gene silencing (PubMed:21947282). (rcsb.org)
  • Gene disruption of the tumor suppressor PTEN, a negative regulator of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway, in fruit flies and mice demonstrated its role in size control in a cell-specific manner. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene contains a RING-H2 finger motif, which is known to be important for protein-protein interactions. (nih.gov)
  • The expression of this gene has been shown to be induced by mutant RET proteins (MEN2A/MEN2B). (nih.gov)
  • The p21 gene product is an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases and arrests the cell cycle in G 1 . (pnas.org)
  • the RPS2P8 (ribosomal protein S2 pseudogene 8) sequence maps to the minus strand of the RNF11 gene in opposite transcriptional orientation. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The RNF11 gene encodes for a 154 amino acid 17444 kDa protein (Uniprot Q9Y3C5) that is ubiquitously expressed in human tissues. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • However, it remains to be determined whether Smad2 functions as a tumor suppressor gene in the tumor cells carrying Smad2 mutations. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We observed that SMAD7, a negative regulator of TGF-β receptor I (TBRI) kinase, is markedly decreased in a large meta-analysis of gene expression studies from MDS marrow-derived CD34(+) cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Reduced expression of SMAD7 in hematopoietic cells led to increased TGF-β-mediated gene transcription and enhanced sensitivity to TGF-β-mediated suppressive effects. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 5 , 24 , 25 In paired breast cancer core biopsies before and after chemotherapy, a higher percentage of CD24−/CD44+ CSC capable of forming tumorspheres exist following treatment, with the residual surviving cells harboring elevated CSC gene expression signatures. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Investigations into cancer biology have provided insights into the role of histone modifications in gene regulation, and that of specific molecules/ molecular networks in regulating the cell cycle, DNA damage and repair, and cell transformation. (tmc.gov.in)
  • Findings indicate the regulatory mechanism of microrchidia family CW-type zinc finger 2 (MORC2) in downregulating N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 protein (NDRG1), and suggest MORC2 as a potential therapeutic target for colorectal cancer (CRC). (antibodies-online.com)
  • Findings indicate a positive feedback loop between cancer associated fibroblast (CAFs) and box Q1 (FOXQ1)/N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) axis in neoplastic cells to drive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) initiation, suggesting new potential therapeutic targets for HCC. (antibodies-online.com)
  • These responses were associated with upregulation of Atrogin-1 in both muscles and C2C12 cells, and LC3 gene only in soleus. (scielo.br)
  • We set out to clarify the role of YAP1 in breast cancer by examining gene and protein expression in subgroups of patient material and by downregulating YAP1 in vitro and studying its role in response to the widely used anti-estrogen tamoxifen. (biomedcentral.com)
  • YAP1 protein intensity was scored as absent, weak, intermediate or strong in two primary breast cancer cohorts (n = 144 and n = 564) and mRNA expression of YAP1 was evaluated in a gene expression dataset (n = 1107). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although not in a gene, rs736839 is adjacent to SMAD7 , which is part of the Transforming Growth Factor-b/Bone Morphogenetic Protein (TGF-beta/BMP) pathway. (snpedia.com)
  • Recruitment of nuclear factor Y to the inverted CCAAT element (ICE) by c-Jun and E1A stimulates basal transcription of the bone sialoprotein gene in osteosarcoma cells. (wikipathways.org)
  • Individual or joint knockdown equally inhibits lipid accumulation by preventing lipogenic gene engagement, without affecting PPARγ protein levels. (rupress.org)
  • Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that SMAD7 expression correlates with activated yes-associated protein (YAP)/NOTCH pathway and cholangiocellular signature genes in HCCs. (bvsalud.org)
  • Consistent with human HCC data, c-Myc/MCL1/Smad7 liver tumors exhibited an increased cholangiocellular gene expression along with Yap/Notch activation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). (bvsalud.org)
  • Hence stem cells interpret and carry out differential Nodal/Activin signaling instructions via a corresponding gradient of Smad2 phosphorylation that selectively titrates self-renewal against alternative differentiation programs by direct regulation of distinct target gene subsets and Oct4 expression. (prolekare.cz)
  • gene symbol YAP1 ) is a key transcriptional co-factor that has been implicated in recent years in the regulation of stem cell fate [ 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Plays a role in signal transduction for cell growth and MYC induction mediated by IL-2 and GM-CSF. (uniprot.org)
  • Heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) exerts cytoprotective effects by assisting in protein folding, assembly/disassembly and translocation of client proteins across membranes, protein degradation, and signal transduction. (asnjournals.org)
  • Signal transduction by transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) coordinates physiological responses in diverse cell types. (rupress.org)
  • Required for MMP9 up-regulation via the JNK signaling pathway in colorectal tumor cells. (proteopedia.org)
  • We thereby created an allelic series of embryonic stem cells and mice, each containing a signal-responsive sentinel with different fluorescent reporters that respond with sensitivity and specificity to retinoic acids, bone morphogenic proteins, activin A, Wnts or Notch, and that can be adapted to any pathway that acts via DNA elements. (biologists.org)
  • Having identified a signaling pathway in cells, the researchers next wanted to determine if this pathway was important in cancer patients. (musc.edu)
  • In conclusion, the results indicate that GnRH acts directly on the endometrial cells altering the expression and activation of Smads, a mechanism that could lead to interruption of TGF-beta receptor signaling mediated through this pathway in the endometrium. (ufl.edu)
  • This protein functions as a negative regulator of the wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 1 (WNT) signaling pathway and can induce apoptosis. (genecards.org)
  • Among its related pathways are phosphorylation site mutants of CTNNB1 are not targeted to the proteasome by the destruction complex and Reelin Pathway (Cajal-Retzius cells) . (genecards.org)
  • Therefore, we hypothesise that removing inhibition of this pathway by depleting SMAD7 may also be detrimental for CAC. (ecco-ibd.eu)
  • The unfolded proteins response Rabbit polyclonal to POLB continues to be identified as a crucial pathway in the maintenance of mobile homeostasis[12]. (antibodyassay.com)
  • miR-367 promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and invasion of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells by targeting the Smad7-TGF-β signalling pathway. (nih.gov)
  • The present study identified and characterised a signalling pathway, the miR-367/Smad7-TGF-β pathway, which is involved in the invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells. (nih.gov)
  • In summary, CAPE attenuates Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC)cell proliferation and invasion by upregulating NDRG1 expression via MAPK pathway and by inhibiting phosphorylation of STAT3. (antibodies-online.com)
  • In a separate case-control SNP association study, IGF1R and genes in the TGF-beta / BMP pathway has been linked to sickle cell anemia [ 16886151?dopt=Abstract PMID 16886151 ]. (snpedia.com)
  • The Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling pathway is involved in many cellular processes in both the adult organism and the developing embryo including cell growth, cell differentiation, apoptosis, cellular homeostasis and other cellular functions. (snpedia.com)
  • This pathway incorporates the most important proteins for Breast Cancer. (wikipathways.org)
  • These proteins were then used to determine the most important pathways involved in Breast Cancer by using the Human Pathway Database (HPD). (wikipathways.org)
  • The pathways retrieved from the Human Pathway Database were from several sources such as Protein Lounge, BioCarta, KEGG, and NCI-Nature. (wikipathways.org)
  • The protein-protein interactions are mapped onto this pathway. (wikipathways.org)
  • Thus, our data reveal a molecular mechanism by which TGF-β activates the PI3K-AKT pathway to drive cell migration. (sciencemag.org)
  • Adverse outcome pathway development from protein alkylation to liver fibrosis. (wikipathways.org)
  • MicroRNA-146A contributes to abnormal activation of the type I interferon pathway in human lupus by targeting the key signaling proteins. (labome.org)
  • Underexpression of miR-146a contributes to alterations in the type I IFN pathway in lupus patients by targeting the key signaling proteins. (labome.org)
  • Our study indicates a potential molecular basis for cell growth-promoting function of PARD3 by modulating the Hippo pathway signaling in response to cell contact and cell polarity signals. (labome.org)
  • Three independent lines (BRE-lac1, BRE-lac2 and BRE-luc) have shown the existence of an autocrine bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathway in mouse embryonic stem cells. (biologists.org)
  • In contradiction to this drive towards cellular differentiation, the pathway also plays important roles in the maintenance of self-renewal and pluripotency in embryonic and epiblast stem cells. (prolekare.cz)
