Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins: A family of structurally related proteins that are induced by CYTOKINES and negatively regulate cytokine-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. SOCS proteins contain a central SH2 DOMAIN and a C-terminal region of homology known as the SOCS box.Receptors, Cytokine: Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mice, Inbred C57BLInterleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cytokine Receptor gp130: A cytokine receptor that acts through the formation of oligomeric complexes of itself with a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Mice, Inbred BALB CInterleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Interleukin-5: A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Interleukin-13: A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Receptors, Interleukin: Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Interleukin-17: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.Interleukin-18: A cytokine which resembles IL-1 structurally and IL-12 functionally. It enhances the cytotoxic activity of NK CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES, and appears to play a role both as neuroimmunomodulator and in the induction of mucosal immunity.Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein: A ligand that binds to but fails to activate the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR. It plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of INFLAMMATION and FEVER. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.Toll-Like Receptor 4: A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Toll-Like Receptors: A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Receptors, Interleukin-6: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-6. They are present on T-LYMPHOCYTES, mitogen-activated B-LYMPHOCYTES, and peripheral MONOCYTES. The receptors are heterodimers of the INTERLEUKIN-6 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Toll-Like Receptor 2: A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Interleukin-15: Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and shares biological activities with IL-2. IL-15 also can induce proliferation and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Receptors, Interleukin-1: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Macrophages, Peritoneal: Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.STAT1 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.Interleukin-12 Subunit p40: A cytokine subunit that is a component of both interleukin-12 and interleukin-23. It binds to the INTERLEUKIN-12 SUBUNIT P35 via a disulfide bond to form interleukin-12 and to INTERLEUKIN-23 SUBUNIT P19 to form interleukin-23.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Mice, Inbred C3HDNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Immunologic Factors: Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Oncostatin M: A cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions that depend upon the cellular microenvironment. Oncostatin M is a 28 kDa monomeric glycoprotein that is similar in structure to LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR. Its name derives from the the observation that it inhibited the growth of tumor cells and augmented the growth of normal fibroblasts.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Interleukin-1alpha: An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Sialoglycoproteins: Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.GATA3 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.Interleukin-3: A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Leukemia Inhibitory Factor: An INTERLEUKIN-6 related cytokine that exhibits pleiotrophic effects on many physiological systems that involve cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Leukemia inhibitory factor binds to and acts through the lif receptor.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Interleukin-7: A cytokine produced by bone marrow stromal cells that promotes the growth of B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors and is co-mitogenic with INTERLEUKIN-2 for mature T-LYMPHOCYTE activation.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors: Proteins released by sensitized LYMPHOCYTES and possibly other cells that inhibit the migration of MACROPHAGES away from the release site. The structure and chemical properties may vary with the species and type of releasing cell.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.STAT6 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-4. Stat6 has been shown to partner with NF-KAPPA B and CCAAT-ENHANCER-BINDING PROTEINS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of interleukin-4 responsive GENES.Janus Kinase 2: A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.STAT5 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.Receptors, Interleukin-4: Receptors present on a wide variety of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell types that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-4. They are involved in signaling a variety of immunological responses related to allergic INFLAMMATION including the differentiation of TH2 CELLS and the regulation of IMMUNOGLOBULIN E production. Two subtypes of receptors exist and are referred to as the TYPE I INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR and the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR. Each receptor subtype is defined by its unique subunit composition.Receptors, Interleukin-10: Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-10. They exist as a tetramer of two alpha chains (INTERLEUKIN-10 RECEPTOR ALPHA CHAIN) and two beta chains (INTERLEUKIN-10 RECEPTOR, BETA CHAIN). Signaling from interleukin-10 receptors occurs through their interaction with JANUS KINASES.Th17 Cells: Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Growth Inhibitors: Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Receptors, Interleukin-17: Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-17. Several subtypes of receptors have been found, each with its own in specificity for interleukin-17 subtype.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Interferon-alpha: One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Cell SeparationSepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Lymphotoxin-alpha: A tumor necrosis factor family member that is released by activated LYMPHOCYTES. Soluble lymphotoxin is specific for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR TYPE I; TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR TYPE II; and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR SUPERFAMILY, MEMBER 14. Lymphotoxin-alpha can form a membrane-bound heterodimer with LYMPHOTOXIN-BETA that has specificity for the LYMPHOTOXIN BETA RECEPTOR.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype that has specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA and LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA. It is constitutively expressed in most tissues and is a key mediator of tumor necrosis factor signaling in the vast majority of cells. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Synovial Membrane: The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.Interleukin-23: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-23 is comprised of a unique 19 kDa subunit and 40 kDa subunit that is shared with INTERLEUKIN-12. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cellsJanus Kinase 1: A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from a broad variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Receptors, Interferon: Specific molecular sites or structures on or in cells with which interferons react or to which they bind in order to modify the function of the cells. Interferons exert their pleiotropic effects through two different receptors. alpha- and beta-interferon crossreact with common receptors, while gamma-interferon initiates its biological effects through its own specific receptor system.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Mice, Inbred DBAInterleukin-9: A multifunctional cytokine secreted by primarily by activated TH2 CELLS that may play a role as a regulator of allergic INFLAMMATION. It has been shown to enhance the growth and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MAST CELLS, and can act on a variety of other immune cells.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Monokines: Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Shock, Septic: Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Colitis: Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Arthritis, Experimental: ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II: A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Immune System: The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1: A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype that is expressed primarily in IMMUNE SYSTEM cells. It has specificity for membrane-bound form of TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and mediates intracellular-signaling through TNF RECEPTOR ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Cytokine Receptor Common beta Subunit: A receptor subunit that is a shared component of the INTERLEUKIN-3 RECEPTOR; the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR; and the GM-CSF RECEPTOR. High affinity receptor complexes are formed with each of these receptors when their respective alpha subunits are combined with this shared beta subunit.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
... cytokines and chemokines upon Fc epsilon RI activation in human cultured mast cells derived from peripheral blood". Cytokine. ... B cells). They allow these cells to bind to antibodies that are attached to the surface of microbes or microbe infected cells, ... cells stimulate the NK cells to release cytotoxic molecules from their granules to kill antibody-covered target cells. FcεRI ... Activation of FcγRIII by IgG causes the release of cytokines such as IFN-γ that signal to other immune cells, and cytotoxic ...
