A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.
The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Basic functional unit of plants.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The geographic designation for states bordering on or located in the Pacific Ocean. The states so designated are Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington. (U.S. Geologic Survey telephone communication)
Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).
A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.
An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. The hot peppers yield CAPSAICIN, which activates VANILLOID RECEPTORS. Several varieties have sweet or pungent edible fruits that are used as vegetables when fresh and spices when the pods are dried.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
Diseases of plants.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
A combustible, gaseous mixture of low-molecular weight PARAFFIN hydrocarbons, generated below the surface of the earth. It contains mostly METHANE and ETHANE with small amounts of PROPANE; BUTANES; and higher hydrocarbons, and sometimes NITROGEN; CARBON DIOXIDE; HYDROGEN SULFIDE; and HELIUM. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi (ASCOMYCOTA), family Clavicipitaceae, order HYPOCREALES, that grows by infecting insect larvae or mature insects with spores that germinate often before the cocoon is formed.
A behavioral response manifested by leaving home in order to escape from threatening situations. Children or adolescents leaving home without permission is usually implied.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Protein motif that contains a 33-amino acid long sequence that often occurs in tandem arrays. This repeating sequence of 33-amino acids was discovered in ANKYRIN where it is involved in interaction with the anion exchanger (ANION EXCHANGE PROTEIN 1, ERYTHROCYTE). Ankyrin repeats cooperatively fold into domains that mediate molecular recognition via protein-protein interactions.
Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
A family of membrane-associated proteins responsible for the attachment of the cytoskeleton. Erythrocyte-related isoforms of ankyrin attach the SPECTRIN cytoskeleton to a transmembrane protein (ANION EXCHANGE PROTEIN 1, ERYTHROCYTE) in the erythrocyte plasma membrane. Brain-related isoforms of ankyrin also exist.
A subfamily of the family POXVIRIDAE, containing eight genera comprising all the vertebrate poxviruses.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.
Cell 3, 129-142 *^ Deshaies, R.J., Sanders, S., Feldheim, D., and Schekman, R. (1991). Assembly of yeast Sec proteins involved ... Effects on protein synthesis. Plant Physiol. 74, 956-961 *^ Stirling, C.J., Rothblatt, J., Hosobuchi, M., Deshaies, R., and ... Exit from mitosis: In addition to their studies on protein degradation, the Deshaies lab worked extensively on cell cycle ... His research focuses on mechanisms and regulation of protein homeostasis in eukaryotic cells, with a particular focus on how ...
Plants lacking a BIK1 protein or that have a BIK1 protein whose functions are being inhibited may exhibit a shorter flowering ... Protein & Cell. 4 (10): 771-781. doi:10.1007/s13238-013-3053-6. PMC 4875430. PMID 24104392. Dodds, Peter N.; Rathjen, John P. ( ... Root systems in plants with an expressed BIK1 gene and in plants with a loss-of-function mutant show that without an expressed ... The Plant Cell. 18 (1): 257-273. doi:10.1105/tpc.105.035576. PMC 1323497. PMID 16339855. Laluk, Kristin; Luo, Hongli; Chai, ...
Plant Cell. 2013 Sep;25(9):3329-46. doi: 10.1105/tpc.113.114868. Epub 2013 Sep 17. Nelson KJ, Knutson ST, Soito L, Klomsiri C, ... Fetrow, J.S. and Godzik, A. Function driven protein evolution: A possible proto-protein for the RNA-binding proteins. ... A kinetic analysis of the auxin transcriptome reveals cell wall remodeling proteins that modulate lateral root development in ... "An approach to functionally relevant clustering of the protein universe: Active site profile-based clustering of protein ...
This reduces the level of PIN proteins at the cell membrane, and the level of auxin in the cell. GA reverses this process and ... "The Plant Cell. 10 (12): 2115-26. doi:10.1105/tpc.10.12.2115. PMC 143973. PMID 9836749.. ... The degradation of DELLA proteins releases cells from their repressive effects. Targets of DELLA proteins[edit]. Transcription ... "The Plant Cell. 7 (2): 195-201. doi:10.1105/tpc.7.2.195. PMC 160775. PMID 7756830.. ...
This family of proteins is greatly expanded in plants, and constitutes a core component of plant immune systems. The ligands ... They are proteins expressed, mainly, by cells of the innate immune system, such as dendritic cells, macrophages, monocytes, ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.02.008. PMID 16497589. S2CID 10696351. McHale L, Tan X, Koehl P, Michelmore RW (2006). "Plant NBS-LRR ... The first PRR identified in plants or animals was the Xa21 protein, conferring resistance to the Gram-negative bacterial ...
The Plant Cell. 8 (10): 1809-1819. doi:10.1105/tpc.8.10.1809. PMC 161316. PMID 12239363. "Exploiting Plants' Protective ... While there is substantial overlap, the spectrum of PR proteins expressed in a particular plant species is variable. It was ... Plant Cell 8:1809-1819. Song WY, Wang GL, Chen LL, Kim HS, Pi LY, Holsten T, Gardner J, Wang B, Zhai WX, Zhu LH, Fauquet C, ... Plant disease resistance Hypersensitive response Phytopathology Plant-induced systemic resistance Ausubel FM (October 2005). " ...
Cassab, Gladys I (1998). "Plant Cell Wall Proteins". Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology. 49: 281-309 ... Hydroxyproline rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) are also found in plant cell walls. These hydroxyprolines serve as the attachment ... 2S,4R)-4-Hydroxyproline, or L-hydroxyproline (C5H9O3N), is an amino acid, abbreviated as Hyp or O, e.g., in Protein Data Bank. ... The most notable ones are 2,3-cis-, 3,4-trans-, and 3,4-dihydroxyproline, which occurs in diatom cell walls and are postulated ...
... , wife Lance, born in 1930 in Narbonne, is a cell biologist specializing in plant development from ... proteins; functioning, cell cycle). After simple mitosis surveys for the vegetative point of Bean, quantitative methods are ... Plant Cell Physiol., 1989, 30, p. 359-363 D. Francis, J. Rembur et A. Nougarède, « Resolution of polypeptides in the shoot apex ... cell differentiation, and structure of vascular plants, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, London, Paris, Tokyo, Springer Verlag, ...
"The anaerobic proteins of maize." Cell 20.3 (1980): 761-767. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-8674(80)90322-0 Roberts, J. K., ... Michael Freeling is an American geneticist and plant biologist. He is currently a professor in the Department of Plant and ... In 2017 he was awarded the McClintock Prize for Plant Genetics and Genome Studies. Freeling was born in Fort Wayne, Indiana in ... He also found that the cytoplasmic acidosis was a good predictor of how poorly plants can tolerate flooding stress. Freeling ...
2 cells". Plant Cell Environ. 29 (6): 1122-37. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3040.2005.01487.x. PMID 17080938. CS1 maint: Uses authors ... The proteins are formed from two copies of the same protein-a homodimer-though scientists have artificially combined subunits ... Chloride channels are also important for maintaining safe ion concentrations within plant cells. The CLC channel structure has ... Inhibition or activation of the protein by these domains is specific to each protein. The CLC channels allow chloride to flow ...
"Expansion of the cell plate in plant cytokinesis requires a kinesin-like protein/MAPKKK complex". Cell. 109 (1): 87-99. doi: ... "A novel plant kinesin-related protein specifically associates with the phragmoplast organelles". The Plant Cell. 13 (11): 2427- ... Microtubule Organization and Microtubule-Associated Proteins in Plant Cells. International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology ... The phragmoplast is a plant cell specific structure that forms during late cytokinesis. It serves as a scaffold for cell plate ...
IAA enters the plant cell nucleus and binds to a protein complex composed of a ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1), a ubiquitin- ... Tiwari, SB; Hagen, G; Guilfoyle, TJ (2004). "Aux/IAA proteins contain a potent transcriptional repression domain". Plant Cell. ... IAA is predominantly produced in cells of the apex (bud) and very young leaves of a plant. Plants can synthesize IAA by several ... such as inducing cell elongation and cell division with all subsequent results for plant growth and development. On a larger ...
Mellet, V.; Gaillard, J.; Vantard, M. (2003). "Plant Katanin, a microtubule severing protein". Cell Biology International. 27 ( ... Katanin is also found to have similar functions in higher plants. The form and structure of a plant cell is determined by the ... which are aligned perpendicular to the major axis of cell expansion. Because plant cells lack traditional centrosomes, katanin ... This is presumed to be caused by the plant cell's lack of ability to regulate microtubule lengths. There is no homologue for ...
Several other families of circular proteins are known in bacteria, plants and animals and are also included in CyBase. Plants ... The Plant Cell. 17 (11): 3176-89. doi:10.1105/tpc.105.034678. PMC 1276036. PMID 16199617. Craik DJ (March 2006). "Chemistry. ... In precursor proteins containing multiple cyclotide domains these can either be all identical sequences, as is the case for ... Plant Cyclotides. 76. Academic Press. pp. 227-269. doi:10.1016/bs.abr.2015.08.005. ISBN 9780128000304. Nguyen GK, Wang S, Qiu Y ...
Gibbons IR (1995). "Dynein family of motor proteins: present status and future questions". Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton. ... The Plant Journal. 75 (2): 230-244. doi:10.1111/tpj.12145. PMID 23398214. ... or serving as a stalk attaching the cell to a solid substrate. Regarding the origin of the individual protein components, a ... The ion pump later became the motor protein. This was followed by the emergence of the proto-flagellar filament as part of the ...
Water potential in movement of water between plant cells. In biochemistry, it denotes pseudouridine, an uncommon nucleoside. ... One of the dihedral angles in the backbones of proteins. The planet Neptune. Indiana University (as a superimposed I and U). A ...
Their apoptotic cells are similar to homologous to mammalian. However, maintenance of long-lived cells involves proteins such ... Most other species, such as certain plants and diatoms, simply deposit a supersatured biosilica solution. The network of silica ... Suberites undergo cell differentiation through a variety of mechanisms based on cell-cell communication. Suberites are key ... Suberites consist of many telomerase-positive cells, which means the cells are essentially immortal, barring cell death signal ...
"14-3-3 proteins form a guidance complex with chloroplast precursor proteins in plants". The Plant Cell. 12 (1): 53-64. doi: ... In plants, 14-3-3 proteins only bind to chloroplast preproteins. It is also bound by the heat shock protein Hsp70 that keeps ... "Detection and localization of a chloroplast-encoded HU-like protein that organizes chloroplast nucleoids". The Plant Cell. 14 ( ... The Plant Cell. 16 (7): 1661-6. doi:10.1105/tpc.160771. PMC 514151. PMID 15235123. Plant Biochemistry (3rd ed.). Academic Press ...
Protein & Cell. 9 (2): 164-177. doi:10.1007/s13238-017-0436-0. PMC 5818366. PMID 28643267. Bagherniya M, Nobili V, Blesso CN, ... Sahebkar A (April 2018). "Medicinal plants and bioactive natural compounds in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver ... The accumulation of senescent cells in the liver is seen in persons with NAFLD. In mice, liver senescent hepatocytes result in ... Because the liver is important for making proteins used in blood clotting, coagulation-related studies are often carried out, ...
... s affect distant cells by binding to specific receptor proteins in the target cell, resulting in a change in cell ... Whippo CW, Hangarter RP (May 2006). "Phototropism: bending towards enlightenment". The Plant Cell. 18 (5): 1110-9. doi:10.1105/ ... Hormone producing cells are typically of a specialized cell type, residing within a particular endocrine gland, such as the ... The reaction of the target cells may then be recognized by the original hormone-producing cells, leading to a downregulation in ...
... maintenance proteins Xu, Chunhui; Yu, Weichang (2009). "Engineered minichromosomes in plants". AccessScience. ... The Plant Cell Online. 20 (1): 8-10. doi:10.1105/tpc.107.056622. JSTOR 25224208. PMC 2254918. PMID 18223035. "Researchers to ... Halpin, Claire (2005). "Gene stacking in transgenic plants - the challenge for 21st century plant biotechnology". Plant ... In plants, the telomere sequence is conserved, which implies that this strategy can be utilized to successfully construct ...
Plant Cell. 12 (3): 319-41. doi:10.1105/tpc.12.3.319. PMC 139834. PMID 10715320. Vener AV, Ohad I, Andersson B (1998). "Protein ... New Proteins, New Functions, and a Plastid Proteome Database". Plant Cell. 16 (2): 478-99. doi:10.1105/tpc.017814. PMC 341918. ... Plant Cell Physiol. 47 (3): 432-6. doi:10.1093/pcp/pcj005. PMID 16418230. - Plastid Protein Database Peltier J, Friso G, Kalume ... Plants cannot survive without this protein, and reduced VIPP1 levels lead to slower growth and paler plants with reduced ...
"Characterization of a cis-Golgi matrix protein, GM130". The Journal of Cell Biology. 131 (6 Pt 2): 1715-26. doi:10.1083/jcb. ... American Society of Plant Biologists. Retrieved 27 May 2017. Lucocq JM, Pryde JG, Berger EG, Warren G (1987). "A mitotic form ... Golgi reassembly-stacking proteins are an evolutionarily conserved family of proteins in the Golgi matrix. GRASP65 and GRASP55 ... encoding a transmembrane protein with a presumed role in vesicle-mediated sorting and intracellular protein transport". Am. J. ...
"Unconventional mechanisms of protein transport to the cell surface of eukaryotic cells". Annual Review of Cell and ... Agrawal GK, Jwa NS, Lebrun MH, Job D, Rakwal R (February 2010). "Plant secretome: unlocking secrets of the secreted proteins". ... I. Signal recognition protein (SRP) binds to in-vitro-assembled polysomes synthesizing secretory protein". The Journal of Cell ... The process by which such secretory proteins gain access to the cell exterior is termed unconventional protein secretion (UPS ...
"MADS-box protein complexes control carpel and ovule development in Arabidopsis". The Plant Cell. 15 (11): 2603-11. doi:10.1105 ... "The Plant Cell Online. 1 (1): 37-52. doi:10.1105/tpc.1.1.37. JSTOR 3869060. PMC 159735. PMID 2535466.. ... "The Plant Cell. 10 (5): 791-800. doi:10.1105/tpc.10.5.791. JSTOR 3870665. PMC 144373. PMID 9596637.. ... "The Plant Cell. 6 (9): 1211-25. doi:10.1105/tpc.6.9.1211. JSTOR 3869820. PMC 160514. PMID 0007919989.. ...
"Characterization of the unconventional myosin VIII in plant cells and its localization at the post-cytokinetic cell wall". The ... Similar filament-forming myosin proteins were found in cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and nonmuscle cells. However, beginning ... Myosin XI directs the movement of organelles such as plastids and mitochondria in plant cells.[37] It is responsible for the ... Myosin VIII is a plant-specific myosin linked to cell division;[30] specifically, it is involved in regulating the flow of ...
