Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.
Homeostatic control of the immune system by secretion of different cytokines by the Th1 and Th2 cells. The concentration dependent binding of the various cytokines to specific receptors determines the balance (or imbalance leading to disease).
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.
A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC
Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
An orphan nuclear receptor found in the THYMUS where it plays a role in regulating the development and maturation of thymocytes. An isoform of this protein, referred to as RORgammaT, is produced by an alternatively transcribed mRNA.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.
A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-23 is comprised of a unique 19 kDa subunit and 40 kDa subunit that is shared with INTERLEUKIN-12. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells
Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-4. Stat6 has been shown to partner with NF-KAPPA B and CCAAT-ENHANCER-BINDING PROTEINS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of interleukin-4 responsive GENES.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-12 in T-LYMPHOCYTES. Stat4 is an important signaling molecule for differentiation in TH1 CELLS.
An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
The full collection of microbes (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.) that naturally exist within a particular biological niche such as an organism, soil, a body of water, etc.
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
The passage of viable bacteria from the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT to extra-intestinal sites, such as the mesenteric lymph node complex, liver, spleen, kidney, and blood. Factors that promote bacterial translocation include overgrowth with gram-negative enteric bacilli, impaired host immune defenses, and injury to the INTESTINAL MUCOSA resulting in increased intestinal permeability. Bacterial translocation from the lung to the circulation is also possible and sometimes accompanies MECHANICAL VENTILATION.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
... -ligand interaction attracts Th1 cells and promotes Th1 cell maturation. As a consequence of chemokine-induced cellular ... Cellular responsiveness is restored after dephosphorylation of intracellular receptors and subsequent recycling to the cell ... and some epithelial cells. CXCR3 and CCR5 are preferentially expressed on Th1 cells, whereas Th2 cells favor the expression of ... CXCR3 ligands that attract Th1 cells can concomitantly block the migration of Th2 cells in response to CCR3 ligands, thus ...
TIM-3: short for T-cell Immunoglobulin domain and Mucin domain 3, expresses on activated human CD4+ T cells and regulates Th1 ... An advantage of targeting PD-1 is that it can restore immune function in the tumor microenvironment. ... Its ligand is ICOSL, expressed mainly on B cells and dendritic cells. The molecule seems to be important in T cell effector ... CD137-mediated signaling is also known to protect T cells, and in particular, CD8+ T cells from activation-induced cell death. ...
Th1 differentiation is IL-12 dependent, and IFN-γ is the signature cytokine of cells of a Th1 lineage. Th1 cell anti-tumor ... and that demethylation of these promoters may restore MHC class II expression (Chamuleau et al., 2006). Haabeth, Ole Audun ... and since IL-12 promotes Th1 cell differentiation, this forms a tumor-suppressing feedback loop. Th1 and NK cells both ... Th1 cells are one of the two main Th cell polarizations first identified. ...
While moving through its set region, if the microglial cell finds any foreign material, damaged cells, apoptotic cells, ... In mice, it has been shown that CD22 blockade restores homeostatic microglial phagocytosis in aging brains. Microglia are the ... and other prostanoids prevent chronic inflammation by inhibiting microglial pro-inflammatory response and downregulating Th1 (T ... T-cells, and myeloid progenitor cells. As mentioned above the cytokine IFN-γ can be used to activate microglial cells. In ...
... reaction by rendering the interleukin-2 Producer T cells unresponsive to interleukin-1 and unable to synthesize the T-cell ... Elenkov IJ (June 2004). "Glucocorticoids and the Th1/Th2 balance". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1024 (1): 138-46 ... restoring a neutral energy balance)[86] ... 1 cells, but upregulates IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 by Th2 cells. ... The suppressor immune cells are not affected by GRMF,[11] so the immune cells' effective setpoint may be even higher than the ...
Perkey E, Miller RA, Garcia GG (2012). "Ex vivo enzymatic treatment of aged CD4 T cells restores cognate T cell helper function ... supporting the theory that TFH are a subset of CD4+ T cells distinct from Th-1, Th-2, Th-17 or Tregs. The inducible T-cell co- ... Pre-TFH cells are functionally very similar to other TFH cells in facilitating germinal center B cell reactions however, in ... This may be in part due to lower CD40L levels on the cell surface of TFH cells in the aged. Unchecked or overactive TFH cell ...
The main effector cells of Th1 immunity are macrophages as well as CD8 T cells, IgG B cells, and IFN-γ CD4 T cells. The key Th1 ... antiretroviral therapy will prevent the progression of HIV into AIDS and allow the body to naturally restore its own CD4 cell ... The T helper cells (Th cells), also known as CD4+ cells or CD4-positive cells, are a type of T cell that play an important role ... IFN-γ drives Th1 cell production while IL-10 and IL-4 inhibit Th1 cell production. Conversely, IL-4 drives Th2 cell production ...
... dendritic cells, NK cells, TH1 cells, TH2 cells, and fibroblasts in various tissues and on microglia cells in the central ... February 2021). "Restoring metabolism of myeloid cells reverses cognitive decline in ageing". Nature. 590 (7844): 122-128. doi: ... Activation of EP2 contributes to regulating B cell immunoglobulin class switching, maturation of T lymphocyte CD4−CD8− cells to ... CD4+CD8+ cells, and the function of Antigen-presenting cells, particularly Dendritic cells. EP thereby contributes to the ...
... myeloid suppression while inducible Treg cells prevent activation and clonal expansion of the autoreactive Th1 and Th17 cells ... Uveitis is driven by the Th17 T cell sub-population that bear T-cell receptors specific for proteins found in the eye. These ... Dick AD (1 January 2012). "Road to fulfilment: taming the immune response to restore vision". Ophthalmic Research. 48 (1): 43-9 ... Autoreactive T cells must normally be held in check by the suppressive environment produced by microglia and dendritic cells in ...
The highest levels of IL-10 mRNA in spleen cells is in CD8+ and other non-FoxP3+ T cells.[22] White blood cell CD8+ T cells ... "Leishmania donovani-reactive TH1-like T Cell Clones from Individuals Who Have Recovered from Visceral Leishmaniasis". Infect. ... "Interleukin-12 Restores Interferon-γ Production and Cytotoxic Responses in Visceral Leishmaniasis" (PDF). J. Infect. Dis. 173 ... Co-culture of T cells with B cells decreased the percentage of CD4+ T cell proliferation and IFN-γ secretion four-fold. ...
While the ileal pouch procedure removes the need for an ostomy bag, it does not restore normal bowel function. In the months ... In a preclinical study in rats and mice, inhibition of KCa3.1 disrupted the production of Th1 cytokines IL-2 and TNF-∝ and ... January 2013). "NS6180, a new K(Ca) 3.1 channel inhibitor prevents T-cell activation and inflammation in a rat model of ... Chronic blood loss may lead to iron deficiency as a cause for anemia, particularly microcytic anemia (small red blood cells), ...
This type of stress saw in increase in granulocytes, natural killer cells, IgA, Interleukin 6, and an increase in cell ... Brief naturalistic stressors elicit a shift from Th1(cellular) to Th2(humoral) immunity, while decreased T-cell proliferation, ... On the other hand, an organism's attempt at restoring conditions back to or near homeostasis, often consuming energy and ... One model proposed to account for this suggests a push towards an imbalance of cellular immunity(Th1) and humoral immunity(Th2 ...
examined the role of regulatory T cells in limiting microbe-triggered intestinal inflammation and the T cell compartment. Using ... Certain defined microflora are able to restore germfree mice to resemble normal mice with reduced cecal volume, restored ... In germfree mice, Th17 and Th1 response dominate. Bacteria microenvironment is very important in the pathogenesis of clinical ... They used ASF to test the maturation of lymphoid follicles into large B cell clusters by the toll-like receptor signaling. In ...
Cytotoxic T cells (TC cells, CTLs, T-killer cells, killer T cells) destroy virus-infected cells and tumor cells, and are also ... Th1. IFNγ. Tbet. Produce an inflammatory response, key for defense against intracellular bacteria, viruses and cancer.. MS, ... Defects in immune function in patients with sepsis are associated with PD-1 or PD-L1 expression and can be restored by ... Helper CD4+ T cellsEdit. T helper cells (TH cells) assist other lymphocytes, including maturation of B cells into plasma cells ...
... expression can be detected on many tumor cells and cell lines. TLR4 is capable of activating MAPK and NF-κB pathways, ... Shen CH, Tsai RY, Shih MS, Lin SL, Tai YH, Chien CC, Wong CS (February 2011). "Etanercept restores the antinociceptive effect ... "Ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide reduces inflammation an a Th1-mediated model of colitis". European Journal of ... In HepG2 hepatoblastoma cells LPS increased TLR4 levels, cell proliferation and resistance to chemotherapy, and these phenomena ...
Co-culture of T cells with B cells decreased the percentage of CD4+ T cell proliferation and IFN-γ secretion four-fold.[ ... 1993). "Leishmania donovani-reactive TH1-like T Cell Clones from Individuals Who Have Recovered from Visceral Leishmaniasis". ... 1996). "Interleukin-12 Restores Interferon-γ Production and Cytotoxic Responses in Visceral Leishmaniasis" (PDF). J. Infect. ... Blocking IL-10 or programmed cell death receptors on B cells increased Leishmania antigen specific T cell proliferation and IFN ...
7 E) cells, or in tolerogenic CD11b+CD103+ DCs (Fig. 7 F). Alternatively, MDP administration restored both Th1 and Th17 cell ... 5, A-C). The decreased numbers of Th1 and Th17 cells in the PLNs correlated with lower levels of Th1 and Th17 cells in the ... MDP supplementation restores the generation of Th1 and Th17 cells in the PLNs after antibiotic treatment. To verify that the ... NOD2 activation is sufficient to restore Th1 and Th17 cells in the PLNs of diabetes-resistant Abx-treated STZ-injected WT mice. ...
CXCR3-ligand interaction attracts Th1 cells and promotes Th1 cell maturation. As a consequence of chemokine-induced cellular ... Cellular responsiveness is restored after dephosphorylation of intracellular receptors and subsequent recycling to the cell ... and some epithelial cells. CXCR3 and CCR5 are preferentially expressed on Th1 cells, whereas Th2 cells favor the expression of ... CXCR3 ligands that attract Th1 cells can concomitantly block the migration of Th2 cells in response to CCR3 ligands, thus ...
Ferulic acid exhibits an antiallergic effect via restoring Th1/Th2 imbalance by modulating dendritic cells function in an ... Ferulic acid may lead to cell cycle arrest in PC-3 cells while it may cause apoptosis in LNCaP cells.Jun 29, 2015. ... Ferulic acid influences cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, invasion, migration, and colony formation in TT cells.Sep 02, 2015. ... Ferulic acid maintains the self-renewal capacity of embryo stem cells and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in high fat ...
Ferulic acid exhibits an antiallergic effect via restoring Th1/Th2 imbalance by modulating dendritic cells function in an ... Diseases : Autoimmune Diseases, Hypersensitivity, Immune Disorders: B-Cell Over-Activity, Immune Dysregulation: TH1/TH2 ... Cannabinoids have the potential to regulate the activation and balance of human Th1/Th2 cells by a CB2 receptor-dependent ... Diseases : Immune Dysregulation: TH1/TH2 imbalance, Low Disorders: Low TH1, Tumors. Pharmacological Actions : Antiproliferative ...
increased T-helper 1 cell number*Normal - however, antibody treatment restores normal IFN-gamma-producing Th1 cell numbers ... Normal - however, antibody treatment restores normal IgA cell numbers. (MGI Ref ID J:177506)*mice exhibit increased IgA+ cells ... increased T-helper 1 cell number*Normal - however, antibody treatment restores normal IFN-gamma-producing Th1 cell numbers ... Normal - however, antibody treatment restores normal IgA cell numbers. (MGI Ref ID J:177506)*mice exhibit increased IgA+ cells ...
NK cell lytic activity. Lytic activity of NK cells was analyzed, as previously described (48). Briefly, YAC-1 cells, a ... Restoring function in exhausted CD8 T cells during chronic viral infection. Nature 439: 682-687. ... with more Th1/Tc1-polarized T cells, fewer IL-10+ T cells, and more mCMV-M45 epitope peptide MHC class I tetramer+ CD8+ T cells ... and by B cells, T cells, accessory cells, and other nonlymphoid cells (3-6). VIP and the closely related neuropeptide pituitary ...
... at multiple post-entry steps that may represent potential targets for novel therapies aimed at protecting Th17 cells from ... The transcriptional program of Th17 cells includes molecules regulating HIV replication ... Genome-wide transcriptional profiling in memory CD4(+) T-cell subsets enriched in cells exhibiting Th17 (CCR4(+)CCR6(+)), Th1 ( ... Viral suppressive antiretroviral therapy restores Th1 but not Th17 cells. Although several key HIV dependency factors (HDF) ...
Research points to anti-CTLA-4 and anti-TGF-B combination to protect T cells. ... Blocking TGF-β restores Th1 cells and boosts immunotherapy. Treating mice with bone metastases with the ipilimumab and ... The CD4 T cells in the bone tumors were only of the Th17 and regulatory T cell (Treg) lineages. Tregs inhibit immune response. ... Absence of Th1 CD4 T cells. When it works, immune checkpoint blockade expands Th1 CD4 effector cells, which leads to activation ...
