Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.NADPH Oxidase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Luminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Catalase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.Acetylcysteine: The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Oxidants: Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial: The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Onium Compounds: Ions with the suffix -onium, indicating cations with coordination number 4 of the type RxA+ which are analogous to QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS (H4N+). Ions include phosphonium R4P+, oxonium R3O+, sulfonium R3S+, chloronium R2Cl+Reactive Nitrogen Species: Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Singlet Oxygen: An excited state of molecular oxygen generated photochemically or chemically. Singlet oxygen reacts with a variety of biological molecules such as NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS; causing oxidative damages.Xanthine Oxidase: An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cyclic N-Oxides: Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Hydroxyl Radical: The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Glutathione Peroxidase: An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.Rotenone: A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.1,2-Dihydroxybenzene-3,5-Disulfonic Acid Disodium Salt: A colorimetric reagent for iron, manganese, titanium, molybdenum, and complexes of zirconium. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)AcetophenonesRespiratory Burst: A large increase in oxygen uptake by neutrophils and most types of tissue macrophages through activation of an NADPH-cytochrome b-dependent oxidase that reduces oxygen to a superoxide. Individuals with an inherited defect in which the oxidase that reduces oxygen to superoxide is decreased or absent (GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC) often die as a result of recurrent bacterial infections.Cytochromes c: Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.Xanthine: A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Vitamin K 3: A synthetic naphthoquinone without the isoprenoid side chain and biological activity, but can be converted to active vitamin K2, menaquinone, after alkylation in vivo.
Murphy MP (January 2009). "How mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species". Biochem. J. 417 (1): 1-13. doi:10.1042/BJ20081386 ... 2010) found that cell lines with Parkinson's disease show increased proton leakage in complex I, which causes decreased maximum ... Recent investigations suggest that complex I is a potent source of reactive oxygen species. Complex I can produce superoxide ( ... perhaps because of reactive oxygen species (complex I can, like complex III, leak electrons to oxygen, forming highly toxic ...
"Reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase regulate plant cell growth". Nature. 422 (6930): 442-446. doi:10.1038/ ... May, M. J.; Hammond-Kosack, K. E.; Jones, J. (1996). "Involvement of Reactive Oxygen Species, Glutathione Metabolism, and Lipid ... "A molecular description of telometic heterochromatin in secale species". Cell. 19 (2): 545-560. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(80)90529- ... He is also a Professor at University of East Anglia and has been an editor of The Plant Cell and Genome Biology. Other ...
"Reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase regulate plant cell growth". Nature. 422 (6930): 442-446. doi:10.1038/ ... Gapper, C; Dolan, L (2006). "Control of plant development by reactive oxygen species". Plant Physiology. 141 (2): 341-5. doi: ... "Local Positive Feedback Regulation Determines Cell Shape in Root Hair Cells". Science. 319 (5867): 1241-1244. doi:10.1126/ ...
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants are important in various signaling cascades and are continuously produced by cells as ... Myeloperoxidase uses the reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide to produce hypochlorous acid. Many vascular stimuli, ... is the rapid release of reactive oxygen species (superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide) from different types of cells. ... Absence of NADPH oxidase will prevent the formation of reactive oxygen species and will result in chronic granulomatous disease ...
Cells lacking dinB gene have a higher rate of mutagenesis caused by DNA damaging agents. Reactive oxygen species are produced ... Cell. 7 (3): 571-9. doi:10.1016/s1097-2765(01)00204-0. PMID 11463382. Lenne-Samuel N, Wagner J, Etienne H, Fuchs RP (January ... C to TA transversion mutation is produced (8-oxoG:C → 8-oxoG:A → T:A). However, when DNA polymerase IV intervenes to bypass the ...
... the unreduced oxygen molecules in the mitochondrial cortex may accumulate and begin to produce reactive oxygen species. It is ... Reactive oxygen species can damage the DNA and proteins in cells. A majority of them arise in the mitochondria. Deletion of the ... Murphy MP (Jan 2009). "How mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species". The Biochemical Journal. 417 (1): 1-13. doi:10.1042/ ... Adam-Vizi V (2005). "Production of reactive oxygen species in brain mitochondria: contribution by electron transport chain and ...