The cell membranes of a variety of different bacteria, fungi, animal and plant cells contain aquaporins through which water can ... are channel proteins from a larger family of major intrinsic proteins that form pores in the membrane of biological cells, ... When gating of plant aquaporins occurs, it stops the flow of water through the pore of the protein. This may happen for a ... Aquaporin proteins are composed of a bundle of six transmembrane α-helices. They are embedded in the cell membrane. The amino ...
Matthias Schleiden discovers that all living plant tissue is composed of cells. Andrew Smith begins publication of ... Vickery, Hubert Bradford (1950). "The Origin of the Word Protein". Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. 22 (5): 387-93. PMC ... Proteins discovered by Gerardus Johannes Mulder and named by Jöns Jakob Berzelius. ...
"Viral Movement Proteins as Probes for Intracellular and Intercellular Trafficking in Plants". The Plant Cell. 11 (4): 535-548. ... Like all plant viruses, FMV encodes a movement protein (MP) to enable it to move between cells, usually by increasing the size ... Ishikawa, K; Maejima, K; Komatsu, K (2013). "Fig mosaic emaravirus p4 protein is involved in cell-to-cell movement". Journal of ... FMV vcRNA3 (1490 nt) encodes a 35 kDa nucleocapsid (N) protein. FMV vcRNA4 (1472 nt) encodes a 40.5 kDa protein with function ...
... is a larger protein. Most mature plant cells have one large vacuole that typically occupies more than 30% of the cell's volume ... Plant cells vs. Animal cells Archived 2019-02-01 at the Wayback Machine. Biology-Online.org William F. Ganong, MD (2003). ... In 1842, Schleiden applied the term for plant cells, to distinguish the structure with cell sap from the rest of the protoplasm ... Vacuoles in fungal cells perform similar functions to those in plants and there can be more than one vacuole per cell. In yeast ...
Virgaviridae: a new Familie of rod-shaped plant viruses. . In: Arch Virol. . 154, Nr. 12, 2009, S. 1967-72. doi:10.1007/s00705- ... Santeuil and Le Blanc viruses primarily infect intestinal cells in Caenorhabditis nematodes, in: Virology, Volume 448, 5. ... Orsay virus utilizes ribosomal frameshifting to express a novel protein that is incorporated into virions, in: Virology 450-451 ...
131-137 An omnivore eats both prey and plants. Carnivorous mammals have a simple digestive tract because the proteins, lipids ... The brain detects insulin in the blood, which indicates that nutrients are being absorbed by cells and a person is getting full ... Since plants and meat are digested differently, there is a preference for one over the other, as in bears where some species ... are varied and often include nectar, fruit, plants, seeds, carrion, and various small animals, including other birds.[43] ...
Animal cells are contained in just a membrane. Bacteria, fungi and plants have strong cell walls as well, which support the ... Other proteins and lipids can be added to the cell membrane. By these changes, the cell can adjust what it brings in or puts ... The surface proteins can act as gates. They let some chemicals into the cell and let other chemicals leave the cell. It is ... Proteins in the membraneEdit. Main article: Membrane protein. Proteins within the membrane are key to its working. These ...
Esau, Katherine (2006) [1953]. Evert, Ray F (ed.). Esau's Plant Anatomy: Meristems, Cells, and Tissues of the Plant Body: Their ... The concentration of photosynthetic structures in leaves requires that they be richer in protein, minerals, and sugars than, ... epidermal hair cells (trichomes), cells in the stomatal complex; guard cells and subsidiary cells. The epidermal cells are the ... "The Plant Cell Online. 22 (7): 2104. doi:10.1105/tpc.110.220711. PMC 2929115. PMID 20647343.. ...
... protein blocks the production of these antiviral proteins by preventing the STAT1 signalling protein in the neighbouring cell ... Of 24 plant and 19 vertebrate species experimentally inoculated with EBOV, only bats became infected.[86] The bats displayed no ... dendritic cells and other cells including liver cells, fibroblasts, and adrenal gland cells.[93] Viral replication triggers ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.10.006. PMC 4243531. PMID 25417101.. *^ a b c d e f g h Kühl A, Pöhlmann S (September 2012). "How Ebola ...
"14-3-3 proteins form a guidance complex with chloroplast precursor proteins in plants". The Plant Cell. 12 (1): 53-64. doi: ... "The Plant Cell. 24 (1): 202-14. doi:10.1105/tpc.111.090597. PMC 3289569. PMID 22274627.. ... "The Plant Cell. 24 (4): 1560-78. doi:10.1105/tpc.112.096248. PMC 3398564. PMID 22517318.. ... "The Plant Cell. 16 (7): 1661-6. doi:10.1105/tpc.160771. PMC 514151. PMID 15235123.. ...
... and Th1 cells.[45] IL-1α stimulates increased skin cell activity and reproduction, which, in turn, fuels comedo development.[45 ... protein.[45] PPARα increases the activity of activator protein 1 (AP-1) and NF-κB, thereby leading to the recruitment of ... Numerous other plant-derived therapies have demonstrated positive effects against acne (e.g., basil oil and oligosaccharides ... and accumulation of skin cells in the hair follicle.[1] In healthy skin, the skin cells that have died come up to the surface ...
The skin consists of a thin outer epidermis with mucous cells and sensory cells, and a connective tissue dermis consisting ... Editing is concentrated in the nervous system and affects proteins involved in neural excitability and neuronal morphology. ... while at the same time mimicking plant matter.[78] This form of locomotion allows these octopuses to move quickly away from a ... Other colour-changing cells are reflective iridophores and white leucophores.[93] This colour-changing ability is also used to ...
... plant root nodules that fix nitrogen yet most of the proteins of the Caulobacter cell cycle control are also found in these ... Cell development involves many such proteins working together. Fig#1 shows how TipN interact with two other polar proteins : ... Role of the swarmer cell stageEdit. The Caulobacter stalked cell stage provides a fitness advantage by anchoring the cell to ... Swarmer cells differentiate into stalked cells after a short period of motility. Chromosome replication and cell division only ...
"The Plant Cell. 3 (11): 1187-1193. doi:10.2307/3869226. JSTOR 3869226. PMC 160085 . PMID 1821764.. ... "Fruit Cell Wall Proteins Help Fungus Turn Tomatoes From Ripe To Rotten". Science Daily. Jan 31, 2008. Retrieved 29 August 2010. ... "Plant Cell Reports. 12: 644-647. doi:10.1007/bf00232816.. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ... Norfolk Plant Sciences About Norfolk Plant Sciences Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. ...
the nitrogen-fixing protein complex may be packaged into specialized cells called heterocysts." Aren't bacteria single-celled? ... They are also considerad the ancestors of chloroplasts in plants and algae.. Narayanese 16:47, 30 November 2007 (UTC). Sadly, I ... Several cells may live together, forming filaments (or colonies). Andres 09:28, 11 Aug 2004 (UTC). *If someone knows more (or ... This form of motility has been shown to be regulated by the cAMP receptor protein. Hedger 11:30, 14 2007. The mechanism for ...
Most of the genes that moved to the host cell involved protein synthesis, leaving behind a compact genome with mostly single- ... "The Origin and Establishment of the Plastid in Algae and Plants". Annual Review of Genetics. 41 (1): 147-68. doi:10.1146/ ... The unique combination of host cell and complex plastid results in cells with four genomes: two prokaryotic genomes ( ... The B. natans genome contains 293 genes that code for proteins as compared to the 465 genes in G. theta. B. natans also only ...
... infection-fighting cells) and protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) typically rise to characteristically abnormal levels, ... ornamental plants and perennial groundcover (about a quarter), and lawns (about 30 times less).[130] Ixodes larvae and nymphs ... The spirochetes may also induce host cells to secrete quinolinic acid, which stimulates the NMDA receptor on nerve cells, which ... A hexavalent (OspA) protein subunit-based vaccine candidate VLA15 was granted fast track designation by the U.S. Food and Drug ...
The mesoderm-derived epithelial cells of the sex cords in developing testes become the Sertoli cells, which will function to ... Scott F. Gilbert; with a chapter on plant development by Susan R. Singer (2000). Scott F. Gilbert, ed. Developmental Biology ( ... "G protein-coupled receptors: extranuclear mediators for the non-genomic actions of steroids". Int J Mol Sci. 15 (9): 15412-25 ... These are Leydig cells. Soon after they differentiate, Leydig cells begin to produce androgens. ...
The balance between potassium and sodium is maintained by ion transporter proteins in the cell membrane.[231] The cell membrane ... Potassium compounds are often used as fertilisers[10]:73[202] as potassium is an important element for plant nutrition. ... Potassium is the major cation (positive ion) inside animal cells,[223] while sodium is the major cation outside animal cells.[ ... Unit cell ball-and-stick model of lithium nitride.[118] On the basis of size a tetrahedral structure would be expected, but ...
The pollen tube is produced by the single vegetative cell in the pollen grain, which passes its cytoplasm, nucleus and two ... The effectiveness of this restriction can be measured by planting the popcorn beside purple dent corn; the xenia effect would ... including cAMP cyclization by a pollen signalling protein (PSiP). Corn silk can control the types of pollen that an ear of corn ... Ken Roseboro (August 28, 2014). "Plant breeder works to save organic corn from GMO contamination". Non GMO report. "What is the ...
"The Plant Cell. 9 (10): 1767-1780. doi:10.1105/tpc.9.10.1767. PMC 157020. PMID 12237347.. ... "The G protein-coupled receptor GPR30 mediates c-fos up-regulation by 17beta-estradiol and phytoestrogens in breast cancer cells ... A colorful model for genetics, biochemistry, cell biology, and biotechnology". Plant Physiology. 126 (2): 485-93. doi:10.1104/ ... In human breast cancer cell lines, quercetin has also been found to act as an agonist of the G protein-coupled estrogen ...
Electrolysis cells can be either open cell or closed cell. In open cell systems, the electrolysis products, which are gaseous, ... It was adopted as a software product name Adobe ColdFusion and a brand of protein bars (Cold Fusion Foods).[182] It has also ... the anti-nuclear movement was labeling nuclear power plants as dangerous and getting them closed, people had in mind the ... the power input to the cell was equal to the calculated power leaving the cell within measurement accuracy, and the cell ...
Odontocetes, such as the sperm whale, possess teeth with cementum cells overlying dentine cells. Unlike human teeth, which are ... "More DNA support for a Cetacea/Hippopotamidae clade: the blood-clotting protein gene gamma-fibrinogen" (PDF). Molecular ... they contain both rod and cone cells, meaning they can see in both dim and bright light, but they have far more rod cells than ... Whales do, however, lack short wavelength sensitive visual pigments in their cone cells indicating a more limited capacity for ...
... which is the protein red blood cells use to carry oxygen throughout the body. Sickle cell anemia occurs when the HBB gene ... Mendel recognized that certain pea plant traits (seed coat color, flower color, and axial spots) seemed to be inherited ... "sickle cell disease". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 2016-11-11.. *^ MD, Kenneth R. Bridges. "How Does Sickle Cell Cause ... Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease that causes deformed red blood cells with a rigid, crescent shape instead of the normal ...
The albumin (9) further protects the embryo and serves as a reservoir for water and protein. The allantois (8) is a sac that ... helping to grind up plant matter.[103] Fossil gastroliths have been found associated with both ornithopods and sauropods, ... Cell. 25 (4): 326-328. doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2013.05.011. PMID 23725759.. ... The yolk sac (2) surrounding the yolk (3) contains protein and fat rich nutrients that are absorbed by the embryo via vessels ( ...
Low-carbohydrate diets such as Atkins and Protein Power are relatively high in protein and fats. Low-carbohydrate diets are ... In this process, fats, obtained from adipose tissue, or fat cells, are broken down into glycerol and fatty acids, which can be ... When the body is expending more energy than it is consuming (e.g. when exercising), the body's cells rely on internally stored ... Once glycogen is depleted the body begins to fuel the brain using ketones, while also metabolizing body protein (including but ...
S. frugiperda cells (Sf9 and Sf21 cell lines) are commonly used in biomedical research for the purpose of recombinant protein ... "The Plant Cell Online. 12 (7): 1031-1040. doi:10.1105/tpc.12.7.1031. ISSN 1040-4651. PMC 149047. PMID 10899972.. ... but the species has been noted to consume over 80 different plants.[11] Armyworms earned their common name by eating all plant ... Pest of crop plants[edit]. Because of their food preferences, fall armyworm larvae can wreak havoc on a wide range of crops. ...
Plant * sw:Plant. Plasma * sw:Plasma. Plastic * sw:Plastic. Plate tectonics * sw:Plate tectonics. Plato * sw:Plato. Plough * sw ... Cell * sw:Cell. Central processing unit * sw:Central processing unit. Cereal * sw:Cereal. Chanakya * sw:Chanakya. Charlemagne ... Protein * sw:Protein. Protestant Reformation * sw:Protestant Reformation. Protist * sw:Protist. Psychology * sw:Psychology. ...
The worse problem though is that when muscle cells die, they release cell proteins into the blood. The kidney removes the ... Cholesterol is usually in the walls of cells. It is only in animals. Plants do not synthesize cholesterol. So the cholesterol ... Rhabdomyolysis means a disease where muscle cells are damaged and die. Statins can cause damage to muscle cells. This can cause ... Cholesterol does many important jobs in a cell. Cholesterols main function is as a structural component of cell membranes. It ...
"A structural perspective on protein-protein interactions" (PDF). Current Opinion in Structural Biology 14. Páxs. 313-324. ... "Methods for High-Content, High-Throughput Image-Based Cell Screening" (PDF). Proceedings of the Workshop on Microscopic Image ... "Analysis of the genome sequence of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana". Nature 408. Páxs. 796-815. ... "Protein Engineering 7 (7). ISSN 1741-0134, Páxs. 841-848.. *↑ 70,0 70,1 Thompson, J. D.; et al. (1994). "CLUSTAL W: improving ...
Non-coding RNA or "RNA genes". These are a broad class of genes that encode RNA which is not translated into protein. The most ... RNA polymerase IV synthesizes siRNA in plants.[5]. *RNA polymerase V synthesizes RNAs involved in siRNA-directed ... So the two classes of enzyme have arisen independently twice in the early evolution of cells. One line led to the modern DNA ... Transfer RNA (tRNA)-transfers specific amino acids to growing polypeptide chains at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis ...
Plant Cell Physiol. 43 (12): 1445-55. doi:10.1093/pcp/pcf187. PMID 12514241.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style: ... proteins. In enzymology, a 2-alkenal reductase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ...
... biological engineers offers an efficient way to make proteins for use in medicine or industry without the use of live cells. ( ... specializing in ecology and plant population biology (b. 1925). 9 April - Carl Rettenmeyer, American biologist who specialised ... 23 July - Two teams of Chinese researchers create live mice from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. 3 September - Saturn's ... American biochemist who studied protein structure and function as well as biochemical evolution (b. 1911). 6 June - Jean ...