  • To address how quantitative Nodal/Activin signals are translated qualitatively into distinct cell fates decisions, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation of phospho-Smad2, the primary downstream transcriptional factor of the Nodal/Activin pathway, followed by massively parallel sequencing, and show that phospho-Smad2 binds to and regulates distinct subsets of target genes in a dose-dependent manner. (prolekare.cz)
  • These targets, Klf7 , Rab15 , Rassf4 , Selm , and Smad7 , have diverse functions that range from transcription factors to regulators of endocytosis and signaling pathways. (jneurosci.org)
  • The protein dampened two pathways known to contribute to oral mucositis, and promoted the migration of oral epithelial cells to close the wound. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • To generate antigen receptors, lymphocytes also undergo V(D)J recombination by specific DNA double-strand cleavage, which may be coupled to cell cycle checkpoint pathways to minimize genomic instability (reviewed in refs. (pnas.org)
  • Here we investigate the interplay between pathways downstream of two transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily members, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and TGF-β. (asm.org)
  • The PY motif and the RING-H2 domain mediate protein-protein interactions involved in ubiquitin-mediated pathways. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The fibrotic process involves multiple signaling pathways, which activate myofibroblast transformation, fibrotic marker expression, and extracellular matrix (ECM) protein deposits. (molvis.org)
  • 1 , 2 Yet, despite their importance, the molecular pathways involved in generating invasive, metastatic and therapy-resistant tumor cells remain poorly understood. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • There are 2 distinct arms downstream of the TGF-β superfamily ligands-the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and activin/TGF-β signaling pathways-and these 2 responses can oppose one another's effects, most notably in disease states. (jaoa.org)
  • Protein-protein relations for the most important proteins for Breast Cancer were determined by annotating the pathways and by literature review. (wikipathways.org)
  • Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity prevents signaling pathways for cell cycle arrest after DNA methylating agent exposure. (wikipathways.org)
  • This study examines if probiotics can improve H. pylori -induced gastric inflammation by inactivating the Smad7 and NFκB pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Higher doses of L. acidophilus pre-treatment reduce H. pylori -induced inflammation through the inactivation of the Smad7 and NFκB pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • TGF-β signaling stimulates various intracellular pathways that can promote migration in tumor cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • We illustrate its use in exploring protein aggregation in neurodegenerative disease and in the expansion of pathways associated to colon cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Regulation of intracellular signalling pathways during T cell differentiation has been given a great attention recently. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Inhibition of these pathways leads to decreased IL-17 production by Th17 cells. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Smads (or SMADs) comprise a family of structurally similar proteins that are the main signal transducers for receptors of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-B) superfamily, which are critically important for regulating cell development and growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, Smad6 and Smad7 are I-Smads that work to suppress the activity of R-Smads. (wikipedia.org)
  • X.-H. Feng and R. Derynck, "Specificity and versatility in TGF- β signaling through smads," Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology , vol. 21, pp. 659-693, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • Smads are a family of intracellular proteins that transmit transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta ) superfamily signals from the cell surface to the nucleus. (novusbio.com)
  • Reporter activity in embryos from transgenic mouse lines was detected in tissues where an essential role for active bone morphogenetic protein signaling via Smads 1 or 5 had been previously established. (biologists.org)
  • TGFbeta signaling is initiated when the type I receptor phosphorylates the MAD-related protein, Smad2, on C-terminal serine residues. (nih.gov)
  • Smad7 interacts stably with the activated TGFbeta type I receptor, thereby blocking the association, phosphorylation, and activation of Smad2. (nih.gov)
  • Clarke RB, Howell A, Potten CS, Anderson E. Dissociation between steroid receptor expression and cell proliferation in the human breast. (springer.com)
  • Has a key role in regulation of cell surface receptor-mediated endocytosis and ubiquitin-dependent sorting of receptors to lysosomes. (uniprot.org)
  • Publications] Ohguchi,M.: 'Activin A regulates the production of mature interleukin-1β and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist in human monocytic cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • When the cytokine transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is sensed by the TGF-beta receptor, the receptor concentrates within the primary cilia of cells. (musc.edu)
  • Ceramide produced by CerS4 binds to Smad7, a cellular protein that can bind the TGF-beta receptor. (musc.edu)
  • The binding of ceramide to Smad7 prevents the TGF-beta receptor from concentrating in the cilia. (musc.edu)
  • This increased metastasis could be mitigated when the cell made more Smad7, which inhibited the TGF-beta receptor. (musc.edu)
  • These studies also demonstrate that although there are at least six different enzymes that generate ceramide CerS1-6, only one of these six enzymes, CerS4, generates ceramide that selectively inhibits cancer cell migration enhanced by TGF-beta receptor in primary cilia. (musc.edu)
  • report that Smad7 may accomplish this by acting as an adaptor protein that recruits a ubiquitin ligase called Smurf2 to the receptor. (sciencemag.org)
  • The disintegrin and metalloproteinase ADAM12 contributes to TGF- β signaling through interaction with the type II receptor," Journal of Cell Biology , vol. 178, no. 2, pp. 201-208, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • S. Hayes, A. Chawla, and S. Corvera, "TGF β receptor internalization into EEA1-enriched early endosomes: role in signaling to Smad2," Journal of Cell Biology , vol. 158, no. 7, pp. 1239-1249, 2002. (hindawi.com)
  • However, in the context of cancer therapy, blocking the immune-checkpoints CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4) and/or PD-1/PD-L1 (programmed death 1 receptor and PD-1 receptor ligand 1) significantly facilitates immune cell activation, thereby generating durable clinical responses in cancer patients [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, the ligation of B7-1 and B7-2, which are specifically expressed on antigen-presenting cells (APCs), to their receptor CTLA-4 prevents T cell activation. (hindawi.com)
  • In contrast, Smad7 inhibits the TGF-β receptor type I-dependent Smad2/3 activation. (asnjournals.org)
  • We have isolated an anti-proliferative cell cycle regulator named G2A (for G 2 accumulation), which is predominantly expressed in immature T and B lymphocyte progenitors and is a member of the seven membrane-spanning G protein-coupled receptor family. (pnas.org)
  • We have isolated a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) predominantly expressed in lymphocytes, which we named G2A for G 2 accumulation, while searching for genes which were induced by the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase oncogene ( 28 ). (pnas.org)
  • Various other, extracellular receptors like toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the cell surface area or intracellular NOD-like receptors in 169758-66-1 the cytoplasm - NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization area containing 2)/Credit card15 (caspase-activating recruitment area 15 receptor). (antibodyassay.com)
  • Primary epithelial cells deficient in their prominent laminin receptor, α3β1, were found to have a markedly blunted EMT response to TGF-β1. (rupress.org)
  • Reduced SMAD7 leads to overactivation of TGF-beta signaling in MDS that can be reversed by a specific inhibitor of TGF-beta receptor I kinase. (ox.ac.uk)
  • SIK and Smad7 form a complex and cooperate to down-regulate the activated type I receptor ALK5. (rupress.org)
  • Two autophagic-related genes, the microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) and the gamma-amino butyric acid receptor-associated protein (GABARAP), are indispensable for autophagic process since they anchor the lysosomal membrane to the autophagosome ( 9 , 10 ). (scielo.br)
  • TGF-β signaling commences when active TGF-β ligand binds to the TβRII receptor on the cell surface. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In humans, the TGF-β superfamily consists of more than 30 secreted ligands that signal through heteromeric combinations of receptor serine/threonine kinases embedded in the cell membrane. (jaoa.org)
  • Ligation of the T cell receptor complex results in activation of the Ras/Raf-1/MEK/MAPK cascade in human T lymphocytes. (wikipathways.org)
  • The binding of TGF-β to its receptor triggered the recruitment of PI3K and the ubiquitin ligase TRAF6, which polyubiquitylated the regulatory PI3K subunit p85α, thus enabling phosphorylation of the catalytic PI3K subunit p110, but only in the presence of SMAD7. (sciencemag.org)
