Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Histamine Release: The secretion of histamine from mast cell and basophil granules by exocytosis. This can be initiated by a number of factors, all of which involve binding of IgE, cross-linked by antigen, to the mast cell or basophil's Fc receptors. Once released, histamine binds to a number of different target cell receptors and exerts a wide variety of effects.Receptors, Histamine H1: A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Most histamine H1 receptors operate through the inositol phosphate/diacylglycerol second messenger system. Among the many responses mediated by these receptors are smooth muscle contraction, increased vascular permeability, hormone release, and cerebral glyconeogenesis. (From Biochem Soc Trans 1992 Feb;20(1):122-5)Receptors, Histamine H2: A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Histamine H2 receptors act via G-proteins to stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Among the many responses mediated by these receptors are gastric acid secretion, smooth muscle relaxation, inotropic and chronotropic effects on heart muscle, and inhibition of lymphocyte function. (From Biochem Soc Trans 1992 Feb;20(1):122-5)Receptors, Histamine: Cell-surface proteins that bind histamine and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Histamine receptors are widespread in the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues. Three types have been recognized and designated H1, H2, and H3. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mode of action.Histamine Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate histamine receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine or histamine agonists. Classical antihistaminics block the histamine H1 receptors only.Histamine Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate histamine receptors. Although they have been suggested for a variety of clinical applications histamine agonists have so far been more widely used in research than therapeutically.Histamine H1 Antagonists: Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H1 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous histamine. Included here are the classical antihistaminics that antagonize or prevent the action of histamine mainly in immediate hypersensitivity. They act in the bronchi, capillaries, and some other smooth muscles, and are used to prevent or allay motion sickness, seasonal rhinitis, and allergic dermatitis and to induce somnolence. The effects of blocking central nervous system H1 receptors are not as well understood.Receptors, Histamine H3: A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Histamine H3 receptors were first recognized as inhibitory autoreceptors on histamine-containing nerve terminals and have since been shown to regulate the release of several neurotransmitters in the central and peripheral nervous systems. (From Biochem Soc Trans 1992 Feb;20(1):122-5)Cell Degranulation: The process of losing secretory granules (SECRETORY VESICLES). This occurs, for example, in mast cells, basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils, and platelets when secretory products are released from the granules by EXOCYTOSIS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Histamine H2 Antagonists: Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H2 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine. Their clinically most important action is the inhibition of acid secretion in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers. Smooth muscle may also be affected. Some drugs in this class have strong effects in the central nervous system, but these actions are not well understood.p-Methoxy-N-methylphenethylamine: A potent mast cell degranulator. It is involved in histamine release.Tryptases: A family of neutral serine proteases with TRYPSIN-like activity. Tryptases are primarily found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of MAST CELLS and are released during mast cell degranulation.Histamine N-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to histamine, forming N-methylhistamine, the major metabolite of histamine in man. EC 126.96.36.199.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Chymases: A family of neutral serine proteases with CHYMOTRYPSIN-like activity. Chymases are primarily found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of MAST CELLS and are released during mast cell degranulation.Pyrilamine: A histamine H1 antagonist. It has mild hypnotic properties and some local anesthetic action and is used for allergies (including skin eruptions) both parenterally and locally. It is a common ingredient of cold remedies.Receptors, IgE: Specific molecular sites on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes which combine with IgEs. Two subclasses exist: low affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RII) and high affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RI).Exosomes: A type of extracellular vesicle, containing RNA and proteins, that is secreted into the extracellular space by EXOCYTOSIS when MULTIVESICULAR BODIES fuse with the PLASMA MEMBRANE.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Histidine Decarboxylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of histidine to histamine and carbon dioxide. It requires pyridoxal phosphate in animal tissues, but not in microorganisms. EC 188.8.131.52.Mice, Inbred C57BLMethylhistamines: Histamine substituted in any position with one or more methyl groups. Many of these are agonists for the H1, H2, or both histamine receptors.Basophils: Granular leukocytes characterized by a relatively pale-staining, lobate nucleus and cytoplasm containing coarse dark-staining granules of variable size and stainable by basic dyes.Anaphylaxis: An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered ANTIGEN. The reaction may include rapidly progressing URTICARIA, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic SHOCK, and death.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cromolyn Sodium: A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.Dimaprit: A histamine H2 receptor agonist that is often used to study the activity of histamine and its receptors.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Mastocytosis: A heterogenous group of disorders characterized by the abnormal increase of MAST CELLS in only the skin (MASTOCYTOSIS, CUTANEOUS), in extracutaneous tissues involving multiple organs (MASTOCYTOSIS, SYSTEMIC), or in solid tumors (MASTOCYTOMA).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Histamine H3 Antagonists: Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate HISTAMINE H3 RECEPTORS. They have been used to correct SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS and MEMORY DISORDERS.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cimetidine: A histamine congener, it competitively inhibits HISTAMINE binding to HISTAMINE H2 RECEPTORS. Cimetidine has a range of pharmacological actions. It inhibits GASTRIC ACID secretion, as well as PEPSIN and GASTRIN output.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Histamine Agents: Drugs used for their actions on histaminergic systems. Included are drugs that act at histamine receptors, affect the life cycle of histamine, or affect the state of histaminergic cells.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Chlorpheniramine: A histamine H1 antagonist used in allergic reactions, hay fever, rhinitis, urticaria, and asthma. It has also been used in veterinary applications. One of the most widely used of the classical antihistaminics, it generally causes less drowsiness and sedation than PROMETHAZINE.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis: An evanescent cutaneous reaction occurring when antibody is injected into a local area on the skin and antigen is subsequently injected intravenously along with a dye. The dye makes the rapidly occurring capillary dilatation and increased vascular permeability readily visible by leakage into the reaction site. PCA is a sensitive reaction for detecting very small quantities of antibodies and is also a method for studying the mechanisms of immediate hypersensitivity.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Peritoneal Cavity: The space enclosed by the peritoneum. It is divided into two portions, the greater sac and the lesser sac or omental bursa, which lies behind the STOMACH. The two sacs are connected by the foramen of Winslow, or epiploic foramen.Stem Cell Factor: A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Ketotifen: A cycloheptathiophene blocker of histamine H1 receptors and release of inflammatory mediators. It has been proposed for the treatment of asthma, rhinitis, skin allergies, and anaphylaxis.Diphenhydramine: A histamine H1 antagonist used as an antiemetic, antitussive, for dermatoses and pruritus, for hypersensitivity reactions, as a hypnotic, an antiparkinson, and as an ingredient in common cold preparations. It has some undesired antimuscarinic and sedative effects.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Mastocytosis, Systemic: A group of disorders caused by the abnormal proliferation of MAST CELLS in a variety of extracutaneous tissues including bone marrow, liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and gastrointestinal tract. Systemic mastocytosis is commonly seen in adults. These diseases are categorized on the basis of clinical features, pathologic findings, and prognosis.Metiamide: A histamine H2 receptor antagonist that is used as an anti-ulcer agent.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Secretory Vesicles: Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases: A hexosaminidase specific for non-reducing N-acetyl-D-hexosamine residues in N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminides. It acts on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES. Two specific mammalian isoenzymes of beta-N-acetylhexoaminidase are referred to as HEXOSAMINIDASE A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B. Deficiency of the type A isoenzyme causes TAY-SACHS DISEASE, while deficiency of both A and B isozymes causes SANDHOFF DISEASE. The enzyme has also been used as a tumor marker to distinguish between malignant and benign disease.Mice, Inbred BALB CApoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Anti-Allergic Agents: Agents that are used to treat allergic reactions. Most of these drugs act by preventing the release of inflammatory mediators or inhibiting the actions of released mediators on their target cells. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p475)Dinoprostone: The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Arachidonic Acid: An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Leukemia, Mast-Cell: A form of systemic mastocytosis (MASTOCYTOSIS, SYSTEMIC) characterized by the presence of large numbers of tissue MAST CELLS in the peripheral blood without skin lesions. It is a high-grade LEUKEMIA disease with bone marrow smear of >20% MAST CELLS, multi-organ failure and a short survival.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Carboxypeptidases A: Carboxypeptidases that are primarily found the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM that catalyze the release of C-terminal amino acids. Carboxypeptidases A have little or no activity for hydrolysis of C-terminal ASPARTIC ACID; GLUTAMIC ACID; ARGININE; LYSINE; or PROLINE. This enzyme requires ZINC as a cofactor and was formerly listed as EC 184.108.40.206 and EC 220.127.116.11.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Thioxanthenes: Compounds with three aromatic rings in linear arrangement with a SULFUR in the center ring.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Interleukin-3: A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Thiourea: A photographic fixative used also in the manufacture of resins. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 9th ed). Many of its derivatives are ANTITHYROID AGENTS and/or FREE RADICAL SCAVENGERS.