Renal cell carcinoma. Under-expression. 100%. Western (protein) blotting and mRNA. [25]. ... In vertebrates and plants, five paralogs of RAD51 are expressed in somatic cells, including RAD51B (RAD51L1), RAD51C (RAD51L2 ... protein C-terminus binding. • protein binding. • four-way junction DNA binding. • identical protein binding. • ... chromosome organization involved in meiotic cell cycle. • mitotic recombination. • protein homooligomerization. • response to ...
Open Access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of cell biology. ... International Journal of Cell Biology is a peer-reviewed, ... Oxidative Protein-Folding Systems in Plant Cells. Yayoi Onda. ... "The maize Floury1 gene encodes a novel endoplasmic reticulum protein involved in zein protein body formation," The Plant Cell, ... "P5-type sulfhydryl oxidoreductase promotes the sorting of proteins to protein body I in rice endosperm cells," Plant Signaling ...
Production of recombinant proteins in suspension cultures of genetically modified plant cells is a promising and rapidly ... developing area of plant biotechnology. In the present review article,... ... James, E. and Lee, J., Loss and recovery of protein productivity in genetically modified plant cell lines, Plant Cell Rep., ... Secretion of a functional single-chain Fv protein in transgenic tobacco plants and cell suspension cultures, Plant Mol. Biol., ...
Arabidopsis thaliana »Asymmetric cell division »BASL »Dong »Protein »asymmetric division »cell division »plant cell »plant cell ... Protein , asymmetric division , cell division , plant cell , plant cell division , stomata ... The presence of the protein, called BASL, is vital to asymmetric cell division. In plant cells where it was absent, the cells ... Plant cells, on the other hand, have stiff cell walls and cant divide this way. "A plant cell actually has to build a new wall ...
... a novel motor protein that significantly expands current understanding of the evolution and design principle of motor proteins. ... A research team led by an Oregon State University biophysicist and a plant biologist from University of California, Davis has ... Molecular motor mystery solved: Novel protein rounds out plant cells machinery. Oregon State University ... Cells from human, animals and fungi all have three different types of motor proteins that scientists refer to as myosin, ...
Plant J. 2010 Oct;64(2):191-203. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2010.04319.x. Epub 2010 Aug 31. Comparative Study; Research Support, ... Restricted access of proteins to mannan polysaccharides in intact plant cell walls.. Marcus SE1, Blake AW, Benians TA, Lee KJ, ... How the diverse polysaccharides present in plant cell walls are assembled and interlinked into functional composites is not ... In secondary cell walls, mannan esterification can prevent probe recognition of epitopes/ligands, and detection of mannans in ...
The green fluorescent protein (GFP)-binding protein, GBP, is a 13-kDa soluble protein derived from a llama heavy chain antibody ... A key challenge in cell biology is to directly link protein localization to function. ... Protein mislocalization in plant cells using a GFP-binding chromobody Plant J. 2009 Nov;60(4):744-54. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-313X. ... use of chromobody technology to plant cells and develop several applications for the in vivo study of GFP-tagged plant proteins ...
Cell. 1996 Dec 27;87(7):1307-16. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... avirulence protein AvrBs3 occurs inside the host plant cell.. ... vesicatoria avirulence protein AvrBs3 is recognized inside the plant cell. Transient expression of avrBs3 in pepper leaves, ... We propose that AvrBs3 is translocated into plant cells via the Xanthomonas Hrp type III secretion system and that nuclear ... using Agrobacterium tumefaciens for gene delivery, results in hypersensitive cell death, specifically on plants carrying the ...
... driving cells into S-phase. Recently, we found that the RepA protein of a plant … ... Animal virus oncoproteins interact with the Rb protein via an LXCXE motif and disrupt Rb-E2F complexes, ... controls the passage of mammalian cells through G1 phase. ... Plant cells contain a novel member of the retinoblastoma family ... extension of the Rb family of tumor suppressor proteins to plants and have implications on animal and plant strategies for cell ...
Among the phosphopeptide-binding proteins, the 14-3-3 proteins are the best characterized in plants. The 14-3-3s are found as ... Among the phosphopeptide-binding proteins, the 14-3-3 proteins are the best characterized in plants. The 14-3-3s are found as ... Regulation of these targets by 14-3-3 proteins is discussed and related to their function in guard cells during stomatal ... Regulation of these targets by 14-3-3 proteins is discussed and related to their function in guard cells during stomatal ...
Stress proteins on the yeast cell surface determine resistance to osmotin, a plant antifungal protein. Dae-Jin Yun, Yuan Zhao, ... Stress proteins on the yeast cell surface determine resistance to osmotin, a plant antifungal protein ... Stress proteins on the yeast cell surface determine resistance to osmotin, a plant antifungal protein ... Stress proteins on the yeast cell surface determine resistance to osmotin, a plant antifungal protein ...
... offering an important step forward in plant cell fluorescent imaging. ... A new method for visualizing in vivo protein dynamics in plant cells has been developed by Nagoya University scientists, ... A new technique for the fluorescent marking of proteins in plant cells which represents an important step forward in plant cell ... as synthetic dyes are unable to reach the target proteins due to the presence of the cell wall in plant cells. ...
... plant protein purification, protein detection, protein quantitation and protein electrophoresis. The product highlights section ... includes products for plant cell lysis and plant protein isolation, extraction and isolation of nuclei and nuclear proteins ... from plant leaves, and isolation of intact chloroplasts from plant leaves. ... Plant Proteomics and Protein Expression covers plant proteomics, protein extraction, isolation, expression, western blotting, ...
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 22:18-30...Xiaodong Bai,1 Valdir R. Correa,1 Tania Y. Toruño,1 El-Desouky Ammar,1 Sophien ... In summary, this work shows that AY-WB phytoplasma produces a protein that targets the nuclei of plant host cells; this protein ... AY-WB Phytoplasma Secretes a Protein That Targets Plant Cell Nuclei. January 2009 , Volume 22 , Number 1. Pages 18 - 30. ... These SAP are candidate effector proteins potentially involved in interaction with plant and insect cell components. One of ...
Your Name) has sent you a message from Plant Cell Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Plant Cell web ... The Plant Cell Sep 2017, 29 (9) 2076-2077; DOI: 10.1105/tpc.17.00735 ... The Plant Cell Sep 2017, 29 (9) 2076-2077; DOI: 10.1105/tpc.17.00735 ... 2017). Differences in DNA binding specificity of floral homeotic protein complexes predict organ-specific target genes. Plant ...
Unibio opens first commercial plant to make single cell protein from natural gas. By ... Unibio opens first commercial plant to make single cell protein from natural... ... single-cell protein and produce up to 80 tonnes per year. The protein-rich biomass is naturally developed without genetic ... As a result of this agreement, a second full-size commercial plant is planned and expected to be in production by the second ...
Your Name) has sent you a message from Plant Cell Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Plant Cell web ... 2013). Trafficking of proteins through plastid stromules. Plant Cell 25: 2774-2782. ... protein movement between interconnected plastids likely does not have major biological significance to the plant cell. ... The Plant Cell Aug 2013, 25 (8) 2771-2772; DOI: 10.1105/tpc.113.117416 ...
... on the cytoskeleton-associated proteins that mediate the cytoskeletal arrays during mitosis and cytokinesis in plant cells and ... on the cytoskeleton-associated proteins that mediate the cytoskeletal arrays during mitosis and cytokinesis in plant cells and ... is evident in plant cells. This band forecasts a specific division plane before the initiation of mitosis. During cytokinesis, ... another plant-specific cytoskeletal structure called the phragmoplast guides vesicles in the creation of a new cell wall. In ...
Plant nuclear gene knockout reveals a role in plastid division for the homolog of the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ, an ... Plant nuclear gene knockout reveals a role in plastid division for the homolog of the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ, an ... Plant nuclear gene knockout reveals a role in plastid division for the homolog of the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ, an ... Plant nuclear gene knockout reveals a role in plastid division for the homolog of the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ, an ...
Because of the variety of cell wall structures and of the diversity of protein/polysaccharide and protein/protein interactions ... A large body of data is now available with the description of cell wall proteomes of seventeen plant species. CWP contents ... in relation to the major differences in cell wall composition and structure between these plants and between plant organs. The ... A full range of strategies has been proposed to increase the number of identified proteins and to characterize their post- ...
Davis has discovered a novel motor protein that significantly expands current understanding of the evolution ... ... A research team led by an Oregon State University biophysicist and a plant biologist from University of California, ... Molecular motor mystery solved: Novel protein rounds out plant cells machinery. by Steve Lundeberg, Oregon State University ... Citation: Molecular motor mystery solved: Novel protein rounds out plant cells machinery (2018, March 14) retrieved 20 April ...
Targeting and function of CAH1: Characterization of a novel protein pathway to the plant cell chloroplast. Burén, Stefan Umeå ... In contrast to animal and fungal cells, green plant cells contain one or multiple chloroplasts, the organelle(s) in which ... but characterization of this novel protein pathway to the chloroplast can also shed light on how the plant cell evolved and ... proteins) back to the organelle. The majority of these proteins are translated in the cytosol as pre-proteins containing ...
Cell-cycle dependent dynamic change of 26S proteasome distribution in tobacco BY-2 cells. Plant Cell Physiol. 43, 604- 613. ... Proteins similar to known MT-associated proteins that were identified in the Arabidopsis cell culture tubulin-binding protein ... Lloyd, C., and Hussey, P. (2001) Microtubule-associated proteins in plants-Why we need a MAP. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell. Biol. 2, 40 ... MT-binding proteins have also been successfully purified from both animal and plant cells using tubulin affinity chromatography ...
... Where do plants and again cells get this supple from? THANKS!!! ... what are cells made from? Please, what kind of cells? * Biology. In plants, cells that transport water against the force of ... "Reproductive cells and somatic cells are not separated early in development, as they are in animals》 Instead, plant somatic ... Plants have three basic organs, roots stems and leaves. Describe in detail the types of cells and tissue involved with each ...
The cells communicate with one another via the transportation of a protein, reports Weijers this week in Nature. ... Wageningen biochemist Dolf Weijers and his German colleagues have discovered how stem cells in a plant embryo are formed. ... Signal proteins for plant stem cells discovered. *Plant. Wageningen biochemist Dolf Weijers and his German colleagues have ... How do plant cells in the young embryo know what they have to become? We know the answer to this now: the nearby cells tell ...
The Role of Membrane-Bound Ankyrin-Repeat Protein ACD6 in Programmed Cell Death and Plant Defense ... The Role of Membrane-Bound Ankyrin-Repeat Protein ACD6 in Programmed Cell Death and Plant Defense ... The Role of Membrane-Bound Ankyrin-Repeat Protein ACD6 in Programmed Cell Death and Plant Defense ... The Role of Membrane-Bound Ankyrin-Repeat Protein ACD6 in Programmed Cell Death and Plant Defense ...
2005a) Extracellular ATP functions as an endogenous external metabolite regulating plant cell viability. Plant Cell 17: 3019- ... β-glucan deposition in plant cell walls. In Linskens HF, Jackson JF, eds, Modern Methods of Plant Analysis: Plant Fibers, 10. ... 2008) reported that neither adenylate kinases nor kinase domains have yet been found in wall proteins through plant cell wall ... Protein Identification by MS. After detecting proteins of wild-type tobacco cells on a two-dimensional gel with Pro-Q Diamond ...
Here, we report a mitochondrial ribosomal protein, RPS9M, is required for central cell maturation. RPS9M was highly expressed ... Here, we report a mitochondrial ribosomal protein, RPS9M, is required for central cell maturation. RPS9M was highly expressed ... The RPS9M can interact with ANK6, an ankyrin-repeat protein in mitochondria previously reported to be required for ... The RPS9M can interact with ANK6, an ankyrin-repeat protein in mitochondria previously reported to be required for ...
Plant Microbiology. The Pseudomonas syringae HopPtoV Protein Is Secreted in Culture and Translocated into Plant Cells via the ... The Pseudomonas syringae HopPtoV Protein Is Secreted in Culture and Translocated into Plant Cells via the Type III Protein ... The Pseudomonas syringae HopPtoV Protein Is Secreted in Culture and Translocated into Plant Cells via the Type III Protein ... The Pseudomonas syringae HopPtoV Protein Is Secreted in Culture and Translocated into Plant Cells via the Type III Protein ...
Herbivore selection of plant hosts and plant responses to insect colonization have been subjects of intense investigations. A ... but there is no direct evidence that these proteins are delivered into specific plant tissues and enter plant cells. Aphids and ... An Immuno-Suppressive Aphid Saliva Protein Is Delivered into the Cytosol of Plant Mesophyll Cells During Feeding. 10th November ... An Immuno-Suppressive Aphid Saliva Protein Is Delivered into the Cytosol of Plant Mesophyll Cells During Feeding. ...
... said method comprising a step for culturing plant cells, which have been transformed by a recombinant DNA molecule encoding ... to thereby prevent the inhibition of translation of a protein encoded by the aforesaid mRNA by the stress due to the lack of ... The purpose of the present invention is to produce a protein by efficiently culturing plant cells while preventing the ... inhibition of translation in mRNA of the plant cells that are cultured, in particular, under stress conditions due to the lack ...