CD4+ T cell activation and Th1 responses are restored in Rag1−/− mice injected with Treg-depleted CD4+ T cells from naïve RORγt ... T cells,34,35 γδ T cells,36 noncytotoxic CD8+ T cells,37 neutrophils,38 and mast cells.39 The role of Th17 cell-derived IL-17A ... cell recipients was higher (% of CD4+ cells also FoxP3+) (n = 10 WT cells, n = 9 RORγt−/− cells, n = 4 no cells). *P , 0.05, ** ... cell recipients and non-cell-injected mice (n = 10 WT cells, n = 9 RORγt−/− cells, n = 4 no cells). *P , 0.05, **P , 0.01, ***P ...
... and clinical studies in all areas of stem cell biology and applications. The journal will consider basic, translational, and ... Stem Cells International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, ... Id1 was found to inhibit PGE2 secretion and stimulate T cell proliferation and Th1/Th17 differentiation in a T cells-BMMSCs ... Neutralizing the BMP6 and knockdown Id1 could restore the BMMSC immunosuppressive function both in vitro and in vivo. ...
... the antitumor activity of DPF may be associated with the decrease of TNF-α level and restoration of the balance of Th1/Th2 cell ... ELISA and RIA assay were employed to measured the serum concentration of Th1/Th2 cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ and TNF-α). ... S. Romagnani, "Th1/Th2 Cells," Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1999, pp. 285-294. doi:10.1002/ibd.3780050410 ... N. Nair, S. Mahajan, R. Chawda, C. Kandaswami, T. C. Shanahan and S. A. Schwartz, "Grape Seed Extract Activates Th1 Cells in ...
Restoring anti-oncodriver Th1 responses with dendritic cell vaccines in HER2/neu-positive breast cancer: progress and potential ... His research interests focus on dendritic cell biology and interactions with T cells. He has developed dendritic cell vaccines ... Restoring Lost Anti-HER-2 Th1 Immunity in Breast Cancer: A Crucial Role for Th1 Cytokines in Therapy and Prevention. Front ... Dendritic Cell-Induced Th1 and Th17 Cell Differentiation for Cancer Therapy. Vaccines (Basel). 2013 Nov;1(4):527-549. Pubmedid ...
Furthermore, these FA-treated DCs enhanced T-cell proliferation and Th1 cell polarization. In animal experiments, oral ... and the culture supernatant of spleen cells. These findings suggest that FA exhibits an antiallergic effect via restoring Th1/ ... and proinflammatory cytokines but promoted the Th1 cytokine interferon- (IFN-) ,i ,γ,/i, production in bronchoalveolar lavage ... on antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) ,i ,in vitro,/i, and its antiallergic effects against ovalbumin- (OVA-) induced Th2 ...
The nonmitogenic anti-CD3 induced T cell unresponsiveness in Th1 clones but not naive T cells. Together, these results suggest ... Specific defects in early signal transduction and mitogenicity were restored by coaggregating CD4 (and thus presumably lck) ... 1993) Induction of T-cell anergy by altered T-cell-receptor ligand on live antigen-presenting cells. Nature (Lond) 363:156-159 ... Therefore, the effects of anti-CD3-IgG3 on the functional responses of naive cells and Th1 clones were examined. pGL10 T cells ...
... zinc supplementation restores the Th1/Th2 balance; however, high dose of Zn+2 reduces the development of Th17 cells. ... natural killer cell responses, B cell responses (naïve and memory), T regulatory cell dynamics and T cell responses; (2) ... this is evident in the subsets of CD4+ T cells where effector and Th17 cells rely on aerobic glycolysis while memory T cells ... Helicobacter pylori infection in a pig model is dominated by Th1 and cytotoxic CD8+ T cell responses. Infect Immun (2013) 81(10 ...
Restoring anti-oncodriver Th1 responses with dendritic cell vaccines in HER2/neu-positive breast cancer: progress and potential ... Live cells were gated on a forward scatter (FSC)/side scatter (SSC) plot (A). These cells were then further gated to determine ... cell population, cells that were CCR7+CD86+ were defined as M1-like macrophages, while those that were CCR7−CXCR1+, CCR7−CD86+ ... cell populations were defined as macrophage-like cells and were divided into PM-2 K+CD14+ and PM-2 K+CD14− subsets for ...
... inasmuch as deletion of CD44 inhibited Th1/Th17 differentiation while simultaneously enhancing Th2/regulatory T cell ... promoted Th1/Th17 differentiation. Furthermore, activation of CD44(+) encephalitogenic T cells with myelin oligodendrocyte ... plays a crucial role in the differentiation of Th cells through epigenetic regulation, specifically DNA methylation of Th1/Th17 ... study also suggests that molecular targeting of CD44 receptor to promote a switch from Th1/Th17 to Th2/regulatory T cell ...
... and neonatal NK cells produce less of this Th1 cytokine than adult cells (36). However, unlike other cell types, these defects ... Exogenous addition of IL-12 to neonatal NK cells restores their cytotoxic effects and ability to produce IFN-γ (36-38). As ... NK cells bind to target cells, such as virally infected cells, and release cytotoxic granules to kill the infected cells. The ... as well as Th1 cell differentiation.. Neonatal CD4+ T cells are skewed away from a pro-inflammatory Th1 response and instead ...
... whereas MSC infusion restored Kupffer cells by inhibiting apoptosis. The protected Kupffer cells suppressed Th1/Th17 cells and ... Mesenchymal stem cell inhibition of T-helper 17 cell- differentiation is triggered by cell-cell contact and mediated by ... we used an in vitro cell-cell co-culture system with the murine-derived RAW264.7 cell line to represent Kupffer cells, which ... Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) protect and restore Kupffer cells by inhibiting apoptosis but not by promoting proliferation. At ...
... from ethanol-consuming mice and purified T cells derived from ethanol-nonconsuming DO11.10 repairs the ability of Th1 cells to ... Interleukin-12 therapy restores cell-mediated immunity in ethanol-consuming mice.. Peterson JD1, Vasquez K, Waltenbaugh C. ... In this study, we restored antigen-specific, cell-mediated immunity, delayed hypersensitivity, to ethanol-consuming C57BL/6 or ... Administration of recombinant IL-12 opens a potential for restoring cell-mediated immune function to ethanol-consuming ...
CXCR3-ligand interaction attracts Th1 cells and promotes Th1 cell maturation.. As a consequence of chemokine-induced cellular ... Cellular responsiveness is restored after dephosphorylation of intracellular receptors and subsequent recycling to the cell ... and some epithelial cells and some endothelial cells. CXCR3 and CCR5 are preferentially expressed on Th1 cells, whereas Th2 ... CXCR3 ligands that attract Th1 cells can concomitantly block the migration of Th2 cells in response to CCR3 ligands, thus ...
To determine ICOS expression on Th1 and Th2 cells, CD4+ cells from DO11 mice were purified by magnetic cell separation system ( ... Strikingly, ICOS up-regulation is significantly reduced in the absence of CD80 and CD86 and can be restored by CD28 stimulation ... Th2 cells express higher ICOS levels than do Th1 cells. Purified DO11.10 CD4+ cells were stimulated weekly with APC and peptide ... the ICOS expression on the Th1 cell line decreased over time. Th1 cells consistently expressed a low level of ICOS during weeks ...
Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Gu W, Sun B. TH1/TH2 cell differentiation and molecular signals. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014;841:15-44.. View this ... Collectively, these findings suggest that infusion of donor ILC2s to restore gastrointestinal tract homeostasis may improve ... BM with splenic T cells and luc-P815 cells (BM + T cells); BM, splenic T cells, Tregs, and luc-P815 cells (BM, T cells + Treg ... T cells) or GFP+ T cells and WT ILC2s (BM, T cells + WT ILC2). (A) Fluorescence microscopy of B6-GFP donor T cells in PPs; GFP ...
T cells were Th1 cells and 45% of CD8+ T cells were Tc1 cells. These data indicate that a Tnfr deficiency prompts Th1/Tc-cell ... Depletion of CD4+ T cells restores normal hematopoiesis to Tak1mutTnfr−/− mice. (A) Bone marrow (BM) samples were collected ... T cells are more prone to develop into Th1 cells than are WT T cells; 2) Tnfr−/− antigen-presenting cells (APCs) have an ... cells). (I) Percentages of Th1, Tnfα+, Th17, Th2, and Treg cells in BM (gated on CD4+ T cells). Ifnγ and Tnfα levels in BM CD4+ ...
Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation Can Restore Lupus Disease-associated MiRNA Expression and Th1/Th2 Ratios in a Murine ... Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) present an ideal stem cell source for practical regenerative medicine due ... and A549 cell lines show that TGF-β1-mediated the EMT in epithelial cells; however, celastrol markedly inhibited TGF-β1-induced ... CoCl2 Induces PC12 Cells Apoptosis Through P53 Stability and Regulating UNC5B Brain Research Bulletin. Jul, 2013 , Pubmed ID: ...
Restoring anti-oncodriver Th1 responses with dendritic cell vaccines in HER2/neu-positive breast cancer: progress and potential ... Distinct role of antigen-specific T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cells in tumor eradication in vivo. J Exp Med. 1999;190(5):617- ... Then, the mRNA expression of several markers related to different CD4+ T cell subsets including regulatory T cells (Treg), T ... MicroRNA-338-3p suppresses cell proliferation and induces apoptosis of non-small-cell lung cancer by targeting sphingosine ...
T cells showed increased Th1 polarization and reduced Th2 cells in CCR8-deficient animals. Liver fibrosis progression, but also ... subsequent T-cell alterations, could be restored by adoptively transferring CCR8-expressing monocytes/macrophages into ccr8 ... T cells increased. The main CCR8-expressing cells in the liver were hepatic macrophages, and CCR8 was functionally necessary ... The chemokine receptor CCR8 can affect trafficking of monocytes/macrophages, monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and T- ...
The impaired in vitro proliferative CD4 T-cell response to Melan-A25-36 is restored during the course of CD8 T-cell-based ... CD8 T cells but may also drive the shift from a FOXP3+ MHC II-restricted peptide-specific CD4 T-cell population to a Th1-like ... To confirm that the ex vivo detected DQ6/Melan-A25-36 multimer+ CD4 T cells represent indeed specific cells, these cells were ... The fold increase of specific cells has been calculated by dividing % of multimer+ cells after culture by % of multimer+ cells ...
Her research focuses on the biology of normal and malignant B cells and aggressive B-cell lymphomas. Dr. Shipp is the Chief ... ... a carbohydrate-binding lectin that selectively inhibits the apoptosis of cytotoxic T cells and Th1 cells, skews the balance ... Her research focuses on the biology of normal and malignant B cells and aggressive B-cell lymphomas. Dr. Shipp is the Chief of ... Gal1 represents a novel therapeutic target for restoring immune surveillance in cHL and several additional malignancies. For ...
... a model which is primarily mediated by TH17 and TH1 cells. We discovered that L. reuteri treatment reduced TH1/TH17 cells and ... Antibodies against mucosal vascular addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 (MADCAM1), which is capable of blocking cell migration ... We also showed that the loss of diversity of gut microbiota induced by EAE was largely restored by L. reuteri treatment. ... The reduction in the proportion of CCR9+ cells among CD4+ memory T cells (%CCR9) in SPMS did not correlate with age, disease ...