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.SRS-A: A group of LEUKOTRIENES; (LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4) that is the major mediator of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION; HYPERSENSITIVITY; and other allergic reactions. Earlier studies described a "slow-reacting substance of ANAPHYLAXIS" released from lung by cobra venom or after anaphylactic shock. The relationship between SRS-A leukotrienes was established by UV which showed the presence of the conjugated triene. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Prostaglandin D2: The principal cyclooxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid. It is released upon activation of mast cells and is also synthesized by alveolar macrophages. Among its many biological actions, the most important are its bronchoconstrictor, platelet-activating-factor-inhibitory, and cytotoxic effects.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Impromidine: A highly potent and specific histamine H2 receptor agonist. It has been used diagnostically as a gastric secretion indicator.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Mast-Cell Sarcoma: A unifocal malignant tumor that consists of atypical pathological MAST CELLS without systemic involvement. It causes local destructive growth in organs other than in skin or bone marrow.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Urticaria Pigmentosa: The most common form of cutaneous mastocytosis (MASTOCYTOSIS, CUTANEOUS) that occurs primarily in children. It is characterized by the multiple small reddish-brown pigmented pruritic macules and papules.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Leukotrienes: A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Tolonium Chloride: A phenothiazine that has been used as a hemostatic, a biological stain, and a dye for wool and silk. Tolonium chloride has also been used as a diagnostic aid for oral and gastric neoplasms and in the identification of the parathyroid gland in thyroid surgery.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Leukemia, Basophilic, Acute: A rare acute myeloid leukemia in which the primary differentiation is to BASOPHILS. It is characterized by an extreme increase of immature basophilic granulated cells in the bone marrow and blood. Mature basophils are usually sparse.Leukotriene C4: The conjugation product of LEUKOTRIENE A4 and glutathione. It is the major arachidonic acid metabolite in macrophages and human mast cells as well as in antigen-sensitized lung tissue. It stimulates mucus secretion in the lung, and produces contractions of nonvascular and some VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Pruritus: An intense itching sensation that produces the urge to rub or scratch the skin to obtain relief.Interleukin-13: A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Gastric Mucosa: Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.Terfenadine: A selective histamine H1-receptor antagonist devoid of central nervous system depressant activity. The drug was used for ALLERGY but withdrawn due to causing LONG QT SYNDROME.Histamine H1 Antagonists, Non-Sedating: A class of non-sedating drugs that bind to but do not activate histamine receptors (DRUG INVERSE AGONISM), thereby blocking the actions of histamine or histamine agonists. These antihistamines represent a heterogenous group of compounds with differing chemical structures, adverse effects, distribution, and metabolism. Compared to the early (first generation) antihistamines, these non-sedating antihistamines have greater receptor specificity, lower penetration of BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER, and are less likely to cause drowsiness or psychomotor impairment.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Burimamide: An antagonist of histamine that appears to block both H2 and H3 histamine receptors. It has been used in the treatment of ulcers.Triprolidine: Histamine H1 antagonist used in allergic rhinitis; ASTHMA; and URTICARIA. It is a component of COUGH and COLD medicines. It may cause drowsiness.Hypersensitivity, Immediate: Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.Mastocytoma: A solid tumor consisting of a dense infiltration of MAST CELLS. It is generally benign.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Connective Tissue Cells: A group of cells that includes FIBROBLASTS, cartilage cells, ADIPOCYTES, smooth muscle cells, and bone cells.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Ranitidine: A non-imidazole blocker of those histamine receptors that mediate gastric secretion (H2 receptors). It is used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Tic Disorders: Disorders characterized by recurrent TICS that may interfere with speech and other activities. Tics are sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements or vocalizations which may be exacerbated by stress and are generally attenuated during absorbing activities. Tic disorders are distinguished from conditions which feature other types of abnormal movements that may accompany another another condition. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
Then, mast cells release histamine, which then leads to the release of cytokines, prostaglandins, and platelet-activating ... Mast cell intermediaries cause an allergic inflammation and symptoms through the activation of inflammatory cells. When ... Both seasonal allergic conjunctivitis and perennial allergic conjunctivitis are two acute allergic conjunctival disorders. SAC ... stabilizing the cell, thus preventing the release of histamine. Decongestants may also be prescribed. Another common mast cell ...
IgE bound by FcεRI on the surface of mast cells and basophils and trigger the activation of those inflammatory cells, which ... release a host of pharmacological mediators, such as histamine, leukotrienes, tryptase, inflammatory cytokines, and others, ... Lee J, Doggweiler-Wiygul R, Kim S, Hill BD, Yoo TJ (May 2006). "Is interstitial cystitis an allergic disorder?: A case of ... mast cells, and dendritic cells are gradually down-regulated with somewhat different kinetics, rendering those cells much less ...
Stem cell factor
In addition, SCF promotes mast cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and survival. It also promotes the release of histamine ... Nervi B, Link DC, DiPersio JF (October 2006). "Cytokines and hematopoietic stem cell mobilization". J. Cell. Biochem. 99 (3): ... The activation of c-Kit leads to the activation of multiple signaling cascades, including the RAS/ERK, PI3-Kinase, Src kinase, ... Clinical disorders and experimental models of erythropoietic failure. Boca Raton: CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-6678-X. Wehrle-Haller ...
Pre-sensitised mast cells respond by degranulating, releasing vasoactive chemicals such as histamine. These chemicals propagate ... "Comparison of cytokine levels in depressed, manic and euthymic patients with bipolar disorder". Journal of Affective Disorders ... these cells undergo activation (one of the PRRs recognize a PAMP or DAMP) and release inflammatory mediators responsible for ... dendritic cells, histiocytes, Kupffer cells and mast cells. These cells possess surface receptors known as pattern recognition ...
Zheutlin L, Ackerman S, Gleich G, Thomas L (1984). "Stimulation of basophil and rat mast cell histamine release by eosinophil ... greater alternative macrophage activation, and a propensity towards type 2 cytokine expression. Furthermore, this effect was ... at the Cincinnati Center for Eosinophilic Disorders Biology portal Medicine portal. ... can inhibit proliferation of T cells, suppress antibody production by B cells, induce degranulation by mast cells, and ...
Prostaglandin EP3 receptor
... stimulates mouse and human mast cells to release histamine by an EP3-dependent mechanism. Furthermore, EP3-deficient mice fail ... and various skin disorders in humans. Activation of EP3 receptors on the blood platelets of mice, monkeys, and humans enhances ... and pro-allergic cytokines (i.e. interleukin 4, interleukin 5, and interleukin 13) as compared to wild type mice. EP3 receptor- ... trabecular cells, ciliary epithelium, and conjunctival and iridal stroma cells, and retinal Müller cells). Standard prostanoids ...
Allergies involve mainly IgE, antibodies, and histamine. Mast cells release the histamine. Sometimes an allergen may cause a ... The thymus also secretes hormones and cytokines that regulate the maturation of T cells, including thymulin, thymopoietin, and ... Acquired T cell deficiencies can also affect thymocyte development in the thymus. DiGeorge syndrome is a genetic disorder ... doi:10.1016/j.nut.2009.06.002/. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Sutherland, J. S. (2005). "Activation of thymic ...
Specialized pro-resolving mediators
Mast cells: inhibit their infiltration into inflamed tissues and, in lung mast cells, the release of histamine. Dendritic cells ... Microglia cells: inhibit the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by this central nervous system type of macrophage. ... by either activating or inhibiting cells through binding to and thereby activating or inhibiting the activation of specific ... see Inflammation#Inflammatory disorders) may reflect, in part, a failure in this class switching. Diseases caused or worsened ...
Other neoplastic disorders associated with mast cells include mast cell sarcoma and mast cell leukemia. Mast cell activation ... becomes bound to mast cells and basophils and when IgE's paratopes bind to an antigen, it causes the cells to release histamine ... D2 leukotriene C4 platelet-activating factor cytokines TNF-α basic fibroblast growth factor interleukin-4 stem cell factor ... Mastocytosis is a rare clonal mast cell disorder involving the presence of too many mast cells (mastocytes) and CD34+ mast cell ...
... the release of IL-8 is not prevented by Siglec-8 ligation in mast cells. In experiments using the rat basophilic leukemia cell ... it inhibits FcεRIα-mediated Ca2+ flux and release of prostaglandin D2 and histamine. However, ... Cherry WB, Yoon J, Bartemes KR, Iijima K, Kita H (June 2008). "A novel IL-1 family cytokine, IL-33, potently activates human ... Siglec-F-induced apoptosis is mediated by caspase activation in mouse eosinophils and does not involve ROS, in contrast to the ...
Prostaglandin EP2 receptor
... inhibits Immunoglobulin E-activated mast cells from releasing histamine and leukotrienes (viz., LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4), all of ... Activation of EP2 contributes to regulating B cell immunoglobulin class switching, maturation of T lymphocyte CD4−CD8− cells to ... and release of pro-allergic granule contents; and reduces release of the pro-allergic cytokines Interleukin 5, Interleukin 4, ... indicate that EP2 may be a target for treating and/or preventing particular human disorders involving: allergic diseases such ...
Mast cell activation syndrome
Talkington J, Nickell SP (Mar 1999). "Borrelia burgdorferi Spirochetes Induce Mast Cell Activation and Cytokine Release". ... The role of mast cells in functional GI disorders Mast Cell Activation Syndrome - May 2015 Spectrum of mast cell activation ... FcεRI Histamine intolerance Immunoglobulin E Valent P (2013). "Mast Cell Activation Syndromes: Definition and Classification". ... Mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS) is one type of mast cell activation disorder (MCAD), and is an immunological condition in ...
Its antigen interacts with IgE that attaches to mast cells, leading to the stimulation of histamine release followed by airway ... On top of that, M. pneumoniae induces the activation of mast cells by releasing serotonin and hexosaminidase. By producing ... The release of proinflammatory cytokines in response to M. pneumoniae infection has been indicated as a possible mechanism ... Thus, asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways. Asthma is divided into two subgroups: atopic (extrinsic) and ...
Activated mast cells and basophils undergo a process called degranulation, during which they release histamine and other ... with the common link to a disordered activation of the immune system. In 1963, a new classification scheme was designed by ... Cytokines from mast cells may play a role in the persistence of long-term effects. Late-phase responses seen in asthma are ... and then to a receptor on mast cells or basophils where it triggers the release of inflammatory chemicals such as histamine. ...