  • The genomes of higher plants, including Arabidopsis thaliana , Glycine max (soybean), Oryza sativa (rice), and Zea mays (maize), encode approximately 10 to 20 members of the PDI family, which show wide variation in the organization of their thioredoxin (TRX)-fold domains [ 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Bergmann, along with Juan Dong, a postdoctoral researcher, and Cora MacAlister, a doctoral candidate, both in the Biology Department, tracked BASL in epidermal cells of Arabidopsis, a small plant used for genetic studies. (innovations-report.com)
  • The epidermis of Arabidopsis contains small pores called stomata that allow the plant to breathe and these stomata are generated by asymmetric cell divisions. (innovations-report.com)
  • So far, a nuclear-encoded cDNA from only one eukaryote ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) has been reported to be homologous at the protein level to FtsZ, and its in vitro translation product was imported into isolated pea chloroplasts ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • We have identified a protein in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana , CAH1, that is trafficked via the endomembrane system (ER/Golgi apparatus) to the chloroplast instead of using the Toc-Tic machinery. (diva-portal.org)
  • We also show that mutant plants with disrupted CAH1 gene expression have reduced rates of CO 2 uptake and accumulate lower amounts of starch compared to wild-type plants, indicating an important function of the CAH1 protein for the photosynthetic capacity of Arabidopsis. (diva-portal.org)
  • Vi har identifierat ett protein i modellväxten Arabidopsis thaliana (CAH1) som istället för att använda Toc-Tic tranporteras via det endomembrana systemet (ER/Golgi). (diva-portal.org)
  • Vi visar också att muterade växter som inte kan uttrycka genen som kodar för CAH1 uppvisar lägre upptag av CO 2 , samt ackumulerar mindre stärkelse än vildtypplantor, vilket antyder att CAH1 har en viktig funktion för den fotosyntetiska förmågan hos Arabidopsis. (diva-portal.org)
  • In this article, we describe the proteomic characterization of Arabidopsis tubulin-binding proteins that were purified using tubulin affinity chromatography. (mcponline.org)
  • Weijers studied the forming of root meristems in the embryo of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana . (wur.nl)
  • In Arabidopsis thaliana and many other species, two polar nuclei fuse to form a diploid nucleus in the central cell and the central cell vacuole enlarged before fertilization. (frontiersin.org)
  • Immunocytochemistry and image analysis on root cells from Arabidopsis thaliana and maize showed that 10-30% of the intracellular PIN proteins mapped to the Golgi network, but never to prevacuolar compartments. (biologists.org)
  • The domain is shared by several proteins in the Arabidopsis and the rice genomes, which otherwise show a different protein architecture. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Col-0 was inoculated with a series of reassortant viruses created by exchanging viral genomic RNAs between two strains of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), CMV(Y), and CMV(H), cell death developed in the leaves inoculated with reassortant CMV carrying CMV(H) RNA1 encoding 1a protein, but not in noninoculated upper leaves. (mdpi.com)
  • Arabidopsis PROTODERMAL FACTOR 1 ( PDF1 ) encodes a proline-rich cell-wall protein that is expressed exclusively in the L1 of shoot meristems. (biologists.org)
  • The anisotropy1 D604N mutation in the Arabidopsis cellulose synthase1 catalytic domain reduces cell wall crystallinity and the velocity of cellulose synthase complexes. (hamamatsu.com)
  • Fujita, et al , 1 identified a missense mutation in the CESA1 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana that produced viable plants, enabling studies into the role of CESA1 in cell wall growth and morphology. (hamamatsu.com)
  • Wheat and Arabidopsis plants respond to aluminum (Al) ions by releasing malate from their root apices via Al-activated malate transporter. (usda.gov)
  • To investigate the mechanism of phytochrome action in vivo, NtPHYB, AtPHYB and phyD:green fluorescent protein (GFP) were overexpressed in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and Arabidopsis thaliana. (usda.gov)
  • The authors employed different commercial SNAP dyes to label tagged microtubules in stably transformed tobacco BY-2 cells and Arabidopsis seedlings and found them to efficiently track microtubule changes during cell division. (plantae.org)
  • They also found that, as shown previously, freshly synthesized PIN2 proteins are preferentially deposited at the cell plate during cell division in Arabidopsis roots. (plantae.org)
  • The research group investigates how plant receptor proteins sense a growth-promoting steroid hormone by combining structural biology and biochemistry with genetics utilizing the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana . (mpg.de)
  • We have now taken a gene for a PPR protein from the moss Physcomitrium patens and transferred it into a flowering plant, the thale cress Arabidopsis thaliana," explains Schallenberg-Rüdinger. (eurekalert.org)
  • Heterochromatin proteins and the control of heterochromatic gene silencing in Arabidopsis. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • It has been demonstrated that two novel Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress) proteins, (ECT1 and ECT2), specifically associated with Calcineurin B-Like-Interacting Protein Kinase1 (CIPK1), a member of Ser/Thr protein kinases that interact with the calcineurin B-like Ca-binding proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • They were able to use a particular dye that does not permeate the cell membrane and fluoresces only when it bonds with SNAP-tag to exclusively mark the auxin transporters in the cell membrane, visualizing the process of membrane proteins being taken into the cell (endocytosis) after they had been marked. (eurekalert.org)
  • Interestingly, it was found that 23 out of these 31 were taken into the tobacco cells, that the majority of them could be used with SNAP-tag to mark cytosolic components in plant cells, and that those which could not permeate the cell membrane could be used to mark membrane proteins outside the cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • Nevertheless, this phosphatase may be involved in the activation of synthases indirectly by acting on either apoplastic proteins or unidentified membrane proteins, since the level of activation for glucan synthases was only a 2- to 3-fold increase in the transgenic tobacco cells overexpressing NtPAP12 compared with wild-type cells. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Super-resolved and dynamic imaging of membrane proteins in plant cells reveal contrasting kinetic profiles and multiple confinement mechanisms. (bordeaux-neurocampus.fr)
  • This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and functions of the various disulfide transfer pathways involved in oxidative protein folding in the ER, chloroplasts, and mitochondria of plants. (hindawi.com)
  • In plants, cells that transport water against the force of gravity are found to contain many more mitochondria than some other plant cells. (jiskha.com)
  • The RPS9M can interact with ANK6, an ankyrin-repeat protein in mitochondria previously reported to be required for fertilization. (frontiersin.org)
  • Case Western Reserve University scientists have discovered that a protein called Kruppel-like Factor 4 (KLF4) controls mitochondria - the "power plants" in cells that catalyze energy production. (case.edu)
  • Specifically, they determined KLF4's pivotal role through its absence - that is, the mitochondria malfunction without enough of the protein, which in turn leads to reduced energy. (case.edu)
  • Some cells are incredibly dependent on mitochondria, particularly the heart and brain," Liao said. (case.edu)
  • Mitochondria are described as "power plant" structures because they convert sugars and lipids to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy currency for all cells. (case.edu)
  • In addition to examining the role of mitochondria in other organ and system function, the researchers also plan to search for ways to increase the amount of KLF4 in cells involved in the heart's work. (case.edu)
  • What are plant cells mitochondria? (reference.com)
  • The researcher described the peptide NuBCP-9, which his key to the conversion, as a string of nine amino acids that bind to Bcl-2 and attack the mitochondria, the powerhouse of cells. (medindia.net)
  • Most of the proteins that function inside of mitochondria or chloroplasts are encoded in the nucleus, translated in the cytosol, and imported through one or two membrane-localized translocons. (plantae.org)
  • Using this technology, the scientists analyzed mitochondria with a "gate" closed for proteins (cartoon) at the molecular level. (genengnews.com)
  • The research team used quantitative mass spectrometry to compare the levels of proteins in mitochondria with defective and with undisturbed protein import. (genengnews.com)
  • We demonstrate the specificity and versatility of this ImportOmics method by targeting import factors in mitochondria and glycosomes, which demonstrates its potential for globally studying protein import and inventories of organelles. (genengnews.com)
  • Researchers at Karolinska Institutet have discovered that the protein complex RNase P in the cell's mitochondria behaves differently than previously thought. (phys.org)
  • Almost all of the cell's energy is produced in the cell's own power plant, the mitochondria. (phys.org)
  • Especially for plant mitochondria, this is not yet possible at all," emphasizes Schallenberg-Rüdinger. (eurekalert.org)
  • In eukaryotic cells, the mitochondria is the organelle that does cellular respiration. (answers.com)
  • This section covers the transport of a protein into a specific organelle--the mitochondria. (answers.com)
  • However, the organelle that carries out cellular respiration in animal cells is the mitochondria. (answers.com)
  • To receive news and publication updates for International Journal of Cell Biology, enter your email address in the box below. (hindawi.com)
  • This is crucial information if we really want to understand plants' unique ways of making the different types of cells in their bodies," said Dominique Bergmann, an assistant professor of biology. (innovations-report.com)
  • A key challenge in cell biology is to directly link protein localization to function. (nih.gov)
  • A team of scientists at the Nagoya University Institute of Transformative Bio-Molecules (WPI-ITbM) have developed a method for visualizing microtubule dynamics and cell membrane protein endocytosis in living plant cells, an important step forward in plant cell biology. (eurekalert.org)
  • This study provides a new technique for the fluorescent marking of proteins in plant cells, and represent an important step forward in plant cell biology research. (eurekalert.org)
  • The MADS domain protein family have been intensively studied for several decades, yet we continue to garner fundamental insights into biology by studying them. (plantcell.org)
  • However, recent targeting experiments with unidentified nuclear DNA have revealed that in Physcomitrella patens , a seedless terrestrial plant, homologous recombination is more frequent than illegitimate recombination ( 13 ), an important feature also found in yeast that led to its use as a model organism in molecular biology ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • Plants: Their Biology and Importance. (biologyreference.com)
  • While much is already known about the mechanics of communications, "not much is known about the signaling pathways," according to Joanne Chory, Ph.D., director of the Plant Biology Laboratory. (gardenguides.com)
  • Now we can force this protein to backstab the cancer cell where it resides," said Siva Kolluri, an assistant professor of cancer biology in the environmental and molecular toxicology department at OSU, and the lead author of the study published in the journal Cancer Cell. (medindia.net)
  • Our research findings reveal that Bax protein levels are normally kept at essentially undetectable levels in healthy cells by the protein degradation machine in cells known as proteasomes," said Dr. Victor Yu, who led the Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (IMCB) research team. (medindia.net)
  • The IsoPlexis platform is the first automated system for advanced functional single-cell analytics and mapping to reveal correlative insights into true functional immune biology. (genengnews.com)
  • The book is intended for academic and professional scientists working in the area of plant biology as well as material chemists and engineers, and food scientists who define new ways to use cell walls. (springer.com)
  • Knowing the exact localization of individual proteins, the route they take to reach their destination, and the overall composition of cellular compartments are important for understanding fundamental mechanisms of cell biology as well as the disease mechanisms that rely on defective cellular functions. (genengnews.com)
  • There's a prevailing dogma in the field of cell biology. (ucdavis.edu)
  • A new study, published by Biophysics Graduate Group member Professor Steven Theg, Department of Plant Biology, and his colleagues in The Plant Cell , reexamines how protein trafficking occurs in the chloroplasts of green plants. (ucdavis.edu)
  • The Max Planck Research Group Systems Biology of Development studies how signaling molecules transform a ball of cells into a patterned animal embryo. (mpg.de)
  • Plant Cell Biology is a semester long course for undergraduates and graduate students which integrates mathematics and physics, two years of chemistry, genetics, biochemistry and evolution disciplines. (google.com)
  • Having taught this course for over ten years, the author uses his expertise to relate the background established in plant anatomy, plant physiology, plant growth and development, plant taxonomy, plant biochemistry, and plant molecular biology courses to plant cell biology. (google.com)
  • This integration attempts to break down the barrier so plant cell biology is seen as an entr e into higher science. (google.com)
  • Distinguishing this book from papers that are often used for teaching the subject which use a single plant to demonstrate the techniques of molecular biology, this book covers all aspects of plant cell biology without emphasizing any one plant, organelle, molecule, or technique. (google.com)
  • In cell and molecular biology , the GFP gene is frequently used as a reporter of expression . (wikipedia.org)
  • This novel functionality of MRPP1 and MRPP2 is important when evaluating both the molecular and physiological effects of the mutations found in patients suffering from mitochondrial disease", says Martin Hällberg, senior researcher at Karolinska Institutet's Department of Cell and Molecular Biology and the Centre for Structural Systems Biology (CSSB) in Hamburg who led the study. (phys.org)
  • The researchers chose the 3T3-L1 cell line because it has been used widely for several decades as a cell model for fat cell biology research. (nutraingredients.com)
  • International Review of Cell & Molecular Biology presents current advances and comprehensive reviews in cell biology - both plant and animal. (google.com)
  • Articles in this volume include Transgenic Mouse Models in Angiogenesis and Lymphangiogenesis, Morphogenesis in Giant-celled Algae, Plasmodium in the Post-Genomic Era: New Insight into the Molecular Cell Biology of Malaria Parasites, Role of Nuclear Lamins in Nuclear Organization, Cellular Signalling and Inherited Diseases, New Insights into the Mechanisms of Macroautophagy in Mammalian Cells. (google.com)
  • cell and molecular biology of human lacrimal gland and nasolacrimal duct mucins. (google.com)
  • Current Opinion in Plant Biology , 40 , 63-70. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • Turnbull, D & Hemsley, PA 2017, ' Fats and function: protein lipid modifications in plant cell signalling ', Current Opinion in Plant Biology , vol. 40, pp. 63-70. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • In molecular biology, the protein domain, YTH refers to a member of the YTH family that has been shown to selectively remove transcripts of meiosis-specific genes expressed in mitotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In molecular biology, the auxin binding protein family is a family of proteins which bind auxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transient expression of avrBs3 in pepper leaves, using Agrobacterium tumefaciens for gene delivery, results in hypersensitive cell death, specifically on plants carrying the resistance gene Bs3. (nih.gov)
  • The product of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene (Rb) controls the passage of mammalian cells through G1 phase. (nih.gov)
  • Lane 5 shows RNA extracted from YAT1588 cells transformed with plasmid p414GPD carrying the indicated PIR gene. (pnas.org)
  • The nuclear transport of YFP-SAP11 was also inhibited in N. benthamiana plants in which the expression of importin α was knocked down using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). (apsnet.org)
  • A recurring difficulty when interpreting these protein-DNA interactions is that they poorly relate to activity of the associated gene. (plantcell.org)
  • That is, when a bona fide protein-DNA interaction is disrupted, often the activity of the associated gene does not change. (plantcell.org)
  • Little is known about the division of eukaryotic cell organelles and up to now neither in animals nor in plants has a gene product been shown to mediate this process. (pnas.org)
  • We report here on the isolation of a cDNA from the moss Physcomitrella , Pp fts Z, with homology at the protein level to bacterial FtsZ proteins, on the efficient targeted disruption of the corresponding genomic locus as well as on the role of this nuclear gene in eukaryotic organelle division. (pnas.org)
  • During the transition from endosymbiont to organelle most of the cyanobacterial genes were transferred to the nuclear genome of the host cell, resulting in a chloroplast with a much reduced genome that requires massive import of gene products (proteins) back to the organelle. (diva-portal.org)
  • By doing this, he discovered the gene TM07, with the codes for a small protein which is transported to the future hypophysis. (wur.nl)