... and connexin37 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells". Cytokine. 10 (4): 258-64. doi:10.1006/cyto.1997.0287. PMID 9617570. ... in human myometrial smooth muscle cells at term". Eur. J. Cell Biol. 75 (1): 1-8. doi:10.1016/S0171-9335(98)80040-X. PMID ... J. Cell Biol. 53 (2): 275-80. PMID 1964417. Chen SC; Davis LM; Westphale EM; et al. (1995). "Expression of multiple gap ... Cell. Cardiol. 26 (7): 861-8. doi:10.1006/jmcc.1994.1103. PMID 7966354. Mehta PP; Lokeshwar BL; Schiller PC; et al. (1996). " ...
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Th17 cells are present in higher quantities at the site of bone destruction in joints and produce inflammatory cytokines ... a cell surface protein present in Th17 cells and osteoblasts. Osteoclast activity can be directly induced by osteoblasts ... "Recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of the development and function of Th17 cells". Genes Cells. 18 (4): ... Treatment with DMARDs is designed to initiate an adaptive immune response, in part by CD4+ T helper (Th) cells, specifically ...
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Cell. Biol. 17 (10): 5748-57. PMC 232423. PMID 9315633.. *. Wathelet MG, Lin CH, Parekh BS, Ronco LV, Howley PM, Maniatis T ( ... cytokine-mediated signaling pathway. • regulation of type I interferon production. • positive regulation of type I interferon ... HIV-1 Tat reprograms immature dendritic cells to express chemoattractants for activated T cells and macrophages». Nat. Med. 9 ( ... Cell. Biol. 20 (23): 8803-14. doi:10.1128/MCB.20.23.8803-8814.2000. PMC 86519. PMID 11073981.. ...
IL-22 is an α-helical cytokine. IL-22 binds to a heterodimeric cell surface receptor composed of IL-10R2 and IL-22R1 subunits. ... Nikoopour E, Bellemore SM, Singh B (Jul 2015). "IL-22, cell regeneration and autoimmunity". Cytokine. 74 (1): 35-42. doi: ... IL-22 along with IL-17 is rapidly produced by splenic LTi-like cells and also produced by Th17 cells and likely plays a role in ... IL-22R is expressed on tissue cells, and it is absent on immune cells. Crystallization is possible if the N-linked ...
Ectodomain shedding R&D Systems (Winter 2006). "Need help at the cell surface? Ask your local sheddase". Cytokine Bulletin. ... When PSA-3 cells' ability to synthesize phospatidylserine was repressed, sheddase activity decreased, and the sheddase activity ... This led researchers to conclude that phosphatidyserine exposure is necessary for cells to exhibit sheddase activity. Due to ... shedding activity of the enzyme is significantly more prominent in head and neck cancer cells compared to normal cultured cells ...
... cytokines and cytokine receptors; recombinant DNA and gene regulation technology; gene therapy; nucleic acid therapeutics and ... diagnostics; stem cell therapies; drug target validation; glycolated and pegylated therapeutics; and pioneering technologies in ...
Expression of JAK1 in cancer cells enables individual cells to contract, potentially allowing them to escape their tumor and ... It interacts with the common gamma chain (γc) of type I cytokine receptors, to elicit signals from the IL-2 receptor family (e. ... Cell. 93 (3): 373-83. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81166-6. PMID 9590172. Christian Nordqvist. "Protein JAK Makes Cancer Cells ... activates Jak1/Stat3-Stat5B signaling through TNFR-1 in human B cells". Cell Growth Differ. 13 (1): 13-8. PMID 11801527. ...
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Smooth muscle cells in the tunica media of many blood vessels also produce IL-6 as a pro-inflammatory cytokine. IL-6's role as ... IL-6 signals through a cell-surface type I cytokine receptor complex consisting of the ligand-binding IL-6Rα chain (CD126), and ... In general, the cytokine response to exercise and sepsis differs with regard to TNF-α. Thus, the cytokine response to exercise ... Many neuronal cells are unresponsive to stimulation by IL-6 alone, but differentiation and survival of neuronal cells can be ...