Instances of cytokine binding to neural receptors have been documented between the cytokine releasing immune cell IL-1 β and ... Unlike other hematopoietic cells of the peripheral immune system, mast cells naturally occur in the brain where they mediate ... Chronic activation of glial cells however leads to neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. Microglial cells are of the most ... These pruritogens, like histamine, also cause other immune cells to secrete further pruritogens in an effort to cause more ...
T helper cell
Besides, IL-4 stimulates B-cells to produce IgE antibodies, which in turn stimulate mast cells to release histamine, serotonin ... The latter is a feature of Th3 cells, which transform into a regulatory subset after its initial activation and cytokine ... of helper T cells in these responses is limited but it is generally thought that Th2 cytokines would promote such disorders. ... Macrophage, CD8+ T cell. B-cell, eosinophil, mast cell Cytokines produced. interferon-γ and TNF-β. Interleukin-2 interleukin-10 ...
T helper cell
Besides, IL-4 stimulates B-cells to produce IgE antibodies, which in turn stimulate mast cells to release histamine, serotonin ... The latter is a feature of Th3 cells, which transform into a regulatory subset after its initial activation and cytokine ... These disorders produce similar symptoms, many of which are fatal. Following T cell development, matured, naïve T cells leave ... Their key effector cytokine is IL-10. Their main effector cells are NK cells as well as CD8 T cells, IgG B cells, and IL-10 CD4 ...
Clinically, H1-antihistamines are used to treat allergic reactions and mast cell-related disorders. Sedation is a common side ... which modulate the release of histamine. Histamine release in the brain triggers secondary release of excitatory ... proinflammatory cytokine production, expression of cell adhesion molecules, and other allergic and inflammatory conditions.1,8, ... the receptor antagonists work by binding to the receptor and blocking the activation of the receptor by histamine; by ...
... mast cells and neutrophils will degranulate, natural killer cells will release cytokines and cytotoxic molecules; that will ... For example, IgE is responsible for an allergic response consisting of mast cell degranulation and histamine release. IgE's Fab ... B cell activation follows engagement of the cell-bound antibody molecule with an antigen, causing the cell to divide and ... Autoimmune disorders can often be traced to antibodies that bind the body's own epitopes; many can be detected through blood ...
Irritable bowel syndrome
Increased mast cell activation is a common finding in the mucosa of patients with functional GI disorders. ... ▸ Treatment with ... Evidence has demonstrated that the release of high levels of proinflammatory cytokines during acute enteric infection causes ... histamine (HRH1, HRH2, HRH3), tryptase and chymase (PAR2), serotonin (5-HT3), PGD2 (DP1). Histamine also causes epithelial ... Frieri M (2015). "Mast Cell Activation Syndrome". Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. doi:10.1007/s12016-015-8487-6. PMID 25944644. Joo ...
Thus, the drug may locally decrease histamine secretion by involved gastrointestinal mast cells and alleviate the inflammation. ... 3.1 channel inhibitor prevents T-cell activation and inflammation in a rat model of inflammatory bowel disease". British ... "UCERIS (budesonide) extended release tablets label" (PDF). FDA.. *^ "FDA approves new treatment for moderately to severely ... Cytokine response. Associated with Th17. Vaguely associated with Th2 ...
Glossary of biology
mast cell A cell filled with basophil granules, found in numbers in connective tissue and releasing histamine and other ... action potential The local voltage change across the cell wall as a nerve impulse is transmitted. activation energy The energy ... interleukin A group of cytokines (secreted proteins and signal molecules) that were first seen to be expressed by white blood ... Additionally, embryology is the study of congenital disorders that occur before birth. enantiomer Enantiomers are stereoisomers ...
... cytokines). Also, most of the cytokines, in turn, induce SP and the NK1 receptor. SP is particularly excitatory to cell growth ... histamine, dopamine, serotonin, and opioids. Their activation stimulates the vomiting reflex. Different emetic pathways exist, ... "Substance P induces TNF-alpha and IL-6 production through NF kappa B in peritoneal mast cells". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. ... Substance P is released from the terminals of specific sensory nerves. It is found in the brain and spinal cord and is ...
White blood cell
B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T cells. *T cells: *CD4+ Th (T helper) cells: activate and regulate T ... Mast cells. *Microglia. Disorders. The two commonly used categories of white blood cell disorders divide them quantitatively ... class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells. Helper T cells make cytokines and perform other functions that help coordinate ... Basophils are chiefly responsible for allergic and antigen response by releasing the chemical histamine causing the dilation of ...
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Mast Cell Activation Syndrome»։ Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology 54 (3): 353-365։ June 2018։ PMID 25944644։ doi:10.1007 ... Ishizaka, Teruko, Ishizaka Kimishige, Johansson S. Gunnar O., Bennich Hans (April 1, 1969)։ «Histamine Release from Human ... Holt PG, Sly PD (October 2007). "Th2 cytokines in the asthma late-phase response". Lancet. 370 (9596): 1396-8. doi:10.1016/ ... Holgate ST (March 1998). "Asthma and allergy--disorders of civilization?". QJM. 91 (3): 171-84. doi:10.1093/qjmed/91.3.171. ...
Thereafter, various soluble factors (including chemokines and cytokines) are released to attract cells that phagocytise debris ... Second, as inflammation nears completion, macrophage and mast cells release fibroblast growth and chemotactic factors to ... The main factor involved in causing vasodilation is histamine. Histamine also causes blood vessels to become porous, ... Connective tissue disorders. *Smoking - Smoking causes a delay in the speed of wound repair notably in the proliferative and ...
When antibodies are bound to its antigens, histamine is released from mast cells and basophils. Either IgE antibodies from the ... Donor's antibodies would interact with recipient's neutrophils and monocytes, releasing inflammatory cytokines and causes ... On the other hand, the role for each of the listed items includes activation of the antitumor CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes ( ... publishes systematic reviews of interventions for haematological disorders and evaluations of blood and blood substitute ...
When an allergen drifts into the nose more than once, mast cells release a slew of chemicals or histamines that irritate and ... are required for immunoglobulin E binding and activation of effector cells from allergic patients". FASEB Journal. 17 (12): ... The levels of mushroom respiratory allergy are as high as 30 percent of those with allergic disorder, but it is believed to be ... These allergen antibodies migrate to mast cells lining the nose, eyes and lungs. ...
H1-antihistamines work by binding to histamine H1 receptors in mast cells, smooth muscle, and endothelium in the body as well ... which modulate the release of histamine. Histamine release in the brain triggers secondary release of excitatory ... H1-antihistamines are used to treat allergic reactions and mast cell-related disorders. Sedation is a common side effect of H1- ... proinflammatory cytokine production, expression of cell adhesion molecules, and other allergic and inflammatory conditions.1,8, ...
... including WBC production and activation, and cytokine expression, Reciprocally, cytokines may induce expression of SP and ... "Substance P induces TNF-alpha and IL-6 production through NF kappa B in peritoneal mast cells". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. ... Mood disorders, major depressive disorder, anxiety disordersEdit. To be populated.. Infections: HIV-AIDS, Measles, RSV, others ... histamine, dopamine, serotonin, and opioids. Their activation stimulates the vomiting reflex. Different emetic pathways exist, ...
Basophil, Eosinophil & Mast Cell Disorders in Allergic Disease | World Allergy Organization
Mast Cell Disorders in Allergic Disease and access related articles published in the WAO Journal here. ... cytokines) and released minutes to hours to days after activation. While mature mast cells do not occur in blood, eosinophils ... Mast cells rapidly degranulate upon crosslinking of specific IgE by corresponding allergens and release preformed histamine, ... Mast Cell Disorders in Allergic Disease Basophil, Eosinophil & Mast Cell Disorders in Allergic Disease. Eosinophils, mast cells ...
Leicester Research Archive: Activation of human lung mast cells by monomeric immunoglobulin E.
Ratiometric Ca2+ imaging was performed on single fura-2-loaded cells. Histamine release was measured by radioenzymatic assay; ... support the hypothesis that immunoglobulin E loading of mast cells within the asthmatic airway contributes to the disordered ... arachidonic acid metabolism and cytokine synthesis. These findings ... Activation of human lung mast cells by monomeric immunoglobulin E.. Authors: Cruse, G. Kaur, D. Yang, W. Duffy, SM. Brightling ...
Anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of Pogostemon cablin
Gallic acid inhibits histamine release and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in mast cells. Toxicol Sci. 91:123-131. 2006. ... stimulate calcium influx following the activation of FcεRI (5). Activated mast cells can produce histamine, as well as a wide ... Mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation is closely related to a number of allergic disorders, such as anaphylaxis, allergic ... Histamine and β-hexosaminidase assay. To assess mast cell degranulation, the release of histamine from mast cells was detected ...
Mast cells are an important cellular source of tumour necrosis factor α in human intestinal tissue | Gut
24 Histamine release was expressed as ng histamine per 106 mast cells, sLT production as pg sLT per 106 mast cells. TNF-α ... and cytokines on cell activation by IgE receptor crosslinking and other less defined cellular signals.11 ,12 The role of human ... This may differ depending on the aetiology of the inflammatory disorder.7 ,8 ,16 ... Ratio of TNF+ mast cells and mast cells (mast cells defined as Tryp+ cells), and ratio of TNF+ mast cells and TNF+ cells, ...