As a cofactor, ubiquinone is often involved in processes that produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, ubiquinone is ... Defects of the gene slow down a variety of developmental and physiological processes, including the cell cycle, embryogenesis, ... The structure and function of the gene are highly conserved among different species. The C. elegans protein contains 187 amino ... Nature Cell Biology. 17: 782-92. doi:10.1038/ncb3170. PMC 4539581 . PMID 25961505. Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping ...
The higher the blue score the better the cell is at producing reactive oxygen species. It has also been shown that NADPH ... Superoxide can be produced in phagosomes, which contain ingested bacteria and fungi, or it can be produced outside of the cell ... the phagocyte is unable to make the reactive oxygen species or radicals required for bacterial killing, resulting in bacteria ... by facilitating the formation of reactive oxygen species, which are suspected intermediaries in sFlt-1 formation. These effects ...
The higher the blue score, the better the cell is at producing reactive oxygen species. This test depends upon the direct ... This enzyme oxidizes NADPH and reduces molecular oxygen to produce superoxide anions, a reactive oxygen species. Superoxide is ... require an enzyme to produce reactive oxygen species to destroy bacteria after they are ingested (phagocytosis), a process ... Thus, NADPH oxidase is critical for phagocyte killing of bacteria through reactive oxygen species. (Two other mechanisms are ...
The higher the blue score, the better the cell is at producing reactive oxygen species. Trinh le A, McCutchen MD, Bonner-Fraser ... When there is an NADPH oxidase defect, the phagocyte is unable to make reactive oxygen species or radicals required for ...
Recent investigations suggest that complex I is a potent source of reactive oxygen species.[44] Complex I can produce ... 2010) found that cell lines with Parkinson's disease show increased proton leakage in complex I, which causes decreased maximum ... "How mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species". The Biochemical Journal. 417 (1): 1-13. doi:10.1042/BJ20081386. PMC 2605959 ... perhaps because of reactive oxygen species (complex I can, like complex III, leak electrons to oxygen, forming highly toxic ...
2004). "Reactive oxygen species produced by NAD(P)H oxidase inhibit apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells". J. Biol. Chem. 279 ( ... Nox-dependent reactive oxygen species modulation by amino endoperoxides can induce apoptosis in high Nox4-expressing cancer ... A phagocyte-type oxidase, similar to that responsible for the production of large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in ... H oxidase 4 isozyme is essential for lipopolysaccharide-induced production of reactive oxygen species and activation of NF- ...
These metabolites can produce reactive oxygen species, resulting in oxidative cellular damage and compensatory cell ... in cultured human bladder cells and bladder cells from rats and mice exposed in vivo to o-toluidine. Binding of o-toluidine ... o-Toluidine has been used as a dye precursor since the 19th century, when synthetic dye was produced.[full citation needed] In ... 2002) and even large scale chromosomal damage was observed in yeast and mammalian cells exposed to o-toluidine in vitro. More ...
M.P. Murphy, How mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species, Biochem J, 417 (2009) 1-13. D.C. Wallace, W. Fan, V. Procaccio, ... Oxidative stress occurs when reactive oxygen species such as free radicals react with and damage biological molecules, cells ... Consequently, antioxidants, which are designed to block the damage caused by reactive oxygen species, should be effective ... Mitochondria are essential organelles within most of our cells that use the oxygen we breathe to break down the fat and ...
The activated enzymes then begin producing reactive oxygen species which damages surrounding tissue. The excess Ca2+ results in ... Hippocampal lesioning led to a considerable loss of cells in pyramidal cells (CA1-CA3) as well as granule cells in the dentate ... enhancement of the mitochondrial electron transport system which will further increase the number of reactive oxygen species. ... The binding of ibotenic acid allows excess Ca2+ into the system which results in neuronal cell death or apoptosis. Ca2+ also ...
The breakdown of glucose produces reactive oxygen species (ROS). These induce extracellular Daxx to translocalize into the ... and cell death. Daxx interacts with the TGF-β type II receptor by binding of C-terminal domain of the protein. When the cell is ... Another important cell death-property of Daxx is the association with PML-NB. It was shown that Daxx associates with Pml only ... This partnership is found mainly in the S-phase of the cell cycle. No expression of Daxx leads to malfunction of S phase and ...