Human interferon alpha-2 (IFNα2) is a cytokine belonging to the family of type I IFNs. IFNα2 is a protein secreted by cells ... Induced IFNα2 is secreted by the infected cells and acts locally as well as systemically on cells expressing a specific cell ... Several ISGs inhibit viral replication in the infected cells. Other ISGs protect neighbouring uninfected cells from being ... "High efficiency cell-specific targeting of cytokine activity". Nat Commun. 5: 3016. doi:10.1038/ncomms4016. PMID 24398568. Paul ...
The fact that for many cell types, the cytokines are secreted despite them showing absolutely no signs of pyroptosis, supports ... cytokines activated by Caspase-1 are excreted from the cell to further induce the inflammatory response in neighboring cells. ... "Cell death by pyroptosis drives CD4 T-cell depletion in HIV-1 infection". Nature. 505 (7484): 509-14. doi:10.1038/nature12940. ... Cytokine. Cytokines in inflammation, aging, cancer and obesity. 82: 38-51. doi:10.1016/j.cyto.2016.01.006. PMID 26898120. Vince ...
Cytokines & Cells Online Pathfinder Encyclopaedia. ... Cytokine-binding proteins bind to and sequester cytokines, ... Virokines are proteins encoded by some large DNA viruses that are secreted by the host cell and serve to evade the host's ... A third class of virally encoded immunomodulatory proteins consists of proteins that bind directly to cytokines. Due to the ... Fickenscher, H; Hör, S; Küpers, H; Knappe, A; Wittmann, S; Sticht, H (February 2002). "The interleukin-10 family of cytokines ...
In response to cytokines and growth factors, STAT family members are phosphorylated by the receptor associated kinases, and ... Knockout studies in mice suggested the roles of this gene in differentiation of T helper 2 (Th2), expression of cell surface ... Masuda A, Matsuguchi T, Yamaki K, Hayakawa T, Yoshikai Y (Jul 2001). "Interleukin-15 prevents mouse mast cell apoptosis through ... Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 79 (3-4): 208-9. doi:10.1159/000134723. PMID 9605853. Hou J, Schindler U, Henzel WJ, Ho TC, ...
The IRF7 pathway was shown to be silenced in some metastatic breast cancer cell lines, which may help the cells avoid the host ... Zhang L, Pagano JS (2002). "Structure and function of IRF-7". J. Interferon Cytokine Res. 22 (1): 95-101. doi:10.1089/ ... "HIV-1 Tat reprograms immature dendritic cells to express chemoattractants for activated T cells and macrophages". Nat. Med. 9 ( ... Cell. 1 (4): 507-18. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80051-9. PMID 9660935. Au WC, Moore PA, LaFleur DW, Tombal B, Pitha PM (1998). " ...
... alpha-induced apoptosis by disrupting recruitment of TRADD and RIP to the TNF receptor 1 complex in Jurkat T cells". Mol. Cell ... Heyninck K, Beyaert R (1999). "The cytokine-inducible zinc finger protein A20 inhibits IL-1-induced NF-kappaB activation at the ... 1996). "A20, an inhibitor of cell death, self-associates by its zinc finger domain". FEBS Lett. 384 (1): 61-4. doi:10.1016/0014 ... Baltathakis I, Alcantara O, Boldt DH (2001). "Expression of different NF-kappaB pathway genes in dendritic cells (DCs) or ...
This cytokine is found to be a cofactor for V(D)J rearrangement of the T cell receptor beta (TCRß) during early T cell ... B cells, T cells and NK cells).[citation needed] It is important for proliferation during certain stages of B-cell maturation, ... T and NK cell survival, development and homeostasis.[citation needed] IL-7 is a cytokine important for B and T cell development ... This cytokine and the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) form a heterodimer that functions as a pre-pro-B cell growth-stimulating ...
Appasamy PM (1999). "Biological and clinical implications of interleukin-7 and lymphopoiesis". Cytokines Cell. Mol. Ther. 5 (1 ... 1996). "Interleukin-7 signaling in human B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells and murine BAF3 cells involves ... Banham AH (2007). "Cell-surface IL-7 receptor expression facilitates the purification of FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells". Trends ... Akashi K, Kondo M, Weissman IL (1999). "Role of interleukin-7 in T-cell development from hematopoietic stem cells". Immunol. ...
Zhao RY, Elder RT (Mar 2005). "Viral infections and cell cycle G2/M regulation". Cell Research. 15 (3): 143-9. doi:10.1038/sj. ... CCL3 is a cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is involved in the acute inflammatory state in the recruitment and ... Menten P, Wuyts A, Van Damme J (Dec 2002). "Macrophage inflammatory protein-1". Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews. 13 (6): 455- ... DNA and Cell Biology. 23 (4): 239-47. doi:10.1089/104454904773819824. PMID 15142381. Joseph AM, Kumar M, Mitra D (Jan 2005). " ...
positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation. • cytokine-mediated signaling pathway. • positive regulation of cell ... Another cell type that expresses TF on the cell surface in inflammatory conditions is the monocyte (a white blood cell). ... Cytokines are small proteins that can influence the behavior of white blood cells. Binding of VIIa to TF has also been found to ... Cytokine signaling[edit]. TF is related to a protein family known as the cytokine receptor class II family. The members of this ...