Immunoglobulin E tests | DermNet NZ
... such as histamine, cytokines, leukotrienes, and others) from mast cells and basophils. The release of the mediators causes ... the activation of T-helper (Th) cells, the stimulation of B cells that release specific IgE, and the release of various ... A normal level of IgE may not exclude allergic disorders.. *A result may be misleading. False-positive and false-negative ... APC, antigen-presenting cell; IgE, immunoglobulin E; Th, T-helper [cell]. Credit: Gaurab Karki, Microbiologist Kathmandu, via ...
Immunomodulators for Integumentary Disease - Pharmacology - Merck Veterinary Manual
... mast cells, and eosinophils, and inhibition of mononuclear cells, antigen presentation, histamine release from mast cells, ... gene activation, and RNA transcription. This early inhibition of T cells also leads to reduced production of other cytokines, ... Behavior Circulatory System Clinical Pathology and Procedures Digestive System Ear Disorders Emergency Medicine and Critical ... Niacinamide blocks IgE-induced histamine release, inhibits phosphodiesterases, and decreases protease release by leukocytes. ...
Inhibitory effect of the branches of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. and its constituent pinosylvin on the activities of IgE-mediated...
... stomach disorders, and inflammation. This study investigated the anti-allergy potential of ... a transcription factor involved in the response to cytokines. HDB attenuated phosphorylation of the mast cell downstream ... and histamine release; decreased expression and production of the inflammatory mediators, cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2 ... and cytokines interleukin-4 and tumor necrosis factor-α; and suppressed activation of nuclear factor κB, ...
Small peptides and methods for blocking IGE mediated activation of an immune cell - Mowycal Lending, LLC
... a method for blocking IgE activation of an immune ce ... Also described is a method for inhibiting the mucous release ... Continued mast cell degranulation and its release of leukotrienes, histamines, and other cytokines decreases, or ceases ... IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation is the primary event in the pathogenesis of such allergic disorders as allergic rhinitis, ... mast cells, and eosinophils. T cells and mast cells release cytokines that promote eosinophil growth and maturation and the ...
Interstitial Cystitis & Bladder Pain Syndrome | GLOWM
... mast cell activation releasing inflammatory mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes, and cytokines, likely mediate bladder ... Many patients with hypertonic pelvic floor disorders have childhood elimination disorders.45 Learned dysbehaviors during potty ... may be a result of mast cell activation. Furthermore, it has been shown that urethelial cells from BPS patients have decreased ... BPS from mast cell activation suggests that antihistamines may be an effective treatment method. Cimetidine, an H2 inhibitor, ...
Allergic conjunctivitis - Wikipedia
Then, mast cells release histamine, which then leads to the release of cytokines, prostaglandins, and platelet-activating ... Mast cell intermediaries cause an allergic inflammation and symptoms through the activation of inflammatory cells. When ... Both seasonal allergic conjunctivitis and perennial allergic conjunctivitis are two acute allergic conjunctival disorders. SAC ... stabilizing the cell, thus preventing the release of histamine. Decongestants may also be prescribed. Another common mast cell ...
Mast Cell Instability: Brain Fog, GI Issues & Skin Problems
... mast cells can actually cause a myriad of symptoms throughout the body. Here are 10 ways to naturally combat mast cell ... Mast cell activation is noted to be associated with other disorders such as postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) ... These chemicals include, already formed and ready to be released, transmitters such as histamine, tryptase, serotonin, and ... Furthermore, upon activation, they begin to produce a multitude of inflammatory mediators such as interleukins, cytokines, ...
Allergy research area
... is released from the activated mast cells and basophils during degranulation, a process in which the contents of cellular ... any subsequent exposure can result in the excessive activation of these immune cells leading to the secretion of histamine, ... An allergy is a hypersensitivity disorder of the immune system in which exposure, either in the form of ingestion, inhalation ... Animal-Free Human Dendritic Cell Cytokine Package. Numero de catalogo: AF-HDC ...
Inhibitory Effect of Methyleugenol on IgE-Mediated Allergic Inflammation in RBL-2H3 Cells
We found that ME significantly inhibited the release of ,i,β,/i,-hexosaminidase, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) ,i,α,/i,, and ... examined the antiallergic effect of ME on IgE-mediated inflammatory responses and its antiallergy mechanism in the mast cell ... These results suggest that ME inhibits allergic response by suppressing the activation of Syk, ERK1/2, p38, JNK, cPLA,sub,2,/ ... Furthermore, it suppressed ERK1/2, p38, and JNK phosphorylation, which is implicated in proinflammatory cytokine expression. ME ...
Food Allergies: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology
Cell-mediated responses to food allergens may also mediate allergic responses, particularly in disorders with delayed or ... resulting in receptor activation and intracellular signaling that initiates the release of inflammatory mediators (eg, ... histamine) and synthesis of additional factors (eg, chemotactic factors, cytokines) that promote allergic inflammation. The ... These antibodies bind to high-affinity IgE receptors on circulating basophils and tissue mast cells present throughout the body ...
A nebulized complex traditional Chinese medicine inhibits Histamine and IL-4 production by ovalbumin in guinea pigs and can...
... mast cell activator) for 9 hr. The levels of histamine and IL-4 released from the cells were quantified. We found that the ... P815 cells (a mouse mast cell line) were untreated or pretreated with CTCM or cromolyn sodium (a mast cell stabilizer), and ... In conclusion, our results suggested that the CTCM is a kind of bronchodilator and also a mast cell stabilizer. Our findings ... and in vitro study revealed that the CTCM is able to stabilize mast cells. ...
Apitherapy News: March 2018
BV inhibited histamine release, mRNA expression and production of cytokines in the PMACI‑stimulated HMC‑1 cells. Furthermore, ... causing the activation of p53 and the growth arrest of cancer cells.. Cell viability assays using ARC and green propolis- ... Inhibitory effects of bee venom on mast cell-mediated allergic inflammatory responses. Int J Mol Med. 2018 Mar 12. Although bee ... Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018 Feb 4;2018:4757893. Diabetes is a metabolic disorder with multifactorial and heterogeneous ...
Clonal and non-clonal mast cell activation disorders
Histamine in blood has a very short half life, can also be released by basophils, and is usually not recommended as a clinical ... and induced cytokines. Mast cell activation may occur via immunoglobulin E (IgE) and/or non-IgE mediated mechanisms in the ... Clonal mast cell disorders such as mastocytosis and monoclonal mast cell activation syndrome are associated with mast cell ... Mast cell mediators. Symptoms experienced in mast cell activation syndromes result from mast cell mediators released from ...
Women's Health and Education Center (WHEC) - Medical Disorders and Pregnancy - Asthma In Pregnancy
Mast cell activation by cytokines mediates broncho-constriction by release of histamines, prostaglandin D2, and leukotrienes. ... antigen-presenting cells and mast cell degranulation. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disorder with a major hereditary ... A non-histamine releasing narcotic, such as fentanyl, may be preferable to meperidine for labor. Maintenance medications are ... Cromolyn and nedocromil inhibit mast cell degranulation. They are ineffective for acute asthma and are taken chronically for ...
April 2018 | Strengthening EDS Connections!
THis IS NOT Mast Cell Activation Disorder.. Instead, MCAD is when a person has a normal number of unstable mast cells which are ... Mast cells throughout the body contain histamine, heparin, cytokines and other "mediators." Mast cells are commonly known for ... Its like mast cells with ADHD - they overreact and can release mediators to just about any non-specific thing in the ... To test my Mast Cell Activation (MCA) diagnosis, I stepped on the scale to see if indeed the diagnosis was correct and… ...
Uremic Pruritus Review
As a result, hyperparathyroidism can stimulate mast cells to release histamine and increase the deposition of calcium and ... The disorder generally presents with cutaneous manifestations-such as excoriations (from scratching) with or without impetigo, ... Mu receptor agonists are known to induce pruritus through mu receptor activation and kappa receptor blockade.10 Further, ... These agents exert their effect by modulating cytokines, chemokines, lipid mediators (phospholipase A2, prostanoids, and ...
LymeMD: Mast cell activation disorder, MCAD: a new paradigm (for Lyme)
The best known mediator released by mast cells is histamine. Other mast cell mediators include: tryptase and other enzymes, ... leukotrienes, prostaglandins, cytokines, signaling molecules and there are many others. It takes a lot to counteract these ... Mast cells are omnipresent, adjacent to blood vessels and heterogeneous, serving a variety of functions. Mast cells activation ... I have discovered that many of my patients suffer with a form of mast cell activation disorder. It is my sense that most of my ...
Gs-Coupled Adenosine Receptors Differentially Limit Antigen-Induced Mast Cell Activation | Journal of Pharmacology and...
Many of these mediators, such as histamine, are released by mast cells. Targeting pathways that limit antigen-induced mast cell ... In addition to degranulation and cytokine synthesis, activated mast cells can also release arachidonic acid-derived lipid ... are the major cell type responsible for the acute and sometimes life-threatening manifestations of these allergic disorders. ... whether activation of Gs-coupled adenosine receptors in mast cells inhibits mast cell activation is still controversial, ...
KIT D816V and the cytokine storm in mastocytosis: production and role of interleukin-6 | Haematologica
12 Histamine is considered one of the most relevant mediators released from activated mast cells in patients with mastocytosis. ... splits mast cell disorders into cutaneous entities, systemic variants, and localized mast cell tumors.2-5 In more than 80% of ... Midostaurin: a magic bullet that blocks mast cell expansion and activation. Ann Oncol. 2017;28(10):2367-2376. ... In contrast to normal mast cells, KIT D816V-transformed mast cells express and release substantial amounts of this cytokine ( ...
Kounis syndrome: an update on epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and therapeutic management : Clinical Chemistry and...