  • We show here that during streptozotocin (STZ)-induced T1D, the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 (NOD2), but not NOD1, participates in the pathogenesis of the disease by inducing T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 cells in the pancreatic LNs (PLNs) and pancreas. (
  • Oligo-fucoidan improved unbalance the Th1/Th2 and Treg/Th17 ratios in asthmatic patients. (
  • The HIV-1 infection is characterized by profound CD4(+) T cell destruction and a marked Th17 dysfunction at the mucosal level. (
  • Viral suppressive antiretroviral therapy restores Th1 but not Th17 cells. (
  • Although several key HIV dependency factors (HDF) were identified in the past years via genome-wide siRNA screens in cell lines, molecular determinants of HIV permissiveness in primary Th17 cells remain to be elucidated. (
  • In an effort to orient Th17-targeted reconstitution strategies, we investigated molecular mechanisms of HIV permissiveness in Th17 cells. (
  • Genome-wide transcriptional profiling in memory CD4(+) T-cell subsets enriched in cells exhibiting Th17 (CCR4(+)CCR6(+)), Th1 (CXCR3(+)CCR6(-)), Th2 (CCR4(+)CCR6(-)), and Th1Th17 (CXCR3(+)CCR6(+)) features revealed remarkable transcriptional differences between Th17 and Th1 subsets. (
  • Transcripts significantly enriched in Th17 versus Th1 were previously associated with the regulation of TCR signaling (ZAP-70, Lck, and CD96) and Th17 polarization (RORγt, ARNTL, PTPN13, and RUNX1). (
  • Although Th17 responses may contribute to the pathogenesis of glomerulonephritis, whether the key transcription factor in Th17 cell development, RORγt, also promotes glomerulonephritis is unknown. (
  • 2 After the identification of an IL-17A-secreting CD4 + T cell subset (Th17), 3 it is now known that Th17 cells are involved in diseases previously thought to be Th1 mediated such as rheumatoid arthritis, 4 , 5 multiple sclerosis, 6 , 7 and colitis. (
  • 11 Furthermore, using cell transfer studies we have shown that antigen-specific Th17 cells alone can induce proliferative glomerulonephritis in mice. (
  • 14 , 15 These divergent results are potentially explained by the fact that IL-17A is not the sole cytokine produced by Th17 cells, which also produce IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, 3 , 16 and IL-9. (
  • Tbet is responsible for programming of Th1 cells, 19 GATA3 drives Th2 differentiation, 20 and the retinoid orphan receptors (RORs) RORα and RORγt orchestrate Th17 development. (
  • BMP6 enhanced T cell proliferation and Th1/Th17 differentiation in a T cell-BMMSC coculture system. (
  • The team found that the bone destruction caused by tumors leads to massive production of transformational growth factor-beta (TGF-β), a protein that causes helper T cells to polarize into Th17 CD4 cells instead of the Th1 CD4 effector cells required to trigger an anti-tumor immune response. (
  • The team found plenty of Th1 effectors in the soft tissues of patients treated with ipilimumab, but these crucial cells were largely absent in the bones, where they instead found abundant Th17 cells. (
  • Cytokines polarize helper cells to different types, and in the bone microenvironment they produce an abundance of Th17 cells. (
  • The function of the Th17 cells there is not known. (
  • The CD4 T cells in the bone tumors were only of the Th17 and regulatory T cell (Treg) lineages. (
  • In the subcutaneous model, Th1 effectors were detected before treatment and then greatly increased after treatment while Th17 and Tregs decreased. (
  • They found significant elevation of TGF-β, known to restrain Th1 lineage and drive both Th17 and Treg development. (
  • CD44 Reciprocally regulates the differentiation of encephalitogenic Th1/Th17 and Th2/regulatory T cells through epigenetic modulation involving DNA methylation of cytokine gene promoters, thereby controlling the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. (
  • The results showed that the expression of Th1 and Th17 genes was decreased in tumor tissues compared to control tissues. (
  • TIM-3 is a negative regulator of immune responses and can be expressed on activated Th1 cells, CD8 + T cells and at a low level on Th17 cells [ 13-15 ]. (
  • Furthermore, innate cytokines produced by dendritic cells, macrophages, epithelial cells and innate lymphoid cells seem to play a critical role in polarization of helper T-cell cytokine profiles into specific subsets of Th1/Th2/Th17 effector cells or regulatory T-cells. (
  • This longitudinal single-arm pilot study evaluates CD4 + T cells, including Th1 and Th17, in gut and blood and soluble markers for inflammation in HIV-infected individuals before (M0) and after eight (M8) months of cART. (
  • CD4 + Th17 cells were detected in gut biopsies by immunohistochemistry. (
  • Eight months of cART increased intestinal CD4 + and Th17 cells and reduced levels of T-cell activation and proliferation. (
  • Importantly, the magnitude of Th17 cells reconstitution correlated directly with blood CD4 + T-cell recovery. (
  • Short-term antiretroviral therapy resulted in a significant increase in the levels of total and Th17 CD4 + T-cells in the gut mucosa and in decline of T-cell activation. (
  • The observation that pre-treatment levels of CD4 + and of CD8 + T-cell activation are predictors of the magnitude of Th17 cell reconstitution following cART provides further rationale for an early initiation of cART in HIV-infected individuals. (
  • 2014) Reconstitution of Intestinal CD4 and Th17 T Cells in Antiretroviral Therapy Suppressed HIV-Infected Subjects: Implication for Residual Immune Activation from the Results of a Clinical Trial. (
  • Pateclizumab (MLTA3698A) is a humanized mAb against lymphotoxin α (LTα), a transiently expressed cytokine on activated B and T cells (Th1, Th17), which are implicated in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis. (
  • Th1 and Th17 subsets are associated with the production of autoantibodies against platelets and restoration of the immune imbalance of Th cells results in clinical improvement. (
  • CD27 costimulation is known to suppress Th17 effector cell function. (
  • T helper (Th) subpopulations, including Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17 and Th22 cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs), and the associated cytokines are involved in the autoimmune disorders of patients with SSc ( 4 ). (
  • In addition, the levels of Th17 cells are significantly increased in the peripheral blood, skin lesions and lung tissues of patients with SSc ( 10 , 11 ). (
  • Although some studies reported that patients with SSc have fewer Tregs and more Th17 cells in comparison with those in healthy individuals ( 11-13 ), the role of Tregs in scleroderma remains unclear ( 14 ). (
  • The MSCs significantly decreased T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 responses, suppressed the function of antigen-presenting cells, and upregulated T regulatory cells. (
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of milks fermented with Lactobacillus fermentum on the Th1/Th17 response in a murine model of mild IBD. (
  • Recreational music-making (drumming) modulates natural killer cell activity, cytokines, and mood states in corporate employees. (
  • Targeting lineage-specific transcription factors offers the opportunity to simultaneously affect multiple Th cell effector cytokines. (
  • ELISA and RIA assay were employed to measured the serum concentration of Th1/Th2 cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ and TNF-α). (
  • Statin Drugs Plus Th1 Cytokines Potentiate Apoptosis and Ras Delocalization in Human Breast Cancer Lines and Combine with Dendritic Cell-Based Immunotherapy to Suppress Tumor Growth in a Mouse Model of HER-2 Disease. (
  • In addition, FA treatment inhibited the production of eotaxin, Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13), and proinflammatory cytokines but promoted the Th1 cytokine interferon- (IFN-) γ production in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and the culture supernatant of spleen cells. (
  • It is recognized that Th2 cells and their cytokines (interleukin- (IL-) 4, IL-5, and IL-13) are responsible for initiating and maintaining Th2-associated asthma [ 1 ]. (
  • These Th2 cytokines induce an inflammatory cascade that comprises allergen-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E production, mast cell activation, eosinophil recruitment, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) [ 2 ]. (
  • PD-1 elevation may reflect T-cell exhaustion marked by decreased proliferation, production of type I cytokines, and poor cytolytic activity. (
  • When PD-1 bound its ligand PD-L1, we observed a marked suppression of critical TCR target genes and Th1 cytokines. (
  • These cells produce decreased amounts of cytokines or are less proliferative when TIM-3 is activated by galectin-9 [ 16 , 17 ]. (
  • Characteristics typical of chronic inflammatory responses underlying the pathophysiology of several disorders include loss of barrier function, responsiveness to a normally benign stimulus, infiltration of inflammatory cells into compartments where they are not normally found in such high numbers, and overproduction of oxidants, cytokines, chemokines, eicosanoids and matrix metalloproteinases. (
  • Alarmins and pro-inflammatory cytokines from the IL (interleukin)-1 and TNF (tumour necrosis factor) families initiate the cascade of events by inducing chemokine release from bystander cells and by the up-regulation of adhesion molecules required for transendothelial trafficking of immune cells. (
  • Lastly, the innate immune system down-regulates effector mechanisms and restores homoeostasis in injured tissue via cytokines from the IL-10 and TGF (transforming growth factor) families mainly released from macrophages, preferentially the M2 subset, which have a capacity to induce regulatory T-cells, inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and induce healing of the tissue by regulating extracellular matrix protein deposition and angiogenesis. (
  • Cytokines produced by innate immune cells represent an attractive target for therapeutic intervention, and multiple molecules are currently being tested clinically in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic diseases, autoinflammatory syndromes, fibrosing processes or malignancies. (
  • In addition to the already widely used blockers of TNFα and the tested inhibitors of IL-1 and IL-6, multiple therapeutic molecules are currently in clinical trials targeting TNF-related molecules [APRIL (a proliferation-inducing ligand) and BAFF (B-cell-activating factor belonging to the TNF family)], chemokine receptors, IL-17, TGFβ and other cytokines. (
  • Upon interaction with its natural ligands (PD-L1 and PD-L2, members of the B7 family) expressed on T cells, B cells, and macrophages/dendritic cells, as well as viral-infected target cells, PD-1 abrogates the effector function of both immunoregulatory CD4 T cells and TH-1 cytolytic CD8 T cells while promoting the induction of TH-2 cytokines, such as interleukin-10 (IL-10) ( 7 ). (
  • Using FACScan flow cytometry, the proportion of PMA/ionomycin-stimulated T cells expressing cytokines ex vivo was compared in 18 poor responders to erythropoietin, 14 good responders to erythropoietin, and 14 normal controls. (
  • CD8 + T cells from poor responders also showed enhanced expression of cytokines. (
  • Specifically, the expression of Th1 and Th2 cytokines at the single cell level was assessed in three distinct groups, namely ( 1 ) uremic poor responders to rh-Epo, ( 2 ) uremic good responders to rh-Epo, to exclude the potential influence of uremia per se , and ( 3 ) healthy control subjects. (
  • Gut dysbiosis, a primary factor behind various gastrointestinal disorders may also augment lipopolysaccharides, pro-inflammatory cytokines, T helper cells and monocytes causing increased intestinal and BBB permeability via microbiota-gut-brain axis. (
  • Immune balance is regulated through T-helper cells that produce cytokines. (
  • Prior to lymphocytic infiltration, physiological islet abnormalities have been described in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of T1D, including upregulation of inflammatory cytokines ( 1 ) and increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in β-cells ( 2 ). (
  • Increase in secretion of Th1 and Th2 cytokines together with induced expression of chemokine receptors on T cells and monocytes suggest restoration of peripheral cell mediated immunity and blockade of the accumulation of inflammatory cells in joints as response to treatment. (
  • These cells express many proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors and are considered responsible for the degradation of the cartilage and erosion of juxta-articular bone. (
  • In addition, IL-2 plays a complex immunoregulatory role by inducing activated cells to enter a preapoptotic phase, increasing the levels of production of proinflammatory cytokines, and influencing T-cell differentiation ( 8 , 45 , 60 ). (
  • iNKT cells in all early RA patients exhibited a bias in cytokine secretion towards Th1 cytokines, independent of CD1 antigen processing. (
  • For example, activated CD4 + CD25 + Treg cells fail to produce most classic T-cell-derived cytokines, are hyporesponsive in the absence of exogenous growth factors, and suppress the functions of many different cell types. (
  • Type-1 T-helper cells (Th) predominantly produce the cytokines tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-β, interferon-γ and interleukin (IL)-2 and stimulate a strong cell-mediated immune response, particularly against intracellular pathogens. (
  • The first report on the specific cytokine profile of T-cells involved in the pathogenesis of human asthma was published in the early 1990s, demonstrating that T-cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from asthmatic patients predominantly produce the Th2-type cytokines granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and IL-3, -4 and -5 5 , 6 . (
  • Although the involvement of Th2 cytokines explains the biological basis of many features of the allergic reaction ( e.g. recruitment of eosinophils, activation of mast cells, airway remodelling and IgE production), it has been observed more recently that asthmatic individuals may also exhibit an increased Th1-like response to allergens 10 , 11 , especially in established disease 12 - 15 . (
  • After DCs were incubated with supernatants from H. pylori -infected epithelial cells, the conditioned cells expressed high levels of costimulatory molecules, such as CD80, and triggered naïve CD4 + T cells to produce high levels of the Th2 cytokines interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 and of the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha and gamma interferon. (
  • In contrast, after incubation of the supernatants with the neutralizing antibodies to TSLP, the conditioned DCs did not prime T cells to produce high levels of Th2 cytokines. (
  • In addition, DCs activated with TSLP and CD40 ligand induce the differentiation of naïve CD4 + T cells into effectors producing both Th1 and Th2 cytokines. (
  • Inhibitory cytokines and adenosine produced by Treg cells are also responsible for their suppressive functions. (
  • Proper function of immune mechanisms requires a balance between T-helper type 1 (Th1) and T-helper type 2 (Th2) cytokines. (
  • Cytokines are protein molecules produced by cells of the immune system that serve to regulate immunity. (
  • It was originally assumed that MC were exerting their primary effects on EAE within the CNS through the local expression of cytokines, chemokines and proteases that promote immune cell influx and myelin damage. (