... plasma cells will likely secrete IgG3 antibodies if they matured in the presence of the cytokine interferon-gamma. Since B cell ... Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete ... In humans, CD27 is a good marker for plasma cells, naive B cells are CD27-, memory B-cells are CD27+ and plasma cells are ... Germinal center B cells may differentiate into memory B cells or plasma cells. Most of these B cells will become plasmablasts ( ...
In LAD2 mast cells, both resveratrol and tranilast inhibited degranulation induced by the mast cell activators substance P, IgE ... The effects of resveratrol on mast cell activation were more marked in human primary CD34+-derived mast cells (HuMC), and the ... We investigated the effects of resveratrol on human mast cell activation in comparison to the anti-allergy drug tranilast. ... Furthermore, both resveratrol and tranilast reduced expression of the high affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, on LAD2 cells. ...
... in the total cell covered area (Acells) in low magnification images (n=30) of unstimulated cells (light grey), stimulated cells ... in the total cell covered area (Acells) in low magnification images (n=30) of unstimulated cells (light grey), stimulated cells ... Live cell imaging was carried out with COS-7 cells transiently transfected using the DEAE-dextran method. Transfected cells ... Histograms represent unstimulated cells (dark grey), stimulated cells (black) or cells that expressed only gp130/id-YC173 ( ...
Gene Expression in Normal Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells via Modulation of the NF-κβ System. Madhavan P. Nair, Supriya ... The Flavonoid Quercetin Inhibits Proinflammatory Cytokine (Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha) Gene Expression in Normal Peripheral ... The Flavonoid Quercetin Inhibits Proinflammatory Cytokine (Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha) Gene Expression in Normal Peripheral ... The Flavonoid Quercetin Inhibits Proinflammatory Cytokine (Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha) Gene Expression in Normal Peripheral ...
For example, cytokine production by dendritic cells may be more efficient in those cells that had been previously stimulated. ... Cytokine-Activated NK Cells Adoptively Transferred into Naïve Hosts Are Phenotypically Similar to Control NK Cells.. Splenic NK ... Previously-activated NK cells do not spontaneously produce cytokines 1-3 weeks after adoptive transfer. However, these NK cells ... 2006) T cell- and B cell-independent adaptive immunity mediated by natural killer cells. Nat Immunol 7:507-516. ...
Cytokines and T-cell homeostasis.. Boyman O1, Purton JF, Surh CD, Sprent J. ... Homeostasis of T cells can be defined as the ability of the immune system to maintain normal T-cell counts and to restore T- ... cell numbers following T-cell depletion or expansion. These processes are governed by extrinsic signals, most notably cytokines ... T cells. Recent evidence suggests that other cytokines, including IL-2, IL-10, IL-12, interferons and TGF-beta, as well as the ...
Merrill J.E., Charles A.C., Martin F.C. (1993) The Role of Substance P in Cytokine Production by Glial Cells. In: Fedoroff S., ... Lieberman, A.P., Pitha, P.M., Shin, H.S., and Shin, M.L. 1989, Production of tumor necrosis factor and other cytokines by ... Charles, A.C., Merrill, J.E., Dirksen, E.R., and Sanderson, M.J., 1991, Intercellular signaling in glial cells: calcium waves ... Edvinsson, L., Cervos-Navarro, J., Larsson, L-I., Owman, C.H., and Ronnberg A-L., 1977, Regional distribution of mast cells ...
A new study in the Journal of Clinical Investigation reveals that cytokine therapy enhances the activity of natural killer ... Cytokine therapy enhances natural killer cell functions against tumor cells. JCI Journals ... Natural killer (NK) cells are sentinels within the immune system that rapidly respond to and kill diseased cells. NK cells ... Cytokine therapy reverses NK cell anergy in MHC-deficient tumors. AUTHOR CONTACT: David Raulet University of California, ...
ATF4 regulates cytokine mRNA and secretion in HeLa and A549 cells. (A-C) HeLa cells were transfected for 24 h with nontargeting ... The pattern of cytokine induction was conserved among multiple cancer cell types and even nontransformed cells. This suggests ... Starvation-induced cytokines were cell type-dependent, and they were also released from primary epithelial cells. Most ... 2C), without promoting cell death. Other cell lines that showed little or no cytokine induction upon glucose deprivation did ...
... Yi-Chia Lin,1,2 Po-Cheng Liao,3 ... J. F. Lin, Y. C. Lin, Y. H. Lin et al., "Zoledronic acid induces autophagic cell death in human prostate cancer cells," Journal ... C. M. Novince, B. B. Ward, and L. K. McCauley, "Osteonecrosis of the jaw: an update and review of recommendations," Cells ... Z. Culig, H. Steiner, G. Bartsch, and A. Hobisch, "Interleukin-6 regulation of prostate cancer cell growth," Journal of ...