  • We know the answer to this now: the nearby cells tell them by sending a gene activator. (wur.nl)
  • 1989 ). Structure of the bovine tau gene: Alternatively spliced transcripts generate a protein family. (biologists.org)
  • We delineate the NRP-gene in soybean, which is specifically induced during this programmed cell death and contains a novel protein domain, which is commonly found in different plant proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The sequence analysis of the protein, encoded by the NRP-gene from soybean, led to the identification of a novel domain, which we named DCD, because it is found in plant proteins involved in d evelopment and c ell d eath. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Plants can recognize microbial pathogens by a specific interaction system, which was historically named the gene-for-gene interaction, because particular matching genes must be present in the pathogen as well as in the plant. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have isolated a gene from soybean which is strongly induced during the hypersensitive reaction and serves as a marker for programmed cell death in this system [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The gene encodes a protein consisting of two domains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When genome differences were analysed and related to the proteome differences, a mobility shift identified in the MoxR protein could be explained by a point mutation at the gene level. (psu.edu)
  • Furthermore, the global gene expression pattern of the reassortant CMV-inoculated leaves undergoing cell death was clearly different from that in hypersensitive response (HR) cell death, which is coupled with resistance to CMV. (mdpi.com)
  • Although knockout mutants of PDF2 and ATML1 , another L1-specific HD-GL2 class gene sharing the highest homology with PDF2 , display normal shoot development, the double mutant results in severe defects in shoot epidermal cell differentiation. (biologists.org)
  • This suggests that PDF2 and ATML1 are functionally interchangeable and play a critical role in maintaining the identity of L1 cells, possibly by interacting with their L1 box and those of downstream target-gene promoters. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, HD-GL2-class genes have been implicated in regulating cell-layer-specific gene expression. (biologists.org)
  • These characteristics pave the way for future analysis on the use of the plant virus protein TAV, as an alternative to human RNAse H1 during gene therapy in human cells. (umaryland.edu)
  • In this study, we used virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) to investigate the cellular functions of Rb in higher plants. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition, it has several chapters dedicated to the manipulation of gene expression and characterisation of the recombinant locus and transgenic plants. (exlibris.ch)
  • Combining latest stem cell and genomic techniques, the research group has pioneered in vitro recombination to circumvent breeding and directly cause gene exchanges in cells. (mpg.de)
  • [5] It has been used in modified forms to make biosensors , and many animals have been created that express GFP, which demonstrates a proof of concept that a gene can be expressed throughout a given organism, in selected organs, or in cells of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Articles address structure and control of gene expression, nucleocytoplasmic interactions, control of cell development and differentiation, and cell transformation and growth. (google.com)
  • and insect basic leucine zipper proteins and their role in cyclic AMP dependent regulation of gene expression. (google.com)
  • Most of them are specialists for only one particular error in the many gene copies that the cell produces around the clock. (eurekalert.org)
  • Methyltransferase are therefore involved in many essential cellular processes including biosynthesis, signal transduction, protein repair, chromatin regulation and gene silencing [ PMID: 16225687 , PMID: 21858014 , PMID: 12826405 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This protein domain, the YTH-domain, is conserved across all eukaryotes and suggests that the conserved C-terminal region plays a critical role in relaying the cytosolic Ca-signals to the nucleus, thereby regulating gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • A GBP fusion to the red fluorescent protein (RFP), a molecule termed a chromobody, was previously used to trace in vivo the localization of various animal antigens. (nih.gov)
  • Chromobody technology, therefore, represents a new alternative technique for protein interference that can directly link localization of plant proteins to in vivo function. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, for its intracellular recognition, AvrBs3 requires nuclear localization signals that are present in the C-terminal region of the protein. (nih.gov)
  • Immunoelectron localization of Pir proteins to the cell wall. (pnas.org)
  • These proteins, often called MT-interacting proteins (MIPs) ( 2 , 4 ), likely bind to MTs as a mechanism to regulate their own activity, to direct their subcellular localization, or as a concentrating mechanism at specific locations within the cell. (mcponline.org)
  • This is not compatible with the cell wall localization of NtPAP12. (plantphysiol.org)
  • A team of researchers led by Bettina Warscheid, Ph.D., from the University of Freiburg and André Schneider, Ph.D., from the University of Bern has developed a method called "ImportOmics" that enables scientists to determine the localization of proteins that are imported via specific entry gates into cellular organelles. (genengnews.com)
  • Protein localization in plant cells is usually done through genetically combining fluorescent proteins to the protein-of-interest. (plantae.org)
  • Now, Iwatate and colleagues report the successful localization of target proteins in planta by adding to the protein of interest a tag that is subsequently covalently attached to a synthetic dye, in an approach termed O 6 -alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (SNAP) tagging. (plantae.org)
  • To examine polar protein localization, the authors tracked the endocytosis of auxin efflux transporter PIN2 using DRBG-488 dye and mCherry tag and found that the dye faithfully labels PIN2 and could track its internalization. (plantae.org)
  • During and after the folding process, some proteins are also altered by enzymes or modified by the addition of lipids or carbohydrates to the protein surface. (reference.com)
  • Leucoplasts are organelles, cell structures surrounded by membranes, in plant cells that store starch, lipids or proteins, or have biosynthetic functions c. (reference.com)
  • The substrates that are methylated by these enzymes cover virtually every kind of biomolecules ranging from small molecules, to lipids, proteins and nucleic acids [ PMID: 16225687 , PMID: 21858014 , PMID: 7897657 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This is made as a collection of proteins and lipids. (answers.com)
  • this protein is a potential phytoplasma effector that may alter plant cell physiology. (apsnet.org)
  • These studies provide information necessary for the elucidation of the importance of Bax in cell physiology. (medindia.net)
  • A total of 122 proteins were identified with high confidence using LC-MS/MS. These proteins were grouped into six categories based on their predicted functions: microtubule-associated proteins, translation factors, RNA-binding proteins, signaling proteins, metabolic enzymes, and proteins with other functions. (mcponline.org)
  • Since these polypeptides had copolymerized with tubulin, through the three cycles of assembly and disassembly, and they bundle microtubules, we tentatively identified the three polypeptides as microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). (biologists.org)
  • These SAP are candidate effector proteins potentially involved in interaction with plant and insect cell components. (apsnet.org)
  • Thus, we suggested that NtPAP12 could be involved in the regulation of cellulose synthase activity, either by acting on an unidentified membrane protein or by enhancing its activity with an effector, which can lead to the promotion of cellulose synthesis. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae depends on a type III protein secretion system and the effector proteins that it translocates into plant cells to cause disease and to elicit the defense-associated hypersensitive response on resistant plants. (asm.org)
  • A growing body of evidence suggests that, for successful colonization to occur, (effector/virulence) proteins in insect saliva must modulate plant defense responses to the benefit of the insect. (jic.ac.uk)
  • Here, we show, by immunogold-labeling of ultrathin sections of aphid feeding sites, that an immuno-suppressive aphid effector localizes in the cytoplasm of mesophyll cells near aphid stylets but not in cells further away from aphid feeding sites. (jic.ac.uk)
  • In contrast, another aphid effector protein localizes in the sheaths composed of gelling saliva that surround the aphid stylets. (jic.ac.uk)
  • As a typical example, the bacterial effector AvrPto physically interacts with plant FLS2, a receptor kinase recognized by Flg22, inhibiting the kinase activity of PRRs and suppressing host PTI 4 . (nature.com)
  • R genes usually encode intracellular nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) proteins to detect and recognize pathogen-secreted proteins (effectors), leading to effector-triggered immunity (ETI) 5 . (nature.com)
  • Bacterial(1), oomycete(2) and fungal(3) plant pathogens establish disease by translocation of effector proteins into host cells, where they may directly manipulate host innate immunity. (elsevier.com)
  • Key challenges for optimized accumulation of recombinant proteins in a plant system still remain, including endogenous plant proteolytic activity, which may severely compromise recombinant protein stability. (up.ac.za)
  • Several strategies have recently been applied to improve protein stability by limiting protease action such as recombinant protein production in various sub-cellular compartments or application of protease inhibitors to limit protease action. (up.ac.za)
  • A short update on the current strategies applied is provided here, with particular focus on sub-cellular sites previously selected for recombinant protein production and the co-expression of protease inhibitors to limit protease activity. (up.ac.za)
  • Other reports show that plant specific paucimannosidic N-glycans are desirable and have been related to an enhancement of the therapeutical efficiency of the recombinant protein [8] . (leica-microsystems.com)
  • This is the first report on a plant cell culture reaching gram per litre yields of a recombinant protein. (vttresearch.com)
  • [9] Frederick Tsuji's lab independently reported the expression of the recombinant protein one month later. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disulfide transfer pathways that function in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and chloroplasts of plants play critical roles in the development of protein storage organelles and the biogenesis of chloroplasts, respectively. (hindawi.com)
  • The product highlights section includes products for plant cell lysis and plant protein isolation, extraction and isolation of nuclei and nuclear proteins from plant leaves, and isolation of intact chloroplasts from plant leaves. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This protein, first identified from Escherichia coli, is not only conserved in cyanobacteria, the progenitors of chloroplasts, but in all eubacteria and in archaebacteria ( 7 - 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • Since chloroplasts lack N-glycosylation machinery, we propose that a route for chloroplast proteins that require endomembrane-specific post-translational modifications for their functionality exists as a complement to the Toc-Tic system. (diva-portal.org)
  • Dr. Chory worked with a team of scientists that made strides toward discovering how chloroplasts, the plant cells responsible for photosynthesis, communicate with the plant structure in times of distress. (gardenguides.com)
  • This plant cell communication discovery was important because it demonstrated how outlying cells (chloroplasts) fed information to a nucleus about stressful conditions and the nucleus communicated that a slowdown in activity was required. (gardenguides.com)
  • Genes in the chloroplasts made it possible for these cells to decipher protein signals and know when to react to adverse conditions. (gardenguides.com)
  • Chloroplasts are important for photosynthesis and for plant immunity against microbial pathogens. (nature.com)
  • However, ROS, as byproducts in chloroplasts, are also critical and effective components for plant immunity. (nature.com)
  • Here, the main focus is covering the literature on optimization of cultivation conditions of suspension-cultured plant cells to obtain a maximal yield of target proteins. (springer.com)
  • that bind, in most cases, to phosphorylated target proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, live cell imaging using SNAP-tag with synthetic dyes in plant science has been impossible, as synthetic dyes are unable to reach the target proteins due to the presence of the cell wall in plant cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • The majority of these proteins are translated in the cytosol as pre-proteins containing targeting information that directs them to a translocon complex in the chloroplast envelope, the Toc-Tic system, through which these proteins are transported. (diva-portal.org)
  • abstract = "The post-translational lipid modifications N-myristoylation, prenylation and S-acylation are traditionally associated with increasing protein membrane affinity. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • Cells of BWG7a transformed with the empty vector YEp24 ( 1 ), and transformants of BWG7a ( 2 - 7 ) expressing ORE1 (2 and 3), ORE2 (4 and 5), and ORE3 (6 and 7), and GRF167 ( 8 ) were streaked on YPD medium containing 50 μg/ml of tobacco osmotin. (pnas.org)
  • They then used tobacco cells to find out which of 31 different dyes were able to enter the cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • In this study, we found that tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum ) purple acid phosphatase could dephosphorylate the phosphoryl residues of three apoplastic proteins, two of which were identified as α -xylosidase and β -glucosidase. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Attempted overexpression of the tobacco purple acid phosphatase NtPAP12 in tobacco cells not only decreased the activity levels of the glycosidases but also increased levels of xyloglucan oligosaccharides and cello-oligosaccharides in the apoplast during the exponential phase. (plantphysiol.org)
  • To characterize some of these constituents, a cytoplasmic extract was prepared from evacuolated protoplasts (miniprotoplasts) of tobacco BY-2 cells, and microtubules were assembled in the presence of taxol and disassembled by cold treatment in the presence of Ca2+ and a high concentration of NaCl. (biologists.org)
  • 1988 ). Effects of propyzamide on tobacco cell microtubules in vivo and in vitro. (biologists.org)
  • 1991 ). Microtubule translocation in the cytokinetic apparatus of cultured tobacco cells. (biologists.org)
  • 1990 ). The role of cytoskeleton in positioning of the nucleus in premitotic tobacco BY-2 cells. (biologists.org)
  • Here, we investigate the fate of DsRed, expressed under the same regulatory signals as phytase in the dicotyledoneous plant tobacco. (leica-microsystems.com)
  • Figure 1 shows the deposition of recombinant DsRed in tobacco cells. (leica-microsystems.com)
  • DsRed is also efficiently secreted in tobacco embryo (Figure 1B, B') and abundant gold probes can be observed decorating the embryo cell walls. (leica-microsystems.com)
  • This work explores production of hydrophobin fusion proteins in a plant cell factory: the tobacco bright yellow 2 suspension cells (BY-2). (vttresearch.com)
  • Transient expression of Pst_12806 inhibits BAX-induced cell death in tobacco plants and reduces Pseudomonas -induced hypersensitive response in wheat. (nature.com)
  • This proposal is focused on scale-up process development of Hyp-Glyco technology in bioreactor cultured tobacco cells expressing interferon 2b and in development of a cost-effective technique for protein recovery/purification. (sbirsource.com)
  • Molecular characterization of the tobacco SET domain protein NtSET1 unravels its role in histone methylation, chromatin binding, and segregation. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Ectopic expression of the NtSET1 histone methyltransferase inhibits cell expansion, and affects cell division and differentiation in tobacco plants. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Selective molecular communication between disulfide-generating enzymes and disulfide carrier proteins, which reflects the molecular and structural diversity of disulfide carrier proteins, is key to the efficient transfer of disulfides to specific sets of substrates. (hindawi.com)
  • The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the first organelle in the secretory pathway, and this dynamic and highly specialized organelle contains enzymes and chaperones that mediate the folding and assembly of newly synthesized proteins [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Cereal starchy endosperm cells are meant to be dead upon germination and hydrolytic enzymes for the mobilization of reserves are secreted by aleurone cells during germination, while the mature endosperm cells of dicotyledonous seeds often comprises living cells secreting hydrolytic enzymes that will be needed to degrade the endosperm cell walls to allow radicle emergence [14, 15, 16, 17] . (leica-microsystems.com)
  • Recombinant proteins are used e.g. as pharmaceuticals, enzymes and components of nanotechnology. (vttresearch.com)
  • The present invention relates to methods for converting plant cell wall polysaccharides into one or more products, comprising: treating the plant cell wall polysaccharides with an effective amount of a spent whole fermentation broth of a recombinant microorganism, wherein the recombinant microorganism expresses one or more heterologous genes encoding enzymes which degrade or convert the plant cell wall polysaccharides into the one or more products. (osti.gov)
