Neural Plate: The region in the dorsal ECTODERM of a chordate embryo that gives rise to the future CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Tissue in the neural plate is called the neuroectoderm, often used as a synonym of neural plate.Neural Tube: A tube of ectodermal tissue in an embryo that will give rise to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, including the SPINAL CORD and the BRAIN. Lumen within the neural tube is called neural canal which gives rise to the central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles of the brain. For malformation of the neural tube, see NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.Neural Crest: The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Neurulation: An early embryonic developmental process of CHORDATES that is characterized by morphogenic movements of ECTODERM resulting in the formation of the NEURAL PLATE; the NEURAL CREST; and the NEURAL TUBE. Improper closure of the NEURAL GROOVE results in congenital NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Embryonic Induction: The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Notochord: A cartilaginous rod of mesodermal cells at the dorsal midline of all CHORDATE embryos. In lower vertebrates, notochord is the backbone of support. In the higher vertebrates, notochord is a transient structure, and segments of the vertebral column will develop around it. Notochord is also a source of midline signals that pattern surrounding tissues including the NEURAL TUBE development.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Gastrula: The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Rhombencephalon: The posterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of an embryonic brain. It consists of myelencephalon, metencephalon, and isthmus rhombencephali from which develop the major BRAIN STEM components, such as MEDULLA OBLONGATA from the myelencephalon, CEREBELLUM and PONS from the metencephalon, with the expanded cavity forming the FOURTH VENTRICLE.Anencephaly: A malformation of the nervous system caused by failure of the anterior neuropore to close. Infants are born with intact spinal cords, cerebellums, and brainstems, but lack formation of neural structures above this level. The skull is only partially formed but the eyes are usually normal. This condition may be associated with folate deficiency. Affected infants are only capable of primitive (brain stem) reflexes and usually do not survive for more than two weeks. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p247)Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Growth Plate: The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Quail: Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Bone Plates: Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Paired Box Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Spinal Dysraphism: Congenital defects of closure of one or more vertebral arches, which may be associated with malformations of the spinal cord, nerve roots, congenital fibrous bands, lipomas, and congenital cysts. These malformations range from mild (e.g., SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA) to severe, including rachischisis where there is complete failure of neural tube and spinal cord fusion, resulting in exposure of the spinal cord at the surface. Spinal dysraphism includes all forms of spina bifida. The open form is called SPINA BIFIDA CYSTICA and the closed form is SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p34)Embryonic Structures: The anatomical parts that make up an organism in the early stages of development.Hedgehog Proteins: A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Otx Transcription Factors: A family of VERTEBRATE homeodomain proteins that share homology with orthodenticle protein, Drosophila. They regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and play an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the BRAIN.Neural Tube Defects: Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)Somites: Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).Tissue Transplantation: Transference of tissue within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Nerve Tissue ProteinsCoturnix: A genus of BIRDS in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES, containing the common European and other Old World QUAIL.Pollen Tube: A growth from a pollen grain down into the flower style which allows two sperm to pass, one to the ovum within the ovule, and the other to the central cell of the ovule to produce endosperm of SEEDS.Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.Diencephalon: The paired caudal parts of the PROSENCEPHALON from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Gastrulation: A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.Fibroblast Growth Factor 8: A fibroblast growth factor that preferentially activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 4. It was initially identified as an androgen-induced growth factor and plays a role in regulating growth of human BREAST NEOPLASMS and PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS.Mesencephalon: The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.SOXB1 Transcription Factors: A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Folic Acid: A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.Telencephalon: The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Avian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of BIRDS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.HMGB Proteins: A family of sequence-related proteins similar to HMGB1 PROTEIN that contains specific HMG-BOX DOMAINS.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Wnt3 Protein: A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE. Defects in Wnt3 protein are associated with autosomal recessive tetra-AMELIA in humans.Chordata, Nonvertebrate: A portion of the animal phylum Chordata comprised of the subphyla CEPHALOCHORDATA; UROCHORDATA, and HYPEROTRETI, but not including the Vertebrata (VERTEBRATES). It includes nonvertebrate animals having a NOTOCHORD during some developmental stage.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.MSX1 Transcription Factor: A homeodomain protein that interacts with TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN. It represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES and plays a critical role in ODONTOGENESIS.Spina Bifida Occulta: A common congenital midline defect of fusion of the vertebral arch without protrusion of the spinal cord or meninges. The lesion is also covered by skin. L5 and S1 are the most common vertebrae involved. The condition may be associated with an overlying area of hyperpigmented skin, a dermal sinus, or an abnormal patch of hair. The majority of individuals with this malformation are asymptomatic although there is an increased incidence of tethered cord syndrome and lumbar SPONDYLOSIS. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p34)Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Organizers, Embryonic: Cells in certain regions of an embryo that self-regulate embryonic development. These organizers have been found in dorsal and ventral poles of GASTRULA embryos, including Spemann organizer in amphibians, and Hensen node in chicken and mouse. These organizer cells communicate with each other via a network of secreted signaling proteins, such as BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS and their antagonists (chordin and noggin).Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Urochordata: A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the Ascidians.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Ciona intestinalis: The only species of a cosmopolitan ascidian.Germ Layers: The three primary germinal layers (ECTODERM; ENDODERM; and MESODERM) developed during GASTRULATION that provide tissues and body plan of a mature organism. They derive from two early layers, hypoblast and epiblast.Fallopian Tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.Endoderm: The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Neuroepithelial Cells: Cells of epithelial origin possessing specialized sensory functions. They include cells that are found in the TASTE BUDS; OLFACTORY MUCOSA; COCHLEA; and NEUROEPITHELIAL BODIES.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.PAX2 Transcription Factor: A paired box transcription factor that is essential for ORGANOGENESIS of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and KIDNEY.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Eye ProteinsBase Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Encephalocele: Brain tissue herniation through a congenital or acquired defect in the skull. The majority of congenital encephaloceles occur in the occipital or frontal regions. Clinical features include a protuberant mass that may be pulsatile. The quantity and location of protruding neural tissue determines the type and degree of neurologic deficit. Visual defects, psychomotor developmental delay, and persistent motor deficits frequently occur.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Meningomyelocele: Congenital, or rarely acquired, herniation of meningeal and spinal cord tissue through a bony defect in the vertebral column. The majority of these defects occur in the lumbosacral region. Clinical features include PARAPLEGIA, loss of sensation in the lower body, and incontinence. This condition may be associated with the ARNOLD-CHIARI MALFORMATION and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp35-6)Transplants: Organs, tissues, or cells taken from the body for grafting into another area of the same body or into another individual.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Eustachian Tube: A narrow passageway that connects the upper part of the throat to the TYMPANIC CAVITY.Chimera: An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.Blastula: An early non-mammalian embryo that follows the MORULA stage. A blastula resembles a hollow ball with the layer of cells surrounding a fluid-filled cavity (blastocele). The layer of cells is called BLASTODERM.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Pleurodeles: A genus of aquatic newts belonging to the family Salamandridae and sometimes referred to as "spiny" tritons. There are two species P. waltlii and P. poireti. P. waltlii is commonly used in the laboratory. Since this genus adapts to aquarium living, it is easy to maintain in laboratories.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Spina Bifida Cystica: A form of spinal dysraphism associated with a protruding cyst made up of either meninges (i.e., a MENINGOCELE) or meninges in combination with spinal cord tissue (i.e., a MENINGOMYELOCELE). These lesions are frequently associated with spinal cord dysfunction, HYDROCEPHALUS, and SYRINGOMYELIA. (From Davis et al., Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp224-5)Chest Tubes: Plastic tubes used for drainage of air or fluid from the pleural space. Their surgical insertion is called tube thoracostomy.Wnt1 Protein: A proto-oncogene protein and member of the Wnt family of proteins. It is expressed in the caudal MIDBRAIN and is essential for proper development of the entire mid-/hindbrain region.LIM-Homeodomain Proteins: A subclass of LIM domain proteins that include an additional centrally-located homeodomain region that binds AT-rich sites on DNA. Many LIM-homeodomain proteins play a role as transcriptional regulators that direct cell fate.Fetal Proteins: Proteins that are preferentially expressed or upregulated during FETAL DEVELOPMENT.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Nodal Protein: The founding member of the nodal signaling ligand family of proteins. Nodal protein was originally discovered in the region of the mouse embryo primitive streak referred to as HENSEN'S NODE. It is expressed asymmetrically on the left side in chordates and plays a critical role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Carbocyanines: Compounds that contain three methine groups. They are frequently used as cationic dyes used for differential staining of biological materials.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Vitamin B Complex: A group of water-soluble vitamins, some of which are COENZYMES.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.AxisHigh Mobility Group Proteins: A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.Organogenesis: Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.Electroporation: A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of CELL MEMBRANES, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA.Preconception Care: An organized and comprehensive program of health care that identifies and reduces a woman's reproductive risks before conception through risk assessment, health promotion, and interventions. Preconception care programs may be designed to include the male partner in providing counseling and educational information in preparation for fatherhood, such as genetic counseling and testing, financial and family planning, etc. This concept is different from PRENATAL CARE, which occurs during pregnancy.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cranial Nerves: Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Ambystoma: A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.Tretinoin: An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).Ambystoma mexicanum: A salamander found in Mexican mountain lakes and accounting for about 30 percent of the urodeles used in research. The axolotl remains in larval form throughout its life, a phenomenon known as neoteny.Receptors, Notch: A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Prenatal Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense: Short fragments of DNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs: Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Blastoderm: A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.Early Growth Response Protein 2: An early growth response transcription factor that controls the formation of the MYELIN SHEATH around peripheral AXONS by SCHWANN CELLS. Mutations in EGR2 transcription factor have been associated with HEREDITARY MOTOR AND SENSORY NEUROPATHIES such as CHARCOT-MARIE-TOOTH DISEASE.TailPeripheral Nervous System: The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.Morpholinos: Synthetic analogs of NUCLEIC ACIDS composed of morpholine ring derivatives (MORPHOLINES) linked by phosphorodimidates. One standard DNA nucleic acid base (ADENINE; GUANINE; CYTOSINE; OR THYMINE) is bound to each morpholine ring.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Folic Acid Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors: A family of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS that bind BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that mediate SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS through SMAD PROTEINS.Wnt Signaling Pathway: A complex signaling pathway whose name is derived from the DROSOPHILA Wg gene, which when mutated results in the wingless phenotype, and the vertebrate INT gene, which is located near integration sites of MOUSE MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS. The signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of WNT PROTEINS to cells surface WNT RECEPTORS which interact with the AXIN SIGNALING COMPLEX and an array of second messengers that influence the actions of BETA CATENIN.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Oligonucleotides, Antisense: Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.Fallopian Tube Neoplasms: Benign or malignant neoplasms of the FALLOPIAN TUBES. They are uncommon. If they develop, they may be located in the wall or within the lumen as a growth attached to the wall by a stalk.Teratogens: An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.Microscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.Intubation, Gastrointestinal: The insertion of a tube into the stomach, intestines, or other portion of the gastrointestinal tract to allow for the passage of food products, etc.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Abortion, Therapeutic: Abortion induced to save the life or health of a pregnant woman. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3-beta: A forkhead transcription factor that regulates expression of metabolic GENES and is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. Mutations in HNF-3beta have been associated with CONGENITAL HYPERINSULINISM.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Fetal Tissue Transplantation: Transference of fetal tissue between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Blastomeres: Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Lithium Chloride: A salt of lithium that has been used experimentally as an immunomodulator.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.GATA2 Transcription Factor: An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Prenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Branchial Region: A region, of SOMITE development period, that contains a number of paired arches, each with a mesodermal core lined by ectoderm and endoderm on the two sides. In lower aquatic vertebrates, branchial arches develop into GILLS. In higher vertebrates, the arches forms outpouchings and develop into structures of the head and neck. Separating the arches are the branchial clefts or grooves.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Craniofacial Abnormalities: Congenital structural deformities, malformations, or other abnormalities of the cranium and facial bones.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Air Pollution, RadioactiveAmniocentesis: Percutaneous transabdominal puncture of the uterus during pregnancy to obtain amniotic fluid. It is commonly used for fetal karyotype determination in order to diagnose abnormal fetal conditions.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Amniotic Fluid: A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.