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced as byproducts of metabolism. In germline cells, ROS are likely a significant cause ... So are the cells that divide to produce the gametes, called gametocytes, the cells that produce those, called gametogonia, and ... is produced by spontaneous oxidation in the germline cells of mice, and during the cell's DNA replication cause GC to TA ... cells that are not in the germline are called somatic cells. The term refers to all of the cells of body apart from the gametes ...
... plants produce reactive oxygen species which can result in cell death. If these free radicals are removed, cell death can be ... it may be possible to create incredibly resistant species. By comparing P. furiosus with a related species of archaea, ... The species was taken from the thermal marine sediments and studied by growing it in culture in a lab. Pyrococcus furiosus is ... The species name furiosus means 'rushing' in Latin, and refers to the extremophile's doubling time and rapid swimming. Sapra, R ...
Ionizing radiation and reactive oxygen species often oxidize guanine to produce 8-oxoguanine. As noted above, the number of DNA ... "Impact of reactive oxygen species on spontaneous mutagenesis in Escherichia coli". Genes Cells. 11 (7): 767-78. doi:10.1111/j. ... The metabolic process was identified in 1960s as catalysis by cytochrome P450 which produces reactive species that can interact ... Oxidative stress may also generate highly reactive oxygen species that can damage DNA. Incorrect repair of other damage induced ...
It is able to protect the cell from reactive oxygen species produced from exposure to UV by acting as a target. The ... To obtain more oxygen H. salinarum produce gas vesicles, which allow them to float to the surface where oxygen levels are ... The S-layer is made of a cell-surface glycoprotein, which accounts for approximately 50% of the cell surface proteins. These ... bacterioruberin radical produced is less reactive than the initial radical, and will likely react with another radical, ...
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can contribute to tissue damage by producing free radicals from a chemical reaction called ... Tissue or cell damage can occur when production of ROS exceeds the capacity of a body to remove it. Hence, supplying ... The production of insects also produces lower greenhouse gases and ammonia than traditional livestock species. Insects also ... There are quite a few debated estimates of numbers of edible insect species ranging from 1000 to 1900 species globally. Order ...
One of their important jobs is to produce Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) to kill bacteria, for which they use an enzyme called ... Since more oxygen in the wound environment allows white blood cells to produce ROS to kill bacteria, patients with inadequate ... More recently, an interplay between bacterial colonization and increases in reactive oxygen species leading to formation and ... The enzymes and ROS produced by neutrophils and other leukocytes damage cells and prevent cell proliferation and wound closure ...
Activated endothelial cells produce more reactive oxygen species but less nitric oxide following reperfusion, and the imbalance ... Such radicals and reactive oxygen species attack cell membrane lipids, proteins, and glycosaminoglycans, causing further damage ... Excessive nitric oxide produced during reperfusion reacts with superoxide to produce the potent reactive species peroxynitrite ... Such reactive species may also act indirectly in redox signaling to turn on apoptosis. White blood cells may also bind to the ...
In addition, fission results in fragmented mitochondria more capable of producing of reactive oxygen species, which can disrupt ... "Dynamin-related protein Drp1 is required for mitochondrial division in mammalian cells". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 12 (8 ... Xie N, Wang C, Lian Y, Zhang H, Wu C, Zhang Q (Jun 2013). "A selective inhibitor of Drp1, mdivi-1, protects against cell death ... They found that knocking out Drp1 resulted in the appearance of large mitochondria in Purkinje cells and prevented neural tube ...
As a result, reactive oxygen species are produced and oxidation reactions in excess of those normally tolerated by the cell ... woody species, and riparian and emergent aquatic species. Imazapic, a selective herbicide for both the pre- and postemergent ... Some plants also produce their own natural herbicides, such as the genus Juglans (walnuts), or the tree of heaven; such action ... They have several points of action on the cell membrane, and are effective in the control of dicot plants. 2,4-D is a synthetic ...
Belikov AV, Schraven B, Simeoni L. T cells and reactive oxygen species. Journal of Biomedical Science. October 2015, 22: 85. ... Modulation of autoimmune diseases by interleukin (IL)-17 producing regulatory T helper (Th17) cells. The Indian Journal of ... T Cells to protect tumour cells. Nature Communications. March 2018, 9 (1): 948. PMC 5838096. PMID 29507342. doi:10.1038/s41467- ... 细胞毒性T细胞(CTLs, killer T cells)负责杀伤被病毒感染的细胞和癌细胞,在对器官移植的
Parasitic Worms Stimulate Host NADPH Oxidases to Produce Reactive Oxygen Species That Limit Plant Cell Death and Promote ... Parasitic Worms Stimulate Host NADPH Oxidases to Produce Reactive Oxygen Species That Limit Plant Cell Death and Promote ... Parasitic Worms Stimulate Host NADPH Oxidases to Produce Reactive Oxygen Species That Limit Plant Cell Death and Promote ... Parasitic Worms Stimulate Host NADPH Oxidases to Produce Reactive Oxygen Species That Limit Plant Cell Death and Promote ...