  • Instead, they correct the RNA copies that the cell makes of these DNA blueprints, which it then uses to produce certain enzymes, for example. (eurekalert.org)
  • The synthesis of the Pir2/Hsp150 protein is induced by heat shock and osmotin in sensitive yeast cells. (pnas.org)
  • The cortical MT array has been linked to the regulation of cellulose microfibril deposition and, hence, a role in cell expansion, while the pre-prophase band and the phragmoplast have important roles in the positioning and synthesis of the new cell plate in dividing cells. (mcponline.org)
  • During protein production, ribosomes serve as the site where synthesis takes place, and transfer RNAs serve as the tools that build the growing protein strand. (reference.com)
  • These need to be cut down and processed to release the mature mitochondrial RNAs which are essential for the mitochondrion's internal protein synthesis. (phys.org)
  • Nucleus conduct transport of molecules across the nuclear membranes and transport out the mRNA for protein synthesis. (answers.com)
  • How the diverse polysaccharides present in plant cell walls are assembled and interlinked into functional composites is not known in detail. (nih.gov)
  • We took advantage of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient expression assays (agroinfiltration) and virus expression vectors (agroinfection) to express functional GBP:RFP fusion (chromobody) in the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana. (nih.gov)
  • Here we report the isolation of a maize cDNA clone encoding a protein (ZmRb1) which, based on structural and functional studies, is closely related to the mammalian Rb family of growth regulatory proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Three of the megaspores undergo programmed cell death, leaving one survived megaspore to become functional megaspore (FM). (frontiersin.org)
  • The work builds foundation for utilization of BY-2 suspension cells in industrial manufacturing of recombinant proteins and on the other hand opens interesting new applications for bi-functional hydrophobin fusion proteins. (vttresearch.com)
  • The fusion proteins retained functional properties from both fusion partners. (vttresearch.com)
  • A newly made polypeptide chain is not yet a functional protein. (reference.com)
  • In particular, IsoPlexis' single-cell functional characterization was used to evaluate cell therapy process changes, downstream of Miltenyi's CliniMACS Prodigy ® system. (genengnews.com)
  • By analyzing the polyfunctionality and Polyfunctional Strength Index (PSI), a measure of immune potency, IsoPlexis systems provide an objective functional readout to better characterize the cell therapy product from heterogenous CAR-T cells. (genengnews.com)
  • The IsoLight provides functional and direct proteomic profiling of single CAR-T cells to define the complex nature of each CAR-T cell and which cytokines each cell actually produces, with direct proteomic detection, to orchestrate the immune system," noted Chen. (genengnews.com)
  • The IsoPlexis system quantitates the potency of these CAR-T cells by measuring the intensity of the cytokines secreted by highly functional cell subsets, often missed by traditional bulk ELISA profiling technologies or systems like flow cytometry that do not measure the truly released cytokines per cell, pointed out Chen. (genengnews.com)
  • By measuring the true function of single cells, IsoPlexis systems have helped capture the potency of important and highly functional T-cell and other immune cell subsets, which has correlated with in vivo response, as published in Blood in 2018 with pre-infusion CAR-T product samples. (genengnews.com)
  • Given the functional significance of individual members of the homeodomain proteins in plant growth and development, their target DNA sequences and downstream genes must be investigated further. (biologists.org)
  • Proteins' sub-cellular localizations provide a wealth of information regarding their functional attributes. (plantae.org)
  • They are huge in number and variety and diverse in structure and function, serving as both the structural building blocks and the functional machinery of the cell. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Basic functional unit of plants. (jove.com)
  • The diversity of genetic mutations is illustrated by this San Diego beach scene drawn with living bacteria expressing 8 different colors of fluorescent proteins (derived from GFP and dsRed). (wikipedia.org)
  • Implications on the theory of endosymbiosis and on the use of reverse genetics in plants are discussed. (pnas.org)
  • Three studies-one of mice and two of human genetics-describe the role of two proteins, adenylyl cyclase and melanocortin 4 receptor, in the development of obesity and diabetes. (the-scientist.com)
  • Future experiments will explore the reasons behind this, which may relate to interactions between MADS domain proteins and other classes of transcription factor. (plantcell.org)
  • Moreover, interactions and cross-talk between MTs and AFs are involved in plant cell division ( Wasteneys and Galway, 2003 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In this review, we summarize the current findings on the cytoskeleton-associated proteins that mediate the cytoskeletal arrays during mitosis and cytokinesis in plant cells and focus on the MT and AF interactions involved in mitosis and cytokinesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Because of the variety of cell wall structures and of the diversity of protein/polysaccharide and protein/protein interactions in cell walls, some CWPs can be missing either because they are washed out during the purification of cell walls or because they are covalently linked to cell wall components. (mdpi.com)
  • Hyphenation to denaturing electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analysis allows for the simultaneous identification of multiple (previously unidentified) protein interactions in single samples. (ugent.be)
  • The reliability and efficacy of the technique was confirmed (i) by the identification of well-studied plant protein complexes, (ii) by the presence of nonplant interologs for several of the novel complexes (iii) by presenting physical evidence of previously hypothetical plant protein interactions and (iv) by the confirmation of found interactions using co-IP. (ugent.be)
  • Furthermore practical issues concerning the use of this 2-D BN/SDS-PAGE display method for the analysis of protein-protein interactions are discussed. (ugent.be)
  • The finding of CMV 1a protein-mediated induction of necrotic cell death in A. thaliana , which is not associated with virus resistance and HR cell death, has the potential to provide a new pathosystem to study the role of cell death in virus-host plant interactions. (mdpi.com)
  • The role of cell death in virus-host plant interactions is a phenomenon that has long been discussed but has yet to be resolved [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Cell death resulting from incompatible interactions between viruses and plants has been described as necrotic local lesions , and that occurring in compatible interactions as necrotic cell death [ 6 , 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Further studies will be needed to elucidate whether this alteration in CSC movement is a result of impaired catalytic activity or perturbations of protein-protein interactions among CesA subunits or between the CSC and other cellular components. (hamamatsu.com)
  • The understanding of the physical and genetic structure of plant genomes and the determination of phenotypes via interactions of coding and non-coding regions with the environment has quickly become the key to the future of plant breeding and agriculture. (exlibris.ch)
  • These transcription factors belong to the same family of proteins, but their functions are quite different: AP1 controls the development of nonreproductive floral organs (sepals and petals), AG controls the formation of reproductive organs (stamens and carpels), while both proteins require SEP3 as a cofactor. (plantcell.org)
  • C ollagens are a family of proteins found in animals, so abundant that they can represent up to 25 to 35 % of the total protein content of the body. (uvigo.es)
  • As guard cells perceive and transduce a wide array of environmental cues, they provide an ideal system to elucidate early events of plant signaling. (frontiersin.org)
  • Microtubules play an essential role in the growth and development of plants and are known to be involved in regulating many cellular processes ranging from translation to signaling. (mcponline.org)
  • It provides a framework for cell division and the trafficking of organelles and macromolecules, and also serves to regulate important cellular processes such as signaling, translation, and metabolism. (mcponline.org)
  • It is tempting to speculate, that the DCD domain mediates signaling in plant development and programmed cell death and could thus be used to identify interacting proteins to gain further molecular insights into these processes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Often the programmed cell death in plants requires the signaling compound salicylic acid downstream of the recognition process to proceed beyond restrictions points in the cell death program [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Several cell surface receptors require the multidomain protein CIN85 for signaling. (sciencemag.org)
  • This volume focuses on structure, function and regulation of plant signaling G proteins and their function in hormonal pathways, polarity, differentiation, morphogenesis and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. (springer.com)
  • To optimize the CO 2 uptake necessary for photosynthesis while minimizing water loss, guard cells integrate environmental signals to adjust stomatal aperture. (frontiersin.org)
  • The chloroplast is the organelle within a plant cell where photosynthesis takes place. (diva-portal.org)
  • Further study of CAH1 will not only be important to reveal its role in photosynthesis, but characterization of this novel protein pathway to the chloroplast can also shed light on how the plant cell evolved and clarify the purpose of keeping several chloroplast import pathways working in parallel. (diva-portal.org)
  • Expression of Pst_12806 in plants reduces electron transport rate, photosynthesis, and production of chloroplast-derived ROS. (nature.com)
  • C4 and CAM plants are plants that use certain special compounds to gather carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) during photosynthesis. (biologyreference.com)
  • Plants differ from animals in that they are capable of photosynthesis. (eurekalert.org)
  • The research team developed the method to define the mitochondrial protein inventory of the single-cell parasite Trypanosoma brucei , which contains a single mitochondrion surrounded by two membranes and houses more than a thousand proteins. (genengnews.com)
  • When it comes to transmembrane protein trafficking-the act of molecules crossing cellular membranes-proteins need to be unfolded to cross, otherwise they're too bulky to fit through membrane pores. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Profilee Satyajit Mayor discusses his explorations of cell membranes, which are helping to update the classical fluid mosaic model of dynamic cellular boundaries. (the-scientist.com)
  • He is an authority on how plant cells sense gravity through pressure, on the water permeability of plant membranes, light microscopy, as well as the effects of calcium on plant development. (google.com)
  • What do facilitated diffusion carrier proteins and cell membranes both pump? (reference.com)
  • However, phospholipids are the principle component of organelle and cell membranes in both unicellular and multicellular organisms, but they can't be called cellular for the same reason we don't call bricks buildings. (answers.com)
  • Recognition of the bacterial avirulence protein AvrBs3 occurs inside the host plant cell. (nih.gov)
  • The molecular mechanism by which bacterial avirulence genes mediate recognition by resistant host plants has been enigmatic for more than a decade. (nih.gov)
  • A cDNA encoding a homolog of the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ, an ancestral tubulin, was isolated from the eukaryote Physcomitrella patens and used to disrupt efficiently the genomic locus in this terrestrial seedless plant. (pnas.org)
  • The best studied bacterial cell division protein is FtsZ, which is homologous to the eukaryotic cytoskeleton element tubulin, and forms the dividing ring during bacterial cytokinesis ( 4 - 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • DC3000 overexpressing ShcV and HopPtoV and DC3000 mutants lacking either HopPtoV or both ShcV and HopPtoV were not significantly impaired in disease symptoms or bacterial multiplication in planta, suggesting that HopPtoV plays a subtle role in pathogenesis or that other effectors effectively mask the contribution of HopPtoV in plant pathogenesis. (asm.org)
  • In addition to binding plant karyopherin α, VirE3 interacts with VirE2, a major bacterial protein that directly associates with the T‐DNA and facilitates its nuclear import. (deepdyve.com)
  • Efficiently lyse E. coli and other bacterial cells and gently extract native proteins with these nonionic detergent solutions. (thermofisher.com)
  • Motor proteins act on the cytoskeleton tracks to generate forces and directional movement for many essential processes, such as transportation of cellular "cargoes" and separation of duplicated chromosomes during cell division. (eurekalert.org)
  • Reversible protein phosphorylation is recognized as one of the most important post-translational modifications in eukaryotes, playing major roles in the regulation of cellular processes ( Cohen, 2002 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Therefore, orientation of the cell division plane is crucial for the cellular organization of plant tissues. (frontiersin.org)
  • As VIP1 is not an abundant protein, representing one of the limiting factors for transformation, Agrobacterium may have evolved to produce and export to the host cells its own virulence protein that at least partially complements the cellular VIP1 function necessary for the T‐DNA nuclear import and subsequent expression within the infected cell. (deepdyve.com)
  • While protein interaction studies and protein network modeling come to the forefront, the isolation and identification of protein complexes in a cellular context remains a major challenge for plant science. (ugent.be)
  • In a researcher article in the journal Molecular Cell, the researchers describe proteasomes as "protein-digesting machines" that regulate cellular levels of various proteins, including that of the lethal Bax , by breaking them into smaller components within the cell. (medindia.net)
  • These cells produced in an automated fashion can then be analyzed by customers on IsoPlexis' single-cell polyfunctional analytics platform, which automates the cellular analysis and washing steps associated with ELISA platforms," explained Chen. (genengnews.com)
  • At the cellular level, Rb suppression caused prolonged cell proliferation in tissues that are normally differentiated, which indicates that Rb is a negative regulator of plant cell division. (elsevier.com)
  • Let us begin by listing some of the basic cellular processes and the role that proteins play. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • It also aids in developing model systems for research, studying cellular functions, stem cell research, drug discovery and genetic engineering. (yahoo.com)
  • Nucleus itself a cell organells that control all the cellular event. (answers.com)
  • Once translated, proteins are dispersed throughout the cellular environment. (answers.com)
  • Plant cells don't carry out cellular respiration. (answers.com)
  • As a result of this agreement, a second full-size commercial plant is planned and expected to be in production by the second half of 2017. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • Market research report shows that the global plant protein-based supplement market will exhibit a CAGR of 7.48% from 2017 to 2025. (nutraingredients.com)
  • An Immuno-Suppressive Aphid Saliva Protein Is Delivered into the Cytosol of Plant Mesophyll Cells During Feeding. (jic.ac.uk)
  • We showed that TAV is clearly expressed in the cytosol and in the nuclei of transiently transfected human cells, similar to its distribution in plants. (umaryland.edu)
  • The majority of these proteins are synthesized in the cytosol and need to cross the outer membrane of the mitochondrion before they are sorted to their final destination. (genengnews.com)
  • The scientists exploited this gate to define the entirety of the mitochondrial proteins imported from the cytosol. (genengnews.com)
  • Single Cell Peotein (SCP) refers to the dried microbial cells or total protein extracted from pure microbial cell culture which can be used as food supplement to humans or animals. (sid.ir)
  • Recognition of microbial pathogens by plants triggers the hypersensitive reaction , a common form of programmed cell death in plants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thereby the plant immune system is activated locally in some cell layer around the original infection to prepare the plant cells for the next microbial attack. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Plants are subjected to innumerable forms of stress, from extreme climate to microbial pathogens. (nature.com)
  • With the additional safety advantage of substituting plant cells for existing animal cell production, 'molecular farming' could become commercially competitive with current mammalian and microbial cell production systems. (sbirsource.com)
  • Single-cell proteins (SCP) or microbial proteins refer to edible unicellular microorganisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In higher plants, microtubule (MT)-based, and actin filament (AF)-based structures play important roles in mitosis and cytokinesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Microtubules in plant cells, as in animal cells, are dynamic structures. (biologists.org)
  • See the labelling within the apoplast (cw, arrows) and also in some structures within the cells (C', arrowhead). (leica-microsystems.com)
  • A group of scientists led by Professor Andy Maule at the John Innes Centre discovered that plants create complex and highly regulated structures called plasmodesmata that act as tunnels from one plant cell to another. (gardenguides.com)