Cell viability was detected with WST-1 cell proliferation assay reagent. Proinflammatory cytokines were quantified using ELISA ... Cytokine Secretion of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells by Hydnocarpus anthelminthicus Seeds. Surang Leelawat1 and Kawin ... The current study aims to investigate the effect of H. anthelminthicus seed oil and extracts on the secretion of cytokines from ... Extracts of H. anthelminthicus seeds demonstrated various effects on the proinflammatory cytokine secretion of PBMCs. The ...
... cells, thereby boosting Ebi3 and IL-12alpha production in trans. T(reg)-cell restriction of this cytokine occurs because Ebi3 ... The inhibitory cytokine IL-35 contributes to regulatory T-cell function.. Collison LW1, Workman CJ, Kuo TT, Boyd K, Wang Y, ... Taken together, these data identify IL-35 as a novel inhibitory cytokine that may be specifically produced by T(reg) cells and ... Regulatory T (T(reg)) cells are a critical sub-population of CD4+ T cells that are essential for maintaining self tolerance and ...
Hunting connections between cell types and cytokines. 18 Jun 2018 , 20:36 BST. , Posted by Bioentrepreneur , Category: Research ... Cytokines are small proteins that mediate signalling among immune and non-immune cells, and they trigger a range of cellular ... The researchers developed a computational tool that mines PubMed data and connects cell types to cytokines and diseases. The ... Over many decades, immunologists have described countless associations between cell types and the cytokines they produce or ...
CIK cells have, as a key feature, a double T-cell and NK cell-like phenotype. This unique combination of T-cell and NK-cell ... CIK cells is distinctive from that of natural killer cells or LAK cells because they can lyse cells that NK cells and LAK cells ... Cytokine-induced killer cells or CIK cells are a group of immune effector cells featuring a mixed T- and natural killer (NK) ... These cytokines strongly stimulate the proliferation and maturation into CIK cells. After completed maturation CIK cells are ...
... for the treatment of patients up to age 25 years with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) that is refractory or ... FDA approves tisagenlecleucel for B-cell ALL and tocilizumab for cytokine release syndrome. On August 30, 2017, the U.S. Food ... FDA approves tisagenlecleucel for B-cell ALL and tocilizumab for cytokine release syndrome. * Share ... FDA approves tisagenlecleucel for B-cell ALL and tocilizumab for cytokine release syndrome ...
The incidence of renal cell carcinoma in the United States appears to be increasing, and in 1994 will cause an estimated 11,300 ... 1995) Cytokine Therapy of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: The Cleveland Clinic Experience. In: Biology of Renal Cell Carcinoma ... Wang Q, Tubbs R, Klein E, et al: Selective cytokine gene expression in renal cell carcinoma tumor cells and tumor infiltrating ... Finke JH, Zea AH, Stanley J, et al: Loss of T-cell receptor chain and p561`k in T-cells infiltrating human renal cell carcinoma ...
IL-26 seems to act as a cell surface-associated and rather proinflammatory T-cell cytokine at the epithelial barrier, possibly ... IL-26, IL-22, and IFN-γ are co expressed by activated T cells and, especially, by Th17 cells. IL-26 forms homodimers and ... Keywords: AK155; ICAM-1; IL-26; Interleukin-26; STAT; T cell; Th17; colon carcinoma; herpes virus saimiri ... Interleukin-26 (IL-26) is a member of the IL-10 cytokine family due to sequence homology. IL-26 was discovered, since the gene ...
CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells. T cell-specific deletion of Prmt5 led to a marked reduction in signaling via γc-family cytokines ... Many cytokines involved in T cell development and activation utilize the common cytokine receptor γ-chain (γc) and the kinase ... Takayanagi and colleagues show that a lack of PRMT5 in cells of the T cell lineage compromises their response to cytokines ... and a substantial loss of thymic iNKT cells, as well as a decreased number of peripheral CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells. PRMT5 ...
Visit to view our Cytokines materials including Inflammatory Cytokines & more. CST - Customer satisfaction is ...
Naive T cells were sorted as CD4+CD45RA+ T cells and stimulated with autologous monocytes that were pulsed with microbial ... CFSElo T cells were FACS sorted and cloned on day 9. The T cell clones were restimulated in low- or high-NaCl conditions as in ... CFSElo Th17 cells were FACS sorted on day 4 and then cloned. The T cell clones were restimulated on days 12 to 14 with CD3 and ... Salt generates antiinflammatory Th17 cells but amplifies pathogenicity in proinflammatory cytokine microenvironments. ...
Cytokine dependent hematopoietic cell linker is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLNK gene. MIST is a member of the ... Cytokine dependent hematopoietic cell linker". Retrieved 2017-09-06. Cronin S, Tomik B, Bradley DG, Slowik A, Hardiman O (2009 ... mediated B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling and FC-epsilon R1 (see FCER1A, MIM 147140)-mediated mast cell degranulation ( ...
KC participate in cutaneous immune responses by producing various cytokines. LC, a member of the dendritic cell (DC) family, … ... Langerhans cells (LC), and their soluble products, i.e. cytokines, constitute a unique immunologic microenvironment. ... Role of cytokines in epidermal Langerhans cell migration J Leukoc Biol. 1999 Jul;66(1):33-9. doi: 10.1002/jlb.66.1.33. ... KC participate in cutaneous immune responses by producing various cytokines. LC, a member of the dendritic cell (DC) family, ...