  • Rationale: In pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), endothelial dysfunction and obliterative vascular disease are associated with DNA damage and impaired signaling of bone morphogenetic protein type 2 receptor (BMPR2) via two downstream transcription factors, PPAR? (stanford.edu)
  • Chen K, Huang J, Liu Y, Gong W, Cui Y, Wang J. Synergy of TRIF-dependent TLR3 and MyD88-dependent TLR7 in up-regulating expression of mouse FPR2, a promiscuous G-protein-coupled receptor, in microglial cells. (labome.org)
  • CIA was induced in transgenic mice expressing a dominant negative TGFβ type II receptor in T cells under the control of the human CD2 promoter. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These studies thus define a novel function for MAD-related proteins as intracellular antagonists of the type I kinase domain of TGFbeta family receptors. (nih.gov)
  • MVBs contain intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) that are generated by invagination and scission from the limiting membrane of the endosome and mostly are delivered to lysosomes enabling degradation of membrane proteins, such as stimulated growth factor receptors, lysosomal enzymes and lipids. (proteopedia.org)
  • Publications] Hashimoto,O.: 'The role of activin typeI receptors in activin A-induced growth arrest and apoptosis in HS-72 B cell hybridoma cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Smad7 facilitated the export of Smurf2 from the nucleus to the cytosol, and treatment of cells with TGF-β stimulated localization of Smad7-Smurf2 complexes to TGF-β receptors at the cell membrane. (sciencemag.org)
  • It is interesting that Smad7 is ubiquitinated, supporting the notion that some cell-surface receptors may be down-regulated when an associated protein becomes ubiquitinated, hence targeting the entire protein complex for proteasome-mediated degradation. (sciencemag.org)
  • After TGF-β1 stimulation, wt epithelial cells but not cells expressing the H245A mutant internalize complexes of E-cadherin and TGF-β1 receptors, generate phospho-Smad2 (p-Smad2)-pY654-β-catenin complexes, and up-regulate mesenchymal target genes. (rupress.org)
  • The direct activation/inhibition of nuclear receptors in the liver cells by cannabinoids may result in a change of CYP expression and activity. (chemweb.com)
  • Nearly every cell type has the ability to secrete TGF-β, as well as the ability to respond to TGF-β via the presence of TGF-β receptors on the cell surface. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this study, the cDNA from bone marrow cells transformed by the wild-type (wt) p185 BCR-ABL ( 31 ) was used as tester and by the Src homology 2 (SH2) mutant as a driver to isolate genes that were up-regulated by the wt BCR-ABL. (pnas.org)
  • Notably, we found that HSC-4 cells were the most responsive to BMP-2 stimulation, which resulted in the upregulation of Smad1/5/9 target genes such as the MET inducers ID1 and cytokeratin 9 (CK9). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • We show that in multiple cell lines, TGF-β potently inhibits BMP-induced transcription at the level of both BMP-responsive reporter genes and endogenous BMP target genes. (asm.org)
  • CIZ deficiency enhanced the levels of mRNA expression of genes encoding proteins related to osteoblastic phenotypes, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as osterix mRNA expression in whole long bones. (rupress.org)
  • Identification of genes/ proteins that are differentially expressed in radiosensitive vs radioresistant cancer cells could help predict the clinical effectiveness of radiotherapy. (tmc.gov.in)
  • Biological function is greatly dependent on the interactions of proteins with other proteins and genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Abstracts from the biomedical literature stored in the NCBI's PubMed database can be used for the derivation of interactions between genes and proteins by identifying the co-occurrences of their terms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Together with Smad4, these proteins translocate to the nucleus and modulate transcription by binding to specific sequences on the promoters of target genes. (biologists.org)
  • High YAP activity in these cells decreased Smad1,5,8 phosphorylation and expression of the BMP target genes Inhibitor of DNA binding/differentiation (Id)1, Id2 and Id3 in response to BMP-2. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Additionally, HMF inhibited ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) cascade signaling components-ERK, JNK, and c-Jun-which are involved in the induction of MMP-1 expression. (mdpi.com)
  • We show that when telencephalic neural progenitors are briefly exposed to bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) in culture, their developmental fate is changed from neuronal cells to astrocytic cells. (pnas.org)
  • Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) is a pleiotropic cytokine ( 3 ) that is active in many tissues including the CNS (for review, see ref. 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Publications] Ishisaki,A.: 'Differential inhibition of Smad6 and Smad7 on bone morphogenetic protein- and activin-mediated growth arrest and apoptosis of B cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • There are several other examples of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and TGFβ signals limiting or competing with each other. (biologists.org)
  • however, it remains to be clarified whether the TGF-β superfamily member bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) affects this process in hOSCC cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • CIZ deficiency enhanced bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-induced osteoblastic differentiation in bone marrow cells in cultures, indicating that BMP is the target of CIZ action. (rupress.org)
  • Reporter activity was detected in chimeric embryos, suggesting sensitivity to physiological concentrations of bone morphogenetic protein. (biologists.org)
  • To determine the effect of high YAP activity on chondrogenesis, C3H10T1/2 MSC-like cells were transduced with human (h)YAP and treated in micromass with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, GATA-6 has been linked to the production of LIF, a cytokine that encourages proliferation of endodermal embryonic stem cells and blocks early epiblast differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stimulation of c-myc oncogene expression associated with estrogen-induced proliferation of human breast cancer cells. (springer.com)
  • Vascular endothelial cells play an important role in maintaining normal vascular function and tissue structure and in the regulation of cells proliferation ( 5 , 6 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Among miRNAs, miR-222-221 can inhibit the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells and induce apoptosis ( 10 , 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Tissues and organs must coordinate cell proliferation and patterning to generate functional units. (biologists.org)
  • In particular, extensive study of the wing imaginal disc of Drosophila melanogaster has revealed a system in which successive waves of patterning occur in the context of spatially uniform cell proliferation. (biologists.org)
  • Tat-Smad7 treatment alleviated oral mucositis with reductions in DNA damage and apoptosis in keratinocytes, but increased keratinocyte proliferation compared to vehicle-treated mucositis lesions. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In contrast, adjacent oral cancer exposed to Tat-Smad7 did not show alterations in proliferation or direct DNA damage, but showed increased oxidative stress damage and apoptosis compared to tumors treated with vehicle. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Surprisingly, we found that reduction in SNIP1 levels resulted in significantly reduced cell proliferation and accumulation of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. (nature.com)
  • AngII also stimulates cell proliferation and tissue remodeling by enhancing the synthesis of profibrotic cytokines and growth factors, among these, TGF-β1 ( 3 , 4 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Calcitriol ( 17 ) and one of its analogs, 22-oxa-calcitriol ( 16 ), have been shown to reduce both mesangial cell proliferation and the degree of glomerulosclerosis in the rat model of anti-Thy-1.1 glomerulonephritis. (asnjournals.org)
  • G2A appears to function at the G 2 /M checkpoint to delay mitosis and may serve as a mechanism for T and B cells and other cell types to slow their proliferation and repair damaged DNA to ensure proper replication. (pnas.org)
  • Functional analysis revealed that TGF-β1 and BMP-2 significantly enhanced HSC-4 cell migration and proliferation, respectively. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • We found that miR-367 overexpression had no significant effects on pancreatic cancer cell proliferation in vitro (Supplementary Figure 4A, B). However, miR-367 promoted the migration and invasion of PANC-1 and BxPC3 cells (Figure 4A, B). Furthermore, loss-of-function studies showed that silencing miR-367 with an inhibitor suppressed the migration and invasion of cancer cells (Figure 4C). (nih.gov)
  • In epithelial cells, TGF-β functions as a tumor suppressor, where it inhibits proliferation, induces apoptosis, and mediates differentiation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Compositions having a combination of specific biological components have been found to exert a number of useful effects in mammalian cells, including modulating TGF β signaling, apoptosis, and proliferation of mammalian cells, as well as decreasing inflammation in mice. (google.com)