*Anatomy of the cerebellum

The cerebellum arises from two rhombomeres located in the alar plate of the neural tube, a structure that eventually forms the ... These fibers form excitatory synapses with the granule cells and the cells of the deep cerebellar nuclei. The granule cells ... Both stellate and basket cells form GABAergic synapses onto Purkinje cell dendrites. The middle layer contains only one type of ... The innermost layer contains the cell bodies of three types of cells: the numerous and tiny granule cells, the slightly larger ...

*Development of the nervous system in humans

The spinal cord forms from the lower part of the neural tube. The wall of the neural tube consists of neuroepithelial cells, ... part of the neural tube is called the basal plate; the dorsal (rear) part is called the alar plate. The hollow interior is ... The neural plate folds outwards to form the neural groove. Beginning in the future neck region, the neural folds of this groove ... the basal plates) forms the motor areas of the spinal cord, whilst the dorsal part (the alar plates) forms the sensory areas. ...

*Neural tube

Three main ventral cell types are established during early neural tube development: the floor plate cells, which form at the ... The dorsal part of the neural tube contains the alar plate, which is associated primarily with sensation. The ventral part of ... The edges of the neural plate start to thicken and lift upward, forming the neural folds. The center of the neural plate ... the cells of the neural plate form a cord-like structure that migrates inside the embryo and hollows to form the tube. Each ...

*Spinal cord

... the lumen of the neural tube narrows to form the small central canal of the spinal cord. The alar plate and the basal plate are ... Replacement of lost cells is facilitated by transplants with embryonic stem cells, stem cells from the spinal cord, and spinal ... There are four stages of the spinal cord that arises from the neural tube: The neural plate, neural fold, neural tube, and the ... Neural differentiation occurs within the spinal cord portion of the tube. As the neural tube begins to develop, the notochord ...

*Development of the nervous system

The ventral part of the neural tube is called the basal plate; the dorsal part is called the alar plate. The hollow interior is ... The neural plate is the source of the majority of neurons and glial cells of the CNS. A groove forms along the long axis of the ... neural plate and, by week four of development, the neural plate wraps in on itself to give rise to the neural tube, which is ... and induces Shh expression in the floor plate. Floor plate-derived Shh subsequently signals to other cells in the neural tube, ...

*Alpha motor neuron

... s originate in the basal plate, the ventral portion of the neural tube in the developing embryo. Sonic ... This is true of the α-MNs innervating the upper and lower limbs: these α-MNs form large cell columns that contribute to the ... establishing a gradient of highly concentrated Shh in the basal plate and less concentrated Shh in the alar plate. Under the ... Those α-MNs that do not receive sufficient neurotrophic factors will undergo apoptosis, a form of programmed cell death. ...

*Human embryogenesis

... forming the neural tube. Late in the fourth week, the superior part of the neural tube flexes at the level of the future ... forms at the basal plate of the prosencephalon. The alar plate of the prosencephalon expands to form the cerebral hemispheres ( ... Cranial neural crest cells migrate to the pharyngeal arches as neural stem cells, where they develop in the process of ... The neural plate that has formed as a thickened plate from the ectoderm, continues to broaden and its ends start to fold ...

*Neuromere

This is where the neural plate folds in on itself, forming the neural crest. Neural crest cells will eventually become portions ... which will induce the alar plate to develop sensory neurons. The alar plate and the basal plate are separated by the sulcus ... The spinal cord is made from part of the neural tube during development. As the neural tube begins to develop, the notochord ... The neural crest cells that are found outside of a given neuromere will express the same proteins as the cells that are found ...

*Medulla oblongata

Neuroblasts from the alar plate of the neural tube at this level will produce the sensory nuclei of the medulla. The basal ... The soma (cell bodies) in these nuclei are the second-order neurons of the posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway, and their ... The gray matter of this nucleus is covered by a layer of nerve fibers that form the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. The ... Alar plate neuroblasts give rise to: The solitary nucleus, which contains the general visceral afferent fibers for taste, as ...

*Neurulation

After closure, the neural tube forms a basal or floor plate and a roof or alar plate in response to the combined effects of SHH ... the notochodral cells become incorporated into the center section neural plate to later form the floor plate of the neural tube ... See Neural plate The process of the flat neural plate folding into the cylindrical neural tube is termed primary neurulation. ... See Neural tube defects Neuroscience portal Neural fold Neural plate Neural crest Larsen WJ. Human Embryology. Third ed. 2001.P ...

*Outline of the human nervous system

... neural crest Neural tube Rostral neuropore Neuromere/Rhombomere Cephalic flexure Pontine flexure Alar plate sensory Basal plate ... vs Grey matter Glial cells, commonly called neuroglia or glia, are supportive cells that maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and ... Notochord Neuroectoderm Neural plate Neural fold Neural groove Neuropoiesis Neural crest Cranial neural crest Cardiac neural ... Central pattern generator Reflex arc Neural oscillations Neural network Neural development - comprises the processes that ...

*Thalamus

"Longitudinal organization of the anterior neural plate and neural tube". Development. 121 (12): 3923-33. PMID 8575293. Scholpp ... of both the prethalamus and the thalamus but is not required for their maintenance and SHH signaling from the MDO/alar plate is ... Early in thalamic development two progenitor domains form, a caudal domain (TH-C) and a rostral domain (TH-R). The caudal ... is progressively lost from the caudal thalamus but maintained in the prethalamus and in the stripe of rostral thalamic cells. ...

*Alpha motor neuron

... s originate in the basal plate, the ventral portion of the neural tube in the developing embryo. Sonic ... This is true of the α-MNs innervating the upper and lower limbs: these α-MNs form large cell columns that contribute to the ... establishing a gradient of highly concentrated Shh in the basal plate and less concentrated Shh in the alar plate. Under the ... Under the influence of the protein sonic hedgehog, shown here, cells of the floor plate of the developing spinal cord ...

*Embryology

Neural tube. *Rostral neuropore. *Neuromere / Rhombomere. *Cephalic flexure. *Pontine flexure. *Alar plate ... division of the cell) in the zygote to form a multi-nucleated cell (a cell containing multiple nuclei) known as a syncytium.[8] ... Most cells are only formed when a syncytium of approximately 6000 nuclei are present.. ... its link to cell signalling, its roles in certain diseases and mutations, and its links to stem cell research. Embryology is ...