Investigating Cytokine Genes of Stem Cell Donors. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the ... Both genetic and clinical factors predict the development of graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell ...
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are well-characterized tissue-specific stem cells that exhibit remarkable self-renewal capacity ... HSC are rare cells that reside in adult bone marrow where hematopoiesis is continuously takin,biological,biology supply,biology ... Mouse Hematopoietic Stem Cell Expansion Cytokine Panel from R&D Systems, ... Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are well-characterized tissue-specific stem cells that exhibit remarkable self-renewal capacity ...
... Supervisors. J.J. Piek. A.J.G. Horrevoets. ... Chapter 8 Local cytokine concentrations and oxygen pressure are related to maturation of the collateral circulation in man. ... Chapter 7 Inhibition of interferon-ß signaling enhances vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and collateral artery growth ...
... and show that Ndfip1/2 double-deficient T cells have reduced degradation of Jak1 and as a result are hyp… ... Ndfip1 is an activator of Itch E3 ubiquitin ligase that limits T cell activation. Here the authors identify Jak1 in a proteomic ... We next tested whether Ndfip-deficient CD4+ T cells could outcompete WT cells within the same cytokine environment. WT cells co ... Ndfip2−/− T cells, like WT cells, were IL-17A producers, while cDKO cells, like Ndfip1-deficient T cells, produced IL-4 (Fig. ...
  • We detected a FRET signal between YFP- and CFP-tagged gp130 at the plasma membrane of unstimulated cells that does not increase upon IL-6 stimulation. (
  • In studies, researchers succeeded in the transfection of cells ex-vivo with cytokine-genes, e.g. (
  • The IL-26 gene maps to human chromosome 12q15 between the genes for two other T-cellular class-II cytokines, namely interferon- γ(lFN-γ) and lL-22. (
  • Cell cycle progression is normally mediated by enzymatic complexes containing Cdks, which phosphorylate substrates such as the Retinoblastoma (Rb) protein, releasing E2F and inducing transcription of genes needed for cell division ( Nevins, 2001 ). (
  • To determine the effects of HG on the expression of other inflammatory genes, in the present study, HG-induced gene profiling was performed in THP-1 monocytes using cytokine gene arrays containing 375 known genes. (
  • HG treatment upregulated the expression of 41 genes and downregulated 15 genes that included chemokines, cytokines, chemokines receptors, adhesion molecules, and integrins. (
  • However, it is not known whether other key monocyte-activating inflammatory cytokine and chemokine genes are induced under hyperglycemic conditions or whether the monocytes exhibit increased adhesive properties under these conditions. (
  • More importantly though, they also lead to the formation of germinal centers (GCs), which are specialized structures in the follicles of secondary lymphoid tissues where somatic hypermutation (SHM) of immunoglobulin (Ig) variable region genes and selection of high-affinity B cells occurs. (
  • The authors also identified transcriptomic signatures of early memory T cells that were associated with durable remissions, while T cells from nonresponding patients had higher expression of genes that regulate terminal differentiation and exhaustion. (
  • T cells from nonresponders were enriched in genes belonging to known pathways of exhaustion. (
  • MIN6 cells were treated with cytokines (either IL-1â alone or co-treatment with IL-1â, IFN-ã and TNF-á) for 24 or 48 h, and either insulin secretory function was evaluated or RNA was extracted and mRNA levels of candidate â-cell differentiation genes assessed by real-time PCR. (
  • In both isolated islets and MIN6 cells, high glucose treatment induced ER stress, as evidenced by upregulation of several genes specific to the unfolded protein response (BiP, ERP72, EDEM1, P58) and increased processing of XBP-1, a transcription factor which is entirely dependent on activation of UPR transducer protein IRE1 as a consequence of ER stress. (
  • Moreover this was also associated with alterations in mRNA levels of many genes implicated in b-cell glucose sensing (GLUT2, mGPDH, Kir6.2, SERCA2b). (
  • Conversely, several genes that are normally suppressed in â-cells such as Id-1 and iNOS that would theoretically impair â-cell function were increased. (
  • InvivoGen provides HEK293 cells stably expressing PRR or cytokine genes specifically designed for monitoring the activity of these genes using ELISA analysis, NF-κB-inducible SEAP (secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase) or IFN-inducible Lucia luciferase reporter systems. (
  • The antiapoptotic gene metallothionein 1E and cell adhesion genes RhoE and catenin δ1 were down-regulated by more than 2-fold by MIC-1, suggesting that they were, at least in part, responsible for the observed changes in the behavior of DU-145 cells. (
  • We could then propose that AA colon tumors secrete less IL-8 than CA colon tumors as a consequence of their DNA hypermethylated genes and this leads to deficient recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages, key cells for pathogen elimination and T cell activation. (
  • Of interest, genetic polymorphism in genes encoding these cytokines predisposes affected individuals to cancer ( 16 ). (
  • In both primary BMCC and SCC from immunized animals expression of proinflammatory cytokines genes IL-1 β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF- α was revealed - in BMCC on 1 - 3 day after immunization, and in SCC - up to 15 days. (