  • Together, our results suggest for the first time that oral administration of BME inhibits prostate cancer progression in TRAMP mice by interfering cell-cycle progression and proliferation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The proliferation and cytokine production of draining lymph node cells in vitro were analyzed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Smad7 shows no effect on the suppressive capacity of regulatory T cells but exerts effects on the proliferation of responder T cells when challenged with regulatory T cell suppression. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Here we demonstrate that Smad7 is an inhibitor of TGFbeta signaling. (nih.gov)
  • Ectopic expression of either Id1 or Id3 (where Id is inhibitor of differentiation) inhibited neurogenesis of neuroepithelial cells, suggesting an important role for these HLH proteins in the BMP2-mediated changes in the neurogenic fate of these cells. (pnas.org)
  • While Smad7 is a general TGF-B signal inhibitor, Smad6 associates more specifically with BMP signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • The good news is that by using treatment with an HDAC6 inhibitor, we can make prostate cancer cells lose their mobility. (eurekalert.org)
  • Previously, it has been thought that Smad7 held the role of inhibitor for TGF beta-Smad2/3 transcriptional activity. (eurekalert.org)
  • Smad7 is the body's natural break and, by inhibiting the inhibitor, you build muscle. (fightaging.org)
  • Publications] Ishisaki,A.: 'Smad7 is an activin-inducible inhibitor of activin-induced growth arrest and apoptosis in mouse B cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • C) Migration and invasion assays were performed using negative control (anti-miR-C) or anti-miR-367 inhibitor-transfected PANC-1 cells. (nih.gov)
  • The increased TGF-β signaling due to SMAD7 reduction could be effectively inhibited by a novel clinically relevant TBRI (ALK5 kinase) inhibitor, LY-2157299. (ox.ac.uk)
  • SRC-2 and SRC-3 knockdown increases the proportion of cells in a PPARγ hi /lipid lo state while increasing phospho-PPARγ-S114, an inhibitor of PPARγ transcriptional activity and adipogenesis. (rupress.org)
  • Smad7 is the intracellular inhibitor of the canonical TGF-β signalling cascade, but its role in T cell differentiation was unknown. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Smad7, the negative regulator of TGFβ signaling, inhibits both NF-κB and TGFβ activation and thus plays a pivotal role in the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis by attenuating growth inhibition, apoptosis , and inflammation while promoting epithelial migration. (bvsalud.org)
  • While ERα signaling supports growth and differentiation and is antiapoptotic, mammary gland epithelia cells are very sensitive to TGF-β-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. (springer.com)
  • Also component of the AXIN1-HIPK2-TP53 complex which controls cell growth, apoptosis and development. (proteopedia.org)
  • In this research project, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which activin-A induced growth arrest and apoptosis using HS-72 mouse hybridoma cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Koseki,T.: 'Accumulation of Bcl-Xs in mouse B cell hybridoma cells during activin A-mediated apoptosis. (nii.ac.jp)
  • GnRH treatment is reported to alter the rate of cell growth and apoptosis, and the expression of cell cycle proteins, growth factors, cytokines, proteases, and protease inhibitors in various cell types derived from peripheral tissues, including the uterus [9-21]. (ufl.edu)
  • NAD-dependent protein deacetylase that links transcriptional regulation directly to intracellular energetics and participates in the coordination of several separated cellular functions such as cell cycle, response to DNA damage, metobolism, apoptosis and autophagy. (abcam.com)
  • Recently, we reported that HSP72 ameliorates renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis in chronic obstructive nephropathy by inhibiting tubular epithelial cell apoptosis and EMT. (asnjournals.org)
  • 0.002) apoptosis accompanied by upregulation of pro-apoptotic Bax protein. (tmc.gov.in)
  • NDRG1 over-expression promoted apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells whereas depletion of NDRG1 resulted in resistance to oxaliplatin treatment. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Nocodazole-induced p53-dependent c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation reduces apoptosis in human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells. (wikipathways.org)
  • Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family members are important regulators of normal epithelial cell differentiation, cytostasis, and apoptosis but can also promote tumorigenesis ( 1 , 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Here, we show that C4b-binding protein alpha chain (C4BPA), typically thought to reside in the extracellular space, is expressed intracellularly in cancer cells, where it interacts with the NF-kappaB family member RelA and regulates apoptosis. (stanford.edu)
  • Using cell lines harboring patient-specific C4BPA mutations, we show that increasing intracellular C4BPA levels correlate with sensitivity to oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis invitro and invivo. (stanford.edu)
  • Cancer cells acquire resistance to apoptosis by overexpression of antiapoptotic proteins and/or by the downregulation or mutation of proapoptotic proteins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Therefore, an ideal approach to inhibit the progression of cancer is to induce cell-cycle arrest or apoptosis using dietary chemopreventive compounds. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Mechanistic studies further indicate that treatment of prostate cancer cells with BME accumulates cells at the S phase of the cell cycle and induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Smad7 prevents TGFbeta-dependent formation of Smad2/Smad4 complexes and inhibits the nuclear accumulation of Smad2. (nih.gov)
  • Neutralizing TGF-β antibody in mesangial cells inhibits the hypertrophic effect of high glucose ( 20 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Title: The RING domain of RING Finger 11 (RNF11) protein binds Ubc13 and inhibits formation of polyubiquitin chains. (nih.gov)
  • TGF-β inhibits the growth of many types of cells, including epithelial cells, and loss of TGF-β sensitivity has been implicated in tumorigenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • For example, finding PPIs related to protein aggregation, as in "BRI2 inhibits Abeta aggregation", or relevant to disease as in "Neuroserpin binds Abeta and is a neuroprotective component of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In telencephalic neuroepithelial cells, BMP2 up-regulated the expression of negative helix-loop-helix (HLH) factors Id1, Id3, and Hes-5 (where Hes is homologue of hairy and Enhancer of Split) that inhibited the transcriptional activity of neurogenic HLH transcription factors Mash1 and neurogenin. (pnas.org)
  • We hypothesise that the lack of correlation between mRNA and protein levels could be attributed to yet unknown post-transcriptional or post-translational regulations. (ecco-ibd.eu)
  • Up-regulation of COPII components requires the transcriptional regulator RNF11, which localizes to early endosomes and appears additionally in the cell nucleus upon continuous EGF stimulation. (nih.gov)
  • However, the potential mechanism underlying aberrant Smad7 expression in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains largely unknown.High level of miR-367 expression correlated with poor prognosis of PDAC patients.In addition, we showed that miR-367 promoted epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by increasing transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-induced transcriptional activity. (nih.gov)
  • Such extracellular matrix-derived signals regulate osteoblastic cell mostly, if not exclusively, via transcriptional events ( 11 - 14 ). (rupress.org)
  • We sought to map transcriptional Smad1/5 activity in development by generating embryonic stem cell lines carrying a Smad1/5-specific response element derived from the Id1 promoter coupled to β-galactosidase or luciferase as reporters. (biologists.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the transcriptional co-factor Yes-associated protein (YAP) regulates chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In developing mouse limbs, Yap was nuclear in the perichondrium while mostly phosphorylated and cytosolic in cells of the cartilage anlage, suggesting downregulation of Yap co-transcriptional activity during physiological chondrogenesis in vivo . (biomedcentral.com)
  • An antibody panel consisting of mouse anti-human Nestin, mouse anti-human Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP), mouse anti-Neuron-specific beta-III Tubulin, and mouse anti-Oligodendrocyte Marker O4 are also included to identify the phenotypes of neural precursors, astrocytes, neurons and oligodendrocytes. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Peptide-affinity Purified Polyclonal Antibody to SMAD7 Peptide with sequence SSCPCWLEVIFNSR, from C Terminus of the protein sequence according to NP_005895. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Human Skeletal Muscle (formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded) stained with SMAD7 antibody ABIN218316 at 10 ug/ml followed by biotinylated goat anti-rabbit IgG secondary antibody ABIN481713, alkaline phosphatase-streptavidin and chromogen. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Using preclinical models, they also showed that tumor cells that lost CerS4 expression had an increased incidence of metastasis to distant organs. (musc.edu)
  • Experimental Design: We transplanted human oral cancer cells into the tongues of mice and applied craniofacial irradiation to simultaneously kill tumor cells and induce oral mucositis, thus modeling RT and mucositis in oral cancer patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, despite this unexampled success, either many patients completely fail to respond, or even more concerning, among the initial responding patients, tumor regression often occurs, suggesting that tumor cells acquire therapy-induced resistance. (hindawi.com)