González-de-Olano D, Alvarez- Twose I, Matito A, Sánchez-Muñoz L, Kounis NG, Escribano L. Mast cell activation disorders ... Histamine release from mast cells is rapid and short lived and circulates for only about 8 min after an allergic event, ... Stem cell factor is a major cytokine which is essential for mast cell growth, differentiation, development, proliferation, ... on the mast cell or basophil cell surface. These cells degranulate and release their mediators when the critical number of ...
New antihistamines - perspectives in the treatment of some allergic and inflammatory disorders
Histamine H4 receptor activation enhances LPS-induced IL-6 production in mast cells via ERK and PI3K activation. Eur J Immunol ... In human mast cells H4R mediates the release of cytokines, leukotrienes, and chemokines . ... as mast cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, dendritic cells, Langerhans cells, natural killer (NK) cells, monocytes, T cells ( ... The non-professional histamine-producing cells include many other cell types, among them dendritic cells (DCs)  and T cells ...
LRG1 downregulation in allergic airway disorders and its expression in peripheral blood and tissue cells | Journal of...
Up to 89.8 and 15.5 % of dispersed mast cells expressed LRG1 and TGFBR2. Moreover, allergen extract exposure significantly ... although the percentages of LRG1+ cells in these cell populations were lower in AR and AS patients. ... To explore the involvement of LRG1 in allergy and its cell origins. The expression levels of LRG1 and its receptor transforming ... levels in patients with allergic airway disorders are likely caused by inhibitory actions of allergens in LRG1 producing cells ...
The Btk tyrosine kinase is a major target of the Bcr-Abl inhibitor dasatinib | PNAS
... mast cell-, or/and lymphocyte activation in atopic patients or chronic inflammatory disorders remains to be determined in ... dasatinib inhibited histamine release in primary human basophils and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in immune cells. ... Histamine was measured in cell lysates (total histamine) and cell-free supernatants. Histamine release is expressed as percent ... and the cell-free supernatants were recovered. Histamine was measured in whole-cell suspensions (total histamine) and cell-free ...
Transcriptional response of human mast cells stimulated via the Fc(epsilon)RI and identification of mast cells as a source of...
... the activation of mast cells by IgE and antigen induces the cells to release histamine and other mediators of inflammation, as ... well as to produce certain cytokines and chemokines. To search for new mast cell products, we used complementary DNA ... BACKGROUND: In asthma and other allergic disorders, ... Human mast cells secreted 130-529 pg of IL-11/106 cells by 6 h ... Histamine Release, Humans, Immunoglobulin E, Interleukin-11, Interleukin-4, Mast Cells, Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis ...
Omalizumab - Wikipedia
IgE bound by FcεRI on the surface of mast cells and basophils and trigger the activation of those inflammatory cells, which ... release a host of pharmacological mediators, such as histamine, leukotrienes, tryptase, inflammatory cytokines, and others, ... Lee J, Doggweiler-Wiygul R, Kim S, Hill BD, Yoo TJ (May 2006). "Is interstitial cystitis an allergic disorder?: A case of ... mast cells, and dendritic cells are gradually down-regulated with somewhat different kinetics, rendering those cells much less ...
Clinical Application of Development of Nonantibiotic Macrolides That Correct Inflammation-Driven Immune Dysfunction in...
... histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion- ... In addition, pimecrolimus prevents the release of inflammatory cytokines and mediators from mast cells in vitro after ... reducing T-cell cytokine production and inhibiting T-cell activation. Pimecrolimus significantly reduces the symptoms of OLP [ ... CTCLs are a heterogeneous group of lymphoproliferative disorders caused by clonally derived skin-invasive T cells. Few studies ...
TryptaseAllergicEosinophilsVariety of cytokinesBasophilMediatorBasophils and mast cellsSyndromeTumor necrosHeparinGranulesAllergensAnaphylaxisInduceProinflammatory mediatorsDendriticMCASVitroMastocytosisChemotacticActivatesSystemicCutaneousSecreteInhibitionProliferationHuman umbilical cord blood-deDegranulateImmune systemReactionsBoneAntibodiesInflammatory cellsAntigenSecretion of cytokines
- These patients may have elevated serum tryptase levels, carry c-kit mutations (most commonly D816V) in lesional mast cells, or have other markers of mast cell clonality such as aberrant CD25 expression. (thecardiologyadvisor.com)
- Regardless of the category of mastocytosis and the serum tryptase level, patients with mast cell disorders may suffer from (more or less severe) mediator-related symptoms and/or osteopathy. (haematologica.org)
- Activated mast cells secrete large amounts of chemotactic molecules, inflammation activators and soluble granule remnants, including cytokines , chemokines, and mediators such as histamine , tryptase and chymase , which may mediate or modulate atherogenesis (Table 1). (abcam.com)
- Tryptase and chymase are the most common mast cell specific proteases (Table 1). (abcam.com)
- histamine and prostaglandin D 2 (PGD 2) levels may correlate with exacerbations of mast cell activation, but are less frequently positive than is tryptase elevation. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- The initial laboratory studies include serum tryptase and urinary histamine and PGD 2 levels. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- Diagnosis is based on the clinical presentation, but testing of tryptase, histamine, and other inflammatory markers can support the diagnosis. (arupconsult.com)
- PGE 2 and PGD 2 ), proteases (e.g., tryptase), and some cytokines (e.g. (jimmunol.org)
- All three cell are involved in the pathogenesis of allergic disease. (worldallergy.org)
- The pathological roles of eosinophils, mast cells, and basophils in allergy are either directly or indirectly linked with the presence of allergen-specific IgE in allergic individuals. (worldallergy.org)
- Overall, mast cells are the main players in the early phase of the allergic reaction, due to their resident localization at sites where they are most likely to encounter environmental or food allergens (e.g., submucosa of the respiratory or digestive tract). (worldallergy.org)
- However, their role in amplifying existing allergic responses is relatively well established, due to their abundant secretion of the type-2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 after activation. (worldallergy.org)
- While it may be tempting for clinicians involved with the treatment of allergic individuals to only consider the negative roles of these three cell types, it is important to consider that causing allergic diseases is not their physiological function, and that they play important protective roles. (worldallergy.org)
- Allergic disease is caused by exposure to normally innocuous substances that activate mast cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation is closely related to a number of allergic disorders, such as anaphylaxis, allergic rhinitis, asthma and atopic dermatitis. (spandidos-publications.com)
- The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti‑allergic and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth (AEPC) (a member of the Labiatae family) using mast cells, and also to determine its possible mechanisms of action. (spandidos-publications.com)
- In developed countries, the prevalence and risk of allergic disorders have both steadily increased for decades ( 2 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- Mast cells are known to be closely associated with immediate-type hypersensitivity through the release of allergic mediators and cytokines following activation by FcεRI. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Allergen cross-linking with specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) bound to FcεRI triggers mast cell activation, inducing the rapid secretion of preformed allergic mediators and de novo synthesized mediators, such as histamine, cytokines, proteases and derivatives of arachidonic acid ( 3 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- Histamine, one of the major allergic mediators, plays a key role in various physiological and pathological responses, particularly allergic reactions ( 4 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- A higher level than normal infers an allergic disorder may be present . (dermnetnz.org)
- Mast cells and asthma: the role of mast cell mediators in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma, Annals of Allergy, vol. 1 (Jul. (freepatentsonline.com)
- The occurrence of an allergic reaction is a distinct one in that following an initial instance of exposure, in which the mast cells and basophils of the immune system are sensitized to the allergen by the immunoglobulin E antibody, any subsequent exposure can result in the excessive activation of these immune cells leading to the secretion of histamine, along with other inflammatory factors. (peprotech.com)
- These results suggest that ME inhibits allergic response by suppressing the activation of Syk, ERK1/2, p38, JNK, cPLA 2 , and 5-LO. (hindawi.com)
- Mast cells are a key player in early allergic response, which typically occurs within minutes of exposure to an appropriate antigen, and other biological responses, including inflammatory disorders [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
- The ocular allergic response is a cascade of events that is coordinated by mast cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Mast cell intermediaries cause an allergic inflammation and symptoms through the activation of inflammatory cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Both seasonal allergic conjunctivitis and perennial allergic conjunctivitis are two acute allergic conjunctival disorders. (wikipedia.org)
- Occasionally, a patient with episodic, recurrent mast cell activation may have an unremarkable work-up for allergic causes and have no evidence of clonal mast cell disease. (thecardiologyadvisor.com)
- Allergen-induced mast cell activation is central to the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic diseases. (aspetjournals.org)
- Vasospastic allergic angina, allergic myocardial infarction and stent thrombosis with occluding thrombus infiltrated by eosinophils and/or mast cells constitute are the three reported, so far, variants of this syndrome. (degruyter.com)
- Kounis syndrome seems to be not a rare disease but an infrequently diagnosed clinical entity which has revealed that the same mediators released from the same inflammatory cells are also present and in acute coronary events of non allergic etiology. (degruyter.com)
- Tatarkiewicz J, Rzodkiewicz P, Żochowska M, Staniszewska A, Bujalska-Zadrożny M. New antihistamines - perspectives in the treatment of some allergic and inflammatory disorders. (termedia.pl)
- Results were further limited by combining (Boolean operator AND) with the aggregated (OR Boolean operator) terms related to allergic or inflammatory disorders. (termedia.pl)
- Reduced LRG1 and TGFBR2 levels in patients with allergic airway disorders are likely caused by inhibitory actions of allergens in LRG1 producing cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, little is known regarding the relationship between this unique glycoprotein and allergic disorders. (biomedcentral.com)