  • In СВА/N xid mice there was neither increase CFU-F in the corresponding organs, nor expression of proinflammatory cytokines genes in primary cultures. (
  • Gorskaya, U. , Danilova, T. , Mezentseva, M. , Shapoval, I. and Nesterenko, V. (2011) Effect of antigens on colony forming efficiency of stromal clonogenic cells and expression of cytokine genes in primary cultures of bone marrow and spleen of mice. (
  • Lafreniere R, Rosenberg SA: Adoptive immunotherapy of murine hepatic metastases with lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cells and recombinant interleukin2 (rIL-2) can mediate the regression of both immunogenic and non-immunogenic sarcomas and an adenocarcinoma. (
  • Although monocytes have been considered important accessory cells that provide the Ag isopentenyl pyrophosphate, CD56 bright CD11c + NK cells were postulated to mediate the costimulatory effects of IL-18. (
  • We have identified two cytokines that mediate these effects: IL-6 and RANTES. (
  • Many tumors, including breast cancer, are maintained by a subpopulation of cells that display stem cell properties, mediate metastasis, and contribute to treatment resistance. (
  • This experiment will examine different mechanisms by which cytokine secretions may mediate neural development, including whether or not they alter the placenta, whether they can enter fetal tissues, and if they promote differentiation of immune cells which alter the neuroinflammatory process. (
  • Upregulation of these ER chaperones, folding enzymes and degradation proteins (BiP, ERP72, EDEM1) would serve to protect the cells from further endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis. (
  • Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) are a family of eight proteins that negatively regulate Janus kinase and signal transducers and activators of transcription signaling in cells that utilize this pathway to respond to extracellular stimuli. (
  • This review will discuss SOCS proteins as central regulators for diverse cellular processes important for normal β-cell function as well as their protective anti-apoptotic effects during β-cell stress. (
  • Of the ten angiogenic proteins studied, only four - VEGF, PDGF-BB, ANG-2, and Angiogenin - were detectable in cell supernatant in any of the study conditions. (
  • Protein transduction exploits the ability of some cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) sequences to enhance the uptake of proteins and other macromolecules by mammalian cells. (
  • Previously developed hydrophobic CPPs-named membrane translocating sequence (MTS), membrane translocating motif (MTM) and macromolecule transduction domain (MTD)-are able to deliver biologically active proteins into a variety of cells and tissues. (
  • However, this SOCS3 fusion proteins expressed in bacteria cells were hard to be purified in soluble form. (
  • Furthermore, solubilization domains (SDs) have been incorporated into the aMTD-fused SOCS3 recombinant proteins to enhance solubility with corresponding increases in protein yield and cell-/tissue-permeability. (
  • These recombinant SOCS3 proteins fused to aMTD/SD having much higher solubility/yield and cell-/tissue-permeability have been named as improved cell-permeable SOCS3 (iCP-SOCS3) proteins. (
  • To investigate and understand how system's properties such as T cell plasticity and T cell-mediated robust response arise from the interplay between these signals, the use of experimental toolboxes that modulate immune proteins may be explored. (
  • Altogether, we envision that a qualitative (pattern) and quantitative (dosage) crosstalk between the extracellular milieu and intracellular proteins leads to T cell plasticity and robustness. (
  • CIK cells, along with the administration of IL-2 have been experimentally used to treat cancer in mice and humans with low toxicity. (
  • Importantly, treatment of mice bearing MHC class I-deficient tumors with the cytokines IL-12 and IL-18 or with the H9 "superkine" restored NK cell activity, reduced tumor size, and increased survival. (
  • Prmt5 is a regulator of muscle stem cell expansion in adult mice. (
  • Although Ndfip2 −/− mice show no overt immunopathology, animals with T cells lacking both Ndfip1 and Ndfip2 have a dramatically increased pool of activated CD4+ T cells compared with mice with T cells lacking only Ndfip1. (
  • These agonists also show very high activity in human CD34 + primary cell cultures, and doubled the mean blood platelet counts when injected into mice. (
  • The determination of draining lymph node cell cytokine mRNA levels in BALB/c mice following dermal sodium lauryl sulfate, dinitrofluorobenzene, and toluene diisocyanate exposure. (
  • Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are operationally defined by their ability to initiate tumors in immunocompromised mice upon serial passage, a demonstration of self renewal, as well as their ability to differentiate into the non-self-renewing cells forming the tumor bulk ( 1 - 3 ). (
  • These leukemic stem cells, but not the majority of leukemic blast cells, were able to transfer leukemia to immunosuppressed mice ( 7 ) More recent studies have suggested that the majority of CD34 + AMLs arise from progenitor cells rather than from hematopoietic stem cells, and that an individual leukemia may be driven by multiple clones of leukemia stem cells ( 8 ). (
  • 1990), but B cell depletion does not alter the susceptibility or resistance pattern to Leishmania infection in mice (Babai et al. (
  • Predominance of Th1 cytokines like IFN- g , IL-12, IL-2 and TNF- a over Th2 cytokines, IL-4, IL-5 IL-10 and TGF- b , is correlated in mice to the resistance profile against Leishmania infection (Belosevic et al. (