  • T he extracellular matrix of animal tissues is a molecular network mainly composed of proteins, proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans, and glycoproteins, that comine together to form a diverse set of extracellular matrices. (uvigo.es)
  • The inner surface of a flask or petri dish is generally coated with extracellular matrix or proteins like laminin, collagen, fibronectin and vitronectin. (yahoo.com)
  • Plant cells, on the other hand, have stiff cell walls and can't divide this way. (innovations-report.com)
  • Restricted access of proteins to mannan polysaccharides in intact plant cell walls. (nih.gov)
  • Here, using two novel monoclonal antibodies and a carbohydrate-binding module directed against the mannan group of hemicellulose cell wall polysaccharides, we show that molecular recognition of mannan polysaccharides present in intact cell walls is severely restricted. (nih.gov)
  • In secondary cell walls, mannan esterification can prevent probe recognition of epitopes/ligands, and detection of mannans in primary cell walls can be effectively blocked by the presence of pectic homogalacturonan. (nih.gov)
  • Unlike animal cells, plant cells are enfolded in pecto-cellulosic cell walls and do not migrate. (frontiersin.org)
  • Plant cell wall proteomics is a tricky field of research, since proteins are not only minor components of plant cell walls, but are also trapped in complex networks of polysaccharides with which they can interact. (mdpi.com)
  • Plant cell walls are mainly composed of cellulose microfibrils wrapped in and connected with hemicelluloses and inserted into a complex pectin gel [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The structure and composition of cell walls are constantly modified to allow plant growth and development, and to contribute to the adaptation of plants to their changing environment [ 3 , 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Cell wall proteins (CWPs) are the "blue collar workers," modifying cell wall components and customizing them to confer appropriate properties to cell walls [ 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Thus, a large variety of proteins are present in cell walls [ 10 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • We suggest that purple acid phosphatase controls the activity of α -xylosidase and β -glucosidase, which are responsible for the degradation of xyloglucan oligosaccharides and cello-oligosaccharides in the cell walls. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Guo, Wangzhen 2018-06-05 00:00:00 Cellulose is a major component of plant cell walls and is necessary for plant morphogenesis and biomass. (deepdyve.com)
  • Animal cells are able to pass information cell-to-cell though flexible openings in cell walls called gap junctions. (gardenguides.com)
  • Cellulose microfibrils are an important structural component of vascular plant cell walls, helping to provide tension against turgor pressure. (hamamatsu.com)
  • As cell walls are an enormously important source of raw material, we anticipate that cell-wall-related genes are of significant economic importance. (springer.com)
  • This system, therefore, has also provided an opportunity to allow sporelings to develop their cell walls while in contact with 14 C-proline in sea-water. (nature.com)
  • The developing endosperm cells of seeds actively synthesize large amounts of storage proteins that acquire disulfide bonds in the ER. (hindawi.com)
  • During double fertilization of angiosperms, the central cell of the female gametophyte fuses with a sperm cell to produce the endosperm, a storage tissue that nourishes the developing embryo within the seed. (frontiersin.org)
  • Previous studies done in our group showed that a recombinant fungal phytase carrying a signal peptide and no further targeting signal was deposited within the cell in the protein storage vacuoles of cereal endosperm [9, 10, 11] . (leica-microsystems.com)
  • Our results confirm the physiological differences between the endosperm tissues in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. (leica-microsystems.com)
  • This abundance of zeins effectively dilutes the contribution of other endosperm proteins to the kernel Lys and Trp contents. (genetics.org)
  • Reduction of α-zeins either through transcriptional regulation ( e.g. , loss of O2 transcription factor), or a transgene that reduces their transcript accumulation through RNA interference (RNAi), result in more nutritionally balanced endosperm proteins. (genetics.org)
  • Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris) was mined for the presence of genes encoding secreted proteins based on the presence of N-terminal signal peptides (SP). (apsnet.org)
  • Bioinformatic analysis identifies 425 potential genes encoding secreted RXLR-EER class proteins in the P. infestans genome. (elsevier.com)
  • In Denmark, Unibio has opened a commercial fermentation plant to convert natural gas into a highly concentrated, single-cell protein and produce up to 80 tonnes per year . (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • In Finland, using electricity and carbon dioxide, Lappeenranta University of Technology and VTT Technical Research Centre researchers created a batch of single-cell protein that can be further developed for use as food and animal feed . (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • Research on Single Cell Protein Technology started a century ago when Max Delbrück and his colleagues found out the high value of surplus brewer's yeast as a feeding supplement for animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1960s, researchers at British Petroleum developed what they called "proteins-from-oil process": a technology for producing single-cell protein by yeast fed by waxy n-paraffins, a byproduct of oil refineries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another type of single cell protein-based meat analogue (which does not use fungi however but rather bacteria) is Calysta. (wikipedia.org)
  • These have included biochemical purification methods, mutant screens, and the identification of plant homologs to animal MT-binding proteins using antibody cross-reactivity and sequence database mining ( 7 - 10 ). (mcponline.org)
  • One of the first biochemical purification approaches involved the polymerization of endogenous plant tubulin in the presence of taxol, followed by pelleting of the resulting MTs and their associated proteins. (mcponline.org)
  • The Hyp-Glyco tag also extends serum half-life and facilitates purification of secreted proteins while retaining protein bioactivity. (sbirsource.com)
  • Specific aims of this feasibility Phase I are to 1) Establish bioreactor based high yield interferon protein production in plant cell cultures using Hyp-Glyco technology;2) Demonstrate that continuous perfusion culture technology will further enhance protein production;and 3) Show that reliable and cost-effective recovery and purification of bioactive interferon protein can be achieved in bioreactor grown plant cell cultures. (sbirsource.com)
  • Reserves may take the form of intracellular oil droplets (for example, the sunflower), protein bodies (beans), and starch grains (cereals), or combinations of these. (biologyreference.com)
  • This translational fusion vector was used for high-level production of aminopeptidase N, up to 47 % of the total intracellular protein. (psu.edu)
  • P. syringae TTSS effectors are generally named Avr (for avirulence), Vir (for virulence), or Hop (for Hrp-dependent outer protein) proteins, based on how they were originally identified ( 5 , 73 ). (asm.org)
  • Citovsky, Vitaly 2005-01-26 00:00:00 To genetically transform plants, Agrobacterium exports its transferred DNA (T‐DNA) and several virulence (Vir) proteins into the host cell. (deepdyve.com)
  • Resistant plants respond to a high level of P. syringae inoculum by producing a defense-associated programmed cell death known as the hypersensitive response. (asm.org)
  • A range of insect saliva proteins that modulate plant defense responses have been identified, but there is no direct evidence that these proteins are delivered into specific plant tissues and enter plant cells. (jic.ac.uk)
  • These dying cells generate signals that activate the plant immune system and alarm the neighboring cells as well as the whole plant to activate defense responses to limit the spread of the pathogen. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Communications between two plant cells also provides for the common defense of the plant against problems. (gardenguides.com)
  • It suppresses plant basal immunity by reducing callose deposition and the expression of defense-related genes. (nature.com)
  • This survival is due to multilayer immune functions that diminish destructive attacks by potential pathogens and improve the defense systems of the plants 1 . (nature.com)
  • The first layer of defense is the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as flagellin Flg22 and chitosan, by multiple pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) at the cell surface. (nature.com)
  • In addition, plants have a group of specific disease resistance genes (R genes) in this defense response layer. (nature.com)
  • Plant cell wall proteomics has been a very dynamic field of research for about fifteen years. (mdpi.com)
  • Proteomics strategies should allow the full inventory of proteins in a tissue, an organ or an organelle at a given stage of development or in response to an external stimulus. (mdpi.com)
  • Proteomics advances have revealed an enrichment of signalling proteins in the lipid-modified proteome, potentially indicating an important role for these modifications in responding to stimuli. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • TTSSs are found in many plant, animal, and insect pathogens and other eukaryote-associated gram-negative bacteria ( 22 , 24 , 34 , 45 ). (asm.org)
  • Can Allprotect Tissue Reagent be used to stabilize RNA, DNA and proteins in cells, bacteria, yeast, and plants? (qiagen.com)
  • a ) Complexes binding to a Ni-NTA column (His-tagged proteins) were purified from bacteria either expressing HisMBP-tagged putative cyclin SDS together with Cak1, or HisMBP-SDS together with Cak1 and StrepIII-tagged CDKA;1, or HisMBP-SDS together with Cak1 and StrepIII-tagged CDKB1;1, or HisMBP-SDS together with Cak1 and StrepIII-tagged CDKB2;2. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cells represent the most basic biological units of all organisms, whether it be simple, single-celled organisms like bacteria, or large, multicellular organisms like elephants and giant redwood trees. (jove.com)
  • For instance, the smallest bacteria are 0.1 micrometers (μm) in diameter-about a thousand times smaller than many eukaryotic cells. (jove.com)
  • Most other bacteria are larger than these tiny ones-between 1-10 μm-but they still tend to be smaller than most eukaryotic cells, which typically range from 10-100 μm. (jove.com)
  • The biomass or protein extract from pure or mixed cultures of algae, yeasts, fungi or bacteria may be used as an ingredient or a substitute for protein-rich foods, and is suitable for human consumption or as animal feeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The expression pattern and mutant phenotype of RPS9M are similar to those of ANK6 as well, suggesting that RPS9M may work together with ANK6 in controlling female gametophyte development, possibly by regulating the expression of some mitochondrial proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • In contrast to other production platforms, plants are unexpensive, easy to scale up and lack human pathogens. (leica-microsystems.com)
  • Biological studies indicate a role of these proteins in phytohormone response, embryo development and programmed cell by pathogens or ozone. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Though a dead cell on its own might already stop the growth of biotrophic pathogens more importantly the cell death program by itself generates unknown signals for neighboring cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although PTI is prevalent in plants, preventing pathogenic invasion, these pathogens also possess the ability to secrete effectors to suppress the basal immune response 1 . (nature.com)
  • The strong recognition between effectors and R proteins usually results in the hypersensitive response (HR), a type of programmed cell death (PCD) that occurs at infection sites to prevent further expansion of pathogens. (nature.com)
  • They found that BASL behaved in some ways like proteins involved in asymmetric animal cell division--that is, they observed BASL in both the nucleus and in a small region out near the periphery in cells that were about to divide asymmetrically. (innovations-report.com)
  • When the instructions to make BASL were artificially put into any other cell in the plant, those cells (which normally wouldn't be able to make BASL) not only made BASL, but the protein was found in both the nucleus and a small region at the periphery. (innovations-report.com)
  • Bergmann said that the next steps will be to understand how BASL moves from where it is made to the nucleus or out to the periphery of the cell, and what it actually does in those regions of the cell. (innovations-report.com)
  • What we don't know is whether cells make a bunch of BASL protein and ship half of it out the periphery and half to the nucleus and the two pools of protein never mix, or whether any one individual BASL protein molecule could 'shuttle' between being at the nucleus and being at the periphery," said Bergmann. (innovations-report.com)
  • Here, we demonstrate that VirE3 is transferred from Agrobacterium to the plant cell and then imported into its nucleus via the karyopherin α‐dependent pathway. (deepdyve.com)
  • Our data indicate that VirE3 can mimic this VIP1 function, acting as an 'adapter' molecule between VirE2 and karyopherin α and 'piggy‐backing' VirE2 into the host cell nucleus. (deepdyve.com)
  • Most cells keep the bulk of their genetic code inside the nucleus. (gardenguides.com)
  • Proteins are produced by stringing amino acids together in the order specified by messenger RNA strands that were transcribed from DNA in the cell nucleus. (reference.com)
  • The function of the nuclear membrane in an animal cell is to hold the DNA inside the nucleus in order to protect it from surrounding substances. (reference.com)
  • The cell nucleus is the command center and thus controls the activities of the eukaryotic cell. (reference.com)
  • A double-walled cell nuclear envelope separates the nucleus. (reference.com)
  • The nucleus of a cell contains the DNA that is responsible for the production of ribosomes. (reference.com)
  • The nucleus utilizes RNA and proteins to create ribosomes before releasing them into the cytoplasm. (reference.com)
  • Ribosomes transition from the nucleus to the rest of the cell within an area of a cell's inner membrane known as the endoplasmic reticulum. (reference.com)
  • These two proteins contain a very similar C-terminal region (180 amino acids in length, 81% similarity), which is required and sufficient for both interaction with CIPK1 and translocation to the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • commercial protein product from transgenic plants, Biotechnol. (springer.com)
  • As a result, GhCOBL9A transgenic plants displayed increased hypocotyl and root lengths in early development, and cell wall thickening at the SCW stage. (deepdyve.com)
  • The production and characteri- tion of transgenic plants is a powerful reverse genetic strategy increasingly used in cereals research to ascribe function to defined DNA sequences. (exlibris.ch)
  • The ability of P. syringae both to cause disease and to elicit a hypersensitive response are dependent on the type III protein secretion system (TTSS) encoded by the hrp and hrc genes ( 5 ). (asm.org)
  • A successful recognition triggers a hypersensitive reaction of individual plant cells, which is a form of programmed cell death in plants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We use the Phytophthora infestans RXLR-EER-containing protein Avr3a as a reporter for translocation because it triggers RXLR-EER-independent hypersensitive cell death following recognition within plant cells that contain the R3a resistance protein(4,5). (elsevier.com)
  • We showed that the chromobody is effective in binding GFP- and YFP-tagged proteins in planta. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we extend the use of chromobody technology to plant cells and develop several applications for the in vivo study of GFP-tagged plant proteins. (nih.gov)
  • SNAP-tag visualization of in vivo protein dynamics, a method which binds dyes to proteins to allow fluorescent imaging, has made a wide range of contributions to medical and biological study, for example in cancer research. (eurekalert.org)
  • Using an analogy to a metropolitan city, the interior of eukaryotic cells contain a railway-like structure called the cytoskeleton and tiny vehicles called motor proteins. (eurekalert.org)
  • What we've found is the first kinesin-14 motor from land plants that has the ability to move continuously on the cytoskeleton track on its own," said Qiu. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, dynein ends up being a major motor protein in that direction because kinesin-14 motors lack the ability of dynein to generate persistent motility on the cytoskeleton track. (eurekalert.org)
  • In this study, the research team demonstrated that it was possible to perform live cell imaging using SNAP-tag even in plants, using three types of synthetic dyes which bond to the SNAP-tag to mark microtubules, part of the cytoskeleton. (eurekalert.org)
  • In addition, a number of cytoskeleton-associated proteins are reportedly involved in the formation and function of the PPB, mitotic spindle, and phragmoplast. (frontiersin.org)
  • This review summarizes current knowledge on the cytoskeleton-associated proteins that mediate the cytoskeletal arrays during mitosis and cytokinesis in plant cells and discusses the interaction between MTs and AFs involved in mitosis and cytokinesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • The cytoskeleton is the single most important structure that contributes to the highly ordered organization of the eukaryotic cell. (mcponline.org)
  • The cytoskeleton plays a key role in a number of plant-specific processes, such as assisting in the formation of the cell plate, regulating cell-to-cell movement, and influencing the direction of cell elongation ( 1 ). (mcponline.org)