*Respiratory system

The lungs make a surfactant, a surface-active lipoprotein complex (phospholipoprotein) formed by type II alveolar cells. It ... These areas form a series of neural pathways which receive information about the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide ... or hollow tubes, of which the largest is the trachea, which branches in the middle of the chest into the two main bronchi. ... contraction of the smooth muscle in the airway walls narrows the trachea by pulling the ends of the cartilage plates together ...
The long-term goal of our research is to understand the molecular mechanisms and cellular processes governing neural tube closure in vertebrate embryos. Our foc...
Morphine administration during pregnancy causes several behavioral abnormalities in offspring animals. In the present study the effects of maternal morphine consumption on development of neural tube in Wistar rats (250-300 g) were investigated. Female rats (n = 8 were crossed with male rats and pregnant ones were treated with oral morphine (0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 mg/ml of water) until the 10th day of pregnancy. On the day 10, the animals were anesthetized by diethyle ether and the embryos were taken out surgically. The embryos were fixed in formaline 10% for a week and then cross sectional procedure performed. The sections were stained with H&E. The results showed that: administration of morphine resulted in severe reduction in neural tube development in embryos. Morphine at a dose of 0.01 mg/ml showed the maximum effect. In conclusion, it is clear that morphine consumption in pregnant rats resulted in delay in ...
The interaction between folate and B12 is responsible for the megaloblastic anemia seen in both vitamin deficien-cies . How To Give Vitamin B Injections (HD) - Duration: 8:25. At Mountain View Medical Weight Loss we know that your health is important to you. (if you are not redirected after 10 seconds please click here).. Open Face Veggie Kelp Flake Sandwich. An excess amount of vitamin C (above 0.10g) gave the ead an astringent taste darker crust colour and reduced Folic Acid Role In Neural Tube Formation Oil Vs Liver overall acceptability. organix biotin and collagen products reviews It finally includes renowned skin care malaysia phytoceramides gluten free 350 mg that can be a metallic evidence the Did you recently take the plunge and are now regretting your pixie cut or other tarafndan sklkla kullanlan bir vitamin ilac olan Elevit Pronotal ile ilgili olarak 5.00000 TL manevi tazminata hkmedilmesi talebiyle la ve Tbbi Serbest Piyasada Dviz Fiyatlar11 Kasm ...
Neural tube defects are defects which affect the neural tube and is the most common type of CNS malformation. As the picture alongside demonstrates, the neural tube develops as the baby grows within the womb. The inside portion of the neural tube forms the ventricular system, and the outside portion forms the brain and the spinal cord. In normal circumstances, the neural tube closes and seals itself before birth, but it may either fail to close or may reopen after closing because it is not sealed properly.. What are the types of tissues affected by neural tube defects? There are several types of tissues which can be affected by neural ...
In the developing spinal cord, morphogenetic signals secreted from dorsal and ventral signalling centres control dorsoventral (DV) patterning. The Shh/Gli pathway plays a major role in patterning the ventral neural tube but what restricts its activity to specific domains? On p. 237, Alvarez-Medina and colleagues propose that the Wnt canonical pathway fulfils this role. Wnt1 and Wnt3a, which signal through the canonical β-catenin pathway, are expressed in the dorsal midline region of chick embryos. Their misexpression along the DV axis by in ovo electroporation, the authors report, expands dorsal marker gene expression in the developing neural tube, whereas their inhibition suppresses the dorsal programme and expands ventral gene expression. These phenotypes, the authors show, depend on the Wnt-controlled expression of Gli3, which in its repressor form (Gli3R) acts as the main transcriptional repressor of the ...
Mouse diabetic embryopathy is a suitable model for studying the mechanisms of NTD formation because the incidence of NTDs is substantially increased in both the embryos of diabetic dams (35) as well as the fetuses of pregnant women with diabetes (36, 37). NTD rates are correlated not with the chronicity or the type of diabetes but instead with maternal hyperglycemia (38). Here, we used a mouse model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes to induce sustained maternal hyperglycemia (glucose, ,250 mg/dl). In our studies (11, 39) and those of others (35, 40), this mouse model on a C57BL/6J background has consistently produced an incidence rate of more than 22% in embryos exposed to hyperglycemia. In contrast, embryos from nondiabetic control mice display a rate of 0 to 1% NTDs. This rate of spontaneous NTD formation is lower than previously reported (41). The use of two complementary models, maternal diabetes-induced embryopathy and high glucose-induced embryopathy in vitro, suggests that the ...
Acts partially redundantly with other irx members in neural patterning. Required for formation of the posterior forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain, and to a lesser extent, spinal cord. Both up-regulates and down-regulates gene expression during neural development. Acts early in neural plate development to induce proneural gene expression and specify a neural precursor state. Also up-regulates repressors that prevent neuronal differentiation. Required during at least two stages of pronephros kidney development; during neurula stages, maintains transcription of key renal genes to define the size and identity of the pronephric anlage, probably in part through regulation of bmp-signaling. Subsequently required for proper formation of the intermediate tubule segment of the pronephros. [-] ...
A BMP regulatory network controls ectodermal cell fate decisions at the neural plate border.[1] "During ectodermal patterning the neural crest and preplacodal ectoderm are specified in adjacent domains at the neural plate border. BMP signalling is required for specification of both tissues, but how it is spatially and temporally regulated to achieve this is not understood. Here, using a transgenic zebrafish BMP reporter line in conjunction with double-fluorescent in situ hybridisation, we show that, at the beginning of neurulation, the ventral-to-dorsal gradient of BMP activity evolves into two distinct domains at the neural plate border: one coinciding with the neural crest and the other abutting the epidermis. In between is a region devoid of BMP activity, which is specified as the ...
A BMP regulatory network controls ectodermal cell fate decisions at the neural plate border.[2] "During ectodermal patterning the neural crest and preplacodal ectoderm are specified in adjacent domains at the neural plate border. BMP signalling is required for specification of both tissues, but how it is spatially and temporally regulated to achieve this is not understood. Here, using a transgenic zebrafish BMP reporter line in conjunction with double-fluorescent in situ hybridisation, we show that, at the beginning of neurulation, the ventral-to-dorsal gradient of BMP activity evolves into two distinct domains at the neural plate border: one coinciding with the neural crest and the other abutting the epidermis. In between is a region devoid of BMP activity, which is specified as the ...
During gastrulation, neural crest and cranial placodes originate at the neural plate border and from an adjacent territory, respectively. But do these ectodermal tissues arise from a common precursor or from neural and non-neural ectoderm (the binary competence model)? On p. 1175, Gerhard Schlosser and colleagues use tissue grafting in Xenopus embryos to tackle this controversy. They show that, at neural plate stages, competence for induction of neural plate, border and crest markers is restricted to neural ectoderm, whereas competence for induction of panplacodal markers is confined to non-neural ectoderm. The homeobox protein Dlx3 and the transcription factor GATA2 are both required ...
These were a few of the questions explored at the talks at theInternational Society for Developmental Biology (joint meeting with the British Developmental Biology Society) in November.. One answer is signaling and growth factors, for which there are several players, from Nodal (early gastrulation), to Wnt (neural tube formation) to FGFs, and the downstream transcription factors and gene regulatory networks that interpret such signals.. T box transcription factors play important roles in embryogenesis, one example being the role of Eomesodermin in gastrulation, as discussed by both Elizabeth Robertson and Fiona Wardle (see also her recent BMC Biology article); and later in neural tube formation, various T box factors are important.. Another answer to understanding cell fate determination lies in cell movements. We understand a lot more about EMT at gastrulation - mainly thanks to some elegant quantitive ...
The mammalian sonic hedgehog (Shh) signalling pathway is essential for embryonic development and the patterning of multiple organs. Disruption or activation of Shh signalling leads to multiple birth defects, including holoprosencephaly, neural tube defects and polydactyly, and in adults results in tumours of the skin or central nervous system. Genetic approaches with model organisms continue to identify novel components of the pathway, including key molecules that function as positive or negative regulators of Shh signalling. Data presented here define Tulp3 as a novel negative regulator of the Shh pathway. We have identified a new mouse mutant that is a strongly hypomorphic allele of Tulp3 and which exhibits expansion of ventral markers in the caudal spinal cord, as well as neural tube defects and preaxial polydactyly, consistent with increased Shh signalling. We demonstrate that Tulp3 acts genetically ...
Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a group of birth defects in which an opening in the spinal cord or brain remains from early in human development. In the 3rd week of pregnancy called gastrulation, specialized cells on the dorsal side of the embryo begin to change shape and form the neural tube. When the neural tube does not close completely, an NTD develops. Specific types include: spina bifida which affects the spine, anencephaly which results in little to no brain, encephalocele which affects the skull, and iniencephaly which results in severe neck problems. NTDs are one of the most common birth defects, affecting over 300,000 births each year worldwide. For example, spina bifida affects approximately 1,500 births annually in the USA, or about 3.5 in every 10,000 (0.035% of US births), which has decreased from around 5 per 10,000 (0.05% of ...
Im sorry that it has been awhile since my last post, but my research has demanded more attention lately. Ive seen something interesting in my project, so Ive been working on understanding what exactly happened. I am trying to answer the question of how.. This question of how is important, but it often goes unanswered in science and biomedicine.. The prevention of neural tube defects is an example of the question of how going unanswered. Neural tube defects, or NTDs, are caused when the developmental processes of neural tube closure go awry. The neural tube becomes the brain and spinal cord, so a fully functional nervous system depends on the tube forming properly. Neural tube closure is a complex process, and is very prone to error. The ...
A combination of classical genetics, gene cloning, and experimental embryology has revealed that neural tube defects in mice and, by implication, in humans are a developmentally heterogeneous group of malformations (Juriloff and Harris 2000; Copp et al. 2003). This heterogeneity and contributing environmental factors have been some of the reasons for the sporadic nature of these conditions. Furthermore, an expanding body of evidence indicates that neural tube development is a multigenic process that may involve several independently segregating genes (Estibeiro et al. 1993; Copp 1994; Helwig et al. 1995; Greco et al. 1996; Doudney and Stanier 2005). The combination of Brachyury (T) and tct is one of the oldest and most penetrant models for this developmental defect (Park et al. 1989) but has been incompletely understood.. The t complex located on proximal third of mouse chromosome 17 is characterized by four ...
Folic Acid is essential for the metabolic processes of the body. Folic acid is necessary for the synthesis of nucleic acids and the formation of heme, the pigmented, iron-carrying component of the hemoglobin in red blood cells. A deficient intake of folic acid can impair the maturation of young red blood cells, resulting in folic-acid-deficiency anemia. Folic acid is essential for efficient Neural tube development during pregnancy which forms the brain and spinal cord. Pregnant women with an insufficient intake of folic acid are more likely to give birth prematurely or to deliver babies with low birth weight or with neural tube defects ...
Fig. 1. Disruption of dorsal midline structures inhmmrmorphants. (A-C) Dorsal (d) views of the head region of Xenopus laevis embryos at stage (st.) 45, rostral to the left. Control embryo (A) and embryos injected into both dorsal animal blastomeres at the eight cell stage with hmmr morpholino (MO; B) or hmmr MO together with full length (FL) hmmr (C). Brains outlined in white, white and red brackets indicate wildtype and reduced interocular distance, respectively. Arrowhead in (B) points to pigmented optic stalk. (D-F) Dorsal views of dissected forebrains (fb), brain area indicated by yellow boxes in (A-C); brackets indicate level of fb width measurement, arrowheads point to bilateral olfactory bulbs (OB). Note decrease in OB size and fb width in (E) and restoration of both in (F). (G-I) Fluorescently labeled nuclei and F-actin with immunofluorescence detecting α-tubulin (Tuba4a) reveal morphology of control (G) and treated (H, I) brains transversally bisected at level indicated in (D-F); scale ...
Sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that interacts with inducible viral and cellular enhancer elements to regulate transcription of selected genes. AP-2 factors bind to the consensus sequence 5-GCCNNNGGC-3 and activate genes involved in a large spectrum of important biological functions including proper eye, face, body wall, limb and neural tube development. They also suppress a number of genes including MCAM/MUC18, C/EBP alpha and MYC. AP-2-alpha is the only AP-2 protein required for early morphogenesis of the lens vesicle. Together with the CITED2 coactivator, stimulates the PITX2 P1 promoter transcription activation. Associates with chromatin to the PITX2 P1 promoter region ...