- Since allergy is also an inflammatory and immunological disease, and LRG may play a role in it, we investigated the expression of LRG1 in allergic disorders and its potential cell origins in the present study. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, the expression levels of TGFBR2 in the plasma and blood cells under allergic conditions remain uninvestigated. (biomedcentral.com)
- In asthma and other allergic disorders, the activation of mast cells by IgE and antigen induces the cells to release histamine and other mediators of inflammation, as well as to produce certain cytokines and chemokines. (princeton.edu)
- Today, allergic angina and allergic myocardial infarction are ubiquitous diseases covering a wide spectrum of mast cell activation disorders that affect patients of any age. (tmsforacure.org)
- Interrelated and interacting inflammatory cells, such as macrophages and T-lymphocytes, are involved in these allergic or hypersensitivity and anaphylactic or anaphylactoid insults. (tmsforacure.org)
- This syndrome is caused by inflammatory mediators such as histamine, platelet-activating factor, arachidonic acid products, neutral proteases, and a variety of cytokines and chemokines released during the allergic activation process . (tmsforacure.org)
- Platelets bearing FCγRI, FCγTII, FCεRI, and FCεRII receptors are also involved in the allergic activation cascade . (tmsforacure.org)
- Although mast cells can go to brain tissue, the brain is not affected by allergic reactions because IgE antibodies cannot cross the blood-brain barrier. (tmsforacure.org)
- Both FOXP3 + CD4 + CD25 + regulatory T (Treg) cells and inducible IL-10- and TGF-β-producing type 1 Treg (Tr1) cells may prevent the development of allergic diseases and play a role in successful allergen-SIT and healthy immune response via several mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
- Mast cells are known primarily as essential effector cells in the elicitation of allergic responses. (abcam.com)
- The cells only release inflammation causing cytokines when the body needs to fight infection or injury and it only releases histamine when exposed to a substance in which the person is actually allergic. (zebrapit.com)
- The great majority of SM patients experience an indolent form of the disorder that may be complicated by mild to severe allergic reactions. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- Specifically, increased numbers of lymphocytes (white blood cell's involved in 'adaptive' immunity) and mast cells (which release histamine and other inflammatory chemicals during allergic reactions) were evident in IBS patients. (ei-resource.org)
- The John Schroeder Lab focuses on understanding the role human basophils and mast cells play in allergic reactions, as it relates not only to their secretion of potent inflammatory mediators (e.g., histamine and leukotriene C4) but also to their production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- These have facilitated the in vitro testing of numerous anti-allergic drugs for inhibitory activity on basophil and mast cell activation. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Shock occurs because an allergic reaction causes massive histamine release from mast cells and eosinophils, which causes far too much peripheral vasodilation for the body to maintain a healthy blood pressure. (brainscape.com)
- Our laboratory purified and cloned a histamine releasing factor (HRF) that was a complete stimulus for histamine and IL-4 secretion from a subpopulation of allergic donors basophils. (jove.com)
- The present invention relates to novel compounds selected from 2-aminoaryloxazoles that selectively modulate, regulate, and/or inhibit signal transduction mediated by certain native and/or mutant tyrosine kinases implicated in a variety of human and animal diseases such as cell proliferative, metabolic, allergic and degenerative disorders. (google.com)
- Wasp stings, antibiotics, mold and mold mycotoxins, can trigger the mast cells directly without involving IgE and will not test allergic to these things. (blogspot.com)
- In other words, Mast cells are cells that generate an allergic reaction. (whatislyme.com)
- Taken together, our findings indicate that artesunate possess novel therapeutic capabilities in experimental allergic disorders such as asthma and anaphylaxis. (nus.edu.sg)
- histamine release in particular accounts for many of the symptoms attributed to allergic conjunctivitis. (reviewofcontactlenses.com)
- Allergic conjunctivitis constitutes a range of allergic inflammatory disorders that affect the anterior surface of the eye-namely, acute, seasonal and perennial conjunctivitis, and chronic allergic forms like atopic keratoconjunctivitis, vernal conjunctivitis and giant papillary conjunctivitis. (reviewofcontactlenses.com)
- 10 The late phase is also the basis for chronic allergic disorders, with remodeling that involves stimulation, activation and localization of lymphocytes within the follicles and papillae of the conjunctival surface. (reviewofcontactlenses.com)
- Yet mast cells are best known, in humans, as key sources of mediators responsible for acute allergic reactions, notably including anaphylaxis, a severe and potentially fatal IgE-dependent immediate hypersensitivity reaction to apparently harmless antigens, including many found in foods and medicines. (stanford.edu)
- IgE has long been the standard laboratory measurement for classical allergic response, its secretion in the body resulting in histamine release by mast cells and potential anaphylaxis. (townsendletter.com)
- Eosinophils, mast cells, and basophils all were first recognized and described by Paul Ehrlich in the late 19th century. (worldallergy.org)
- While mature mast cells do not occur in blood, eosinophils are found both circulating in blood (normally less than 5% of leukocytes) and in hematopietic and lymphatic organs, such as the bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes and thymus. (worldallergy.org)
- Eosinophils are terminally differentiated granulocytic effector cells that produce and store biologically active molecules, including cytotoxic proteins, lipid mediators, chemotactic peptides, and cytokines. (worldallergy.org)
- 1 , 2 It is a chemoattractant for neutrophils and monocytes, it increases microvascular permeability, and activates T cells, eosinophils, and mast cells of the skin. (bmj.com)
- 4 TNF-α is produced by many cell types including monocytes, macrophages, T cells, eosinophils, and mast cells. (bmj.com)
- TH2 cytokines such as IL-5 recruit eosinophils and IL-4, IL-6, and IL-13, which promote increased sensitivity. (wikipedia.org)
- The mechanisms of suppression of different pro-inflammatory cells, such as eosinophils, mast cells and basophils and the development of allergen tolerance also directly or indirectly involves Treg cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- The cellular components comprise a variety of cells including eosinophils, mast cells, lymphocytes, neutrophils and plasma cells. (worldallergy.org)
- Eosinophils are the dominant cell type except in cystic fibrosis which contain more neutrophils and relatively fewer eosinophils. (worldallergy.org)
- In majority of nasal polyps, eosinophils comprise more than 60% of the cell population, except in cystic fibrosis. (worldallergy.org)
- In fact, an increased expression of these cytokines has been reported in nasal polyps, which can result in prolonging the survival of the migrated eosinophils within the polyp tissue. (worldallergy.org)
- However, eosinophils themselves are an important source of some of these cytokines / chemokines (IL-5, GM-CSF, TNF-a) and are thus capable of increasing their own survival, activation and migration in an autocrine manner. (worldallergy.org)
- Various numbers of plasma cells, eosinophils and high numbers of mast cells were also present. (andthebandplayson.com)
- Comprised of a number of different types, including neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocites and monocites, which are collectively known as leukocites ("leuko" meaning "white"), these white blood cells search out and destroy invaders. (andthebandplayson.com)
- Class IV reactions are caused by T cells, which may either directly cause damage themselves or activate macrophages and eosinophils that damage host cells. (premilife.com)
- H1 receptors are found on endothelial cells, H2 on gastric parietal cells, H3 in the central nervous system (CNS), and H4 on mast, eosinophils, T, and dendritic cells. (beyondthebite4life.com)
Variety of cytokines1
- We have long utilized human cells rather than cell lines in order to address the parameters, signal transduction and pharmacological aspects underlying clinically relevant basophil and mast cell responses. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Newer laboratory tests that may assist in diagnosis include flow cytometry tests for expression of CD63 and CD203, markers of basophil activation. (arupconsult.com)
- HgCl2 (100 μM) also enhances immunoglobulin E-mediated mediator release from human basophils, and histamine release from a rat basophil cell line (RBL-2H3). (acam.org)
- Dr. Tsai?s research focuses on studies that are designed to understand the regulation of mast cell and basophil development and to elucidate the roles of these cells in health and disease. (stanford.edu)
- In fact, oral and sublingual allergy desensitization studies show that IgG antibody rises in conjunction with decreases in IgE mast cell reactivity and basophil responses. (townsendletter.com)
- Monomeric immunoglobulin (Ig)E in the absence of allergen induces mediator release from rodent mast cells, indicating a possible role for IgE in the continued activation of mast cells within the asthmatic bronchial mucosa. (le.ac.uk)
- In this study it was investigated whether monomeric IgE induces Ca2+ influx and mediator release from human lung mast cells (HLMC). (le.ac.uk)
- The best known mediator released by mast cells is histamine. (blogspot.com)
- Mast cell activation results in the immediate release of proinflammatory mediators prestored in cytoplasmic granules, as well as initiation of lipid mediator production and cytokine synthesis by these resident tissue leukocytes. (aspetjournals.org)
- Professional histamine-producing cells such as mast cells, basophils, enterochromaffin-like cells of the gastric mucosa, and histaminergic neurons synthesize this mediator, collect it in special granules inside the cells and release it in large amounts after specific stimulation. (termedia.pl)
- Mediator release may occur via cross-linking of cell-bound IgE by di-(multi-) valent free drug. (springer.com)
- Pimecrolimus can selectively inhibit the activation of T cell through inhibiting the activity of the calcium-dependent nerve transcription proteins which is indispensible for the activation of T cells and prevent the release of cytokines and pro-inflammatory mediator, and further exhibiting strong anti-inflammatory activity. (chemicalbook.com)
- The pattern of mediator and cell surface molecule expression is both agonist- and strain-specific in mice, suggesting that mast cells have adapted to respond differentially to distinct immunological insults ( 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
Basophils and mast cells2
- Mast cell activation is noted to be associated with other disorders such as postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and hypermobility . (mindbodygreen.com)
- Clonal mast cell disease presents in the form of mastocytosis or monoclonal mast cell activation syndrome. (thecardiologyadvisor.com)