  • In this study, we report a link between lower levels of GSH and dysregulation of TH1- and TH2-associated cytokines in the plasma samples of HIV-positive subjects. (
  • Furthermore, we demonstrate that supplementing individuals with HIV infection for 13 weeks with liposomal GSH (lGSH) resulted in a significant increase in the levels of TH1 cytokines, IL-1β, IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α. (
  • CXCR3 is expressed primarily on activated T lymphocytes and NK cells, and some epithelial cells. (
  • IL-12 expression by macrophage/monocytes is viewed as a requirement for the production of IFN-gamma by Th1 lymphocytes that mediate cellular immunity. (
  • Intraepithelial CD8 + tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and a high CD8 + /regulatory T cell ratio are associated with favorable prognosis in ovarian cancer. (
  • Bone marrow failure in such mice could be reversed by depletion of CD4 + T lymphocytes or blocked by knockout of interferon -γ, suggesting a Th1-cell-mediated autoimmune mechanism. (
  • These processes are impeded by PD-1, a coinhibitory molecule expressed on T cells that is elevated in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). (
  • In prospectively collected cancer tissues, we found that TIL exhibited dampened Tc1/Th1 skewing and activation compared with peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). (
  • Importantly, migration of CD152 positive Th1 lymphocytes in in vivo experiments increased more than 200% as compared to CD152 negative counterparts showing that indeed CD152 orchestrates specific migration of selected Th1 cells to sites of inflammation and antigenic challenge in vivo. (
  • 1) Cell fate choices, lineage commitment and maintenance of lymphocytes. (
  • In particular, developing lymphocytes and germinal center B cells elevate endogenous DNA damage due to rearrangement of antigen receptors and somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin, respectively. (
  • Because natural killer cells (NK) are critical for efficient cytotoxic T-cell priming and TH1 polarization, we investigated their role in Foxp3 induction in CD4(+) T lymphocytes. (
  • The Th1 lymphocytes help fight pathogens that are within cells like cancer and viruses through activation of interferon-gamma and macrophages. (
  • The Th2 lymphocytes target external pathogens, such as cytotoxic parasites, allergens, and toxins, through the activation of B-cells and antibody production to effect to dendritic cells, which are natural activators of killer T cells, also known as cytotoxic T cells, or CD8+ T cells. (
  • The inflamed synovium of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterised by massive leucocytic infiltration, mainly consisting of macrophages, T lymphocytes, and plasma cells. (
  • Notably, Immunotherapy aimed at restoring anti-tumor activity of T lymphocytes has become a pillar of cancer therapy [ 4 ]. (
  • CD27's activity is governed by the transient availability of its ligand, CD70, on lymphocytes and dendritic cells. (
  • MSCs exert powerful immunosuppressive functions via paracrine effects and cell-cell contact-dependent interactions, and MSCs also inhibit the proliferation of activated lymphocytes, thereby providing survival signals to resting immune cells and subsequently stimulating the induction of regulatory immune cells [ 12 ]. (
  • T1DM pathophysiology has been clearly related to an innate immune system defect resulting in a loss of self-tolerance, leading to the destruction of pancreatic β-cells by self-reactive-T-lymphocytes [ 2 ]. (
  • Th1 lymphocytes are critical in the cellular immune response and they play an important role in host defense system against microbial agents and viruses. (
  • Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a multifunctional endogenous polypeptide that modulates both innate and adaptive immunity at multiple levels of immune cell differentiation and activation ( 1 ). (
  • T cell activation and differentiation induce VPAC2 expression, whereas VPAC1 is downregulated following stimulation of human blood T cells with anti-CD3 mAb plus PMA ( 10 ). (
  • The effects of BMP6 on BMMSCs function were investigated using in vitro BMMSCs differentiation and in vitro and in vivo T cell proliferation and polarization assays. (
  • MSCs are multipotent stem cells characterized by colony-forming ability, multilineage differentiation, and self-renewal capacity [ 5 ]. (
  • For example, our group cloned and characterized one of the first lymphoid differentiation antigens associated with germinal center B-cells and a good risk subtype of DLBCL, CD10. (
  • T-box transcription factors, T-box expressed in T cells (T-bet) encoded by Tbx21 and Eomesodermin (Eomes), drive the differentiation of effector/memory T cell lineages and NK cells. (
  • Currently, our research focuses on T cell differentiation during chronic viral infection or in the tumor microenvironment and defines the molecular mechanisms that induces so-called "T cell exhaustion" and restore functions of "exhausted" T cells. (
  • That immobilization alters neurogenesis and stem cell differentiation in the CNS requires characterization of the stem cell microenvironment by examining the trophic and growth factors, as well as stress-related proteins that have been implicated in exercise-induced neurogenesis. (
  • Journal Article] Soluble IL-6R expressed by myeloid cells reduces tumor-specific Th1 differentiation and drivestumor progression. (
  • Similarly to cell division, differentiation, and death, autophagy is perturbed in multiple diseases, in that excessive or deficient autophagy may contribute to pathogenesis. (
  • Interestingly, stimulation of ITP patient cells with terbutaline inhibited the differentiation of Th1 cells while inducing the differentiation of Th2 and regulatory T cells. (
  • Growth inhibitors promote differentiation of insulin-producing tissue from embryonic stem cells. (
  • Iron oxide labeling does not affect differentiation potential of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells exhibited by their differentiation into cardiac and neuronal cells. (
  • CD40 signaling is known to 'license' dendritic cells to mature and thereby trigger T-cell activation and differentiation. (
  • Like CD27, OX40 promotes the expansion of effector and memory T cells, however it is also noted for its ability to suppress the differentiation and activity of T-regulatory cells, and also for its regulation of cytokine production. (
  • In our previous study, stem cells isolated from the human anterior cruciate ligament were shown to possess extensive proliferation and differentiation capabilities when treated with specific growth factors. (
  • In this study, we compared the effects of different culture media containing combinations of various concentrations of FBS and the growth factors basic fibroblastic growth factor (bFGF) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) on the proliferation and differentiation of ligament-derived stem cells (LSCs) and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). (
  • However, the differentiation and proliferation potentials of LSCs and BMSCs were increased when cultured in MesenPRO, a commercially available stem cell medium containing 2% FBS. (
  • IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 secreted by Th2 cells are also implicated in SSc development either by directly stimulating collagen synthesis and myofibroblast differentiation, or indirectly by regulating immunity and accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) after the induction of TGF-β secretion ( 6 ). (
  • Furthermore, these FA-treated DCs enhanced T-cell proliferation and Th1 cell polarization. (
  • This ethanol-associated deficit is associated with decreased interleukin (IL)-12 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production, but not IL-2 or antigen-specific T-cell proliferation by explanted leukocytes from ethanol-consuming mice. (
  • ICOS stimulation enhanced proliferation of CD4 + cells and production of IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10, but not IL-2. (
  • The limited number of functional studies suggest that stimulation of ICOS increases proliferation of mouse and human T cells in response to TCR stimulation ( 1 , 2 , 4 , 5 ). (
  • In contrast, we found a marked shift to FOXP3-negative CD4 T cells, accompanied by robust CD4 T-cell proliferation upon in vitro stimulation with cognate peptide. (
  • Blockade of the TIM-3 signaling pathway restores proliferation and enhances cytokine production in vaccine-induced CD8 + T cells [ 18 ]. (
  • While such rapid cell proliferation is required for host protection against infection or cancers, it is a metabolically demanding process and concurrently harbors the risk of oncogenesis due to replication stress. (
  • The transcription factor Foxo1 controls germinal center B cell proliferation in response to T cell help. (
  • mTOR regulates cell growth and proliferation in response to a wide range of cues, and its signaling pathway is deregulated in many human diseases. (
  • Subsequently, we isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from ITP patients found terbutaline treatment have no effect on the proliferation of both CD4+t cells and CD8+t cells. (
  • In fact, antigen-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation is initiated via the engagement of the T-cell receptor complex that triggers IL-2 and IL-2 receptor production, and the following autocrine interaction of IL-2 and IL-2R allows T-cell proliferation to occur. (
  • CD122: This molecule, which is the Interleukin-2 receptor beta sub-unit, is known to increase proliferation of CD8+ effector T cells. (
  • CD137: When this molecule, also called 4-1BB, is bound by CD137 ligand, the result is T-cell proliferation. (
  • With α-MEM plus 10% FBS and bFGF, rapid proliferation of stem cells can be achieved. (
  • Cell proliferation was assessed by determining DNA content. (
  • A detailed analysis of whether any of these pathways may be altered in human TCR-activated CD4 + CD25 + Treg cells has been hampered by the scarcity of these cells, difficulties in isolating pure populations due to the lack of a reliable cell-surface maker, and their relatively poor proliferation in vitro. (
  • Functions of T cells and APCs in spleens also were studied by lymphocyte proliferation assays. (
  • Vaccine PGE(2) DCs are potent inducers of T-cell proliferation and induce Th1 polarization. (
  • Formula feeding skews immune cell composition toward adaptive immunity compared to breastfeeding. (
  • Adaptive antiviral cellular immunity was increased in mCMV-infected VIP-KO mice compared with WT mice, with more Th1/Tc1-polarized T cells, fewer IL-10 + T cells, and more mCMV-M45 epitope peptide MHC class I tetramer + CD8 + T cells (tetramer + CD8 T cells). (
  • Enhanced antiviral immunity was also seen in WT transplant recipients engrafted with VIP-KO hematopoietic cells, indicating that VIP synthesized by neuronal cells did not suppress immune responses. (
  • Because the absence of VIP in immune cells increased innate and adaptive antiviral immunity by altering costimulatory and coinhibitory pathways, selective targeting of VIP signaling represents an attractive therapeutic target to enhance antiviral immunity. (
  • Interleukin-12 therapy restores cell-mediated immunity in ethanol-consuming mice. (
  • In this study, we restored antigen-specific, cell-mediated immunity, delayed hypersensitivity, to ethanol-consuming C57BL/6 or BALB/c mice with a single 100 ng of intravenous injection of recombinant IL-12 at the time of immunization. (
  • Expanding roles for CD4 T cells and their subpopulations in tumor immunity and therapy. (
  • Overall, these results defined a PD-1/SHP-2/STAT1/T-bet signaling axis mediating the suppressive effects of PD-1 on Th1 immunity at tumor sites. (
  • Our findings argue that PD-1 or SHP-2 blockade will be sufficient to restore robust Th1 immunity and T-cell activation and thereby reverse immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment. (
  • Th1 or "cell-mediated" immunity vs. Th2 or "humoral immunity") and immune cell organization. (
  • Neonates are susceptible to microbial infections and allergic reactions due to lack of Th1 immunity. (
  • Our data suggested that IL-4 might use this receptor chain to signal for the apoptosis of Th1 cells leading to lack of Th1 immunity in neonates. (
  • CD8[alpha]+CD4- DC subset transfer to 1 day old neonates diminished IL-13R[alpha]1 expression by IL-12 secretion, leading to inhibition of Th1 apoptosis and restoration of an adult-like Th1 immunity. (
  • Abundant IL-6/sIL-6R was produced by myeloid cells in tumor-bearing mice and inhibition of IL-6-mediated signals restored the T cell-mediated tumor immunity suggesting that IL-6/sIL-6R is a rational target to augment T-cell-mediated cancer immunotherapy. (
  • 1 ⇓ ⇓ - 4 The importance of Treg cells in vivo has been demonstrated in several mouse models: their absence results in systemic autoimmune disease, while their presence can inhibit antitumor, antiallergen, antiviral, and antiparasite immunity. (
  • Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomach and induces strong, specific local and systemic humoral and cell-mediated immunity, resulting in the development of chronic gastritis in humans. (
  • To share antibacterially and milimetersi effects of ursolic acid, its effect was studied on mice, the destruction of myelin in the brain which was launched by cuprizone - in this case, inflammatory processes and the presence of T-cell immunity in the lesion is minimal. (
  • Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) induces regulatory dendritic cells (DC) in vitro that inhibit cellular immune responses. (
  • A hallmark of CXCR3 is its prominent expression in in vitro cultured effector/memory T cells, and in T cells present in many types of inflamed tissues. (
  • Neutralizing BMP6 and knockdown of Id1 could restore the BMMSCs immunosuppressive function both in vitro and in vivo . (
  • This study investigated the immunomodulatory effects of ferulic acid (FA) on antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro and its antiallergic effects against ovalbumin- (OVA-) induced Th2-mediated allergic asthma in mice. (
  • In vitro, PGE2 secreted by MSCs inhibited Kupffer cell apoptosis via TLR4-ERK1/2-caspase3 pathway regulation. (
  • CD152 (CTLA-4) determines CD4 T cell migration in vitro and in vivo. (
  • We analyzed the consequences of CD152 signaling on Th cell migration using chemotaxis assays in vitro and radioactive cell tracking in vivo. (
  • In this study we identified these TAAs-derived long peptides (LPs) that can induce both Th1 cells restricted by common HLA class II molecules, and tumor-reactive CTLs specific to SPs included in LPs by cross-presentation in both human in vitro culture and HLA-transgenic mice in vivo. (
  • Journal Article] Bladder cancer-associated cancer-testis antigen-derived long peptides encompassing both CTL and promiscuous HLA class II-restricted Th cell epitopes induced CD4+ T cells expressing converged T-cell receptor genes in vitro. (
  • Enhanced cell death of Bmi1 −/− memory Th2 cells was observed both in vivo and in vitro. (
  • Few preclinical studies have also been conducted using undifferentiated MSCs as well as in vitro MSCs differentiated into β islet cells. (
  • In vitro, Tim-3 expression on NK cells isolated from blood of healthy donors can be induced by recombinant TNF-α via NF-κB pathway. (
  • in vitro expansion of iNKT cells to antigen-pulsed autologous monocytes and recombinant CD1d/antigen coated beads was compared to differentiate inherent iNKT cell defects from defects in antigen presentation. (
  • Selective repletion of the MC populations by transfer of in vitro differentiated bone marrow-derived MC restores early and severe disease. (