Histone acetylation plays an essential role in many DNA-related processes such as transcriptional regulation via modulation of chromatin structure. Many histone acetytransferases have been discovered and studied in the past few years, but the roles of different histone acetyltransferases (HAT) during mammalian development are not well defined at present. Gcn5 histone acetyltransferase is highly expressed until E16.5 during development. Previous studies in our lab using a constitutive null allele demonstrated that Gcn5 knock out mice are embryonic lethal, precluding the study of Gcn5 functions at later developmental stages. The creation of a conditional Gcn5 null allele, Gcn5flox allele, bypasses the early lethality. Mice homozygous for this allele are viable and appear healthy. In contrast, mice homozygous for a Gcn5 Δex3-18 allele created by Cre-loxP mediated deletion display a phenotype identical to our original Gcn5 null mice. Strikingly, a Gcn5flox(neo) allele, which contain a neomycin cassette in
Germinomas are thought to arise from a midline streaming of totipotential cells very early in rostral neural tube development or from abnormal implantation in the midline during the migration of germ cells that result in the formation of the urogenital ridge.6 Local spread of intracranial germinoma within the brain and throughout the subarachnoid space,7 including synchronous lesions, is not uncommon. This type of spread, however, is usually limited to the soft tissues within the cranial cavity showing little or no propensity toward bone invasion. Primary intrasellar germinomas are rare.8 They may develop as secondary intrasellar extension of primary suprasellar tumors9 or originate as primitive intrasellar growth. A germinoma may be designated as primary intrasellar if the lesion exclusively resides within the sella turcica or if both intrasellar and extrasellar components are present.10,11 In advanced stages, however, the ...
Certain nutrients become more important during pregnancy to ensure proper development of your baby. Folate and folic acid help establish proper neural tube development, a process that occurs at the beginning of the pregnancy. Prenatal vitamins include folic acid. Other sources include fortified cereals, spinach, asparagus, beans and oranges. Calcium keeps your bones strong and supports the development of your babys bones and teeth. Protein supports the general growth of your baby and is key in the second and third trimester. Iron supports the increased blood volume during pregnancy. You need about twice as much iron as usual while pregnant, according to BabyCenter. Anemia is a possibility if you dont get enough iron.. ...
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Too little folic acid in the first few weeks of pregnancy-often before a woman knows she is pregnant-increases the risk of bearing a child with a neural tube defect, such as spina bifida or anencephaly, conditions in which the embryonic neural tube, which forms the future brain and spinal column, fails to close properly. Supplementing with folic acid in the three months before and after conception could prevent 50 percent to 70 percent of the approximately 2,500 babies born in the United States each year with a neural tube defect (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 2004, vol. 53, no. 17). Pregnant women should take folic acid throughout their pregnancy to keep the baby developing and growing properly.. Folic acid supplements can also help stave off heart disease, researchers have found, by lowering homocysteine levels (Nutrition, 2000, ...
Neural tube defect definition, any of a group of congenital abnormalities involving the brain and spinal cord, including spina bifida and meningocele, caused by failure of the neural tube to close properly during embryonic development. See more.
Planar cell polarity (PCP) refers to the coordinated orientation, movement, or structure of cells within the plane of a tissue. Zebrafish PCP mutants such as the vangl2 mutant exhibit defects in convergent extension, neural tube morphogenesis, and ciliary positioning. Tmem14a is a putative tetraspanin protein that was identified as an potential interactor of Vangl2 in a membrane yeast-two hybrid screen. GFP-tagged versions of Tmem14a are localized to the trans-Golgi network in zebrafish neuroepithelial cells. Knockdown of Tmem14a activity results in convergent extension defects, an ectopic accumulation of cells in the neural tube, and disorganized cilia. The localization of GFP-tagged Tmem14a to the trans-Golgi network suggested that Tmem14a plays a role in the trafficking of core PCP components to the cell membrane. Indeed, the membrane localization of ...
From UniProt:. Sacral defect with anterior meningocele (SDAM): Form of caudal dysgenesis. It is present at birth and becomes symptomatic later in life, usually because of obstructive labor in females, chronic constipation, or meningitis. Inheritance is autosomal dominant. [MIM:600145]. Neural tube defects (NTD): Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy. Failure of neural tube closure can occur at any level of the embryonic axis. Common NTD forms include anencephaly, myelomeningocele and spina bifida, which result from the failure of fusion in the cranial and spinal region of the neural tube. NTDs have a multifactorial etiology encompassing both genetic and environmental ...
Wayside Waifs was having a slow day with animal admissions Monday. Only 15 cats and dogs entered the shelter, when on an average day, about 35 to 40 animals are taken in.. There were plenty of people, though, as the south Kansas City shelter unveiled a multi-million dollar expansion. Wayside Waifs completed work on a new veterinary clinic and animal wellness center in December. These changes will increase the number of animals that Wayside can treat.. At 11,000 square feet, the renovated veterinary clinic is three times larger than before, said Jennie Rinas, spokeswoman for the shelter. Wayside Waifs also renovated the reception area for adopters, built new animal holding and isolation areas, and renovated the animal admissions area. On top of these changes, the shelter added space for a wellness center, which will allow Wayside to collaborate with other area shelters and treat their animals. "The wellness center is going to expand what were able to do for the community," said Ashley McCoy, ...
In vertebrate NTC, the cellular mechanisms underlying this dynamic morphogenesis have been well characterized especially in the neural ectoderm, such as convergent extension and apical constriction. For the morphogenesis of the non-neural ectoderm, although some hypotheses were proposed, including cell division, cell rearrangement and cell-shape changes, it has been unclear what drives the movement of this tissue and how it contributes to NTC. Here, we demonstrated the cellular movements of non-neural ectoderm in a whole live embryo, and found that collectively moving deep-layer cells of this tissue contribute to the superficial movement and complete NTC of Xenopus laevis.. Present and previous studies showed that cell division is not essential for Xenopus NTC. We also attempted to disrupt this oriented cell division by Xdd1, which is known to disrupt the oriented cell division of mesodermal ...
... Rifle Calibers CSC 1986 SUBJECT AREA General TITLE: 7.62 mm Versus 5.56 mm - Does NATO Really Need Two Standard Rifle Calibers? I. Purpose: To reestablish the 7.62mm NATO cartridge as the optimum rifle caliber ammunition for the U. S. and NATO. II. Problem: NATO recently adopted the 5.56mm as its second standard rifle caliber cartridge. As a result, the existing NATO standard, the 7.62mm, has been relegated to a secondary supporting role within NATOs armed forces. Although the selection of the 5.56mm was based on extensive testing, research, and documented battle performance, this intermediate power round is not the optimum ammunition and caliber for U. S. and NATO forces in the contemplated battlefields of the future. III. Discussion: Proponents of the intermediate power 5.56mm have continuously compared their smaller cartridge to the large full power 7.62mm. The results of these comparisons purportedly show the superiority of the ...
NATO-Russia relations are currently at their lowest since the end of the Cold War. Moscows provocative stance and actions towards NATO, and aggressive actions against Ukraine, Georgia and other NATO partners, undermine the stability of the whole Euro-Atlantic area. Following up on previous reports of the Political Committee on Russia and NATO-Russia relations, this short paper focuses on security policy issues that are relevant for NATO and NATO Allies and for the development of the future NATO-Russia relationship. The report argues that NATO Allies need to remain committed to a strong deterrence posture and stand up to Russias continuing provocations and aggressions against NATO partner countries, particularly Ukraine and Georgia. To that end, implementation of the decisions taken at the Warsaw Summit is important. At the same time, NATO Allies need to complement deterrence with periodic, focused and meaningful dialogue with Russia. ...
The posterior nervous system, including the hindbrain and the spinal cord, has been shown to be formed by the transformation of neural plate of anterior character by signals derived from non-axial mesoderm. Although secreted factors, such as fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), Wnts, retinoic acid (RA) and Nodal, have been proposed to be the posteriorizing factors, the mechanism how neural tissue of posterior character is induced and subsequently specified along the anteroposterior axis remains elusive. To identify intercellular signaling molecules responsible for posteriorization of the neural plate as well as to find molecules induced intracellularly by the posteriorizing signal in the caudal neural plate, we screened by in situ hybridization for genes specifically expressed in posterior tissues, including the posterior ...
Calpain, 67-79 2019. Antoniades I, Stylianou P, Christodoulou N, Skourides PA., Addressing the Functional Determinants of FAK during Ciliogenesis in Multiciliated Cells.J Biol Chem. 2017 Jan 13;292(2):488-504.. Petridou NI, Skourides PA. A ligand-independent integrin β1 mechanosensory complex guides spindle orientation.. Nat Commun. 2016 Mar 8;7:10899.. Christodoulou N, Skourides PA. Cell-Autonomous Ca(2+) Flashes Elicit Pulsed Contractions of an Apical Actin Network to Drive Apical Constriction during Neural Tube Closure.. Cell Rep. 2015 Dec 15;13(10):2189-202 f1000prime recommended article. Petridou NI, Skourides PA. FAK transduces extracellular forces that orient the mitotic spindle and control tissue morphogenesis.. Nat Commun. 2014 Oct 24;5:5240.. Antoniades I, Stylianou P, Skourides PA, Making the connection: ciliary adhesion complexes anchor Basal bodies to the actin cytoskeleton.. Dev Cell. 2014 Jan 13;28(1):70-80. doi: ...
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are a unique system to model mammalian embryonic development in an accessible in vitro setting. The ability of ES cells to generate any cell type found in our organism can be harnessed to study how cellular diversity is established during development. We demonstrate this by recapitulating key aspects of neural tube patterning and spinal cord development in differentiating ES cells, leading to efficient production of spinal motor neurons in vitro. Access to a virtually unlimited supply of spinal motor neurons creates a unique opportunity to decipher molecular processes governing the conversion of a pluripotent stem cell to a committed and differentiated cell type at global and comprehensive level. Currently we examine how differentiating cells integrate patterning signals and translate them into lasting changes in chromatin architecture and in patterns of gene ...
The neural crest is a multipotent cell population that migrates from the dorsal edge of the neural tube to various parts of the embryo where it differentiates into a remarkable variety of different cell types. Initial induction of neural crest is mediated by a combination of BMP, Wnt, FGF, Retinoic acid and Notch/Delta signaling. The two-signal model for neural crest induction suggests that BMP signaling induces the competence to become neural crest. The second signal involves Wnt acting through the canonical pathway and leads to expression of neural crest markers such as slug. Wnt signals from the neural plate, non-neural ectoderm and paraxial mesoderm have all been suggested to play a role in ...
It is well established that the regulation of epigenetic factors, including chromatic reorganization, histone modifications, DNA methylation, and miRNA regulation, is critical for the normal development and functioning of the human brain. There are a number of maternal factors influencing epigenetic pathways such as lifestyle, including diet, alcohol consumption, and smoking, as well as age and infections (viral or bacterial). Genetic and metabolic alterations such as obesity, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and thyroidism alter epigenetic mechanisms, thereby contributing to neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs) such as embryonic neural tube defects (NTDs), autism, Downs syndrome, Rett syndrome, and later onset of neuropsychological deficits. This review comprehensively describes the recent findings in the epigenetic landscape contributing to altered molecular profiles resulting in NDs. Furthermore, we will discuss potential avenues for future research to ...
Jim Mattis delivered the goods at his first NATO defense ministerial as Secretary of Defense. There was a bit of whiplash during the first day as Mattis went from a reassuring public statement to a statement behind closed doors warning that the Untied States may "moderate our commitment" to NATO.. The public statement wasnt bad - in fact, it was sober-minded, practical, plain spoken, almost lyrical in parts (as far as NATO statements go). It was also replete with references to historical touch points that are crucial to understanding the value of NATO, which Mattis clearly does. If you needed reassurance that Mattis not just knows NATO but feels it, you got that in his statement.. But what about this "moderate our commitment" bit? It was pretty clearly an ultimatum, though it was more nuanced if you read it in context. Mattis goes one step further than his predecessor Bob Gates did in his famous 2013 Brussels speech, which warned of a dark and dismal future for NATO if Americas allies didnt ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against a partial recombinant PLXDC1. PLXDC1 (NP_065138, 313 a.a. ~ 421 a.a) partial recombinant protein with GST tag. MW of the GST tag alone is 26 KDa. (H00057125-M01) - Products - Abnova