  • Unfortunately, drug resistance has turned out to be a multifactorial phenomenon, which is especially based on the property of tumor cells to present high phenotypic cell plasticity and heterogeneity [ 13 , 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 2003). In tumor cell lines the strongest expression of the RNF11 transcript was reported in LnCAP prostate and HTB126 breast tumor cells (Kitching et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • 8 , 9 In addition, circulating tumor cells are often enriched for mesenchymal markers, which correlates with therapeutic response. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We observed activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in basal and suprabasal keratinocytes of human and transgenic mouse psoriatic lesions and healing mouse skin wounds, correlating in each case with suprabasal integrin expression. (jci.org)
  • The encoded protein interacts with adenomatosis polyposis coli, catenin beta-1, glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta, protein phosphate 2, and itself. (genecards.org)
  • In mesangial cells, we have recently shown that activation of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase is necessary for fibronectin expression in response to TGF-β ( 14 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Studies in Drosophila have demonstrated a role for type IA PI 3-kinase in cell size control. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein physically interacts with the tyrosine kinase c-Abl ( 20 , 21 ) and is required for its activation. (pnas.org)
  • The linker region between MH1 and MH2 is not just a connector, but also plays a role in protein function and regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The regulation of ubiquitination status in the cell is controlled by ubiquitin ligases acting in tandem with deubiquitinating enzymes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Ubiquitination controls many key processes in the cell from division to death making its tight regulation key to optimal cell function. (frontiersin.org)
  • Title: RNF11 sequestration of the E3 ligase SMURF2 on membranes antagonizes SMAD7 down-regulation of transforming growth factor β signaling. (nih.gov)
  • Since both proteins are repressed by p53, their regulation was examined in oral cancers where p53 is mutated. (tmc.gov.in)
  • Therefore, the regulation of T cells by endogenous TGFβ is important for the maintenance of joint integrity after arthritis induction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, little is known about the regulation of T cells that leads to the maintenance of immune homeostasis within the joint. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To fully harness the therapeutic value of these cells for cartilage repair, an in-depth understanding of the molecular regulation of chondrogenesis is essential. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The majority of these studies have relied on overexpression of SNIP1, however, and the cellular function of the endogenous protein remains obscure. (nature.com)
  • G2A overexpression attenuates the transformation potential of BCR-ABL and other oncogenes, and leads to accumulation of cells at G 2 /M independently of p53 and c-Abl. (pnas.org)
  • In vivo, overexpression of Smad7 alone was unable to initiate HCC development, but it significantly accelerated c-Myc/myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL1)-induced mouse HCC formation. (bvsalud.org)
  • The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and growth and differentiation factors (GDFs) form a second subfamily and signal through ALK1, -2, -3, and -6, and Smad1, -5, and -8 ( 14 ). (asm.org)
  • TGF-β is part of a large family of structurally related cytokines that include bone morphogenetic proteins, growth and differentiation factors, activins, and inhibins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Upon the disruption of GATA-6 in an embryo, the distal lung epithelial development is stunted in transgenic mice models The progenitor cells, or stem cells, for alveolar epithelial tissues develop and are specified appropriately, however further differentiation does not occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • The research team initially analysed the signal protein Smad7 in intestinal immune cells in mice, or more precisely: in T-cells. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The researchers compared genetically modified mice with a normal and those with a particularly high quantity of Smad7 in T-cells as well as mice without any Smad7 in T-cells. (technologynetworks.com)
  • In mice that didn't have any Smad7 protein, no clinical signs of a MS-like disease occurred. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Mice that had been genetically engineered to produce a protein known as Smad7 in the surface layers of the oral cavity were dramatically more resistant to the development of radiation-induced oral mucositis than were controls, researchers reported in Nature Medicine . (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Increased levels of Smad7 in T-cells is linked to multiple sclerosis-like symptoms in mice. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • By decreasing the expression of CerS4 in these mice, the Ogretmen laboratory hopes to better define the way in which CerS4 regulates cell migration and metastasis. (musc.edu)
  • In the present study, we analyzed the regulatory cytokine and cell response to probiotic (VSL#3) administration in the context of the Th1 T cell colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid treatment of SJL/J mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • This protective effect was attributable to effects on the lamina propria mononuclear cell (LPMC) population, because it could be transferred by LPMC from probiotic-treated mice to naive mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • Purpose: We previously reported preventive and therapeutic effects of Smad7, a multifunctional protein, on radiation-induced mucositis in mice without promoting human oral cancer cell survival or migration in vitro. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We topically applied a recombinant human Smad7 protein fused with the cell-penetrating Tat tag (Tat-Smad7) to the oral mucosa of tumor-bearing mice post RT when oral mucositis began to develop. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To obtain insight into Smad7-depend-ent protective effects, chronic liver damage was induced in mice by carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) administration. (diva-portal.org)
  • Subsequent treatment, elevated serum liver enzymes indicated enhanced liver damage in mice lacking functional Smad7. (diva-portal.org)
  • Studies with primary hepatocytes from S7DeltaE1 and wild-type mice indicate that in the absence of functional Smad7 protein, hepatocytes are more sensitive for TGF-beta effects resulting in enhanced cell death. (diva-portal.org)
  • Eight weeks after spleen injection of control vector-infected or miR-367 vector-infected cells, the mice were killed, and the livers were dissected. (nih.gov)
  • Bone marrow cells obtained from the femora of CIZ-deficient mice revealed higher ALP activity in culture and formed more mineralized nodules than wild-type cells. (rupress.org)
  • Prostate tissue from BME-fed mice displayed approximately 51% reduction of proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Draining lymph node cells of transgenic mice secreted more tumor necrosis factor α and IFNγ and proliferated more vigorously in response to collagen type II and upon CD3/CD28 costimulation in vitro . (biomedcentral.com)
  • In mice overexpressing a myristoylated/activated form of AKT, coexpression of SMAD7 accelerated carcinogenesis and switched the phenotype from HCC to intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) lesions. (bvsalud.org)
  • In order to investigate the role of Smad7 in T cell differentiation, we used mice with a T cell specific Smad7 deletion, which allowed us to study the function of Smad7 exclusively in T cells. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • These Smad7 conditional knockout mice show normal immune homeostasis but less activated T cells in the periphery as compared to control wild type littermates. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Xiao-Jing Wang, PhD, of the University of Colorado Cancer Center in Denver, Colorado, and colleagues found that Smad7 protects against or heals these ulcers. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Mouse model studies show that administered genetically or topically, protein Smad7 protects against or heals mouth sores commonly associated with cancer treatment. (innovations-report.com)
  • This research has studied the growth factor TGF-β, Transforming Growth Factor Beta, which regulates how cells grow and specialise. (eurekalert.org)
  • TGF-β regulates the expression of the protein Smad7 - an active component in the TGF-β signalling chain. (eurekalert.org)
  • Researchers at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) have identified one mechanism that regulates signaling events leading to cell migration and metastasis, showing that primary cilia act as a focal point to transmit growth signals. (musc.edu)
  • Collectively, these data suggest that TGF-β positively regulates hOSCC invasion in the primary tumor, whereas BMP-2 facilitates cancer cell colonization at secondary metastatic sites. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Ubiquitin promotes association of SIK to Smad7, which down-regulates ALK5. (rupress.org)
  • miR-29b regulates migration of human breast cancer cells. (wikipathways.org)
  • Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a pluripotent cytokine that regulates cell fate and plasticity in normal tissues and tumors. (sciencemag.org)
  • Hou M, Tan L, Wang X, Zhu Y. Antisense Tiam1 down-regulates the invasiveness of 95D cells in vitro. (labome.org)
  • This is conserved in the mouse liver, where Fascin1 regulates YAP-dependent phenotypes, and in human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. (bvsalud.org)
  • High glucose induces hypertrophy of mesangial cells concomitant with the production of TGF-β ( 2 , 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • furthermore, over-activation induces a solid differentiation of Compact disc8+ lymphocytes and various other effector cells such as for example organic killer (NK) and NK T-cells while abolishing the creation of regulatory cells[14]. (antibodyassay.com)
  • H. pylori infection induces Smad7, NFκB, IL-8, and TNF-α production in vitro . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tian D, Zhu M, Li J, Ma Y, Wu R. Cigarette smoke extract induces activation of beta-catenin/TCF signaling through inhibiting GSK3beta in human alveolar epithelial cell line. (labome.org)
  • PARD3 induces TAZ activation and cell growth by promoting LATS1 and PP1 interaction. (labome.org)
  • Myostatin may be involved in inhibiting protein synthesis and/or increasing protein degradation in skeletal and cardiac muscles. (scielo.br)
  • Herein, we used cell cultures and isolated muscles from rats to determine protein degradation and synthesis. (scielo.br)
  • However, there are conflicting results in the literature concerning the ability of myostatin to trigger protein degradation and/or impair protein synthesis ( 5 , 6 ). (scielo.br)
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the TGF-β superfamily, of which 20 have been discovered in humans to date ( 12 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily is a large group of signaling molecules that includes TGF-βs, activins, growth differentiation factors (GDFs), and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). (jaoa.org)
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the transforming growth factor (TGFβ) superfamily of secreted ligands that fulfil multiple functions during the development of vertebrate as well as non-vertebrate species (Hogan et al. (biologists.org)
  • On the other hand, the UPS degrades most intracellular proteins ( 11 ). (scielo.br)
  • There are always many ways to influence any specific process in cells and tissues. (fightaging.org)
  • The Ogretmen laboratory screened previously reported microarray data sets of several human tumor tissues (metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma, and renal cell carcinoma) and showed that, in these samples, only the levels of CerS4 were significantly decreased. (musc.edu)
  • Vascular endothelial cells, which are monolayer squamous epithelial cells located between vascular endothelium subcutaneous tissues and blood, function as a physical barrier between blood and tissues. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In our cohort of UC affected colon tissues, SMAD7 demonstrated a biphasic expression pattern along the different stages of CAC with peaks during active inflammation and cancer. (ecco-ibd.eu)
  • G2A can be induced in lymphocytes and to a lesser extent in nonlymphocyte cell lines or tissues by multiple stimuli including different classes of DNA-damaging agents and serves as a response to damage and cellular stimulation which functions to slow cell cycle progression. (pnas.org)
  • Find tissues and cell lines supported by DNA array analysis to express HDAC2 . (avivasysbio.com)
  • In vivo cells receive simultaneous signals from multiple extracellular ligands and must integrate and interpret them to respond appropriately. (asm.org)
  • Osteoblasts attach to bone and regulate extracellular environment, while they are also controlled by bone via membrane-bound attachment proteins, which form adhesion plaques in these cells. (rupress.org)
  • The acid hydrolases, named cathepsins, in lysosomes degrade the majority of extracellular and membrane proteins taken up by endocytosis as well as cytoplasmic proteins and organelles by autophagy ( 7 , 8 ). (scielo.br)
  • Disease pathogenesis involves airway tissue remodeling through the excess deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and the formation of fibroblastic foci, evident by histology [ 1 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • In addition, YAP is regulated by actomyosin cytoskeletal tension, thereby acting as transducer of mechanical cues exerted by extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness and cell shape, with a stiff ECM and cell spreading increasing YAP activity [ 18 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Methylation by protein arginine methyltransferase 1 increases stability of Axin, a negative regulator of Wnt signaling. (springer.com)
  • These results define both a new function for SNIP1 and identify a previously unrecognized regulator of the cell cycle and cyclin D1 expression. (nature.com)
  • In essence, Smad7 is a major regulator of T cell differentiation. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • 4 Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Institute for Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism, Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 421 Curie Boulevard. (biologists.org)
  • The effect of myostatin on protein metabolism is related to fiber type composition, which may be associated to the extent of atrophy mediated effect of myostatin on muscle. (scielo.br)
  • The three main proteolytic processes involved in the control of muscle protein metabolism in mammals are the lysosomal, the Ca 2+ -dependent, and the ubiquitin-proteasome (UPS) systems. (scielo.br)
  • The key challenges for oral mucositis treatment are to repair and protect ulcerated oral mucosa without promoting cancer cell growth . (bvsalud.org)
  • The major objective of this review is to evaluate the known functions of Smad7, with a particular focus on its molecular mechanisms and its function in blocking multiple pathological processes in oral mucositis . (bvsalud.org)
  • With this protein expressed, mouse models were dramatically more resistant to the development of oral mucositis than were controls," says Xiao-Jing Wang, PhD, CU Cancer Center investigator and John S. Gates endowed Chair of Cancer Stem Cell Biology at the Charles C. Gates Center for Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Biology. (innovations-report.com)
  • Wang and collaborators including Qinghong Zhang, PhD, Yosef Refaeli, PhD, and radiation oncologist David Raben, MD, are pursuing further research with the goal of developing Smad7 as a therapeutic agent for human oral mucositis. (innovations-report.com)
  • The current study aims to determine whether a Smad7-based biologic can treat existing oral mucositis during radiotherapy for oral cancer and whether this treatment compromises RT-induced cancer cell killing in neighboring oral cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Conclusion: Our results suggest that short-course Tat-Smad7 application to oral mucositis promotes its healing but does not compromise the cytotoxic effect of RT on oral cancer and has context-specific effects on oral mucosa vs. oral cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We therefore evaluated the expression of SMAD7 in the colonic epithelium during the inflammation associated neoplastic process to determine a possible role of SMAD7 in CAC. (ecco-ibd.eu)
  • The expression of SMAD7 protein and mRNA in colonic epithelia was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridisation (ISH),, respectively, in a cohort of 53 archival colon samples (17 CAC, 12 dysplastic, 12 inflammed, 12 non-neoplastic/non-inflammed) from patients who have undergone colectomies for UC and CAC. (ecco-ibd.eu)
  • Smad7 mRNA in HES with a limited effect on ESC, while moderately increasing the common Smad4 and Smad7 protein levels in these cells (P (ufl.edu)
  • Smad7 can be induced by other cytokines, e.g. (diva-portal.org)
  • Many hormones, cytokines, and growth factors, including transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), are involved in the pathophysiology of diabetic mesangial cell hypertrophy and in subsequent steps that lead to glomerulosclerosis ( 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Thus, bone matrix could give signals from outside the body to the cells ( 9 , 10 ) either through matrix-residing cytokines, through these attachment machineries, or both. (rupress.org)
  • Here, we performed a screen to identify TME cytokines and growth factors that promote epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity, and acquisition of cancer stem cell (CSC) properties. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In this review we will discuss different approaches adopted, including activity-based probes centered around ubiquitin-protein, ubiquitin-peptide and mutated ubiquitin scaffolds. (frontiersin.org)
  • We examine challenges faced and opportunities presented to increase specificity in activity-based protein profiling of the ubiquitin conjugation/deconjugation machinery. (frontiersin.org)
  • activating, conjugating and ligating ubiquitin, culminating in isopeptide bond formation between a lysine residue of the substrate protein and the C-terminus of ubiquitin ( Hunt and Dayhoff, 1977 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Given the diversity in ubiquitin chain length, linkage type and protein substrate, DUB specificity is key to biological function. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cardiomyocytes showed an increase in proteolysis by activating autophagy and the ubiquitin proteasome system, and a decrease in protein synthesis by decreasing P70S6K. (scielo.br)