Reactive Oxygen Species-Producing Myeloid Cells Act as a Bone Marrow Niche for Sterile Inflammation-Induced Reactive ... Reactive Oxygen Species-Producing Myeloid Cells Act as a Bone Marrow Niche for Sterile Inflammation-Induced Reactive ... Reactive Oxygen Species-Producing Myeloid Cells Act as a Bone Marrow Niche for Sterile Inflammation-Induced Reactive ... Reactive Oxygen Species-Producing Myeloid Cells Act as a Bone Marrow Niche for Sterile Inflammation-Induced Reactive ...
The kinase activity of mitochondrial DMPK protects cells from oxidative stress and from the ensuing opening of the ... and Src inhibition selectively enhances death in DMPK-expressing cells after HK II detachment from the mitochondria. Down- ... mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP), which would otherwise irreversibly commit cells to death. We observe that ... Murphy MP . How mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species. Biochem J 2009; 417: 1-13. ...
How mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species. Biochem J. 2009;417(1):1-13. https://doi.org/10.1042/bj20081386 CrossRef ... Mechanism of stem cell therapy. Stem cells became potential therapy for cell injury via various kinds of mechanisms. After cell ... Stem cells including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), umbilical cord blood stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and induced ... EC epithelial cell, HUVEC human umbilical vein endothelial cell, IPSC induced pluripotent stem cell, MSC stem cell including ...
All living cells produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a byproduct of metabolism. ROS are reduced oxygen intermediates that ... Many algal species have been shown to not only produce reactive oxygen species under normal conditions but to increase ... Reactive oxygen species produced by phytoplankton have been linked to deaths of fish, shellfish, and protists, as well as shown ... Reactive oxygen species are present in low concentrations in seawater and produced primarily through the photolysis of organic ...
... under hypoxic conditions induces unfolded protein response and produces reactive oxygen species in lens epithelial cells. * ... goal is to investigate the epigenetic changes that occurred during HIV-1 infection and drug abuse leading to glial cells ( ...
These reactive oxygen molecules damage living organisms by producing reactive oxygen species. ... The paradox of oxygen requirement is the high reactivity of the oxygen molecule. ... Oxygen is the vital requirement for living beings. This is required for the complex metabolic pathways. ... Reactive oxygen species (ROS). The reactive oxygen species produced in cells include:. *Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) ...
... enzymes in the protection of bioengineered insulin-producing RINm5F cells against the toxicity of reactive oxygen species.. ... enzymes in the protection of bioengineered insulin-producing RINm5F cells against the toxicity of reactive oxygen species. ... enzymes in the protection of bioengineered insulin-producing RINm5F cells against the toxicity of reactive oxygen species. ... enzymes in the protection of bioengineered insulin-producing RINm5F cells against the toxicity of reactive oxygen species. ...
The finding that cellular microparticles (MPs) generated by injured cells profoundly impact on pathological courses... ... Murphy MP (2009) How mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species. Biochem J 417:1-13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... A role for reactive oxygen species in endothelial cell anoikis. Circ Res 85:304-310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... If mtMPs released into the circulation remain active in ATP production, they could produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), the ...
In many cases, however, the exact molecular nature of various mitochondria-to-cell communication pathways is only beginning to ... In many cases, however, the exact molecular nature of various mitochondria-to-cell communication pathways is only beginning to ... during the last two decades provides solid evidence that these organelles are deeply integrated with the rest of the cell and ... during the last two decades provides solid evidence that these organelles are deeply integrated with the rest of the cell and ...
5, 2017, by Science Signaling and featured on the journals cover, these oxidative species are crucial signals that start the ... Although reactive oxygen species can damage cells when produced in high amounts, according to a study published online Sept. ... Although reactive oxygen species can damage cells when produced in high amounts, according to a study published online Sept. 5 ... Muscles maintain proper function by producing reactive oxygen species at the right time Study results underscore the importance ...