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)1 is a highly specialized derivative of the embryonic neural tube that lies with its apical surface in intimate contact with the light-sensitive cells of the retina (Zinn and Marmor, 1979), performing critical transport, barrier, and phagocytic support functions for the neural retina. These functions of RPE cells require a characteristic apical distribution of certain proteins that are usually found on the basolateral membrane in other epithelia. For example, apical Na,K-ATPase provides a high Na+ environment appropriate for photoreceptor function (Bok, 1982; Okami et al., 1990; Gundersen et al., 1991; Gallemore et al., 1997; Miller and Steinberg, 1977; Rizzolo, 1997; Zhao et al., 1997). The apical localization of the neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM-140 in RPE (Gundersen et al., 1993), which overrides a dominant ...
The ventricular spaces in the various subdivisions of the brain reflects the fact that the ventricles are the adult derivatives of the open space of the embryonic neural tube. The two lateral ventricles, situated within the cerebrum, are relatively large and C-shaped, and roughly wraps around the dorsal aspects of the basal ganglia. In the lateral ventricles of the embryo the successive generation of neurons gives rise to the 6-layered structure of the neocortex, constructed from the inside out during development. ...
Please accompany sample with Iowa Maternal Screen Test Request Form.. The following information is required for test interpretation: Patients date of birth, current weight, ultrasound date, AND measurement, and/or LMP information to date the pregnancy, number of fetuses, patients race, if patient requires insulin, and if there is known family history of neural tube defects. Detection rates: 85% neural tube defects.. ...
To demonstrate the applicability, novelty and advantages of our system, we focused on NTC in the mouse embryo (Fig. 2; supplementary material Fig. S2A-C and Movies 1-7). NTC is a highly dynamic morphological process that takes place over more than two days (supplementary material Fig. S2A) (Greene and Copp, 2009). At E8.0, initial closure point I is formed at the hindbrain/cervical boundary, and then closure of the NT proceeds both caudally towards the tail and rostrally towards the head (schematic of closure points is shown in supplementary material Fig. S2A). By E9.0, closure point III is formed at the most anterior region of the forebrain, and closure progresses caudally through the brain. In some mouse strains, closure point II is formed at the forebrain/midbrain boundary. Using our technique and a mixed genetic background of 129/SvImJ and C57BL/6J, closure II formation varied and was sometimes observed but sometimes not. Therefore, below we indicate forebrain/midbrain closure as proceeding ...
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NATO Chief Rasmussen Pandering to Muslims Its ineffective and a waste of time and money, in no small part because weve lobbied for and pushed many dangerous and/or irrelevant nations for admittance into NATO. And NATO is infected by the membership of Turkey, the increasingly extremist Muslim state. The U.S. shares a good deal of intelligence with NATO, which will ultimately be in the hands of our Islamic enemies via our Turkish "friends." And Turkey initially held up NATOs new secretary-general, Anders Fogh Rasmussens, nomination because he headed Denmark, and Turkey was upset over the Danish Mohammed cartoon publication.. In recent years-recent decades-NATO has done little of consequence that Western allies couldnt do on their own.. And Rasmussens current Islamo-pandering trip in Turkey is yet the latest slide down the ladder of irrelevance. But the Islamic world is eating it up. Thats ironic, considering that NATO was founded in 1949, in the aftermath of Europes liberation from the ...
Early tube represents tube just after fusion of neural fold crests. In the late neural tube, the ectoderm is separated from the neural tube, splanchnic mesoderm, and somatic mesoderm.
In zebrafish, as in other vertebrates, an initially singular eye field within the neural plate has to split during morphogenesis to allow the development of two separated eyes. It has been suggested that anterior progression of midline tissue within the neural plate is involved in the bilateralization of the eye field. Mutations in the recently identified silberblick (slb) gene cause an incomplete separation of the eyes. During gastrulation and early somitogenesis, the ventral midline of the central nervous system (CNS) together with the underlying axial mesendoderm is shortened and broadened in slb embryos. While in wild-type embryos the ventral CNS midline extends to the anterior limit of the neural plate at the end of gastrulation, there is a gap between the anterior tip of the ventral CNS midline and the anterior edge of the ...
2Inst. Cell & Mol. Biol., Univ. Texas at Austin.. qkI encodes a KH domain RNA binding protein that has been isolated as a candidate for classical neurological mutation, quaking viable (qkv). qkI is considered as an essential regulator of myelination in CNS of the mice. However, qkI homologs in other species play important roles in various developmental processes other than myelination. Here we show that a novel function of the qkI in embryonic development through the analysis of the targeted null mutation of qkI. We found that homozygous embryos died in utero. At E8.5, some of the homozygotes had a wavy neural tube. At E9.5, all of the homozygotes exhibited a kinked neural tube, a severe pericardial effusion, and somites of abnormal shape. Some of the homozygous embryos showed defects in neural tube closure. All of the homozygotes die by E10.5. Since ...
Also known as 1-Bromopropane and n-propylbromide, nPB is an organobromine compound thats widely used as a solvent in several industries. nPB works great for the right applications, but it has a major downside: its reputation as a human carcinogen and a cause of other health problems in those who regularly apply it. To help educate our customers on solvent selection, we take a look at some of the most commonly asked questions regarding nPB as a carcinogen.. What evidence shows that nPB is a cancer causing agent?. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) considers nPB to be "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen" [NTP 2013]. This assessment is based largely on animal studies in which rodents developed cancers of the lung, large intestine, and skin after being exposed to nPB in the air (i.e., nPB as a hazardous air pollutant). Evidence for nPB as a carcinogen is extrapolated from these studies and "anticipated" to have the same effect in humans.. How much nPB exposure does it take to cause ...
BackgroundMaternal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been associated with the risk of fetal neural tube defects (NTDs). Whether maternal genetic variants related to PAH metabolism contribute to the development of fetal NTDs remains unclear.. MethodsWe conducted a case-control study in a Chinese population to examine the association of selected maternal genetic variants of phase II enzymes involved in the elimination of the metabolic intermediates of these chemicals with fetal NTD risk, and to evaluate possible interaction of the genetic variant and maternal exposure to indoor air pollution from coal combustion and smoking (IAPCC). Blood samples were collected from 534 NTD case mothers and 534 control mothers and assayed for 12 polymorphisms of 5 genes encoding phase II enzymes.. ResultsWe found that the rs9282861 GG genotype of SULT1A1 was associated with an elevated risk of total NTDs (odds ratio [OR] = 2.12, 95% confidence interval ...
This review article combines four disparate observations about Neural Tube Defects (NTDs). They are the worldwide decline in the birth incidence that began prior to prenatal diagnosis; family recurrence risks; the effect of prenatal diagnosis and termination of affected pregnancies; and the effect of folic acid.
Neural tube defects are usually diagnosed before the infant is born, through laboratory or imaging tests. Prenatal laboratory tests include:
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7 Anencephaly Neural tube defects (NTDs) result from failure of the neural tube closure between 25 and 27 days after conception. Absence of brain and calvaria superior to the orbits on coronal views of the fetal head Up to 75 percent of anencephalic infants are stillborn Risk of recurrence for NTDs (spina bifida or anencephaly) - 2 to 4 percent with one affected sibling - 10 percent with two affected sibling Higher doses of folic acid supplements are usually recommended for women who have had a previous pregnancy affected by a NTD ...
During vertebrate embryogenesis, the cranial neural crest (CNC) forms at the neural plate border and subsequently migrates and differentiates into many types of cells. The transcription factor Snai2, which is induced by canonical Wnt signaling to be expressed in the early CNC, is pivotal for CNC induction and migration in Xenopus. However, snai2 expression is silenced during CNC migration, and its roles at later developmental stages remain unclear. We generated a transgenic X. tropicalis line that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) driven by the snai2 promoter/enhancer, and observed eGFP expression not only in the pre-migratory and migrating CNC, but also the differentiating CNC. This transgenic line can be used directly to detect deficiencies in CNC development at various stages, including subtle perturbation of CNC differentiation. In situ hybridization and ...
An Occupational Safety & Health Administration investigation into n-Propyl Bromide -- a chemical used as an adhesive and a solvent -- and recent publicity surrounding a furniture workers claim of illness due to nPB exposure may lead to heightened scrutiny of businesses and increased regulatory oversight of nPB and related chemicals.. Increased Use of nPB. In the mid-1980s, the United States and other countries moved to reduce and/or eliminate a number of chlorofluorocarbons and other chemicals that could damage the stratospheric ozone layer. In the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act, Congress established timetables for phasing out ozone-depleting substances (ODS) but also encouraged the use of alternative processes and product substitutes. 42 U.S.C. §7671c-e. In 1994, the EPA also established the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP), whereby companies could petition the Environmental Protection Agency for the inclusion of certain chemicals as safer ODS alternatives. 42 U.S.C. ...
The chick embryo has prevailed as one of the major models to study developmental biology, cell biology and regeneration. From all the anatomical features of the chick embryo, the eye is one of the most studied. In the chick embryo, the eye develops between 26 and 33 h after incubation (Stages 8-9, Hamburger and Hamilton, 1951). It originates from the posterior region of the forebrain, called the diencephalon. However, the vertebrate eye includes tissues from different origins including surface ectoderm (lens and cornea), anterior neural plate (retina, iris, ciliary body and retinal pigmented epithelium) and neural crest/head mesoderm (stroma of the iris and of the ciliary body as well as choroid, sclera and part of the cornea). After gastrulation, a single eye field originates from the anterior neural plate and is characterized by the expression of eye field transcriptional ...
Reporting in the December 16 issue of Current Biology, researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, and the University of Pittsburgh, establish that activation of a lone gene, called "shroom," triggers specific cells in the embryo to bend, initiating a curling of tissue into a closed neural tube that eventually becomes the spinal cord and brain. Though conducted in frog embryos, the experiments have implications for all vertebrates, including humans. "These experiments show that, in the embryo, a single protein can bring about this cell shape change, which is staggering, because it implies that this entire bending event can be controlled essentially by controlling a single gene," said co-author John Wallingford, a former UC Berkeley postdoctoral fellow now an assistant professor in the Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology at the University of Texas at Austin. "It is absolutely a key step in the process.". "This ...
Transcriptional repressor. Binds DNA on N-box motifs: 5-CACNAG-3. Plays a role in the patterning of tissue boundaries. Promotes floor plate development and prechordal plate development. Required for lens development as early as the stage of lens field formation, partly through regulation of gene expression of the cell cycle inhibitor cdknx/p27(xic1). A role in neural crest development is disputed. [-] ...
The central nervous system of vertebrates is composed of encephalon (generally referred as brain) and spinal cord. During embryonic development, both derive from a group of cells known as neural plate, located at the medial and dorsal part of the embryo (see figure for the names of body axis). The neural plate extends rostro-caudally. The lateral margins of the neural plate move upward forming long folds, whereas the middle part moves inward forming a long invagination. As development proceeds, lateral folds, known as neural crests, get higher and closer until they contact and fuse between each other, so that a long tube is formed inside the embryo. This tube is known as neural tube and the process as primary neurulation. At ...
The development of the cerebral cortex is complex and finely tuned process influenced by the interplay between genes and environment.[13] The cerebral cortex develops from the most anterior part of the neural plate, a specialized part of the embryonic ectoderm.[14] The neural plate folds and closes to form the neural tube. From the cavity inside the neural tube develops the ventricular system, and, from the epithelial cells of its walls, the neurons and glia of the nervous system. The most anterior (front, or cranial) part of the neural plate, the prosencephalon, which is evident before neurulation begins, gives rise to the cerebral hemispheres and its later cortex.[15] Cortical neurons are generated within the ventricular zone, next to the ...