- Kounis syndrome has been established as a hypersensitivity coronary disorder induced by various conditions, drugs, environmental exposures, foods and coronary stents. (degruyter.com)
- Kounis syndrome is defined as the coexistence of acute coronary syndromes including coronary spasm, acute myocardial infarction, and stent thrombosis, with conditions associated with mast cell and platelet activation. (tmsforacure.org)
- MCADs are a common comorbid condition to Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS), Hypermobility Syndrome Disorders (HSD), Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS), Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS), Neurally Mediated Hypotension (NMH), Fibromyalgia, Interstitial Cystitis and other spoonie conditions. (zebrapit.com)
- Masties are people with Mast Cell Activation Disorders (MCAD) including Mastocytosis and Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS). (zebrapit.com)
- You might also be surprised to find that the newly discovered hereditary alpha tryptasemia syndrome may also be a mast cell disorder. (zebrapit.com)
- But before I get into coinfections, I want to talk about a coinciding disorder, mast cell activation syndrome, that is not infectious, but which is a nefarious gift of the Lyme-causing Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria that could last a lifetime. (andthebandplayson.com)
- The second is the pioneering work of Dr. Lawrence Afrin on mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS). (hoffmancentre.com)
- What is Mast Cell Activation Syndrome? (hoffmancentre.com)
- A new review of published research into irritable bowel syndrome has revealed that the digestive disorder is associated with changes in the immune system and the permeability of the intestinal wall. (ei-resource.org)
- The focus of the study was to determine whether immune activation and increased intestinal permeability (colloquially known as leaky gut syndrome) were more common among IBS patients than in healthy individuals. (ei-resource.org)
- Source: Matricon J Meleine M Gelot A Piche T Dapoigny M Muller E Ardid D (2012) Review article: associations between immune activation, intestinal permeability and the irritable bowel syndrome Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics doi: 10.1111/apt.12080. (ei-resource.org)
- To preface this blog on Mold and MCAS (Mast Cell Activation Syndrome) I would like to just pitch a shout out to all the canaries in the coal mines, you know who you are. (radiantrealitynutrition.com)
- Mast cell activation syndrome is an inflammatory condition in which mast cells chronically overreact and release inflammatory chemicals into the body. (radiantrealitynutrition.com)
- Mast cell activation syndrome occurs when the mast cell receives a constant signal to react (from some foreign invader/substance). (radiantrealitynutrition.com)
- What is Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS)? (whatislyme.com)
- 1 Recently, much attention has been focused on gut microbiota, as it has become clear that alterations in the gut microenvironment are significantly involved in the pathophysiology of various diseases such as GI disease, metabolic syndrome, autoimmune disease, and nervous/endocrine system disorders. (jnmjournal.org)
- Some people have mastocytosis (too many mast cells) and some have a normal amount of these cells but have what is called mast cell activation syndrome or disorder. (mastcelldisease.com)
- The need exists for additional treatment options addressing antiviral replication, Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the cytokine storm (1-4). (bmj.com)
- Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the cytokine storm account for a large part of the high mortality in intensive care units (2). (bmj.com)
- When mast cells become increasingly triggered, you can find that you've become intolerant to histamines or have developed a condition called Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS). (skinterrupt.com)
- A patient with severe postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS) received immunotherapy with low-dose naltrexone (LDN) and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and antibiotic therapy for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). (bmj.com)
- Erk1/2 is an essential signal in the production of interleukin- (IL-) 5, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α , IL-3, and IL-13 in mast cells [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
- 1 , 9 , 13 , 14 In addition, activated mast cells can produce and release a number of functional cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), oncostatin M (OSM), or interleukin-6 (IL-6). (haematologica.org)
- Mercuric chloride (HgCl2) in nontoxic doses induces the release of histamine and cytokines, such as IL-4 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), from a murine mast cell line and from mouse bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells. (acam.org)
- Analysis of cytokine mRNA and protein in rheumatoid arthritis tissue revealed many pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF? (thekateearl.com)
- Figure 1: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) dependent cytokine cascade (Feldman et al. (thekateearl.com)
- These responses may cause mast cells to rupture and release numerous mediators contained within packets of granules. (blogspot.com)
- An important feature of mast cells is their ability to release the content of their cytoplasmic granules extracellularly upon activation by stimuli such as IgE , complement components, as well as viral and bacterial pathogens. (abcam.com)
- Mast cells (MCs) store an array of proinflammatory mediators in secretory granules that are rapidly released upon activation by diverse conditions including amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides. (jneurosci.org)
- Mast cells are characterized by the presence of numerous cytoplasmic granules containing a plethora of preformed proinflammatory mediators that are released immediately upon activation. (jimmunol.org)
- 4) These substances are released when the mast cell degranulates - essentially the granules open their doors to release what they hold within. (skinterrupt.com)
- The activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB is also accompanied by the binding of allergens with IgE. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Interaction of allergens with the intestinal cell barrier together with a set of effector cells represents the primary pathways of food-induced anaphylaxis. (frontiersin.org)
- Mast cells are types of white blood cells that release up to 200 signalling chemicals, or mast cell mediators, into the body as part of an immune system stabilizing defense response against foreign invaders (parasites, fungi, bacteria, or viruses), allergens and environmental toxins. (hoffmancentre.com)
- Allergens binding to these cells cause the release of histamine, which causes immediate, and sometimes very intense, hypersensitivity reactions. (whatislyme.com)
- Following primary exposure, the allergens present in the body bind to the IgE on mast cells, triggering a release of mediators and IL-4, which causes the B-cells to produce more IgE antibodies in a positive feedback loop. (reviewofcontactlenses.com)
- Mast cells are also associated with a multitude of other conditions such as asthma, drug reactions, anaphylaxis, mastocytosis, urticarial. (worldallergy.org)
- This study investigated the anti-allergy potential of an extract of the branches of H. dulcis (HDB) using the antigen-stimulated mast cell-like cell line rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-2H3 and a passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) mouse model. (rsc.org)
- Wheezing is uncommon in clonal mast cell disorders as compared to anaphylaxis. (thecardiologyadvisor.com)
- During allergy, hypersensitivity, or anaphylaxis, activation of mast cells takes place, and a variety of stored and newly formed inflammatory mediators are released locally and in the systemic circulation. (tmsforacure.org)
- Can Vismodegib Induce Melanoma in Patients Treated for Basal Cell Carcinoma? (cancertherapyadvisor.com)
- This appears to be in line with other research that suggests that rosacea flareups could be the result of neuropeptide production that in turn "induce[s] cathelicidin production" in mast cells . (skinterrupt.com)
- Furthermore, RBL-2H3 cells are a useful model for in vitro screening of antiallergy drug candidates. (hindawi.com)
- Our results also showed that the CTCM inhibited histamine and IL-4 secretion in the OVA-induced airway hypersensitivity in guinea pigs at 5 min post-OVA challenge, and in vitro study revealed that the CTCM is able to stabilize mast cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- The kinase activity of Btk and Tec, but not of Itk, was inhibited by nanomolar concentrations of dasatinib in vitro and in cultured cells. (pnas.org)
- Our initial analysis of the transcriptional program induced in in vitro-derived human mast cells stimulated via the Fc(epsilon)RI has identified many products that heretofore have not been associated with this cell type, but which may significantly influence mast cell function in IgE-associated host responses. (princeton.edu)
- In vitro CSR assay involves the flow cytometric measurement surface Ig expression on activated B cells. (jove.com)
- In addition, in vitro experiments, pimecrolimus can also be applied to inhibit the antigen as well as IgE stimulated mast cells' release of inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory mediators [4, (chemicalbook.com)
- Most in vitro studies of mast cell function rely on bone marrow-derived mast cells generated by culture with IL-3 and stem cell factor. (jimmunol.org)
- T cells from certain healthy individuals exposed to various concentrations (1-100 nM) of arsenite in vitro showed a dose-dependent suppression at these extremely low concentrations (?0.1-10 ppb) of arsenite, whereas other individuals were not suppressed at low concentrations. (jove.com)
- Cromolyn has been identified to inhibit of S100P activation of RAGE and inhibited elevated basal activity of NF-kB pathway in pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo in (13). (bmj.com)
- as well as two in vitro models, the Schulz-Dale reaction and RBL-2H3 releasing assay. (nus.edu.sg)
- Dr. Tsai?s research approaches include in vitro analyses of mast cells and basophils in human and mice, as well as using mouse models of disease to investigate the effector and immunoregulatory functions of these cells in vivo. (stanford.edu)
- Some patients with recurrent mast cell activation may have clonal mast cells in bone marrow as in mastocytosis (systemic or cutaneous) or a monoclonal mast cell activation (MMAS). (thecardiologyadvisor.com)
- In mastocytosis, expansion of the clone is sufficient to be detected as increased tissue burden of mast cells, for example, either as skin involvement (urticaria pigmentosa), or bone marrow infiltration (systemic mastocytosis, in which the World Health Organization [WHO] diagnostic criteria are fulfilled). (thecardiologyadvisor.com)
- Finally, molecular studies of various hematopoietic cell lineages in patients with clonal mast cell disorders indicate that the c-kit mutation is limited to the mast cell compartment in MMAS, whereas multilineage involvement in non-mast cell lineages is common in systemic mastocytosis. (thecardiologyadvisor.com)