Response of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation to steady-state oxygen tension: implications for hypoxic cell ... How mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species. Michael P. Murphy. Biochemical Journal Jan 01, 2009, 417 (1) 1-13; DOI: ... How mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Biochemical ... Mitochondria are an important source of ROS (reactive oxygen species) within most mammalian cells [1-8]. This ROS production ...
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be both beneficial and deleterious. Under normal physiological conditions, ROS production is ... Cell. Biol 2004, 24, 330-337. [Google Scholar]. *Murphy, M.P. How mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species. Biochem. J 2009 ... Cell Biol 2007, 39, 44-84. [Google Scholar]. *Alfadda, A.A.; Sallam, R.M. Reactive oxygen species in health and disease. J. ... Cell 2010, 21, 3247-3257. [Google Scholar]. *Ushio-Fukai, M.; Nakamura, Y. Reactive oxygen species and angiogenesis: NADPH ...
Cell Rep. 2015 Aug 18;12(7):1120-32. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2015.07.021. Epub 2015 Aug 6. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; ... cells. IFN-α/β produced by pDCs activated NK cells via IL-15 induction. Neutrophils released reactive oxygen species (ROS), ... cells are defined as the mature NK cell population, CD11b+CD27+ as intermediate, and CD11b-CD27+ cells as the immature NK cell ... A) Percentage of NK cells producing IFN-γ in peritoneal cells from WT, feeble, or Ifnar-/- B6 mice 18 hrs after inoculation of ...
... report that aminoethylcysteine ketimine decarboxylated dimer is able to interact both with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species ... Attention has been focused on its antioxidant properties and on its reactivity against oxygen and nitrogen reactive species. ... Various processes inside the cell produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Some of the most common ROS are hydrogen peroxide (H2O ... However, due to its high reactivity, it is also able to damage bio-molecules by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) [1]. ...
Parasitic Worms Stimulate Host NADPH Oxidases to Produce Reactive Oxygen Species That Limit Plant Cell Death and Promote ... Reactive oxygen species restrict cell death at sites of parasitic nematode infection and support nurse cell formation in plant ... Parasitic worms use plant reactive oxygen species to establish a feeding site. ... Cover This week features a Research Article that shows that parasitic nematodes use plant-derived reactive oxygen species to ...
"In many of these diseases, cells produce reactive oxygen species," said Weerapana. "These are highly reactive radicals that can ... In an earlier study, published in June in Cell Chemical Biology, Weerapana and colleagues at the University of California, ... In a study published in the journal Cell Chemical Biology, Weerapana and colleagues from the University of Massachusetts ... "One challenge in the field of protein oxidation is the instability of the oxidized protein species, which makes it difficult to ...
Oxidative stress plays a role during cell aging and in the immune defence. By producing reactive oxygen species, immune cells ... The researchers look into oxidative stress, which affects cells when they encounter so-called reactive oxygen species. ... researchers subjected RidA to a variety of reactive species normally generated by immune cells, including chlorine. Certain ... reactive species deactivate RidA, i.e. the intermediate would no longer be degraded by RidA, just as expected. But when RidA ...
2003) Reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase regulate plant cell growth. Nature 422:442-446. ... 1997) Two distinct sources of elicited reactive oxygen species in tobacco epidermal cells. Plant Cell 9:1559-1572. ... 2006) The role of reactive oxygen species in cell growth: Lessons from root hairs. J Exp Bot 57:1829-1834. ... 2004) GTPases and reactive oxygen species: Switches for killing and signaling. J Cell Sci 117:143-153. ...
showed that acrolein produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mast cells [7]. ... Enhancement of the Acrolein-Induced Production of Reactive Oxygen Species and Lung Injury by GADD34. Yang Sun,1,2 Sachiko Ito,1 ... Beyond that, acrolein can cause oxidative stress and generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) [8]. Although the mechanisms are ... Cell Culture. Murine bone marrow-derived macrophage cells were established previously by Ito et al. [21]. The cells were ...
... a more reactive form of oxygen (34). Mitochondria can produce a large part of the total ROS made in cells. This is associated ... UCP2 and UCP3 limit the level of reactive oxygen species.. Respiration is associated with production of reactive oxygen species ... a link with reactive oxygen species production and immunity. Nat Genet26 :435 -439,2000. ... but rather to facilitate adaptation of cells to oxygen molecules through a mild uncoupling of respiration, thus restricting ...