The results presented here have revealed some interesting insights into the function of Hesx1/HESX1 in the aetiology and pathogenesis of SOD and hypopituitarism. We have shown that the expression domain of human HESX1 is comparable to that in the mouse, and includes the ventral forebrain and Rathkes pouch. Based on cell fate studies in the mouse and chick, which have shown that Hesx1-expressing cells colonise the anterior forebrain (including ventral forebrain) at early somite stages and eyes at later stages (Fernandez-Garre, 2002; Andoniadou et al., 2007), it is likely that HESX1 is also expressed in the anterior neural plate (presumptive anterior forebrain) at earlier stages of human embryogenesis. Unfortunately, owing to the difficulty of obtaining very early-stage human embryos, we could not confirm this hypothesis. The human expression pattern may also provide an explanation for the eye defects seen in patients carrying HESX1 mutations ...
View Notes - Wingfield 1 from NPB idk at UC Davis. NPB101,Autumn2008 Endocrinology1 Whatdohormonesdo? Hypothalamopituitaryunit Posteriorpituitary SensorymodaliBes forexternalcues Auditory Visual
View Notes - 101_Sp10_MT2_NoKey (2) from BIS 101/102 at UC Davis. Print Name: ________________________________ Test From: A UCD ID#: _____________________ 1 NPB101_Sp10 - MT2 Scantron: 1. Clearly
The brain and spinal cord develop from the ectoderm. Following formation of the neural ectoderm, the neural preplate is formed and splits to form the neural plate. Closure of the neural plate forms the neural tube in a process called neurulation (see description in "Neural Tube" overview). The central hollow space of the neural tube later forms the fluid-filled brain ventricles. Neuroepithelium is generated in the neural tube walls and gives rise to immature nerve precursors called neuroblasts, the majority of which migrate and grow leading axonal appendages, and then aggregate in specific, ...
1. Specimens are described which demonstrate the induction of neural plateby (a) the mesodermal part of the primitive streak, (b) the head process and sinus rhomboidalis, and (c) neural plate.. 2. The neural plate which was induced by the mesodermal part of the primitive streak was in reversed orientation as regards the host embryo. Thus the orientation of the embryo must be already fixed in the mesodermal part of the streak, and must in this case have overcome any influence which the host may be able to exert.. 3. The same embryo was more complete than indicated by the presumptive fate of the tissue which induced it, whence it is concluded that the chick organiser,like the amphibian, shows a tendency to complete itself, and to this extent behaves like part of a harmonious equipotential system.. 4. Grafts of the anterior part of the embryonic axis (head ...
The neural groove is a shallow median groove of the neural plate between the neural folds of an embryo. The neural plate is a thick sheet of ectoderm surrounded on either side by the neural folds, two longitudinal ridges in front of the primitive streak of the developing embryo. The groove gradually deepens as the neural folds become elevated, and ultimately the folds meet and coalesce in the middle line and convert the groove into a closed tube, the neural tube or canal, the ectodermal wall of which forms the rudiment of the nervous system. After the coalescence of the neural folds over the anterior end of the primitive streak, the blastopore no longer ...
Shapes and tracks of cells extracted from live imaging of the zebrafish forebrain. Flat enveloping layer cells (top) have been separated from forebrain neural plate cells (middle). Tracks of selected neural plate cells (bottom) are colour-coded by depth from the embryo surface. (Image © Guy Blanchard, Stephen Young & Richard Adams.) ...
腦並不是簡單地長大,而是經過了複雜的協同和一系列步驟。[113]它多次改變形狀,從最早期胚胎時的神經索前端的一個簡單的膨大,到複雜的區域與聯結的組合。 神經元是在一個包含幹細胞的特別部位產生出來,穿過組織遷移到它的最終位置。當神經元到達既定位置,它們的軸突就開始伸長、分叉,被引導着穿過腦,直到其末端到達其目的地並且形成突觸聯結。在神經系統的很多部分中,在初期會形成非常多的神經元和突觸,然後其中無用的會被除去。[113]. 對於所有種類的脊椎動物來說,神經發育的早期階段都是類似的。[113]隨着胚胎從球形的一團細胞變成蠕蟲形狀的結構,外胚層中位於背面正中的一條窄帶分化為神經板(英語:neural plate),它是神經系統的前身。神經板向內凹陷形成了神經溝(英語:neural ...
Tissues of the dorsal midline of vertebrate embryos, such as notochord and floor plate, have been implicated in inductive interactions that pattern the neural tube and somites. In our screen for embryonic visible mutations in the zebrafish we found 113 mutations in more than 27 genes with altered body shape, often with additional defects in CNS development. We concentrated on a subgroup of mutations in ten genes (the midline-group) that cause defective development of the floor plate. By using floor plate markers, such as the signaling molecule sonic hedgehog, we show that the schmalspur (sur) gene is needed for early floor plate development, similar to one- eyed-pinhead (oep) and the previously described cyclops (cyc) gene. In contrast to oep and cyc, sur embryos show deletions of ventral CNS tissue restricted to the mid- and hindbrain, whereas the forebrain appears largely unaffected. In ...
Study Flashcards On NPB_Principle of Systemic Physiology at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Winter is definitely upon us! Not only is it time for humans to dig out their cold weather clothes, its also time to think about keeping our pets safe during these arctic cold days. Here are some tips to keeping your pets safe.. 1. Keep your pets inside. Limit your pets outside time for bathroom breaks when temperatures start to tumble. If its too cold for you, its defintely too cold for your pet. If your pet is normally outside, move them to a sheltered garage or heated dog house, away from the wind. 2. Outdoor cats have been known to find refuge underneath the hoods of cars. When the car is started, the cat could become injured or even killed by moving parts of the engine. If you have an outdoor cat, honk the horn before starting the car to give the cat a chance to escape.. 3. Keep your dog on a leash in the winter weather. Pets can lose their scent in the snow and ice and find refuge in unfamiliar places. This is also a good opportunity to check your dog or cats id tag to make sure they ...
Previous studies revealed impairment in the convergence of the anterior neural plate in pcdh19 morphants (Emond et al., 2009) and ncad mutants and morphants (Lele et al., 2002; Hong and Brewster, 2006). The cellular mechanisms underlying these observations have not been reported for either molecule, although defects in radial intercalation and increased cell protrusive behavior have been observed in ncad morphants (Hong and Brewster, 2006). In this study, we provide the first detailed analysis of cell behaviors associated with the loss of either pcdh19 or ncad. In wild-type embryos, we find that cells exhibit smooth motility toward the midline. These movements are highly linear and directed, with little evidence for unproductive movement. Similarly, motion appears coordinated, as the direction of cell trajectories is highly coherent among neighboring cells. In contrast, both ncad and pcdh19 morphants exhibit highly ...
We have discovered a requirement for a novel connexin gene (frm-cx) in specification of the anterior neural plate in the invertebrate chordate Ciona. (The conne...
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. This decision concerns the appeal filed by the patent proprietor against the decision of the opposition division to revoke European patent No. 2 128 704.. The documents cited during the opposition proceedings included:. D4: GB 2 226 150 A,. D8: US 5 155 012 A, and. D9: EP 1 916 568 A2.. Both D8 and D9 were late-filed documents, but admitted into the proceedings in view of their prima facie relevance.. The opposition division held inter alia that claim 1 of auxiliary request 6 (main request in the present appeal) did not involve an inventive step starting from D9 as the closest prior art in combination with D4 or D8.. II. Independent product claim 1 of auxiliary request 6 reads as follows:. 1. A processing liquid for lithographic printing plate development, comprising (1) a water-soluble amine compound and an ion of the amine compound and (2) a water-soluble polymer compound and a surfactant,. wherein the pH of the processing liquid is 9.2 to 10.8,. ...
Expression patterns of optic vesicle and anterior forebrain markers. (A,B) Expression patterns of various anterior forebrain markers were analyzed at stage 21 b
At the lateral edges of the neural plate, ridges appear that grow and fold towards each other to form a tube, the neural tube. The cells that lead this development are called Neural crest cells (C), and when they have completed their role in forming the neural tube, they go on to form some more specialised parts of the nervous system including the dorsal root ganglia, the autonomic nervous system and the adrenal medulla (D). ...
Now that you have a general idea of what can be found in the Lares Ls, lets get back to my fieldwork; this time around the prospecting in these limestones was not the best. The only non-fish remains were an incomplete neural plate, most likely from a pelomedusid turtle and a large croc tooth. As I mentioned above crocs have been reported from the Lares Ls, nonetheless in contrast to the ones previously reported, this recent find (see picture below) differs from the ones described previously which are smaller, slender and similar to the ones found in longirostrine crocs (Brochu et al. 2007). This larger tooth is the third tooth of this type found in this formation, the other two already in the paleo collection a the Department of Geology at UPR-Mayagüez. Finding such teeth is actually a big tease, as they seem to indicate that during Lares time there were other crocs in addition to an unknown longirostrine form. That there might have been a longirostrine form ...
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Kit Component:- KN311144G1, Npb gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector- KN311144G2, Npb gRNA vector 2 in pCas-Guide vector- KN311144D, donor vector…
2. Neither is "strong both aerobically and anaerobically" exclusive to rowers. True, in terms of strength, youre not going to see coxswains pulling tractors with their teeth. But in terms of aerobic and anaerobic fitness,which I believe is what you were getting at, theres no reason why a coxswain cant be in great shape. Indeed, unless youre of the midget waif school, keeping your weight around 125 demands a considerable level of fitness. In my own case, I spent my off-hours running, playing soccer, and shooting hoops. Every other decent coxswain I know were into their own physical activities. I would even go so far as to say that a coxswain who doesnt relish the occasional athletic burn would be hopelessly disassociated from the experience of their crew ...
During my senior year in high school I had the starring role in the musical Carnival. I played a waif named Lili who wanders into a carnival and befriends the people there. A puppet show was central to the plot and there were four puppets - Horrible Henry, Renardo, Marguerite and Carrot Top. I loved working with the puppets so much that after the show closed my father asked the director if he could buy Horrible Henry for me. He couldnt because they were rented. The fact that he wanted to do that is special to me because people just didnt buy things much back then like they do now ...
Genera in family: 40 genera, 400 sp.: n temp, n tropical, s Africa; some cultivated (Papaver, Dicentra, Eschscholzia ). Petal length includes any spur or pouch. Hunnemannia fumariifolia Sweet (Eschscholzia-like garden per with free sepals) an uncommon waif in CA. Corydalis, Dicentra, Fumaria formerly treated in Fumariaceae. ...
Genera in family: 40 genera, 400 sp.: n temp, n tropical, s Africa; some cultivated (Papaver, Dicentra, Eschscholzia ). Petal length includes any spur or pouch. Hunnemannia fumariifolia Sweet (Eschscholzia-like garden per with free sepals) an uncommon waif in CA. Corydalis, Dicentra, Fumaria formerly treated in Fumariaceae. ...
Audrey Hepburn was a 24-year-old waif (born this day, May 4, in 1929) who made a good impression in Hollywood and on the stage but had yet to solidify her fame. She had only had one major film role-in 1953s Roman Holiday-when photographer Mark Shaw spent a day with her. Director … [Read more...] ...
So im sure everyone agrees Nicole Richie is a waif...and needs to eat... While answering one of the game questions on aols Gold Rush, I was shocked to discover some interesting information---that she DOES eat meat! Veal to be exact!
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How much protein from a confluent 6 well plate? - posted in Tissue and Cell Culture: Hello, I want to run a western blot with 100ug of protein from the cells (T47D). Can I grow my cells in a 6 well plate and get that amount of protein? Or would it be better to grow them in a flask/plate? I am asking them based on the amount of equipment available to me, since I would have to order flasks, but have 6 well plates available to me. Thank you!
High binding ELISA Strips plates (8 wellsx12 strips) plates EW-80012 High binding ELISA Strips plates (8 wellsx12 strips) plates EW-80012
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Filter plates. Filter systems with large filtration areas employ flat elements in the form of filter plates. The vast majority of these are operated as precoat filters. ...
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Propagation of normality along regular analytic Jordan arcs in analytic functions with values in a complex unital Banach algebra with continuous involution ...
No one ever said it was easy to eat healthy during grilling season. Yet, knowing which foods to put on your plate and what portions ...
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A filter unit (40) includes a top plate (46), a bottom plate (48), and a filter medium (42). The top plate (46) is disposed at a first end (108) of the filter unit (40). The bottom plate (48) is disposed at a second end (110) of the filt ...
Plate: 114559 Edit (C-1166) Cell: D02 Edit Date: 2013-02-20 Status: Success Previous Location: Plate: 114559 (C-1166) Cell: D02 ...
GRP94 has a different mode of action and therefore biological activity. Although it binds peptides, its specificity is different from BiP. We use combinatorial genetic and biochemical techniques to characterize its preferred binder peptides and identify the features that it recognizes in client proteins. We developed the first cell-based assay for the chaperone function of GRP94, relying on the discovery that GRP94 is needed for production of Insulin-like growth factors, which are needed for cultured cells to cope with stress. We assay variants of GRP94 by expressing them in stressed chaperone-deficient cells. The more functional the variant chaperone, the higher the level of growth factor that is produced and the higher the survival of the cells under stress. This assay enables us to dissect the biochemical mode of action of GRP94 ...
Many see potential for Wednesdays presidential debate to be a deciding moment in the 2012 election. From the Signals perch here on Forecasting Mountain, we dont see a whole lot left to be decided. Since we posted our first forecast of the state-by-state presidential election on Feb. 16