  • It consists of well-controlled actions of enzymes that link chains of ubiquitin (UB) to the protein that will be degraded by proteasome 26S ( 12 ). (scielo.br)
  • Because gliogenesis in the brain and spinal cord, derived from implanted neural stem cells or induced by injury, is responsible for much of the failure of neuronal regeneration, this work may lead to a therapeutic strategy to minimize this problem. (pnas.org)
  • Endothelial cell senescence is closely related to the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases and microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) are considered as therapeutic targets for cardiovascular disease. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Study suggests that the higher NDRG1 expression may be associated with the radio-resistance of human rectal cancer cells, and it can be a potential therapeutic target for re-sensitizing radio-resistant rectal cancer cells to ionizing radiation. (antibodies-online.com)
  • present study shows that HER4 and/or NDRG1 might play a critical role for the cell survival and chemo-resistance of Osteosarcoma (OS), and could be used as potential therapeutic targets in OS. (antibodies-online.com)
  • This study provides insight into molecular mechanisms of T helper cell differentiation and thus helps to elucidate the pathophysiology of autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis which could eventually lead to development of new diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • data suggest for the first time that the choice of binding partners for SMURF2 can sustain or repress TGFbeta signaling, and RNF11 may promote TGFbeta-induced cell migration. (nih.gov)
  • Currently, clinical trials are underway aiming to inhibit SMAD7 to ameliorate inflammation. (ecco-ibd.eu)
  • The increase in SMAD7 expression during neoplastic transformation, comparable to sporadic CRC, may be a protective response of the epithelium to inhibit the effect of TGFβ1. (ecco-ibd.eu)
  • LY-2157299 could inhibit TGF-β-mediated SMAD2 activation and hematopoietic suppression in primary hematopoietic stem cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Our findings identify a previously unknown mechanism by which bacterial ITIM-containing proteins can inhibit innate immune responses. (labome.org)
  • This implies gaining knowledge about how such cells migrate from the primary tumour to distant sites in the body and also about developing therapies to inhibit this process. (veritalife.com)
  • The eNoSC complex is able to sense the energy status of cell: upon glucose starvation, elevation of NAD(+)/NADP(+) ratio activates SIRT1, leading to histone H3 deacetylation followed by dimethylation of H3 at 'Lys-9' (H3K9me2) by SUV39H1 and the formation of silent chromatin in the rDNA locus. (abcam.com)
  • In this paper, we show that the presence of BMP2 alters the differentiation of proliferating neural precursor cells from a neuronal to an astrocytic fate, and we propose a mechanism by which BMP2 signaling interacts with neurogenic transcription factors to induce this effect. (pnas.org)
  • Generally, the determination of cell fate involves transcription factors. (pnas.org)
  • First discovered in Drosophila , neural-specific basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are crucial for determining proper neural cell fates ( Jan and Jan, 1994 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • The relative expressions of mRNA and protein were detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Deacetylates 'Lys-382' of p53/ TP53 and impairs its ability to induce transcription-dependent proapoptotic program and modulate cell senescence (PubMed:11672523, PubMed:12006491). (rcsb.org)
  • Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunostaining were used to analyze the expression of type I collagen mRNA and protein, respectively. (molvis.org)
  • Methods and Results: In this study, we identified a pharmacologically inducible vasculoprotective mechanism in pulmonary arterial (PA) and lung microvascular (MV) endothelial cells (EC) in response to DNA damage and oxidant stress regulated in part by a BMPR2 dependent transcription factor complex between PPAR? (stanford.edu)
  • Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) promotes the dissolution of tight cell-cell interactions by downregulation of epithelial proteins (claudin, occludin, ZO1, E-cadherin and cytokeratins). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 6 , 7 The loss of cell-cell interactions is an important step in allowing escape from the primary tumor and entrance to the lymphatics or bloodstream. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Current tools do not allow studying these data with a focus on concepts of relevance to a user, for example, interactions related to a disease or to a biological mechanism such as protein aggregation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A particularly valuable task in information extraction is the identification of biomolecular interactions from biomedical text data where the interactors and the type of interaction are identified [ 12 , 13 ], for example, a protein-protein interaction (PPI) between Neuroserpin and Abeta. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The current study aimed to investigate the role of miR‑20b in the senescence process of endothelial cells and its underlying mechanism. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Thus, it is highly necessary to understand the mechanism of endothelial cell senescence, to provide patients with effective clinical treatment and reduce the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • However, studies are still needed to confirm the role and mechanism of miR-20b in endothelial cell senescence. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Although heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) ameliorates renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis by inhibiting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the underlying mechanism is unknown. (asnjournals.org)
  • Thus, TGF-β signaling represents a significant mechanism of mesangial cell hypertrophy in diabetic nephropathy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, the potential mechanism underlying aberrant Smad7 expression in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains largely unknown. (nih.gov)
  • To undersand the mechanism of radioresistance, the proteins differentially expressed in these cell lines were identified by 2DE and mass spectrometry. (tmc.gov.in)
  • PTEN silencing indicated that p-NDRG1 (Thr346) could be regulated differentially in different tumor cell-types, indicating PTEN may be involved in the mechanism(s) underlying the pleiotropic activity of NDRG1. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Researchers at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) identified a mechanism that can help in regulating signalling events leading to cell migration and metastasis. (veritalife.com)
  • We think this could be one way cancer cells actually migrate from one place to another to induce metastasis," says Besim Ogretmen, Ph.D. , senior author for this study and director of the Developmental Cancer Therapeutics Program at the Hollings Cancer Center . (musc.edu)
  • Aberrant Smad7 expression contributes to the invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells. (nih.gov)
  • The effects of miR-367 and Smad7 on the invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells were investigated both in vitro and in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Functional studies showed that miR-367 promoted pancreatic cancer invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo through downregulating Smad7. (nih.gov)
  • miR-367 promoted the invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells. (nih.gov)
  • Increasing evidence supports the idea that cancer cell plasticity promotes metastasis and tumor recurrence, resulting in patient mortality. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Emerging evidence suggests that cancer cell plasticity contributes to tumor heterogeneity, which can promote metastasis and tumor recurrence. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A study examining the role of glycosylation in cell invasion and metastasis has revealed the intricacies of sugars and their engagement with cell surface molecules. (tmc.gov.in)
  • Conversely, in other contexts, TGF-β promotes tumor progression through increasing tumor cell invasion and metastasis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our results suggested that Tiam1 signaling contributed to the invasion and metastasis of the human giant-cell lung carcinoma cells. (labome.org)
  • UHRF1 promotes cell growth and metastasis through repression of p16(ink?a) in colorectal cancer. (labome.org)
  • According to Besim Ogretmen, Ph.D., senior author of the study, director of the Developmental Cancer Therapeutics Program at the Hollings Cancer Center and professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at MUSC, this could be one way by which cancer cells could actually migrate from one place to another to induce metastasis leading to metastatic cancer. (veritalife.com)
  • C.-L. Chen, S. H. Shuan, and J. S. Huang, "Cellular heparan sulfate negatively modulates transforming growth factor- β 1 (TGF- β 1) responsiveness in epithelial cells," The Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 281, no. 17, pp. 11506-11514, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • By blocking those signals, Smad7 stops the breakdown of muscles. (fightaging.org)
  • This raises important questions about how cells respond specifically to individual ligands and how cells integrate and interpret signals received from multiple ligands simultaneously. (asm.org)