Recent investigations suggest that complex I is a potent source of reactive oxygen species.[44] Complex I can produce ... 2010) found that cell lines with Parkinsons disease show increased proton leakage in complex I, which causes decreased maximum ... "How mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species". The Biochemical Journal. 417 (1): 1-13. doi:10.1042/BJ20081386. PMC 2605959 ... perhaps because of reactive oxygen species (complex I can, like complex III, leak electrons to oxygen, forming highly toxic ...
Murphy MP (January 2009). "How mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species". Biochem. J. 417 (1): 1-13. doi:10.1042/BJ20081386 ... 2010) found that cell lines with Parkinsons disease show increased proton leakage in complex I, which causes decreased maximum ... Recent investigations suggest that complex I is a potent source of reactive oxygen species. Complex I can produce superoxide ( ... perhaps because of reactive oxygen species (complex I can, like complex III, leak electrons to oxygen, forming highly toxic ...
Reactive oxygen species are produced in cells during normal aerobic metabolism. Oxidative damage to DNA is thought to account ... such as those produced by reactive oxygen species, alkylation, or deamination. To determine if any of these lesions are ... cells and the genomic instability in the mammalian Polζ− cells reveal the same role of Polζ in the control of genome stability. ... Kozmin, S., G. Slezak, A. Reynaud-Angelin, C. Elie, Y. de Rycke et al., 2005 UVA radiation is highly mutagenic in cells that ...
Methods: We cultured primary midbrain neuronal cells of tree shrews and treated them with METH and HIV-Tat to study the role of ... We cultured primary midbrain neuronal cells of tree shrews and treated them with METH and HIV-Tat to study the role of METH and ... and METH can synergistically induce autophagy in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and that autophagy plays a pivotal role in the ... to the knowledge of the molecular underpinnings of METH and HIV-Tat-induced autophagy in primary midbrain neuronal cells. Our ...
  • The finding that cellular microparticles (MPs) generated by injured cells profoundly impact on pathological courses of TBI has paved the way for new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. (springer.com)
  • Cellular microparticles produced by injured tissues have been increasingly recognized as a key mediator for the interplay, promoting a transition from primary injury to secondary injury (Maas et al. (springer.com)
  • Cellular antioxidants can mainly act in two ways: (i) preventing these reactive species from being formed, or (ii) inactivating them before they are able to damage cellular components [ 2 - 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • In an earlier study, published in June in Cell Chemical Biology , Weerapana and colleagues at the University of California, Berkeley, and the Medical College of Wisconsin explored potential protein targets of cellular nitric oxide. (bc.edu)
  • Plant RHO GTPases (RAC/ROPs) mediate multiple extracellular signals ranging from hormone to stress and regulate diverse cellular processes important for polarized cell growth, differentiation, development, reproduction, and responses to the environment. (pnas.org)
  • Additionally, these cells might yield insights into the processes underlying cellular senescence, cancer and ageing ( Zeng, 2007 ). (biologists.org)
  • The transition from a pluripotent stem cell through progressive stages of differentiation probably involves dynamic changes in the energy demand for cellular processes, depending on the needs of the individual cell types. (biologists.org)
  • Then, for an individual to progress from normal age-appropriate cognitive function to a condition where the full palette of clinical symptoms is expressed, three key steps are envisioned: (1) an initiating injury, (2) a chronic neuroinflammatory response, and (3) a discontinuous cellular change of state involving most, if not all, of the cell types of the brain. (jneurosci.org)
  • These stimuli induce the formation of Ca 2+ signals within a cell, which are generated through the action of Ca 2+ release and uptake from and into internal cellular stores or the apoplast by the activity of Ca 2+ channels, pumps and exchangers. (els.net)
  • Macrophages are a type of white blood cell whose normal role is to digest cellular debris and foreign substances. (alivebynature.com)
  • Reactive oxygen species are byproducts of normal cellular functions. (medicinenet.com)
  • In the organism, they are produced both in the mitochondria within the framework of cellular respiration, but also through inflammatory processes. (eurekalert.org)
  • The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the major site in the cell for protein folding and trafficking and is central to many cellular functions. (nih.gov)
  • Iron transport in and out of brain cells helps maintain cellular balance. (rainbow.coop)
  • We next investigated how sustained elevations in cellular O-GlcNAc levels would alter the metabolic profile of the cell. (ku.edu)