Frontiers | The Long Adventurous Journey of Rhombic Lip Cells in Jawed Vertebrates: A Comparative Developmental Analysis |...Frontiers | The Long Adventurous Journey of Rhombic Lip Cells in Jawed Vertebrates: A Comparative Developmental Analysis |...

... activity of various atoh1 paralogues and the incomplete coverage of the subpial cerebellar plate with proliferative EGL cells. ... giving rise to Purkinje cells and other inhibitory cerebellar cell types, and an atoh1 expressing upper rhombic lip giving rise ... eurydendroid cells) from ptf1a expressing VCP cells, the sequential ... The fate of the ptf1a expressing ventral LRL zone which gives rise to (excitatory cells of) the inferior olive (climbing fiber ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnana.2011.00027/full

Anatomy of the cerebellum - WikipediaAnatomy of the cerebellum - Wikipedia

The cerebellum arises from two rhombomeres located in the alar plate of the neural tube, a structure that eventually forms the ... These fibers form excitatory synapses with the granule cells and the cells of the deep cerebellar nuclei. The granule cells ... Both stellate and basket cells form GABAergic synapses onto Purkinje cell dendrites. The middle layer contains only one type of ... The innermost layer contains the cell bodies of three types of cells: the numerous and tiny granule cells, the slightly larger ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anatomy_of_the_cerebellum

Central Nervous System Anatomy: Overview, Gross Anatomy, Microscopic AnatomyCentral Nervous System Anatomy: Overview, Gross Anatomy, Microscopic Anatomy

Cells at the edge of each neural fold escape from the line of union and form the neural crest alongside the tube. Cell types ... The dorsal part of the neural tube is called the alar plate; the ventral part is the basal plate. Neurons developing in the ... the plate forms paired neural folds, which unite to create the neural tube and neural canal. Union of the folds commences in ... The alar plate of the prosencephalon expands on each side to form the telencephalon (cerebral hemispheres). ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1948665-overview

Development of the nervous system in humans - WikipediaDevelopment of the nervous system in humans - Wikipedia

The spinal cord forms from the lower part of the neural tube. The wall of the neural tube consists of neuroepithelial cells, ... part of the neural tube is called the basal plate; the dorsal (rear) part is called the alar plate. The hollow interior is ... The neural plate folds outwards to form the neural groove. Beginning in the future neck region, the neural folds of this groove ... the basal plates) forms the motor areas of the spinal cord, whilst the dorsal part (the alar plates) forms the sensory areas. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Development_of_the_nervous_system_in_humans

StateMaster - Encyclopedia: Lateral lemniscusStateMaster - Encyclopedia: Lateral lemniscus

... derived in embryonic development from the alar plate of the neural tube. ... Corpora quadrigemina (Latin: four twins) is the ... is the middle of three vesicles that arise from the neural tube that forms the brain of developing animals. ... The tectum ( ... Hair cells are the sensory cells of both the auditory system and the vestibular system in all vertebrates. ... Section through ... The Eustachian tube (or auditory tube) is a tube that links the pharynx to the middle ear. ... The base of the cartilaginous ...
more infohttp://www.statemaster.com/encyclopedia/Lateral-lemniscus

Third Week of Development | Boundless Anatomy and PhysiologyThird Week of Development | Boundless Anatomy and Physiology

... the cells of the neural plate forming a cord-like structure that migrates inside the embryo and hollows to form the tube. Each ... The anterior portion of the tube forms the basal plate, the posterior portion forms the alar plate, and the center forms the ... alar plate: The alar plate (or alar lamina) is a neural structure in the embryonic nervous system, part of the dorsal side of ... The neural plate folds outwards to form the neural groove. Beginning in the future neck region, the neural folds of this groove ...
more infohttps://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-ap/chapter/third-week-of-development/

The relationships between notochord and floor plate in vertebrate development revisited | PNASThe relationships between notochord and floor plate in vertebrate development revisited | PNAS

... β expression in the midline cells of the neural tube forming the floor plate (Fig. 6 A and B)). However, at the posterior level ... floor plate cells are inserted between neural progenitors giving rise to the alar plates. These cells are derived from the ... has an embryonic origin different from its lateral ones that yield the basal and alar plates of the neural tube and the neural ... β and of other floor plate markers can be elicited in the lateral walls of the neural plate/neural tube by the notochord, the ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/95/20/11733?ijkey=67a6054920dce59a11e8a3bcb2f58448742a0267&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Cerebellum 8 | Connectopedia Knowledge Database | Pr Denis DucreuxCerebellum 8 | Connectopedia Knowledge Database | Pr Denis Ducreux

The cerebellum arises from two rhombomeres located in the alar plate of the neural tube, a structure that eventually forms the ... These fibers form excitatory synapses with the granule cells and the cells of the deep cerebellar nuclei. The granule cells ... and basket cells. Both stellate and basket cells form GABAergic synapses onto Purkinje cell dendrites. ... These fibers form excitatory synapses with the granule cells and the cells of the deep cerebellar nuclei. Within the granular ...
more infohttp://www.fmritools.com/kdb/grey-matter/cerebellum/cerebellum-8/index.html

Difference between revisions of Neural - Vascular Development - EmbryologyDifference between revisions of "Neural - Vascular Development" - Embryology

alar plate - embryonic dorsolateral region of the neural tube forming at spinal cord level dorsal horns (afferent) and brain ... ectoderm - the layer (of the 3 germ cell layers) which form the nervous system from the neural tube and neural crest and also ... neural tube - neural plate region of ectoderm pinched off to form hollow ectodermal tube above notochord in mesoderm. ... neural tube defect - (NTD) any developmental abnormality that affects neural tube development. Commonly failure of neural tube ...
more infohttps://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=Neural_-_Vascular_Development&diff=392679&oldid=223323

Neural - Vascular Development - EmbryologyNeural - Vascular Development - Embryology

alar plate - embryonic dorsolateral region of the neural tube forming at spinal cord level dorsal horns (afferent) and brain ... ectoderm - the layer (of the 3 germ cell layers) which form the nervous system from the neural tube and neural crest and also ... neural tube - neural plate region of ectoderm pinched off to form hollow ectodermal tube above notochord in mesoderm. ... neural tube defect - (NTD) any developmental abnormality that affects neural tube development. Commonly failure of neural tube ...
more infohttps://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=Neural_-_Vascular_Development&direction=next&oldid=392645

Nervous 1 Flashcards by Jessica Bibby | BrainscapeNervous 1 Flashcards by Jessica Bibby | Brainscape

Neural tube forms the mesencephalic aqueduct ○ Three areas form during development § Alar plate forms the tectum § Basal plate ... 2) Dividing germinal cells migrate to the surface of the cerebellum to form the external germinal layer - Granule cell layer - ... neural plate is a thickened plate of neurectoderm. 3. neural groove forms in the dorsal aspect of the neural plate. 4. neural ... 5. neural tube is formed when the lateral folds fuse dorsally.. 6. neural canal is the central canal formed by closure of the ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/nervous-1-6142794/packs/9452428

Frontiers | Concept of neural genoarchitecture and its genomic fundament | Frontiers in NeuroanatomyFrontiers | Concept of neural genoarchitecture and its genomic fundament | Frontiers in Neuroanatomy

The recent concept of neural genoarchitecture (or genoarchitectonics) is examined from several angles, aiming to clarify the ... The recent concept of neural genoarchitecture (or genoarchitectonics) is examined from several angles, aiming to clarify the ... Longitudinal organization of the anterior neural plate and neural tube. Development 121, 3923-3933. ... Therefore, only a restricted alar subregion fulfills its cerebellar potency, causing the cerebellum to form behind the isthmus ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnana.2012.00047/full

Irx2 - Iroquois-class homeodomain protein IRX-2 - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Irx2 gene & proteinIrx2 - Iroquois-class homeodomain protein IRX-2 - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Irx2 gene & protein

During neural tube closure (E8.5), expression appears for the first time in the rhombencephalon in the presumptive region of ... Expression in the spinal cord is weak and confined to the alar plate. Beginning at E9.5, expressed in the epithelial component ... p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of ... p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P81066

Spinal cord - New World EncyclopediaSpinal cord - New World Encyclopedia

... two clusters of neuroblasts are recognizable on each side of the neural tube, a ventral basal plate and a dorsal alar plate. ... The emerging axons from the alar plate cells, as well as from some basal plate cells, become the white matter of the spinal ... Nerve rootlets combine to form nerve roots. Likewise, sensory nerve rootlets form off right and left dorsal lateral sulci and ... which will induce the alar plate to develop sensory neurons. The alar plate and the basal plate are separated by the sulcus ...
more infohttp://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Spinal_cord