  • Scientists report an efficient biomaterial system to generate human amnion-like tissue in vitro through self-organized development of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) in a bioengineered niche mimicking the in vivo implantation environment. (
  • Treatment of irradiated hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) with Dkk1 in vitro increased the recovery of both long-term repopulating HSCs and progenitor cells, and systemic administration of Dkk1 to irradiated mice increased hematopoietic recovery and improved survival. (
  • Complementing this, gfDNA limited lamina propria dendritic cells induced T reg conversion in vitro . (
  • The percentages and subsets of circulating macrophage-like cells were analysed by flow cytometry, and the polarization patterns of these cells in the peripheral blood of patients with breast cancer were compared with those of healthy controls. (
  • Then, the mRNA expression of several markers related to different CD4 + T cell subsets including regulatory T cells (Treg), T helper (Th) type 1, 2 and 17 were determined. (
  • In addition, we found that the gene expression related to these two cell subsets decreased during cancer progression. (
  • The chemokine receptor CCR8 can affect trafficking of monocytes/macrophages, monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and T-helper cell (Th) subsets, but its role in liver diseases is currently unknown. (
  • By a genetic strategy, we report here that selective deletion of gp96 from CD11c + cells in mice results in alteration of dendritic cell and T cell subsets in the gut as well as loss of antigen-specific regulatory T cell induction in the mesenteric lymph nodes. (
  • The possible alteration of coinhibitory receptor/ligand expression on cryopreserved T cells is suggested by recent studies that compared levels of PD-1 expression on T-cell subsets as improved markers of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression using fresh versus cryopreserved samples ( 9 ). (
  • PD-1 expression on T-cell subsets using freshly prepared samples had a greater predictive value for HIV disease progression than CD38 expression on T cells or viral load, a correlation that was lost using cryopreserved samples. (
  • This study describes the impact of cryopreservation on PD-1/PD-L1 expression on T-cell subsets and monocytes in a cohort of adult control donors. (
  • This study examined intestinal and peripheral CD4 + T-cell subsets reconstitution under combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), and systemic immune activation markers. (
  • Blood and gut CD4 + T-cells subsets and cellular immune activation were determined by flow-cytometry and plasma soluble CD14 by ELISA. (
  • Although there is evidence that T cells with a regulatory/suppressor function exist within all major subsets, most research has been focused on those that are CD4 + and constitutively express high levels of the IL-2Rα (CD25). (
  • T-cells were originally subdivided, according to their functional properties, into two polarised subsets 4 . (
  • Flow cytometry was used to determine IL‑17A, IFN‑γ, tumor necrosis factor‑β, IL‑10 and IL‑12 levels in serum samples and T cell subsets in murine spleen. (
  • We tested the role of physiological levels of VIP on immune responses to murine CMV (mCMV) using VIP-knockout (VIP-KO) mice and radiation chimeras engrafted with syngenic VIP-KO hematopoietic cells. (
  • In adaptive immune responses, VIP polarizes CD4 + T cells to an immunosuppressive Th2 response while suppressing the Th1 responses ( 9 ). (
  • Furthermore, the serum level of IL-2, IFN-γ and TNF-α increased and IL-4 level decreased in a dose-dependent manner during DPF treatment, indicating that the antitumor activity of DPF may be associated with the decrease of TNF-α level and restoration of the balance of Th1/Th2 cell responses. (
  • In addition, the ability of DCs to polarize Th2 responses may be enhanced by engagement of Notch receptors at the surface of T cells with ligands Jagged on DCs [ 5 ]. (
  • As similar non-FcR-binding mAbs derived from OKT3 are being tested clinically, it is important to gain further understanding of the mechanism(s) by which these nonmitogenic mAbs suppress T cell responses. (
  • Thus, the different anti-CD3 mAbs may suppress T cell responses by distinct mechanisms. (
  • Macrophages, which can be polarized toward the M1 or M2 phenotype in response to environmental signals, are a key phagocytic cell type and produce factors that connect innate immune responses to the adaptive immune system. (
  • Previous studies from our laboratory show that ethanol consumption impairs antigen-specific, cell-mediated, but not, humoral immune responses of C57BL/6, BALB/c, and DO11.10 T-cell receptor transgenic mice. (
  • The recent discovery of the inducible costimulatory (ICOS) 4 molecule ( 1 ) has revealed a new means by which T cell responses may be regulated and raised questions about the functional significance of ICOS and its relationship with the CD28 pathway. (
  • Restoring anti-oncodriver Th1 responses with dendritic cell vaccines in HER2/neu-positive breast cancer: progress and potential. (
  • Important to the process of rational vaccine development, monitoring of antigen-specific T-cell responses helps guiding vaccine optimization. (
  • Interestingly, most of the Melan-A-specific T-cell responses identified in advanced tumor-bearing patients focus on the region spanning residues 20 to 40. (
  • This pronounced bias in processing and presentation of the Melan-A antigens is reminiscent of immunodominant protein regions and lends itself to detailed analysis of melanoma-specific CD8 and CD4 T-cell responses in defined clinical situations such as tumor progression, tumor cell death provoked by chemotherapy or radiotherapy, and in the course of immunotherapy. (
  • More importantly, such immunodominant region(s) are excellent candidates for peptide-based vaccines because of the promise to efficiently promote integrated protective T-cell responses ( 13 - 16 ). (
  • Dysregulation of interactions between the gut microbiota and the mucosal immune system causes development of chronic intestinal inflammation, which is mediated by DCs through their unique role in priming T-cell responses 31 . (
  • TIM-3 also induces peripheral tolerance through interacting with galectin-9, revealing an inhibitory action on T-cell responses [ 19 , 20 ]. (
  • These components act through a variety of mechanisms including decreasing inflammatory mediator production through effects on cell signaling and gene expression (ω-3 fatty acids, vitamin E, plant flavonoids), reducing the production of damaging oxidants (vitamin E and other antioxidants), and promoting gut barrier function and anti-inflammatory responses (prebiotics and probiotics). (
  • Innate immune cells, particularly macrophages and epithelial cells, play a key role in multiple layers of immune responses. (
  • The B7-CD28 immunoglobulin superfamily of costimulatory and coinhibitory ligands and their cell receptors play a critical role in modulating immune responses. (
  • Clinical studies often rely on the use of cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to evaluate cellular immune responses. (
  • Immune function studies employing cryopreserved cells may lead to increased T-cell effector cytolytic and regulatory immune responses. (
  • Migration of antigen-experienced T cells to secondary lymphoid organs and the site of antigenic-challenge is a mandatory prerequisite for the precise functioning of adaptive immune responses. (
  • The surface molecule CD152 (CTLA-4) is mostly considered as a negative regulator of T cell activation during immune responses. (
  • This novel activity of CD152 adds to the already significant role of CD152 in controlling peripheral immune responses by allowing T cells to localize correctly during infection. (
  • The Transcription Factor AP4 Mediates Resolution of Chronic Viral Infection through Amplification of Germinal Center B Cell Responses. (
  • Suppression by T regulatory cells (Treg cells) is a major mechanism by which the immune system controls responses to self and nonharmful foreign proteins. (
  • Active suppression of immune responses by T regulatory cells (Treg cells) is a key mechanism for induction and maintenance of peripheral tolerance. (
  • Among stem cells, autologous human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) elicit no immune rejection responses, tumorigenesis, or ethical problems. (
  • In this study, we demonstrate that reconstitution of the T-cell compartment in CD4 −/− mice restores vaccine-specific antibody and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) responses to these DNA vaccines. (
  • The magnitude of the immune responses correlated with the extent of reconstitution of the CD4 + -T-cell compartment. (
  • Reconstituted mice vaccinated with DNA encoding PstS-3, known to encode a dominant D b -restricted CD8 + -T-cell epitope, displayed CD8 + -T-cell responses not observed in CD4 −/− mice. (
  • Cell-mediated responses are known to be involved in the control of this infection. (
  • By expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules and allergen-specific T-cell receptors (TCRs) they link innate and adoptive immune responses. (
  • The aim of this study was to examine whether thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), an epithelial-cell-derived cytokine inducing a dendritic cell (DC)-mediated inflammatory Th2 response, is involved in Th2 responses triggering B-cell activation in H. pylori -induced gastritis. (
  • It also suggests that TSLP-mediated DC activation may be involved in Th2 responses triggering B-cell activation in H. pylori -induced gastritis. (
  • Th2 responses triggering B-cell activation appear to be involved in the development of lymphoid aggregates with germinal centers. (
  • However, molecular mechanisms to induce Th2 responses triggering B-cell activation are not clear. (
  • A.sub.2a receptor antagonists in particular are provided to enhance immune responses by reducing T-cell mediated tolerance to antigenic stimuli and agonists are provided to enhance effectiveness of immunosuppressive agents. (
  • The application provides methods of treatment and prevention based on the long term effects of the compounds on T cell responses. (
  • Once considered to be of sole importance in allergy and parasitic infections, the role of mast cells in other pathologic and protective immune responses is becoming increasingly evident. (
  • Importantly, selective repletion of the mast cell compartment restores most T cell responses in the lymph nodes and the central nervous system, correlating with reconstitution of severe disease. (
  • Our data provide the first in vivo evidence that mast cells can significantly influence T cell responses and suggest that mast cells exacerbate disease during both the inductive and effector phases. (
  • However, IFN-γ, the main cytokine produced by Th1 cells, can obstruct the above responses, leading to an anti-fibrotic effect ( 7-9 ). (
  • Encapsulation strategies have the potential to ameliorate these responses to promote survival post-transplantation, with modifications to the biomaterial chemistry, the incorporation of biologics or cell co-transplantation being used to avoid lifelong immunosuppression. (
  • We have demonstrated that persistent Th1-biased PAP-specific T-cell immune responses can be elicited in men with prostate cancer. (
  • Finally, using a trans vivo delayed type hypersensitivity (tvDTH) assay, we observed that PAP-specific immune responses in T cells obtained from patients after immunization with a DNA vaccine encoding PAP could be "uncovered" with PD-1 blockade but not blockade with anti-LAG-3 or anti-TIM-3. (
  • Our findings for the first time demonstrate that gp96 is essential for CD11c + cells to induce regulatory T cells and maintain gut homeostasis, illustrating the importance of protein immune chaperone in safeguarding against immune pathology. (
  • NK cells isolated from healthy donors were treated with recombinant TNF-α to induce Tim-3 expression. (
  • Taken together, Tim-3 may play a crucial role to induce NK cell dysfunction in tumor microenvironment and could serve as a potential biomarker for prognosis of esophageal cancer. (
  • SCFAs metabolically regulate T cells and change the phenotype of antigen presenting cells to efficiently induce IL-10+ regulatory T cells. (
  • They induce the synthesis of allergen-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E and recruit and activate effector cells, such as eosinophils, via the secretion of soluble factors. (
  • In a mouse model of allogeneic BM transplantation, DC that were differentiated in the presence of VIP, and then transplanted along with BM cells and splenic T cells, induced the generation of regulatory T cells and protected mice from acute graft versus host disease ( 12 ). (
  • To exclude effects of altered regulatory T cell (Treg) development caused by RORγt deficiency, we transferred naïve CD4 + T cells depleted of Tregs into Rag1 −/− mice. (
  • In addition to Th2-cell effects, dendritic cells (DCs), as professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), play an important role in antigen presentation in the airways, and the expression of costimulatory molecules and cytokine profile by DCs can determine whether T cells differentiate into type 1 T-helper (Th1) cells, Th2 cells, or regulatory T cells (Tregs) [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • Defects in the body's regulatory T cells cause inflammation and autoimmune disease by altering the type of bacteria living in the gut, researchers from The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston have discovered. (
  • All the blood sample were collected for surfactant protein-D (SP-D) levels assay, Th1/Th2 balance valuation, CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) analysis by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and flow cytometry. (
  • These approaches can be broken into three categories: removing autoimmune triggers, enhancing regulatory T cell function and reducing inflammation. (
  • Abrahamsson SV et al (2013) Non-myeloablative autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation expands regulatory cells and depletes IL-17 producing mucosal-associated invariant T cells in multiple sclerosis. (
  • Baraut J et al (2014) Peripheral blood regulatory T cells in patients with diffuse systemic sclerosis (SSc) before and after autologous hematopoietic SCT: a pilot study. (
  • The implication of autophagy in human diseases and the need to understand its regulatory mechanisms in mammalian cells have stimulated research efforts that led to the development of high-throughput screening protocols and small-molecule modulators that can activate or inhibit autophagy. (
  • CD4+ CD25+ T cells were isolated from xenografts secreting ICOS-Ig for phenotyping by flow cytometry, gene expression analysis by real-time PCR and regulatory function by suppression of xenogeneic or allogeneic primed CD4 T cells in vivo. (
  • In this second article in the present series, current understanding regarding the involvement of T-cells and antigen-presenting cells is summarised, with emphasis on the interaction between these two types of immune regulatory cells by means of co-stimulatory molecules. (
  • TLR9 deficient mice displayed increased frequencies of CD4 + Foxp3 + regulatory T cells (T reg ) within intestinal effector sites, and reduced constitutive IL-17 and IFN-γ producing effector T cells (T eff ). (
  • CD4 + T cells of the Foxp3 + regulatory lineage (T reg ) also mediate intestinal homeostasis. (