  • We elevated cellular O-GlcNAc levels by either treating SH-SY5Y cells with low levels of glucosamine (GlcN), the metabolic substrate of OGT, or the OGA inhibitor Thiamet-G (TMG). (ku.edu)
  • We found cellular respiration was altered and ATP levels were lower in these cells with sustained elevated O-GlcNAc. (ku.edu)
  • Thioredoxin(Trx)/thioredoxin reductase(TrxR) system plays an important role in maintaining cellular redox balance and inhibiting JNK pathway, which leads to apoptotic cell death. (cdc.gov)
  • L. monocytogenes has been widely used as a model pathogen to better understand the molecular and cellular aspects of intracellular pathogenesis and mammalian cell-mediated immunity. (genetics.org)
  • Chloroplasts produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) during cellular stress. (ebscohost.com)
  • In other organ systems, lindane produces cellular damage by generation of free radicals and oxidative stress. (cdc.gov)
  • Generation of ROS and alterations in cellular protective mechanisms did not result in necrotic injury in MDCK cells, which corresponds with our morphological findings of lindane-induced apoptotic changes as opposed to necrosis in MDCK cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Acrolein-induced phosphorylation of eIF2 α in GADD34-knockout epithelial cells by shRNA protected cell death by reducing misfolded protein-caused oxidative stress. (hindawi.com)
  • The ability of XBP1s to expand the capacity of the ER for protein folding (and ER calcium stores) enables it to mediate calcium-dependent inflammatory responses in human bronchial epithelial cells, which produce IL-8. (nih.gov)
  • The paradox of oxygen requirement is the high reactivity of the oxygen molecule. (news-medical.net)
  • The reaction catalyzed by complex I is: NADH + H+ + CoQ + 4H+in→ NAD+ + CoQH2 + 4H+out In this process, the complex translocates four protons across the inner membrane per molecule of oxidized NADH, helping to build the electrochemical potential difference used to produce ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme participates in a chemical reaction that converts oxygen to a toxic molecule called superoxide. (medlineplus.gov)
  • SOD, the superoxide-neutralizing enzyme we naturally produce, functions on a 1:1 ratio and neutralizes one molecule at a time. (extremetech.com)
  • They use products of glycolysis to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a molecule that it used by the cell to ensure its numerous functions. (cea.fr)
  • To determine whether the IL-1 effect was mediated by induction of oxygen-centered free radical production, known to be induced by IL-1, we exposed the cells to the hydroxyl radical scavenger tetramethylthiourea (10 mmol/L) and observed abolition of the IL-1-induced increase in the expression of PAI-1 and collagen (n=6). (ahajournals.org)
  • When white blood cells encounter pathogenic bacteria and viruses they must ingest or phagocytize these organisms in order to neutralize them. (sott.net)
  • Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (also called G6PD Deficiency) is a genetic disorder that mainly affects red blood cells , which carry oxygen from the lungs to tissues throughout the body. (medicinenet.com)
  • A defect in an enzyme called glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase causes red blood cells to break down prematurely ( hemolysis ). (medicinenet.com)
  • The most common medical problem associated with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is hemolytic anemia, which occurs when red blood cells are destroyed faster than the body can replace them. (medicinenet.com)
  • Without enough functional glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, red blood cells are unable to protect themselves from the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species. (nih.gov)
  • This loss of red blood cells causes the signs and symptoms of hemolytic anemia, which is a characteristic feature of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. (nih.gov)
  • This may represent a strategy to protect pancreatic beta-cells against destruction during the development of autoimmune diabetes and emphasizes the importance of optimal antioxidative enzyme equipment for protection against free radical-mediated diseases. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In comparison to the established uncoupling and thermogenic activities of UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3 appear to be involved in the limitation of free radical levels in cells rather than in physiological uncoupling and thermogenesis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Along the respiratory chain, oxygen is also partially reduced, at low ratio, into superoxide, a basic free radical that can be converted eventually into other forms of reactive oxygen species (ROS). (mdpi.com)
  • Their pancreases were smaller than normal, but produced more insulin and free radical reactive oxygen species. (drmirkin.com)
  • PET imaging of in vitro cancer models: Single-cell radionuclide assays to assess uptake of clinical PET tracers in heterogeneous cell populations, organoids and other 3D tumor models. (stanford.edu)