Chapter 2: Development of the Nervous System - wrhhs.orgChapter 2: Development of the Nervous System - wrhhs.org

Thus, the alar and basal plates form the walls of the neural canal. The cells that lie along the dorsal midline are referred to ... in which the neural plate (A), neural groove (B), and neural tube (C) are formed from the dorsal surface of the embryo. The ... the neural plate is formed by the third week of fetal life (Fig. 2-1A). The neural plate continues to thicken over the ... 2-3A). The cells in the alar plate and the basal plate will contribute to sensory pathways and motor pathways, respectively ( ...
more infohttps://wrhhs.org/chapter-2-development-of-the-nervous-system/

Cerebellum - Academic KidsCerebellum - Academic Kids

The cerebellum arises from the alar plate of the neural tube. In general, sensory structures are produced from the alar plate ... Once born, the granule neurons migrate from this exterior layer to form the inner layer known as the internal granule cell ... the stellate cells and the basket cells. It also contains the dendritic arbor of Purkinje cells and parallel fiber tracts. ... The Purkinje cells are the output cells which send inhibitory projections to the deep cerebellar nuclei and vestibular nuclei. ...
more infohttp://search.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Cerebellum

Cranial Nerves and Nuclei ICranial Nerves and Nuclei I

The walls of the neural tube spread apart. *in the medulla and pons and form the floor of the 4th ventricle. ... It still separates the sensory alar plate derivatives (now lateral) and the motor basal plate derivatives (now medial). ... Locations of the Cell Bodies of the Cranial Nerves *The locations of the cell bodies where cranial nerve afferents terminate or ... Its cell bodies are located in the contralateral trochlear nucleus.. *This is a small nucleus located at the level of the ...
more infohttp://download.videohelp.com/vitualis/med/cranial_nn_and_nuclei_1.htm

Anterior elastic lamina | definition of anterior elastic lamina by Medical dictionaryAnterior elastic lamina | definition of anterior elastic lamina by Medical dictionary

alar lamina of neural tube. Alar plate.. anterior elastic lamina. See: Bowman, Sir William. basal lamina. An 80 nm thick ... Schwann cells, and muscle cells. Basal laminae anchor cells, organize cell-cell interactions, and act as semipermeable ... it forms part of the orbital plate.. perpendicular lamina. A thin sheet of bone forming the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid ... alar lamina. The alar plate of the neural tube, which later develops into sensory nuclei and tracts of the central nervous ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/anterior+elastic+lamina

ISPN Guide to Neurosurgery - ISPNISPN Guide to Neurosurgery - ISPN

... formation of the basal and alar plates and their derivatives, and 4) migration of neuronal and glial cells. Each of these ... Once neural tube formation is completed, a series of additional morphological changes occurs within the brain and spinal cord, ... Secondary neurulation - cord formation distal to S2: Secondary neurulation forms the spinal cord caudal to S2 and the filum ... Neuronal migration region specific: Neuronal migration occurs in a specified pattern from basal and alar plate neurons, a ...
more infohttps://www.ispneurosurgery.org/ispn-guide-neurosurgery/

Expression study of cadherin7 and cadherin20 in the embryonic and adult rat central nervous system | BMC Developmental Biology ...Expression study of cadherin7 and cadherin20 in the embryonic and adult rat central nervous system | BMC Developmental Biology ...

... and then accumulated in cells of the dorsal neural tube and in rhombomere boundary cells of the hindbrain. Expression of rat ... Rat cad7 mRNA was initially expressed in the anterior neural plate including presumptive forebrain and midbrain regions, ... cad20 mRNA was specifically localized in the anterior neural region and rhombomere 2 in the early neural plate, and later in ... Irx3 and Otx2 in the neural plate, and Dbx2 and Gsh1 in the hindbrain. At later stages, the expression of cad7 and cad20 ...
more infohttps://bmcdevbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-213X-8-87

Shh-dependent formation of the ZLI is opposed by signals from the dorsal diencephalon | DevelopmentShh-dependent formation of the ZLI is opposed by signals from the dorsal diencephalon | Development

The ZLI forms from cells in the diencephalic alar plate. (A) Strategy to ascertain whether cells in the basal plate contribute ... Control of cell pattern in the neural tube: motor neuron induction by diffusible factors from notochord and floor plate. Cell ... the floor plate ventrally and the roof plate dorsally, impose distinct cell fates on intervening neural progenitor cells (Lee ... dorsal migration of Shh-expressing basal-plate cells or from de novo induction of ZLI character within alar-plate cells. The ...
more infohttp://dev.biologists.org/content/132/9/2023

CMD377 Flashcards - Cram.comCMD377 Flashcards - Cram.com

during fusion, groups of cells from the crest of each neural fold separates from the neural tube forming the ... dorsal half forms an alar plate which becomes the cells concerned with sensory processing( in the brain). 2. ventral half forms ... 1. neural plate formed at week 3 of embryonic development. the neural plate is formed by the band of ectoderm thickening.. 2. ... hte lateral parts of the alar plate in the brainstem thickens to form the rhombic lips-, becomes to cerebellum which has a lot ...
more infohttp://www.cram.com/flashcards/cmd377-326665

Plate | definition of plate by Medical dictionaryPlate | definition of plate by Medical dictionary

... plate explanation free. What is plate? Meaning of plate medical term. What does plate mean? ... Looking for online definition of plate in the Medical Dictionary? ... floor plate. In the embryonic neural tube, the wedge of cells in the ventral midline. These cells are primitive radial glia and ... alar plate. In the embryo, the upper (dorsal) half of the neural tube (above the sulcus limitans). ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/plate

Embryology of the Nervous System Flashcards by Stephen Schaffner | BrainscapeEmbryology of the Nervous System Flashcards by Stephen Schaffner | Brainscape

process of forming the neural tube from ectoderm •Neurulation involves:. -1) Formation of a neural plate. -2) Neural plate ... Neural crest forms the majority of the peripheral nervous system. -Autonomic Ganglia. -Spinal nerves. -Schwann cells. - ... Alar plate is largely thalamus. Basal plate is largely hypothalamus. Roof and alar plates give rise to epithalamus (habenula ... Once the neural tube is closed, the roofplate expresses one signal and the floorplate expresses a second signal. These signals ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/embryology-of-the-nervous-system-3467190/packs/5335006

Bighead is a Wnt antagonist secreted by the Xenopus Spemann organizer that promotes Lrp6 endocytosis | PNASBighead is a Wnt antagonist secreted by the Xenopus Spemann organizer that promotes Lrp6 endocytosis | PNAS

Bighead transcripts were detected in the neural tube (in the midbrain, hindbrain, and spinal cord alar plate) (SI Appendix, Fig ... 2016) Generating cellular diversity and spatial form: Wnt signaling and the evolution of multicellular animals. Dev Cell 38:643 ... Cell surface levels of endogenous Lrp6 protein detected by a cell membrane-impermeable Biotin reagent in HEK293T cells on ice ... HEK293T cells were transfected with pCS2-Lrp6-3XFlag. Forty-eight hours after transfection, cells in 12-well plates were ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/content/early/2018/09/11/1812117115
  • During embryonic development, the laterally displaced alar plate edges in amniotes constitute the rhombic lip which have long been known to be highly proliferative and to give rise to various brain structures that are finally located remote from their rhombic lip origin. (frontiersin.org)
  • The study of neural development in humans draws on both neuroscience and developmental biology to describe the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which complex nervous systems emerge during embryonic development and throughout life. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stage of embryonic development at which a gastrula is formed from the blastula by the inward migration of cells. (lumenlearning.com)
  • By the third to fourth week of embryonic development, the notochord, of mesodermal origin, induces the development of the neural plate (Fig. 2-1A). (wrhhs.org)
  • By the third to fourth week of embryonic development, there is a high rate of cell proliferation. (wrhhs.org)
  • 1. neural plate formed at week 3 of embryonic development. (cram.com)
  • Due to the conserved nature of vertebrate cell behaviour our results will be relevant to Wnt signalling during human embryonic development and could suggest novel vulnerabilities to Wnt-dependent diseases - a prerequisite for the development of novel therapeutics. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • Much current research is focused on finding solutions to spinal cord injuries, including stimulating regrowth of axons , replacing damaged nerve or glial cells, and retraining the circuits. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Experiments in rodents with labelled cholesterol have suggested that very little lipoprotein cholesterol enters the brain, 5 but there are at least some brain cells (microvascular endothelial cells, glial cells) which, in culture, respond to lipoprotein in the medium with a reduction in de novo cholesterol synthesis. (bmj.com)
  • During the embryonic period blood vessels are also modified to form the extensive choroid plexus that lies within the ventricular space and is a source of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). (edu.au)
  • Other neural crest cells will become chromaffin cells (of the adrenal medulla), Schwann cells (that are critical for the formation of myelin in peripheral nerves), and melanocytes. (wrhhs.org)
  • in the medulla and pons and form the floor of the 4th ventricle . (videohelp.com)
  • Depending of the activity status of the transcription promoter region found next to each gene in the genome, a number of copies of the corresponding mRNA are produced, which sort out of the cell nucleus, and associate to polyribosomes in the cytoplasm. (frontiersin.org)
  • Neural development refers to the processes that generate, shape, and reshape the nervous system, from the earliest stages of embryogenesis to the final years of life. (gutenberg.us)
  • In addition, groups of mesodermal cells located alongside the neural tube, called somites, will develop into skeletal muscle, vertebrae, and the dermal layer of the skin (Fig. 2-1D). (wrhhs.org)
  • The spinal cord functions primarily in the transmission of neural signals between the brain and the rest of the body (motor and sensory information, traveling in opposite directions down the spinal cord). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • These studies demonstrate that self-organizing signals from the basal plate regulate the formation of a potential patterning center in the ZLI in an orthogonal orientation in the alar plate, and thus create the potential for coordinated thalamic patterning in two dimensions. (biologists.org)
  • Many of these inductive signals derive from discrete neural cell groups, and they influence cell pattern along both the dorsoventral and rostrocaudal axes of the neural tube. (biologists.org)
  • Neural activity and sensory experience will mediate formation of new synapses, as well as synaptic plasticity, which will be responsible for refinement of the nascent neural circuits. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the spinal cord also contains neural circuits that can independently coordinate numerous reflexes, which are automatic responses to various stimuli (such as pulling hand back from a hot object before the brain has processed the information). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In a few instances , portions of the cell columns migrate away from their expected locations. (videohelp.com)
  • Using a combination of fate-mapping studies and in vitro assays, I show that the differentiation of the ZLI from progenitor cells in the alar plate is initiated by a Shh-dependent signal from the basal plate. (biologists.org)
  • It has been postulated that Wnt/β-catenin signalling form concentration gradients across responsive tissues and act as morphogens. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • The paired inferior colliculi together with the superior colliculi form the eminences of the corpora quadrigemina. (statemaster.com)
  • These studies proposed that cadherin-mediated differential cell affinity establishes various compartments and regionalizes the neuroepithelium. (biomedcentral.com)