  • Alternative sources such as human embryonic stem cell-derived β-cells and porcine islets have the potential to satisfy demand, although efficacy, safety and regulatory issues remain to be addressed. (
  • We are currently studying the mechanisms by which different T cell regulatory ligands are expressed following immunization. (
  • These findings suggest that FA exhibits an antiallergic effect via restoring Th1/Th2 imbalance by modulating DCs function in an asthmatic mouse model. (
  • Our data showed that neferine significantly restored the significant reductions in body weights, the increased levels of lung index and hydroxyproline, the abnormal histological findings, the serum SP-D increase, the Th1/Th2 imbalance by decreasing IL-4 and increasing IFN-γ levels and the increases in the population of CD4+CD25+ Tregs associated with amiodarone instillation in mice. (
  • In conclusion, these results indicated that neferine possessed a significant inhibitory effect on amiodarone-induced pulmonary fibrosis, probably due to its properties of anti-inflammation, SP-D inhibition and restoring increased CD4+CD25+ Tregs which may modulate Th1/Th2 imbalance by suppressing Th2 response (from Th2 polarity toward a Th1 dominant response). (
  • Furthermore, terbutaline restored the immune imbalance of Th cells to control levels. (
  • The resulting Th1/Th2 imbalance makes patients susceptible to infections, sepsis and other adverse effects. (
  • SSc displays a Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalance with a predominant Th2 profile ( 5 ). (
  • The addition of exogenous recombinant IL-12 to co-cultures of antigen-presenting cells derived from ethanol-consuming mice and purified T cells derived from ethanol-nonconsuming DO11.10 repairs the ability of Th1 cells to make IFN-gamma in response to antigen. (
  • This is the first report on direct ex vivo identification of antigen-specific FOXP3+ T cells by multimer labeling in cancer patients and on the direct assessment of the impact of peptide vaccination on immunoregulatory T cells. (
  • The discovery of tumor-associated antigens recognized by conventional αβ T cells provided the foundation for the design of defined antigen-based cancer vaccines ( 4 ). (
  • Intestinal professional antigen presenting cells (pAPCs) recognize and respond to the gut microbiota through multiple pattern-recognition receptors, including TLRs and NLRs. (
  • In addition, a recent study showed that CD103 + CD11b − DCs are required for peripheral Treg cell induction during dietary antigen exposure 2 . (
  • C) Specific migration of antigen-specific stimulated Th1 cells in a recall response: Primary stimulation and recall response of CD4+CD62L+ OVA-specific TCRtg T cells were performed under Th1 conditions with 1 µg/ml OVA-peptide in the presence of 200 µg/ml neutralizing anti-CD152 Fab fragments or hamster control Fab fragments. (
  • Utilization of a TCR transgenic T cell transfer system, we demonstrated that primary neonatal Th1 cells develop alongside Th2 cells upon priming of the newborn but undergo apoptosis upon recall with antigen. (
  • Interestingly, we found that antigen exposure at day 6 after birth restored the secondary Th1 response concomitantly with IL-13R[alpha]1 mRNA downregulation. (
  • The company is developing therapies designed to elicit a powerful and durable response of antigen-specific killer T cells and antibodies directly within patients, thereby activating essential immune defenses against autoimmune, inflammatory, infectious diseases and cancers. (
  • Accordingly, the anchoring of GAD65 to exosome-mimetic liposomes strongly boosted antigen presentation and T-cell activation in the context of the human T1D susceptibility haplotype HLA-DR4. (
  • and increased exosomal stimulation of antigen-presenting cells. (
  • The mechanisms whereby these intracellular autoantigens are initially recognized by the immune system, taken up by antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and presented to self-reactive T cells have, however, not been clarified. (
  • Cytocom is developing therapies designed to elicit directly within patients a robust and durable response of antigen-specific killer T cells and antibodies, thereby activating essential immune defenses against autoimmune, inflammatory, infectious diseases, and cancers. (
  • IL-2 is a cytokine that is produced by antigen or mitogen-activated T cells and that has been shown to exert a key role in the immune system. (
  • CD1d expression on antigen-presenting cells was not different between groups. (
  • CD27: This molecule supports antigen-specific expansion of naïve T cells and is vital for the generation of T cell memory. (
  • CD40: This molecule, found on a variety of immune system cells including antigen presenting cells has CD40L, otherwise known as CD154 and transiently expressed on the surface of activated CD4+ T cells, as its ligand. (
  • OX40's value as a drug target primarily lies in the fact that, being transiently expressed after T-cell receptor engagement, it is only upregulated on the most recently antigen-activated T cells within inflammatory lesions. (
  • The ligand for GITR is mainly expressed on antigen presenting cells. (
  • In this approach, the immunogenic antigen of interest is made by cells of the vaccinated host, thus bypassing tedious procedures of protein purification. (
  • While thymically derived T reg are essential for this protection, converted T reg formed in the GALT following naïve CD4 + T cell encounter with antigen may provide additional protection. (
  • Most of these efforts have focused on increasing the delivery of vaccine to antigen-presenting cells using different carriers or by electroporation. (
  • While such "optimized" vaccines elicited increased numbers of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells, these T cells had less anti-tumor activity in vivo. (
  • We determined that immunization with plasmid DNA elicited antigen-specific IFNγ-secreting T cells that led to increased expression of PD-L1 on antigen-expressing tumor cells. (
  • However, immunization with the vaccine encoding high affinity epitopes resulted in antigen-specific CD8+ T cells with higher PD-1 expression. (
  • Conversely, immunization with plasmid DNA engineered to increase the duration of antigen expression led to CD8+ T cells with normal PD-1 expression but higher LAG-3 expression. (
  • In addition, vaccine PGE(2) DCs are potent inducers of tumor antigen-specific CD8(+) effector T cells. (
  • Although anti-PD-1 antibodies enhance IFNγ secretion after stimulation of the T-cell receptor (TCR), the mechanistic link between PD-1 and its effects on T-cell help (Tc1/Th1 skewing) remains unclear. (
  • The secretion and mRNA expression of interferon γ (IFNγ), interleukin (IL)4, IL5, and TNFα from phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells was measured with an ELISA and RT-PCR. (
  • The pro-survival pathway activation was associated with the expression and secretion of β-cell growth factors by uMSCs, among which insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) was highly abundant. (
  • In addition, PAP-specific secretion of IFNγ and granzyme B by T cells obtained from patients after immunization was increased in the presence of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade. (
  • Notably, when Abx-treated STZ-injected WT mice received the NOD2 ligand muramyl dipeptide, both hyperglycemia and the proinflammatory immune response were restored. (
  • mCMV-infected VIP-KO mice had lower viral loads, faster clearance of virus, with increased numbers of IFN-γ + NK and NKT cells, and enhanced cytolytic activity of NK cells. (
  • mCMV-immune VIP-KO mice had enhanced ability to clear mCMV peptide-pulsed target cells in vivo. (
  • Following mCMV infection there was a marked upregulation of MHC-II and CD80 costimulatory molecule expression on DC from VIP-KO mice compared with DC from WT mice, whereas programmed death-1 and programmed death ligand-1 expression were upregulated in activated CD8 + T cells and DC, respectively, in WT mice, but not in VIP-KO mice. (
  • Mice deficient in this protein exhibit increased bacterial adherence to the small intestinal epithelial surface, increased fecal immunoglobulin A (IgA), and increased numbers of intestinal T helper 1 (T H 1) cells. (
  • Because RORγt −/− mice lack lymph nodes, which may influence the development of nephritis, we performed cell-transfer studies. (
  • Mice receiving wild-type splenocytes exhibited high mortality from renal failure after induction of nephritis whereas mice receiving RORγt −/− cells were protected. (
  • To determine the effect of RORγt deficiency specifically in T helper cells, we isolated naïve CD4 + T cells from wild-type and RORγt −/− mice and transferred them into Rag1 −/− animals. (
  • Similarly, treatment of mice with the nonmitogenic anti-CD3 results in internalization of the TCR complex and depletion of T cells from the circulation and peripheral lymphoid organs. (
  • We found that mice with spontaneous deletion of the TGFβ-activated kinase-1 gene in a small subset of hematopoietic cells developed bone marrow failure which resembled the clinical manifestations of acquired aplastic anemia patients. (
  • Liver fibrosis progression, but also subsequent T-cell alterations, could be restored by adoptively transferring CCR8-expressing monocytes/macrophages into ccr8(-/-) mice during experimental injury. (
  • The levels of a metabolite called inosine were reduced in mice lacking Foxp3 but were restored to normal after resetting the gut microbiome with L. reuteri. (
  • These pro-inflammatory T cell types are elevated in Foxp3-deficient mice, but their numbers are diminished by treatment with either L. reuteri or inosine itself, reducing inflammation and extending the animals' life span. (
  • Recall response of CD4+ OVA-specific TCRtg T cells from CD152−/− or CD152+/+ mice was induced by adding 1 µg/ml OVA323-339 and T cell-depleted APCs. (
  • We demonstrated that tumor-specific Th1 cells was attenuated in tumor-bearing mice and cancer patients in an IL-6 and soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R)-dependent manner. (
  • Sympathectomized ITP mice exhibited a significantly longer platelet recovery time, lower survival, and expressed more Th1 genes than non-sympathectomized mice. (
  • Il18-deficient mice exhibit reduced levels of interferon gamma in response to bacterial and lipopolysaccharide challenge, diminished natural killer cell activity, and impaired T helper lymphocyte response. (
  • Il18 deficient mice also exhibit diminished natural killer cell activity and impaired T helper lymphocyte response. (
  • Defective NK cell activity and Th1 response in IL-18-deficient mice. (
  • In the present study we isolated and purified CD4+ CD25+ T cells from ICOS-Ig secreting grafts to examine their phenotype, and used knockout and mutant mice to examine molecules involved in graft prolongation. (
  • To obtain CNS APCs, brains from newborn mice were collected, dissociated with scissors and digested with collagenase type 4 (2 mg/ml, Worthington Biochemical) for 1 hour at 37 °C. Mononuclear cells in the interphase between 30% and 70% of Percoll (GE healthcare) were isolated by density-cut centrifugation as described 38 . (
  • Adherent glial cells, largely composed of microglial cells, were co-cultured as APCs with naïve CD4 + T cells at 1:10 ratio for 5-6 days in the presence of Staphylococcal enterotoxin B ( SEB , 5 μg/ml, List Labs ) to stimulate naïve CD4 + T cells isolated from the spleen and lymph nodes of unimmunized C57BL/6 mice. (
  • Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) were intravenously (1 3 106 cells) or intracerebroventricularly (4 3 105 cells) transplanted into the brains of 18-month-old mice once or four times at 2-week intervals. (
  • Anti-TB DNA vaccines encoding the immunodominant proteins Ag85A, Ag85B, and PstS-3 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis are ineffective in mice lacking CD4 + T cells (CD4 −/− mice). (
  • M. tuberculosis challenge in reconstituted mice led to the extravasation of IFN-γ-producing CD4 + and CD8 + T cells into lungs, the primary site of bacterial replication. (
  • Activation of both CD4 + and CD8 + T cells is seen in primo-infected individuals ( 19 ) and in mice after an experimental infection ( 23 ). (
  • Similarly, athymic mice with no functional peripheral T-cells also lack eosinophilic airway infiltration and increased AHR following allergen sensitisation, unless production of the Th2 cytokine IL-5 is restored by systemic administration 9 . (
  • Early indices of both peripheral CD4 and CD8 T cell activation, including IFN-γ production and increases in CD44 and CD11a expression, are attenuated in mast cell-deficient (W/W v ) mice after myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 priming when compared to WT animals. (
  • Implanted circuit-carrying cells corrected insulin deficiency and self-sufficiently abolished persistent hyperglycemia in type 1 diabetes mice. (
  • Scientists showed that deletion of the pro-apoptotic genes Bak and Bax in osterix-expressing cells in mice promotes hematopoietic stem cell regeneration and hematopoietic radioprotection following total body irradiation. (
  • The authors compared the effects of long-term serial administration of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and cyclophosphamide treatment in C3.MRL-Fas lpr /J mice using a murine systemic lupus erythematosus model. (
  • Ursolic acid when ingested stops the development of an analogue of multiple sclerosis in mice, stimulates the maturation of oligodendrocytes and restores the myelin sheath of neurons in the Central nervous system. (
  • CXCR3 ligands that attract Th1 cells can concomitantly block the migration of Th2 cells in response to CCR3 ligands, thus enhancing the polarization of effector T cell recruitment. (
  • Correspondingly, hepatic CD4(+) T cells showed increased Th1 polarization and reduced Th2 cells in CCR8-deficient animals. (
  • Neutralization of IFN-gamma partially restored Treg conversion and prevented TH1 polarization after CD28 costimulation. (
  • Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) as the primary adrenergic receptor on immune cells and shown that the nervous system can directly modulate Th cell polarization. (
  • Here, we explored the regulation of the sympathetic nervous system on Th cell polarization and the role of β2-AR signaling in immune cell development and pathways during ITP. (
  • We have previously shown that vaccination of HLA-A2 metastatic melanoma patients with the analogue Melan-A 26-35(A27L) peptide emulsified in a mineral oil induces ex vivo detectable specific CD8 T cells. (
  • Vaccination of metastatic melanoma patients with the peptide analogue Melan-A 26-35(A27L) emulsified in mineral oil resulted in high frequencies of Melan-A-specific CD8 T cells that can be detected by direct ex vivo flow cytometry analysis using HLA-A2/Melan-A peptide multimers in ∼60% of vaccinated patients ( 18 , 19 ). (
  • We demonstrated that CD10 was a neutral endopeptidase that regulated peptide-mediated signaling, stromal cell dependent lymphopoiesis and B-cell reconstitution and maturation in vivo. (
  • Eomes expression correlated positively not only with expression of Tbx21 and TGFβ1 mRNA, but also with mRNA expression of the activation marker ICOS, and with in vivo activated HLA-DR(+) T cells. (
  • Interleukin-2-activated NK decreased Treg conversion of adoptively transferred murine CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells in vivo. (
  • Studies designed to reveal how in vivo stimulation, or lack thereof, alters the stem cell microenvironment are needed to begin to develop treatment strategies for enhancing neurogenesis in bedridden patients. (