  • The cytoplasmic reactive oxygen species were mostly found in mitochondria, while extracellular ones were localized in aperture zones of intine, as well as in the solution surrounding pollen grains in vitro. (deepdyve.com)
  • Moreover, it has been shown that NO produced by melanoma cells sustains lower sensitivity to cisplatin toxicity in vitro. (mit.edu)
  • There is no overlap between our genes and the hundreds of genes identified in Drosophila S2 cells fighting L. monocytogenes infection, using genomewide RNAi screens in vitro . (genetics.org)
  • Moreover, these in vitro systems are obviously limited in their ability to explore how whole-animal physiologies interact with an infecting microbe and how L. monocytogenes can enter and survive in a wide variety of cell types. (genetics.org)
  • Recently, mitochondrial transfer from stem cells has been demonstrated to play a significant role in rescuing injured tissues. (springer.com)
  • Although there is very little information on the biological generation of ROS in marine surface waters, several species of marine phytoplankton have recently been shown to release significant amounts of ROS into the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we show that pretreatment of two cervical carcinoma cell lines, HeLa and SiHa, with curcumin before ionizing radiation (IR) resulted in significant dose-dependent radiosensitization of these cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Although significant efforts in the past try to understand the toxicity of nanomaterials on various cell types and physiological systems, including reproduction, the effect of CNM on human sperm velocity and oxidative stress generation remain unexplored. (nature.com)
  • In the present study, we found that Ag-stimulated mast cells show significant upregulation of BLT2 expression and enhanced ROS generation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Our work highlights the need to take a nuanced view of the role of reactive oxygen species, as they are necessary when they are present at the right place and right time. (eurekalert.org)
  • Previous studies have indicated that HIV-Tat (the transactivator of transcription) and METH can synergistically induce autophagy in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and that autophagy plays a pivotal role in the neuronal dysfunction in HANDs. (frontiersin.org)
  • We cultured primary midbrain neuronal cells of tree shrews and treated them with METH and HIV-Tat to study the role of METH and HIV-Tat in inducing autophagy. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our results revealed a novel role for TIS-T cells in human monocyte/macrophage modulation, which may have deleterious consequences for tumor progression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This review will focus on the role played by ROS in the determination of activated T cell fate. (jci.org)
  • In particular, the possible role of T-pili and VirE2 protein during conjugative transfer of agrobacterial ssDNA between donor and recipient cells is discussed. (chemweb.com)
  • Most ROS produced internally and occurring normally in the cell come from the mitochondria-organelles inside the cell that play a central role in harvesting energy. (reasons.org)
  • However, the precise role of this channel and the mechanism of cell-to-cell propagation of the wave have remained largely undefined. (plantphysiol.org)
  • However, the role of BLT2 in mast cells in asthmatic pathogenesis has not been elucidated. (jimmunol.org)
  • It plays a critical role in red blood cells, which carry oxygen from the lungs to tissues throughout the body. (nih.gov)
  • Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in ischemia and reperfusion (I/R)-induced acute kidney injury, as well as progression of fibrosis in various diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and ureteral obstruction. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Using a system for controlled delivery of NO to simulate the NO levels believed to occur during inflammation, we showed that human melanoma (A375) cells pre-exposed to submicromolar NO concentrations were protected from a subsequent challenge with cisplatin. (mit.edu)
  • Interstitial lung diseases (ILD) are a heterogeneous group of diseases that produce inflammation and fibrosis of the parenchyma, affecting the alveolar, interstitial and vascular spaces. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Advances in mitochondrial research during the last two decades provide solid evidence that these organelles are deeply integrated with the rest of the cell and multiple mechanisms are in place to monitor and communicate functional states of mitochondria. (frontiersin.org)
  • Citation Query Peroxiredoxins: a historical overview and speculative preview of novel mechanisms and emerging concepts in cell signaling. (psu.edu)
  • This study was performed to determine whether the investigational proteasome inhibitor ixazomib demonstrated selective antineoplastic activity against acute myelogenous leukemia cells expressing a mutated nucleophosmin-1 gene and to gain a better understanding of its mechanisms of action. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cells do have mechanisms to counteract many of the harmful effects of ROS. (reasons.org)