  • High levels of TGF-β have proven to be strongly linked with poor prognosis and low survival rates as a consequence of the growth factor stimulating cancer cells to spread in the human body and cause life-threatening secondary tumors - so-called metastases. (eurekalert.org)
  • HMF inhibited collagenase activity and increased type I procollagen content in UV-induced human dermal fibroblast neonatal (HDFn) cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Coexpression and protein-protein complexing of DIX domains of human Dvl1 and Axin1 protein. (springer.com)
  • Here, we have used short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to knockdown SNIP1 expression in human cell lines. (nature.com)
  • Studies suggest that the human sirtuins may function as intracellular regulatory proteins with mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. (genecards.org)
  • We identified ionizing radiation-responsive transcripts in human lymphoblast cells derived from 12 individuals and used this signature to screen a panel of cancer data sets for the ability to predict long-term survival of cancer patients. (bioone.org)
  • We found that miR-367 downregulated Smad7 expression by directly targeting its 3'-UTR in human pancreatic cancer cells. (nih.gov)
  • Merkel cell polyomavirus, trichodysplasia spinulosa polyomavirus, human polyomavirus 6 and 7, and Malawi polyomavirus are shed from the skin, and Merkel cell polyomavirus, trichodysplasia spinulosa polyomavirus, human polyomavirus 6 and 7 have been linked to specific skin diseases. (esdr.org)
  • Halofuginone was well tolerated by human corneal fibroblasts up to 10 ng/ml as demonstrated by a cell viability assay. (molvis.org)
  • Western blot shows lysates of H9 human cutaneous T lymphoma cell line, PT18 mouse mast/basophil cell line, and Rat‑2 rat embryonic fibroblast cell line. (novusbio.com)
  • Simple Western lane view shows lysates of Sf 21 S. frugiperda insect ovarian cell line transfected with human Smad7, loaded at 0.2 mg/mL. (novusbio.com)
  • Detects human, mouse, and rat Smad7. (novusbio.com)
  • The Human Neural Stem Cell Functional Identification Kit contains specially formulated media supplements, which can be used for the short-term maintenance, differentiation, and expansion of NSCs and the induction of NSCs into astrocyte, neuron and oligodendrocyte lineages. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Two synthetic peptides corresponding to aa 12-18 (RLWRSRAPGGEDEEEGAG) and amino acids 36-50 (ELRGEGATDSRAHGA) of human SMAD7, GenBank Accession no. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Two human gastric epithelial cancer cell lines (MKN45 and AGS) were obtained from the Health Science Research Resources Bank in Japan and maintained in RPMI 1,640 medium (GIBCO BRL, Grand Island, NY) and F-12 medium (GIBCO BRL, Grand Island, NY) containing 10% FBS at 37°C in a humidified atmosphere (95%) with 5% CO 2 . (biomedcentral.com)
  • To identify potential coactivator redundancy during human adipogenesis at single cell resolution, we used high content analysis to quantify links between PPARγ, SRC-2, SRC-3, and lipogenesis. (rupress.org)
  • In this study, we have initially used human prostate cancer cells, PC3 and LNCaP, as an in vitro model to assess the efficacy of bitter melon extract (BME) as an anticancer agent. (aacrjournals.org)
  • APPROACH AND RESULTS: We found that SMAD7 is up-regulated in a subset of human HCC samples with poor prognosis. (bvsalud.org)
  • These findings were substantiated in human HCC cell lines. (bvsalud.org)
  • In human iCCA, SMAD7 expression was robustly up-regulated, especially in the most aggressive tumors, and directly correlated with the levels of YAP/NOTCH targets as well as cholangiocellular and EMT markers. (bvsalud.org)
  • SMAD7 mRNA expression was not significantly different across different stages of CAC ( p = 0.49). (ecco-ibd.eu)
  • This product is an active protein and may elicit a biological response in vivo, handle with caution. (abcam.com)
  • Mutant T cells exhibit an activated phenotype in vivo , and are not inhibited by TGF‐β1 in vitro . (embopress.org)
  • In the present investigation, we sought to determine the relevance of SMAD7 in liver carcinogenesis using in vitro and in vivo approaches. (bvsalud.org)
  • The team used cultured bacteria to produce a combination protein of Smad7 and a short peptide that was able to cross through cell membranes. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • For example, the group joined Smad7 in with a short peptide that allows the protein to cross through cell membranes, and produced this combination protein from cultured bacteria. (innovations-report.com)
  • 2003). The mature protein is anchored to intracellular membranes of the early endosome and the endosome recycling compartments (Santonico et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • We further show that the miR-106b-25 cluster is sufficient to induce an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and a tumor initiating cell phenotype, and that it is required downstream of Six1 to induce these phenotypes. (ovid.com)
  • Additionally we are shipping N-Myc Downstream Regulated 1 Antibodies (200) and N-Myc Downstream Regulated 1 Proteins (17) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are one of the mesenchymal stem cells that can be isolated and differentiated into multiple cell types in vitro , such as osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes [ 12 , 13 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • In eukaryotes, proteins containing an FHA domain are found to be almost exclusively nuclear and seem to be prevalent among proteins which function in the cell cycle and DNA damage response ( Zhou, 2000 ). (nature.com)
  • Nodal and Activin are morphogens of the TGFbeta superfamily of signaling molecules that direct differential cell fate decisions in a dose- and distance-dependent manner. (prolekare.cz)
  • The molecular basis behind stem cell interpretation of Nodal/Activin signaling gradients and the undertaking of disparate cell fate decisions remains poorly understood. (prolekare.cz)
  • Moreover, the ratio of protective regulatory T-cells to pathogenic autoreactive T-cells had changed. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Probiotic administration was associated with an early increase in the production of IL-10 and an increased number of regulatory CD4 + T cells bearing surface TGF-β in the form of latency-associated protein (LAP) (LAP + T cells). (jimmunol.org)
  • These studies show that probiotic (VSL#3) administration during a remission period ameliorates the severity of recurrent colitis by inducing an immunoregulatory response involving TGF-β-bearing regulatory cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • This, in turn, can occur as a consequence of an absolute or relative defect in the function of regulatory T cells or to an excessive immune response to these Ags that cannot be controlled by normal regulatory T cell function ( 2 , 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • We conclude that Smad7 mediates a protective effect from adverse TGF-beta signalling in damaged liver, re-iterating its negative regulatory loop on signalling. (diva-portal.org)
  • Dendritic cells, as part of the innate immune system response, present antigens to na?ve Compact disc4+ helper T-cells and make sure tolerance to commensal flora by promoting their differentiation into regulatory T-cells. (antibodyassay.com)
  • The objective of our study was to determine the regulatory effects that endogenous transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) exerts on T cells in the pathogenesis of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Smad7 deletion in T cells results in decreased Th1, Th2 and increased Th17 and regulatory T cell differentiation. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • ESCRT-III proteins mostly dissociate from the invaginating membrane before the ILV is released. (proteopedia.org)
  • ESCRT-III proteins are believed to mediate the necessary vesicle extrusion and/or membrane fission activities, possibly in conjunction with the AAA ATPase VPS4. (proteopedia.org)
  • In the context of cancer, some ceramides, and the enzymes that produce them, contribute to tumor growth because they provide a critical component of the plasma membrane, enabling cells to divide. (musc.edu)
  • The number of cells that passed through the membrane was counted in 10 fields under the × 20 objective lens, original magnification ( × 200). (nih.gov)
  • Myocardial cells were homogeneously stained and had clear boundary with intact membrane, and cross striation was arranged evenly. (alliedacademies.org)
  • our study described two homozygous missense mutations in NDRG1 in CMT patients and mentioned the function of NDRG1 in protein recycling, which plays an important role in myelination of the peripheral nerve system. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Noticeably, the damage and functional changes of vascular endothelial cells play a crucial role in the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis, and penetrate into the whole pathological process of atherosclerosis ( 4 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Endothelial cell senescence, which is closely related to atherosclerosis, is accompanied by the destruction of endothelial cell integrity and functional damage of endothelial cells that in turn cause vascular dysfunction, therefore creating conditions for the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases ( 7 , 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Cellular prion protein (PrPc) is a surface protein expressed by vascular endothelial cells, and the increased expression of PrPc is associated with physiological and pathological vascularization. (deepdyve.com)
  • Three months after the irradiation, expressions of Smad4 could be seen in the nucleus of endothelial cells, macrophages and fibroblasts. (cnki.com.cn)