  • Moreover, these cells are functional and specifically suppress primed T cells in vivo. (
  • We investigated whether altered T-cell-receptor (TCR)-mediated signaling in pure populations of ex vivo human CD4 + CD25 + Treg cells might underlie their unique phenotype, including hyporesponsiveness to TCR-mediated activation and lack of cytokine production. (
  • Immunofluorescence staining was performed to track UC‑MSC localization and lymphocyte cell infiltration in vivo . (
  • Influenza virus infection exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis disease by promoting type I T cells infiltration into central nervous system. (
  • Talmadge JE, Donkor M, Scholar E. Inflammatory cell infiltration of tumors: Jekyll or Hyde. (
  • Prognostic significance of CD8 + T cell and macrophage peritumoral infiltration in colorectal cancer. (
  • Chemokines critically control the infiltration of immune cells upon liver injury, thereby promoting hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. (
  • Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by circulating autoantibodies, lymphocytic infiltration of pancreatic islets of Langerhans, and cell-specific destruction of β-cells, leading to insulin deficiency ( 1 ). (
  • Activated T-cells were found in increased numbers in the bronchial tissues of asthmatic subjects 1 , 2 , and depletion of CD4+ T-cells in a mouse model of allergic airway disease impressively prevented both the development of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and the infiltration of eosinophils into the airways 3 . (
  • Although H. pylori -induced chronic atrophic gastritis is characterized by marked infiltration of T helper type 1 (Th1) cytokine-producing CD4 + T cells, almost all of the inflamed gastric mucosae also contain focal lymphoid aggregates with germinal centers. (
  • By contrast, T helper (Th)17 cell infiltration and activation in skin were efficiently inhibited after UC‑MSC infusion, as evidenced by the decreased IL‑17A and retinoic acid‑related orphan receptor γt gene expression as well as IL‑17A production. (
  • When it works, immune checkpoint blockade expands Th1 CD4 effector cells, which leads to activation of killer CD8 T cells and generation of long-term memory cells. (
  • Blockade of these interactions with antibodies directed against PD-1 or its ligands restores TH-1 immunoregulatory and T-cell cytolytic functions ( 1 , 5 , 8 , 16 ). (
  • The anti-tumor activity was restored in the presence of PD-1 or PD-L1 blockade. (
  • The anti-tumor activity was similarly restored in the presence of LAG-3 blockade. (
  • Recipients of wild-type, Treg-depleted, CD4 + T cells developed severe glomerulonephritis whereas recipients of RORγt −/− , Treg-depleted CD4 + T cells did not. (
  • It is now accepted that Treg homeostasis depends in part on the peripheral conversion of naïve CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells. (
  • Graft prolongation is dependent on a pre-existing Foxp3+ Treg, IL-10, perforin and granzyme B. CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ T cells isolated from xenografts secreting ICOS-Ig have a phenotype consistent with nTreg but with a higher expression of CD275 (ICOSL), expression of CD278 (ICOS) and MHC II and loss of CD73. (
  • and MEDI6383, an OX40 agonist GITR: short for Glucocorticoid-Induced TNFR family Related gene, prompts T cell expansion, including Treg expansion. (
  • Although there are many different types of Treg cells, the best characterized are those that constitutively express cell-surface IL-2Rα (CD25). (
  • CD4 + CD25 + Treg cells displayed a consistent defect in phosphorylation of AKT at serine 473 and reduced phosphorylation of the AKT substrates FOXO and S6. (
  • Restoration of AKT activity via lentiviral-mediated expression of an inducibly active form of the kinase revealed that reduced activity of this pathway was necessary for the suppressive function of CD4 + CD25 + Treg cells. (
  • These data represent the first demonstration of a causal association between altered signaling and the function of CD4 + CD25 + Treg cells. (
  • This system will be a powerful tool to further study the mechanism(s) of suppression by CD4 + CD25 + Treg cells. (
  • 2 ⇓ ⇓ - 5 Knowledge of exactly how Treg cells arise, the precise mechanisms that control their suppressive function, and how they differ from effector T cells at the molecular level remains largely unknown. (
  • A better understanding of the basic biologic characteristics of Treg cells will lead to novel therapies for diseases resulting from immune dysregulation. (
  • These CD4 + CD25 + Treg cells have more recently been further defined based on high expression of the FOXP3 transcription factor, 6 , 7 and in humans relatively pure populations of CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + Treg cells can be isolated from peripheral blood by sorting 1% to 3% of the brightest CD25 + cells within the CD4 + T-cell subset. (
  • 8 ⇓ - 10 CD4 + CD25 + Treg cells possess several characteristics that suggest their intracellular signaling following T-cell-receptor (TCR) activation may differ from that of effector T cells. (
  • Nevertheless, there have been several attempts to characterize intracellular signaling events in mouse and human CD4 + CD25 + Treg cells. (
  • One ofthe most important advantages ofTME for tumor cells is immunosuppressive environment such as higher presence ofregulatory T(Treg)cells, which play a central role for establishment and maintenance of immunological selftolerance and homeostasis. (
  • CTLA-4 expressed by Treg cells prevents the maturation ofAPCs resulting in suppression ofT -cell activation. (
  • It has also been shown that IL-9-producing Th9 cells may protect from the development of pulmonary fibrosis in SSc by inducing IL-17 production and Treg activation ( 15 ). (
  • The findings suggest that this cytokine acts through several, sometimes conflicting, mechanisms that are deeply influenced by the host immunological status, the concomitant antiretroviral therapy adopted, and the nature of the target cells. (
  • In addition, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 are commonly produced by local cells in inflammatory lesion, suggesting that CXCR3 and its chemokines participate in the recruitment of inflammatory cells. (
  • The main CCR8-expressing cells in the liver were hepatic macrophages, and CCR8 was functionally necessary for CCL1-directed migration of inflammatory but not for nonclassical monocytes into the liver. (
  • Moreover, the phenotype of liver macrophages from injured ccr8(-/-) animals was altered with increased expression of DC markers and enhanced expression of T-cell-attracting chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein 1-alpha (MIP-1α/CCL3). (
  • Cytocom, Inc. is a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company developing novel immunotherapies targeting autoimmune, inflammatory, infectious diseases and cancers based on a proprietary platform designed to rebalance the body's immune system and restore homeostasis. (
  • TSLP-activated DCs promote CD4 + T cells to differentiate into inflammatory Th2 cells that produce interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) while downregulating IL-10 and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) ( 23 , 44 ). (
  • Researchers showed that human periodontal ligament stem cells-derived conditioned medium and purified exosomes/microvesicles obtained from Relapsing Remitting-multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and healthy donors block experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a mouse model of MS, by inducing anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects in spinal cord and spleen, and reverse disease progression by restoring tissue integrity via remyelination in the spinal cord. (
  • CXCR3-ligand interaction attracts Th1 cells and promotes Th1 cell maturation. (
  • Murine studies showed that only maturation with Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands generates mature DCs that produce interleukin-12 and promote optimal T-cell help. (
  • HIV infection is characterized by a progressive depletion of CD4 + T cells, a severe dysregulation of the immune system function and progression to AIDS. (
  • THE HAGUE, Netherlands , June 11, 2021 /PRNewswire/ -- Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a disease manifesting as a low platelet count in which dysregulation of T helper (Th) cells play a central role. (
  • More recently, our group has identified and characterized novel risk-related genes in DLBCL, including the B-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase, PTPROt, which regulates spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) activity and is itself a BCL6 target, and 2 partner proteins, BAL and BBAP, which play unique roles in DNA damage repair. (
  • They demonstrated that TALENs applied directly to the cervix reduce viral DNA load, trigger reexpression of tumor suppressor genes, and reverse the malignant phenotype of infected cells. (
  • Among various proapoptotic genes that are regulated by Bmi1, the expression of proapoptotic BH3-only protein Noxa was increased in Bmi1 −/− effector Th1/Th2 cells. (
  • It is currently unknown whether CD152 can also influence chemokine-driven T cell migration. (
  • Crosslinking of CD152 together with CD3 and CD28 stimulation on activated Th1 cells increased expression of the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CCR7, which in turn enhanced cell migration. (
  • Here, we analyse human CD4+ memory T cells expressing the gut-homing chemokine receptor CCR9 and found a reduced frequency of CCR9+ memory T cells in the peripheral blood of patients with SPMS relative to healthy controls. (
  • Here, we show that H. pylori triggered human gastric epithelial cells to produce TSLP, together with the DC-attracting chemokine MIP-3α and the B-cell-activating factor BAFF. (
  • Cellular responsiveness is restored after dephosphorylation of intracellular receptors and subsequent recycling to the cell surface. (
  • The study, "Resetting microbiota by Lactobacillus reuteri inhibits T reg deficiency-induced autoimmunity via adenosine A2A receptors," which will be published online December 19 in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, suggests that replacing the missing gut bacteria, or restoring a key metabolite called inosine, could help treat children with a rare and often fatal autoimmune disease called IPEX syndrome. (
  • The researchers found that, by binding to cell surface proteins called adenosine A2A receptors, inosine inhibits the production of Th1 and Th2 cells. (
  • The impact of cryopreservation on these coinhibitory ligands and their cell receptors is unknown. (
  • High affinity receptors for IgE immunoglobulin (FceRI) are present on the surface of those cells. (
  • When receptors bind IgE cross-linked with allergens, intracellular chains cross over and the cell degranulate. (
  • Production of IL-2 by these cells is the final event following various second-messenger intracellular pathways that integrate signals from surface receptors. (
  • Objectives We have previously defined the human iNKT repertoire according to the clonal distribution of high- and low-affinity iNKT T-cell receptors 1 . (
  • Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) treatment has emerged as a promising approach for treating Sjögren's syndrome (SS). (
  • Impaired immunoregulatory activities of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) are found in both SS patients and animal models, and the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. (
  • In recent years, an accumulating body of evidence has supported the promising effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. (
  • Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been proposed as a promising therapy for treatment of certain liver diseases, but the role of MSCs in DCD liver graft function remains elusive. (
  • Therefore, this review mainly focuses on the current status and therapeutic potential of stem cells mainly mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for Type 1 diabetes mellitus in preclinical animal models as well as humans. (
  • Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells as a delivery platform in cell and gene therapies. (
  • Human umbilical cord matrix-derived stem cells (uMSCs), owing to their cellular and procurement advantages compared with mesenchymal stem cells derived from other tissue sources, are in clinical trials to treat type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). (
  • Improving the effects of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) on the demyelination and neurobehavioral function was investigated in an experimental model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). (
  • We tested the long-term effects of different regimens of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) administration in a recurrent experimental autoimmune uveitis (rEAU) model in rats, and compared the efficacy of MSC to that of dexamethasone (DEX). (
  • Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been envisioned as a promising tool for T1DM treatment over the past few years, since they could differentiate into glucose-responsive insulin-producing cells. (
  • Like the mitogenic anti-CD3 mAb, nonmitogenic anti-CD3 triggered changes in the T cell receptor (TCR) complex, including ζ chain tyrosine phosphorylation and ZAP-70 association. (
  • Our findings suggest that probiotic L. reuteri, inosine, or other A2A receptor agonists could be used therapeutically to control T cell-mediated autoimmunity," says Yuying Liu. (
  • Here we have investigated the iNKT repertoire with regard to function and T-cell receptor affinity in early Rheumatoid Arthritis. (
  • Results The clonal repertoire of iNKT cells in healthy controls shows a broad distribution with regard to iNKT receptor affinity for CD1d. (
  • The American biotech company Celldex Therapeutics is working on CDX-1127, an agonistic anti-CD27 monoclonal antibody which in animal models has been shown to be effective in the context of T cell receptor stimulation. (
  • 0004] This application relates to uses of A.sub.2a adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists to modulate T-cell mediated tolerance to antigenic stimuli. (
  • Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that is triggered by both genetic and environmental factors, resulting in the destruction of pancreatic β cells. (
  • Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that is triggered when immunological tolerance to self-tissues fails, resulting in the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β cells in genetically predisposed individuals. (
  • In contrast to earlier studies, recent work suggested that neither IL-17A deficiency nor T cell-specific overexpression of IL-17A had significant effects on experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE). (
  • Conflicting results have been reported regarding differing studies on the association between T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 polymorphisms and autoimmune disease. (
  • Defects in T reg cells therefore lead to various types of autoimmune disease. (
  • Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) has been established as an important therapeutic approach for patients with autoimmune diseases (AD) refractory to conventional treatment. (
  • The autoimmune response in type 1 diabetes combined with the response to allogeneic cell transplantation remains a formidable barrier to transplant success that currently requires the use of powerful immunosuppressive drugs. (
  • Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder in which the immune system attacks and destroys insulin-producing islet cells of the pancreas. (
  • Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a complex multifactorial disorder which involves a loss of self-tolerance leading to the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β−cells. (
  • The scientific community and diabetic patients are thus, still waiting for an effective therapy which could preserve the remaining β-cells, replenish islet mass and protect newly-generated β-cells from autoimmune destruction. (
  • The inducible costimulatory (ICOS) molecule is expressed by activated T cells and has homology to CD28 and CD152. (
  • Strikingly, ICOS up-regulation is significantly reduced in the absence of CD80 and CD86 and can be restored by CD28 stimulation, suggesting that CD28-CD80/CD86 interactions may optimize ICOS expression. (
  • CD28: This molecule is constitutively expressed on almost all human CD4+ T cells and on around half of all CD8 T cells. (
  • The percentages of circulating macrophages, which are defined as PM-2 K + cells in the peripheral blood, were significantly higher in patients with breast cancer than in healthy controls. (
  • Interestingly, TCR-transgenic T cells differentiated into Th2 expressed significantly more ICOS than cells differentiated into Th1. (
  • Upon vaccination, the relative frequency of multimer+ CD4 T cells did not change significantly. (
  • In our studies, cryopreservation significantly reduced the expression of both PD-1 and PD-L1 on PBMC-derived CD3 + /CD8 + T cells and CD45 + /CD14 + monocytes obtained from adult control subjects. (
  • In the absence of the polycomb group (PcG) gene Bmi1 , the number of memory CD4 + T helper (Th)1/Th2 cells was reduced significantly. (
  • The repertoire of iNKT cells in blood is significantly changed in early treatment-naive RA, with loss of higher-affinity iNKT TCR bearing cells that may have key roles in immunological tolerance. (
  • The adoptive transfer of WT-derived encephalitogenic T cells results in significantly less severe disease in W/W v recipients, indicating that mast cells also exert potent effects after the initial T cell response is generated. (
  • ReadiSorb supports immune cell defense, as evidenced by a significantly improved intracellular defense against infection in the immune cells of individuals who ingested ReadiSorb Glutathione (see immune support graph). (
  • The growth of TB was significantly reduced in their cells after ingesting oral ReadiSorb Glutathione. (
  • Binding with its two ligands are CD80 and CD86, expressed on dendritic cells, prompts T cell expansion. (
  • Commonly used prophylactic vaccines as an alternative for synthetically produced TLR ligands to mature monocyte-derived dendritic cells. (
  • He has developed dendritic cell vaccines for the treatment of cancer. (
  • He is involved with several clinical trials for treating patients with early breast cancer with dendritic cell vaccines. (
  • BrdU labeling of proliferative cells, biochemical assays of serum, cerebrospinal fluid and brain levels of trophic factors, growth factors, and stress-related proteins are proposed as indices of neurogenesis, while quantitative measurements of spontaneous movements will reveal psychomotor components of immobilization. (
  • The results indicated that UC‑MSC treatment only had a limited systematic effect on cytokine production in serum samples and T cell activation in the spleen. (
  • Although encapsulation technology has met several challenges, the convergence of expertise in materials, nanotechnology, stem cell biology and immunology is allowing us to get closer to the goal of encapsulated islet cell therapy for humans. (
  • A growing body of evidences suggests that T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM) proteins participate in both the regulation of helper T-cell immune response and in ADs [ 6-12 ]. (
  • Two main target autoantigens in T1D, GAD65 ( 4 ) and IA-2 ( 5 ), are rare intracellular membrane proteins in β-cells. (
  • Circulating autoantibodies to these proteins are an early marker of β-cell autoimmunity and can be used with HLA class II haplotyping to detect individuals who are at risk long before the clinical onset of disease ( 6 ). (
  • A third autoantigen, insulin, constitutes ∼50% of β-cell proteins and is released by regulated exocytosis of secretory granules ( 7 ). (
  • These are a 30- to 32-kDa family of three proteins (Ag85A, Ag85B, and Ag85C), all of which possess a mycolyl transferase activity, required for the formation of the bacterial cell wall. (
  • Olivamine ® , developed by McCord Research , has been shown to increase genetic expression of protective antioxidants and proteins within the cell that can remedy oxidative damage and increase the lifespan of cells. (
  • Its expression is controlled by Myd88 in specialized epithelial cells of the small intestine. (
  • Abramson J, Anderson G (2017) Thymic epithelial cells. (
  • These results, together with the finding that TSLP was expressed by the epithelial cells of human follicular gastritis, suggest that H. pylori can directly trigger epithelial cells to produce TSLP. (
  • In humans, an epithelial-cell-derived cytokine, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), activates CD11c + myeloid dendritic cells (DCs), and activated DCs strongly upregulate the expression of costimulatory molecules, such as CD80 and CD86 ( 23 , 38 , 43 , 44 ). (
  • Flow cytometry revealed reduced infiltrates of liver macrophages, neutrophils and natural killer cells, whereas hepatic CD4(+) T cells increased. (
  • In the intestine, pAPCs including dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages are strategically positioned to protect the gut while maintaining mucosal tolerance to food, self-antigens and microbiota. (
  • CD8 + and CD4 + T cells are thought to control infection at different stages and sites of infection by their capacity to produce gamma interferon (IFN-γ) in response to infected macrophages presenting mycobacterial antigens ( 6 , 24 , 27 ). (
  • CXCR3 and CCR5 are preferentially expressed on Th1 cells, whereas Th2 cells favor the expression of CCR3 and CCR4. (
  • The inducible expression of ICOS is especially interesting because it suggests that ICOS may be particularly important in costimulation of activated T cells. (
  • Studies in mouse show that Tbx21 protein is a Th1 cell-specific transcription factor that controls the expression of the hallmark Th1 cytokine, interferon-gamma (IFNG). (
  • Expression of the human ortholog also correlates with IFNG expression in Th1 and natural killer cells, suggesting a role for this gene in initiating Th1 lineage development from naive Th precursor cells. (
  • Eomes expression was negatively associated with TNFα-producing T cells. (
  • Using sensitive liposome technology, we show that mature dendritic cells but not activated B cells were potent at inducing surface CD152 expression and the CD152-mediated migration-enhancing signals. (
  • These Th1 cells were isolated, and their death was correlated with elevated IL-13R[alpha]1 chain expression. (
  • Developing cells differentiating to a specific lineage acquire gene expression profiles linked to their professional functions as they lose developmental plasticity. (
  • These changes in gene expression take place at developmental checkpoints at which developing precursor cells choose one fate over the other. (
  • cMyc-induced expression of the transcription factor AP4 sustains CD8+ T cell activation to protect against microbial infection. (
  • At the start of treatment and after 2 and 6 weeks, spontaneous expression of CCR3 and CCR5 on peripheral blood T cells and monocytes was studied by flow cytometry. (
  • Peripheral and tumor-infiltrating NK cells were analyzed for Tim-3, Annexin V, CD69, CD107a and IFN-γ expression by flow cytometry. (
  • Quantitative real-time PCR was used to test relative mRNA expression of IFN-γ, granzyme B, perforin and NKG2D in sorted Tim-3 + NK cells and Tim-3 − NK cells, respectively. (
  • We observed up-regulation of Tim-3 expression on NK cells from esophageal cancer patients, especially at the tumor site. (
  • Furthermore, tumor-infiltrating NK cells with high Tim-3 expression exhibited a phenotype with enhanced dysfunction. (
  • We found that α-MEM plus 10% FBS and bFGF was able to maintain both LSCs and BMSCs in a relatively undifferentiated state but with lower major extracellular matrix (ECM) component gene expression and protein production, which is beneficial for stem cell expansion. (
  • Without a well-tailored system, the use of a peripheral route injection may lead to undesirable transgene expression in nontarget cells or organs. (
  • In the case of patients immunized with a DNA vaccine encoding PAP, we have recently found that PD-L1 expression on circulating tumor (CD45-EpCAM+) cells was increased following immunization, analogous to our murine studies. (
  • 2015). Runx3 specifies lineage commitment of innate lymphoid cells. (
  • Tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) is expressed mainly by cells of the macrophage/monocyte lineage and is the most abundant and rapidly produced 3 proinflammatory cytokine in the rheumatoid joint. (
  • These data indicate that T cells from poor responders are in an enhanced activation state possibly as a result of chronic inflammation. (
  • Indeed, persistent immune system activation/inflammation and higher levels of microbial translocation associate with a poor recovery of CD4 + T cells in individuals cART-suppressed for many years [5] - [9] . (
  • Furthermore, we identified a reconstituted bacterial community enriched in Firmicutes and depleted of Proteobacteria members that was associated with fecal output, plasma markers of inflammation and T helper cells. (
  • Our findings are relevant for all iNKT cell targeting approaches in humans, including those designed for restoring tolerance in AID, and also those designed for promoting inflammation in cancer or infection. (
  • The functional importance of these cells for the development of allergic airway inflammation was further persuasively demonstrated by analyses in rodents. (
  • These include bifurcations between myeloid and lymphoid, B and T, Th1 and Th2 lineages, CD8 effector and memory cells etc. (
  • Cell morphology assay showing the increase of dendritic processes in osteocytes induced by 5 ng/ml Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). (
  • To search by keyword, you may search by type of cell/animal/assay/protein/research or publication. (
  • Based on the results of MTT assay, these compounds did not show cytotoxicity to LO2 cell line. (
  • Probiotics demonstrate immunomodulatory effects in atopic pediatric patients by increasing the TH1 immune response which counterbalances the dominant TH2 immune response. (
  • We used HLA-DQ6 multimers to assess the specific CD4 T-cell response in both healthy individuals and melanoma patients. (
  • We report that the majority of melanoma patients carry high frequencies of naturally circulating HLA-DQ6-restricted Melan-A-specific CD4 T cells, a high proportion of which express FOXP3 and proliferate poorly in response to the cognate peptide. (
  • A pharmaceutical composition for shifting a Th2 immune response to a Th1 response by natural killer T cells (NKT cells) including a therapeutically effective. (
  • On day 6 of recall response cells were analyzed in chemotaxis assays. (
  • Cytocom believes that its technologies can meaningfully leverage the human immune system for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes by eliciting killer T cell response levels not achieved by other published immunotherapy approaches. (
  • The adaptive immune response mediated by CD4 + and CD8 + T cells is known to confer protection against TB. (
  • Although it is clear that susceptibility to this process is under genetic and environmental control, the fine-tuning and regulation of the type-2 T-helper cell immune response is not yet fully understood. (
  • Traumatic brain injury alters the immune response shifting it from Th1 to Th2 response. (
  • Th2 response switched back to the required Th1 response. (
  • Here we show that one mode of mast cell action is through effects on the autoreactive T cell response. (
  • Liposomal Glutathione Supplementation Restores TH1 Cytokine Response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in HIV-Infected Individuals. (
  • The company's immunomodulatory platform technology seeks to restore a balance between the cellular (Th1) and the humoral (Th2) immune systems. (
  • Cytocom's immunomodulatory technology restores the balance between the cellular (Th1) and the humoral (Th2) immune systems. (
  • A large number of clinical trials using T-cell-defined antigens have been reported in practically all types of cancer ( 5 ). (
  • Our clinical and basic research group focuses on the pathogenesis and treatment of aggressive B-cell lymphomas, particularly the most common lymphoid malignancy, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and related variants and Hodgkin lymphoma. (
  • Clinical studies often rely on cryopreserved cells in order to monitor immune function. (
  • Arruda LCMM et al (2016) Immunological correlates of favorable long-term clinical outcome in multiple sclerosis patients after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (
  • This review focuses on recent pre-clinical data supporting MSC use in regenerating β-cell mass and also in treating several T1DM-associated complications. (
  • Currently dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines are explored in clinical trials, predominantly in cancer patients. (
  • These data thus identify a new clinical application for a mixture of commonly used preventive vaccines in the generation of Th1-inducing clinical-grade mature DCs. (
  • Although the precise mechanisms of its antitumor activity are not completely understood, it has been suggested that IL-2 may act through the activation of killer cells ( 41 ). (
  • Regenerative medicine has advanced two major stem cell-based therapies for CNS disorders, namely, transplantation of exogenous stem cells and amplification of endogenous neurogenesis. (
  • Abrahamsson S, Muraro PA (2008) Immune re-education following autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (
  • Alexander T et al (2009) Depletion of autoreactive immunologic memory followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with refractory SLE induces long-term remission through de novo generation of a juvenile and tolerant immune system. (
  • Stem cell transplantation may prove to be a safe and effective treatment for patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. (
  • The consistency and high reliability of the experimental results confirmed by animal models are considered to be a critical factor in the stability of stem cell transplantation for PD. (
  • Figure 1: Islet and β-cell transplantation systems. (
  • it initiates pathogen killing as well as tissue repair processes and helps to restore homeostasis at infected or damaged sites. (
  • Nevertheless, how commensals communicate with cells to ensure immune homeostasis is still unclear. (
  • In my view, this company's AIMS technology platform represents an important development in immunotherapy that offers the potential to bring forth a new generation of therapies that restore immune homeostasis. (
  • Exogenous insulin administration cannot mimic precise pancreatic β-cell regulation of glucose homeostasis , thereby leading to severe long-term complications. (
  • Exogenous insulin injections thus do not represent a definitive cure for T1DM since they cannot mimic precise β-cell glucose homeostasis regulation. (
  • However, previous studies have identified CD4 + T helper cells as important players in proliferative forms of glomerulonephritis. (