- However, conventional urticaria and angioedema are generally encountered in non-clonal, IgE mediated mast cell activation and are rare in clonal mast cell disorders such as mastocytosis. (thecardiologyadvisor.com)
- Mast cell disorders (mastocytosis) are a hematologic neoplasm defined by abnormal expansion and dense accumulation of clonally altered mast cells in various organ systems. (haematologica.org)
- 7 - 12 Histamine is considered one of the most relevant mediators released from activated mast cells in patients with mastocytosis. (haematologica.org)
- In most patients with systemic mastocytosis, the transforming KIT mutation D816V is expressed in neoplastic mast cells. (haematologica.org)
- In Mastocytosis, a person has too many of these mast cells. (zebrapit.com)
- In mastocytosis, there is an overabundance of mast cells present, which can cause an overabundance of mediators. (zebrapit.com)
- Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is a disorder with protean manifestations. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- Monocyte Chemotactic and Activating Factor Is a Potent Histamine-releasing Factor for Human Basophils", The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 175, Feb. 1992, pp. 489-493. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Envenomation by insects, snakes, scorpions, and spiders involves the activation of the inflammatory system with the release and activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemotactic mediators, cellular infiltration, and other vasoactive mediators. (scielo.br)
- Once in the tissue, the cells migrate along a chemotactic gradient to reach the site of injury, where they can attempt to remove the stimulus and repair the tissue. (wikidoc.org)
- 1 - 5 The classification of the World Health Organization (WHO) splits mast cell disorders into cutaneous entities, systemic variants, and localized mast cell tumors. (haematologica.org)
- These pre-formed and newly synthesized inflammatory mediators are released locally and enter the systemic circulation. (tmsforacure.org)
- However, systemic lupus erythematosus, commonly called lupus, can result from antibodies that recognize antigens expressed by nearly all healthy cells. (premilife.com)
- Sepsis may refer to an infection of the bloodstream, or it can refer to a systemic inflammatory state caused by the uncontrolled, broad release of cytokines that quickly activate immune cells throughout the body. (premilife.com)
- The disorder generally presents with cutaneous manifestations-such as excoriations (from scratching) with or without impetigo, prurigo lesions, and lichenification-that occur as secondary phenomena. (uspharmacist.com)
- This paper summarizes the most important clinical studies and case reports dealing with the potential benefits of nonantibiotic macrolides which have opened new avenues in the development of anti-inflammatory strategies in the treatment of cutaneous disorders. (hindawi.com)
- UP may exist solely as a cutaneous disorder but in adults, it is usually part of SM. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- Drug-induced delayed-type cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions are mediated by CD4+ and CD8+ CD3+ T cells in the dermis and epidermis. (springer.com)
- Myricetin exhibited selective inhibition of cell growth (IC50 114.75μM) and induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells only. (blogspot.com)
- Analysis of mast cells derived from Btk-deficient mice suggested that inhibition of Btk by dasatinib may be responsible for the observed reduction in histamine release upon dasatinib treatment. (pnas.org)
- The observed inhibition of Tec kinases by dasatinib predicts immunosuppressive (side) effects of this drug and may offer therapeutic opportunities for inflammatory and immunological disorders. (pnas.org)
- In a series of more than 30 normal donors, two individuals were found to be sensitive to low concentration (10 nM equivalent ?1 ppb drinking water exposure) to sodium arsenite-induced inhibition of T cell proliferation produced by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and anti-CD3/anti-CD28. (jove.com)
- It competes with purines in the synthesis of nucleic acids and prevents proliferation of rapidly dividing cells. (merckvetmanual.com)
- Biocompatibility was assessed by proliferation assays using cultured fibroblast cells and by in vivo study with subcutaneous and intraperitoneal implantation in rats. (blogspot.com)
- Since TGF-b is an important cytokine responsible for inducing fibroblast proliferation, the increased stromal fibrosis seen in nasal polyps can be attributed to the increased in vivo expression of TGF-b in nasal polyps. (worldallergy.org)
Human umbilical cord blood-de1
- When mast cells suspect danger, they degranulate, which means they release stored chemicals, as part of the cell danger response. (mindbodygreen.com)
- Food, medicines, stress, sunlight and exercise can all trigger the mast cells to degranulate and this can cause a mild to severe reaction. (mastcelldisease.com)
- In some people, this additional histamine from food exposure can trigger mast cells to degranulate and release histamine. (skinterrupt.com)
- Mast cells are cells of the innate immune system that are strategically located in our bodies to protect us from the outside environment. (mindbodygreen.com)
- But when an important soldier of the innate immune system, mast cells, is unstable, it goes rogue and releases its contents to a detrimental extent. (mindbodygreen.com)
- An allergy is a hypersensitivity disorder of the immune system in which exposure, either in the form of ingestion, inhalation or direct contact, to an antigen considered harmless under normal circumstances initiates the production of immune cells expressing sensitivity to that specific allergen, which upon subsequent instances of exposure results in an adverse reaction. (peprotech.com)
- Mast cells have long been a greatly under appreciated component of our immune system. (blogspot.com)
- As we know, autoimmune disease is characterized by the immune system inappropriately recognizing "self," which leads to a pathologic humoral and/or cell-mediated immune reaction. (ndnr.com)
- This occurs when an aspect of the innate immune system becomes overactive and releases a flood of inflammatory chemicals, which may affect every organ in the body. (hoffmancentre.com)
- A cascade of biochemical events propagates and matures the inflammatory response, involving the local vascular system , the immune system , and various cells within the injured tissue. (thefullwiki.org)
- Good health relies on a strong immune system to fight threatening pathogens from infecting host cells. (davidson.edu)
- Such reactions, which proceed clinically similar to an allergy but which are not triggered by specific immune system mechanisms (for instance antigen-specific IgE antibodies or T-cells) , are currently recorded under the general heading of intolerance reactions. (histamineintolerance.org.uk)
- He has found that mast cells are one of the key regulators of the immune system, and has turned this interest on mast cell activation to loking at autism. (blogspot.com)
- Mast cells are white blood cells and are part of our immune system. (mastcelldisease.com)
- T cells are critical to the adaptive immune system, where the body adapts specifically to foreign invaders. (wikipedia.org)
- Together, these various cells play a very important role in the bodies detoxification, vascular, and immune system. (beyondthebite4life.com)
- These cells are critical effector cells in IgE-dependent immediate hypersensitivity reactions [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Mechanisms, to the extent that they are currently understood, of other types of "hypersensitivity" reactions or intolerances, some mediated by antibodies other than IgE, and others by cells, are also discussed. (springer.com)
- p38 MAP kinase stimulates IL-4 production in bone marrow mast cells (BMMCs) [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
- 15 In particular, they were able to show that bone marrow mast cells in patients with KIT D816V + SM express and release IL-6, and that the levels of IL-6 in cultured mononuclear cells in these patients correlate with the D816V KIT allele burden and with the percentage of mast cells in these samples. (haematologica.org)
- T cells are manufactured in bone marrow. (andthebandplayson.com)
- Also manufactured in the bone marrow are a kind of cell I don't recall ever having learned about in biology class-and it turns out that mine are all out of sorts. (andthebandplayson.com)
- Bone marrow contains the characteristic spindle-shaped mast cell infiltrates, which may be accompanied by marrow fibrosis. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- Patients receiving chemotherapy, bone marrow transplants, or immunosuppressive drugs experience weakened immune systems until immune cell levels are restored. (premilife.com)
- They originate in the bone marrow and go to every tissue in the body, they do not circulate as other white blood cells do. (blogspot.com)
- Cells in the thymus can be divided into thymic stromal cells and cells of hematopoietic origin (derived from bone marrow resident hematopoietic stem cells). (wikipedia.org)
- By targeting these antigens the antibodies can destroy or alter the function of cells which express the target. (nps.org.au)
- The third line of defense is mounted against specific pathogens that are causing disease (B cells produce antibodies against bacteria or viruses in the extracellular fluid, while T cells kill cells that have become infected). (wikibooks.org)
- Class I, II, and III are caused by antibodies, IgE or IgG, which are produced by B cells in response to an allergen. (premilife.com)
- B cells may produce antibodies targeting host cells, and active T cells may recognize self-antigen. (premilife.com)
- However, when a H2 antihistamine is taken, pro-inflammatory antibodies, T cells, and cytokines are decreased, subsequently compromising the motility of the gut. (beyondthebite4life.com)
- All of these inflammatory cells participate in a vicious inflammatory cycle in which they can activate each other via multidirectional signals. (tmsforacure.org)
- In this review, we discuss the defined and hypothesized mechanisms of mast cell influence on autoimmune diseases, including their surprising and newly discovered role as anti-inflammatory cells. (jimmunol.org)
- Also described is a method for inhibiting the mucous release into airways of a patient, a method for blocking IgE activation of an immune cell, a method for stabilizing the cell membrane of an immune cell, thereby preventing their further involvement in the increased inflammatory response to an IgE antigen challenge, and a method for inhibiting the migration of T-cells. (freepatentsonline.com)
- The development of immune homeostasis depends on windows of opportunity during which innate and adaptive immunity are coordinated by antigen-presenting cells. (tahomaclinic.com)
- Abacavir changes the shape of the HLA antigen-binding cleft producing an alteration in the repertoire of self-peptides that bind HLA-B*57:01 and a T cell response to self-proteins. (springer.com)
- When an initial allergen penetrates through the physical barriers of the body, antigen-presenting cells (APC) grab it and migrate to the nearest lymph node, where they bind to the T-helper cells present there. (reviewofcontactlenses.com)
- these cells then establish a common mucosal immunity by passage through the lymphatic system to other mucosal sites and subsequent secretion of antigen-specific IgA. (townsendletter.com)