  • A role for the microtubule (MT) 1 component of the cytoskeleton in many of these processes has been demonstrated, and a number of MT-binding proteins that are responsible for regulating these events have been identified. (mcponline.org)
  • The large surface area provided by the MT network, and the cytoskeleton as a whole, likely serves as a matrix for the binding of hundreds of proteins to an extent that is dependent on cell type and environmental conditions ( 6 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Here, we have studied the potential roles of the cytoskeleton and endomembrane system in the localisation of PIN proteins. (biologists.org)
  • What does the cytoskeleton do in a cell? (reference.com)
  • In addition, knowledge about this pathway could increase the opportunities for using plants as bio-factories for production of recombinant glycoproteins, which make up the vast majority of the bio-pharmaceutical molecules. (diva-portal.org)
  • Plasmodesmata enable information-encoded molecules to pass between cells. (gardenguides.com)
  • Proteins act as regulators to the flow of molecules between plant cells. (gardenguides.com)
  • More is being learned about the these proteins, which ones are available to the plant cell and exactly how they work to prohibit some molecules from passing through plasmodesmata while allowing access to others. (gardenguides.com)
  • As a ribosome slides down the strand of messenger RNA and exposes each codon one by one, individual molecules of transfer RNA attach the corresponding amino acid to the growing protein chain. (reference.com)
  • More complex proteins sometimes require molecular chaperones, molecules that assist or stabilize the folding process. (reference.com)
  • Cells bind to collagen molecules through a number of membrane adhesion proteins such as integrins, immunoglobulins, annexins, and some others. (uvigo.es)
  • CAM (crassulacean acid metabolism) plants such as the cacti differ from standard C4 plants such as corn in which of the following ways? (jiskha.com)
  • During the day, a plant is storing as much energy as it can by absorbing photons of sunlight, so that during the evening it can do all its metabolism and growth and development. (smu.edu)
  • In general, cell death in virus-infected plants is a critical event for virus survival because virus multiplication is completely dependent on host cell metabolism. (mdpi.com)
  • CAM ('crassulacean acid metabolism') plants also initially attach CO 2 to PEP and form OAA. (biologyreference.com)
  • The strategy could be suitable for investigating certain functions of the plant energy metabolism in more detail. (eurekalert.org)
  • Although many genetic mutants defective in female gametophytic functions have been characterized, the molecular mechanisms controlling the specification and differentiation of the central cell are still not fully understood. (frontiersin.org)
  • atml1 pdf2 double mutation results in severe defects in shoot epidermal cell differentiation, which are not observed in plants carrying mutations of only one of the genes. (biologists.org)
  • Retinoblastoma protein (Rb) plays a key role in cell cycle control, cell differentiation, and apoptosis in animals. (elsevier.com)
  • Furthermore, differentiation of the epidermal pavement cells and trichomes was partially retarded, and stomatal clusters formed in the epidermis, likely due to uncontrolled cell division of stomata precursor cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus, disruption of Rb function in plants leads to ectopic cell division in major organs that correlates with a delay in cell differentiation as well as increased endoreduplication, which indicates that Rb coordinates these processes in plant organ development. (elsevier.com)
  • Strikingly, the growth factors are highly active and can induce the differentiation of blood cells in living zebrafish embryos. (mpg.de)
  • ER oxidoreductase 1), which generate disulfide bonds de novo, and disulfide carrier proteins (e.g., protein disulfide isomerase), which transfer disulfides to substrates by means of thiol-disulfide exchange reactions. (hindawi.com)
  • In this review, we describe the current knowledge about 14-3-3 roles in the regulation of their binding partners in guard cells: receptors, ion pumps, channels, protein kinases, and some of their substrates. (frontiersin.org)
  • TTSS substrates belong to two broad classes of type III-secreted proteins: effectors, which are translocated into plant cells, and extracellular accessory proteins, which aid in the translocation of effectors. (asm.org)
  • These proteins bind to specific TTSS substrates often preventing association with other proteins and/or aggregation. (asm.org)
  • The choice of substrates that are normally abundant and in proximity to the production plant has determined the design and strategy of SCP processes. (sid.ir)
  • Our] method allows for the identification of proteins with dual or multiple locations and the substrates of distinct protein import pathways," write the investigators. (genengnews.com)
  • We propose that AvrBs3 is translocated into plant cells via the Xanthomonas Hrp type III secretion system and that nuclear factors are involved in AvrBs3 perception. (nih.gov)
  • Yellow fluorescence protein (YFP)-tagged SAP11 accumulated in Nicotiana benthamiana cell nuclei, whereas the nuclear targeting of YFP-tagged SAP11 mutants with disrupted NLS was inhibited. (apsnet.org)
  • The PPB appears in the cell cortex in late G2 phase and persists throughout prophase, but disassembles with the breakdown of the nuclear envelope when the mitotic spindle forms ( Dixit and Cyr, 2002 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Because homologous recombination in plant nuclear DNA occurs at marginal frequencies, up to now plant genes have had to be silenced by antisense approaches, leading to varied and unstable phenotypes ( 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • The VirE2 nuclear import in turn is mediated by a plant protein, VIP1. (deepdyve.com)
  • What is the function of the nuclear membrane in an animal cell? (reference.com)
  • They revealed that they derived the peptide from Nur77, a nuclear receptor that can cause cells to die. (medindia.net)
  • The rat protein YT521-B, SWISSPROT, is a tyrosine-phosphorylated nuclear protein, that interacts with the nuclear transcriptosomal component scaffold attachment factor B, and the 68kDa Src substrate associated during mitosis, Sam68. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant cells have two distinct types of vacuoles: the prototypical lytic vacuole (LV), which has high hydrolytic activity and shares functions with the yeast vacuole and mammalian lysosome, and the protein storage vacuole (PSV), a plant-specific organelle that is specialized in accumulating reserve proteins and is prevalent in seeds [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Differential sensitivity of yeast strains to the cytotoxic effect of PR-5 proteins. (pnas.org)
  • Yellow BCAA is a nutritional yeast concentrated in protein. (novaenutrition.com)
  • Extract and solubilize proteins for analysis from yeast cells with the Y-PER Reagent or the fully dialyzable Y-PER Plus Reagent. (thermofisher.com)
  • Articles in this volume address topics such as class A macrophage scavenger receptors, microtubule transport in the axon, G-protein-coupled receptors, genes involved in the initiation of DNA replication in yeast, phenotype switching in polymorphic tetrahymena, and mitosis and motor proteins. (google.com)
  • Production of recombinant proteins in suspension cultures of genetically modified plant cells is a promising and rapidly developing area of plant biotechnology. (springer.com)
  • Plants are increasingly used as alternative expression hosts for the production of recombinant proteins offering many advantages including higher biomass and the ability to perform posttranslational modifications on complex proteins. (up.ac.za)
  • This organelle originates from a cyanobacterium that was engulfed by a eukaryotic cell. (diva-portal.org)
  • What organelle packages proteins? (reference.com)
  • A key step in oxidative protein folding is the formation of disulfide bonds, which covalently link the side chains of pairs of Cys residues, impart thermodynamic and mechanical stability to proteins, and control protein folding and activity [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • PDI directly transfers a disulfide to two Cys residues of a substrate protein by means of a thiol-disulfide exchange reaction. (hindawi.com)
  • Glycoproteins targeted to lytic or storage vacuoles contain paucimannosidic N-glycans whereas those targeted to the extracellular space contain either terminal Glc-NAc residues in addition to the plant specific core fucose and xylose or contain further extensions such as Lewis a determinants [4, 5] . (leica-microsystems.com)
  • The green fluorescent protein ( GFP ) is a protein composed of 238 amino acid residues (26.9 kDa ) that exhibits bright green fluorescence when exposed to light in the blue to ultraviolet range. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, following replacement of Avr3a RXLR-EER motifs with alanine residues, singly or in combination, or with residues KMIK-DDK-representing a change that conserves physicochemical properties of the protein-P. infestans fails to deliver Avr3a or an Avr3a-GUS fusion protein into plant cells, demonstrating that these motifs are required for translocation. (elsevier.com)
  • Single-cell proteins develop when microbes ferment waste materials (including wood, straw, cannery, and food-processing wastes, residues from alcohol production, hydrocarbons, or human and animal excreta). (wikipedia.org)
  • The mature protein comprises around 165 residues, and contains a number of potential N-glycosylation sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wageningen biochemist Dolf Weijers and his German colleagues have discovered how stem cells in a plant embryo are formed. (wur.nl)
  • Meristems are located in the young plant embryo. (wur.nl)
  • How do plant cells in the young embryo know what they have to become? (wur.nl)
  • It is a mature ovule , comprising an embryo or miniature plant along with food reserves, all within a protective seed coat. (biologyreference.com)
  • From this, a miniature plant or embryo develops that will later resume development in a process termed 'germination,' utilizing energy stores laid down in the seed. (biologyreference.com)
  • In some flowering plant seeds it remains throughout seed development, storing the reserves that the embryo will require for germination. (biologyreference.com)
  • These dustlike seeds contain just a few cells, often not even organized into a recognizable embryo, and contain absolutely no food reserves. (biologyreference.com)
  • The process of synthesizing a protein is called translation, and it occurs on ribosomes in the cytoplasm of a cell. (reference.com)
  • Proteins are synthesized and packaged within organelles known as ribosomes. (reference.com)
  • Ribosomes are composed of RNA and proteins, and are located in a cell's liquid layer called the cytoplasm. (reference.com)
  • Free ribosomes perform the function of proteins that function within a cell's cytoplasm, while bound ribosomes produce proteins intended for external release or to be used by the cell's membrane. (reference.com)
  • Ribosomes create proteins essential to cell function through a process of translation and transcription. (reference.com)
  • however ribosomes are specifically programmed for protein production. (reference.com)
  • The ribosomes attach themselves to a piece of membrane known as the rough endoplasmic reticulum, which is pinched off from the area of production and then released into the cytoplasm to be used by the cell. (reference.com)
  • The nucleolus works to transcribe ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and it forms incomplete ribosomes by combining proteins and rRNA. (reference.com)
  • The ribosomes make proteins in the cell. (reference.com)
  • The PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are plasma-membrane-associated facilitators of auxin transport. (biologists.org)
  • The maintenance of PIN proteins at the plasma membrane depends on a BFA-sensitive machinery, but not on microtubules and actin filaments. (biologists.org)
  • Together, the data indicate that the localisation of PIN proteins is a postmitotic event, which depends on local characteristics of the plasma membrane and its direct environment. (biologists.org)
  • The plasma membrane surrounding cells limits the rate at which these materials are exchanged. (jove.com)
  • Furthermore, SAP11 was detected by immunocytology in nuclei of young sink tissues of China aster plants infected with AY-WB. (apsnet.org)
  • Allprotect Tissue Reagent is optimized to protect RNA, DNA, and proteins in humans and animal tissues. (qiagen.com)
  • However, Allprotect can also be used with plant tissues. (qiagen.com)
  • The results may help inform new regenerative medicine approaches for the generation of tissues from stem cells. (mpg.de)
  • Adhesion proteins b. (bartleby.com)
  • Examples include the modification of pectin-cross-linking or cell-cell adhesion to increase shelf life of fruits and vegetables, the enhancement of dietary fiber contents of cereals, the improvement of yield and quality of fibers, and the relative allocation of carbon to wall biomass for use as biofuels. (springer.com)
  • A cell culture protein surface coating helps in enhancing the adhesion and proliferation of different cells, such as leukocytes, neurons, epithelial and fibroblasts, in vitro isolation and cultivation process. (yahoo.com)
  • The morphological defects include unfused polar nuclei and smaller central vacuole in central cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Reversible protein phosphorylation events are known to play a crucial role in the regulation of stomatal movements. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, in some cases, phosphorylation alone is not sufficient to achieve complete protein regulation, but is necessary to mediate the binding of interactors that modulate protein function. (frontiersin.org)
  • Regulation of these targets by 14-3-3 proteins is discussed and related to their function in guard cells during stomatal movements in response to abiotic or biotic stresses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Such regulation of the tyrosine phosphorylation in these proteins was not observed in a callus-formation-deficient mutant, srd2 , a result which suggests that the induction of tyrosine phosphorylation occurs as a specific. (oup.com)
  • Herbivore selection of plant hosts and plant responses to insect colonization have been subjects of intense investigations. (jic.ac.uk)
  • Extract soluble protein from baculovirus-infected insect cells grown in suspension or monolayer culture with this gentle and effective lysis reagent. (thermofisher.com)
  • Moreover, different aphid effectors locate extracellularly in the sheath saliva or are introduced into the cytoplasm of plant cells. (jic.ac.uk)
  • connect the cytoplasm of plant cells. (bartleby.com)
  • Plant Cell Wall Proteins: A Large Body of Data, but What about Runaways? (mdpi.com)
  • Among the physicochemically and structurally diverse disulfide-rich seed storage proteins, soluble storage proteins are transported through the endomembrane system from the ER to PSVs, where they accumulate [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The green fluorescent protein (GFP)-binding protein, GBP, is a 13-kDa soluble protein derived from a llama heavy chain antibody that binds with high affinity to GFP as well as to some GFP variants such as yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). (nih.gov)
  • A protein kinase (EC which phosphorylates histones was purified partially from the soluble fractions of cultured plant cells. (meta.org)
  • elucidated its mode of action in B lymphocytes in which CIN85 associates with the adaptor protein SLP-65, which transmits activation signals from the B cell receptor (BCR). (sciencemag.org)
  • These two compounds also inhibited the expression of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma), a protein that plays a role in metabolic functions, and the hormone leptin. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Animal virus oncoproteins interact with the Rb protein via an LXCXE motif and disrupt Rb-E2F complexes, driving cells into S-phase. (nih.gov)
  • ZmRb1 forms stable complexes with plant LXCXE-containing proteins, e.g. geminivirus RepA protein. (nih.gov)
  • To this end, a nondenaturing extraction procedure was optimized for plant whole cell matrices and the combined use of gel filtration and BN-PAGE for the separation of protein complexes was studied. (ugent.be)
  • Visualizing the movement of protein complexes. (hamamatsu.com)
  • A full range of strategies has been proposed to increase the number of identified proteins and to characterize their post-translational modifications. (mdpi.com)
  • To characterize these factors further, triple-cycled microtubule protein was fractionated by Mono-Q anion-exchange chromatography and the microtubule-bundling activity of each fraction was examined. (biologists.org)
  • 1970 ). Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. (biologists.org)
  • The more abundant structural proteins are collagen and elastin. (uvigo.es)
  • Elongated fibrous proteins frequently play a structural role in the cell. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • The proteome of the two strains grown in liquid culture were examined over time to determine whether there are any major differences between them at the protein level and the differences were compared to the genome data. (psu.edu)
  • Single-cell genome analyses reveal the amount of mutations a human brain cell will collect from its fetal beginnings until death. (the-scientist.com)
  • Genetically related mitochondrial diseases generally arise from errors in the expression of encoded proteins in the mitochondrion's genome. (phys.org)
  • Sexual reproduction requires the generation of special cells called gametes, i.e. eggs and sperms, which carry half the genome of the parent. (mpg.de)
  • In fact, land plants do the same, and in a very complicated way: They do not correct the errors in the genome itself. (eurekalert.org)
  • Using special "designer" PPR genes, for example, one might specifically render certain genome transcripts unusable and test how this affects the plant. (eurekalert.org)