  • A related, but distinct protease was isolated from peritoneal cavity mast cells of mice. (
  • in turn, the cell was implanted in mice with psoriasis-an inflammatory skin condition that has no cure. (
  • The "cytokine converter" cells not only prevented psoriasis flare-ups, as they're called, but also treated acute (established) psoriasis, returning skin to normal in mice. (
  • The designer cells specifically prevented the onset of psoriatic flares, stopped acute psoriasis, improved psoriatic skin lesions and restored normal skin-tissue morphology in mice. (
  • Injection of S. typhimurium antigen complex to mice CBA increased 5 times colony forming efficiency (CFE) and, respectively, content of stromal precursor cells (CFU-F) in femur bone marrow and 9 times in spleen of these animals with maximum at the first day. (
  • By contrast, memory-like NK cells do not express granzyme B protein and kill targets similarly to naïve NK cells. (
  • However, as unbiased screens for identification of E3 ligase substrates, particularly in primary cells, are rare, only a handful of protein targets for Nedd4 E3 ligases have been identified using targeted approaches. (
  • HG culture also increased basal and TNF-α−induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity in these monocytic cells ( 16 ). (
  • We report in this article that downstream depletion of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP), which is required for protein prenylation, caused cell stress in monocytes, followed by caspase-1-mediated maturation and release of IL-18, which, in turn, induced γδ T cell CCL2. (
  • Brusatol prevented beta-cell oxidative stress in response to cytokines and counteracted induction of iNOS on the protein level. (
  • Brusatol, however, block neither the cytokine-induced increase of iNOS mRNA, nor NF-kappa B activation, suggesting that inhibition of iNOS protein expression relies on posttranscriptional mechanism. (
  • In principle, protein-based biotherapeutics offers a way to control biochemical processes in living cells under non-steady state conditions and with fewer off-target effects than conventional small molecule therapeutics. (
  • In the present invention with iCP-SOCS3, where SOCS3 is fused to an empirically determined combination of newly developed aMTD and customized SD, macromolecule intracellular transduction technology (MITT) enabled by the advanced MTDs may provide novel protein therapy against cancer cell-mediated angiogenesis. (
  • Factors regulating the production of MIC-1 protein by these cells and some of the effects of MIC-1 on them were investigated. (
  • Although PZ-HPV-7 and DU-145 produced no MIC-1 protein, PC-3 and LNCaP cells secreted MIC-1 protein at high levels. (
  • The Dome protein is targeted to the apicolateral membranes in all follicle (A,B) and germline cells (not shown). (
  • 2 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 8 CD19 is a protein that is expressed on almost all B-lineage cells. (
  • In conclusion, our findings support the view that SOCS1 protein is a critical inhibitory molecule for controlling cytokine response and antigen presentation by DCs, thereby regulating the magnitude of innate and adaptive immunities by generating IFN-γ-production T cells (Th1)--but not Th17--from naïve CD4(+) T cells. (
  • Thus, different cytokine-antibody complexes can be used to selectively boost or inhibit the immune response. (
  • Secondary lymphoid organs play a key role in bringing together APCs and T cells for initiation of an adaptive immune response. (
  • CRS, which is caused by an overactive immune response, has been identified as a potentially severe and life-threatening side effect of CAR T cell therapy for certain cancers. (
  • The immune response to M tuberculosis is T cell dependent. (
  • An attenuated cytokine release may have implications for the macrophage immune response and result in impaired bacterial clearance. (
  • Th17 cells secrete an array of cytokines that contribute to host defense and that bridge the innate and adaptive arms of the immune response. (
  • The data suggest the possibility of positive participation of stromal cells in the development on of immune response in organism. (
  • This may lead to switching their phenotypes and, ultimately, modulating the balance between proliferating and memory T cells to sustain an appropriate immune response. (
  • IL-26, IL-22, and IFN-γ are co expressed by activated T cells and, especially, by Th17 cells. (
  • Sodium chloride (NaCl) was proposed to accumulate in peripheral tissues upon dietary intake and to promote autoimmunity via the Th17 cell axis. (
  • Taken together, our findings reveal a context-dependent, dichotomous role for NaCl in shaping Th17 cell pathogenicity. (
  • The microbial antigen specificity of human Th17 cells determines whether pro- or antiinflammatory effects are promoted by NaCl. (
  • A ) Human Th17 cells were sorted by flow cytometry, labeled with CFSE, and restimulated with autologous monocytes (2:1 ratio) that had been pulsed for 3 hours with S . aureus (DSM799) or C . albicans (SC5314) lysates before glutardehyde fixation as described previously ( 2 ). (
  • CFSE lo Th17 cells were FACS sorted on day 4 and then cloned. (
  • this is probably caused by the generation of tolerogenic APCs, which have an inhibitory effect on Th1, Th2, and especially, Th17 cell activity. (
  • Th17 cells are positioned at a crossroads between innate and adaptive immunity and provide mediators that are essential for host defense. (
  • On day +13 animals were euthanized, draining lymph nodes were excised, and mRNA was isolated immediately or following 24 or 48 h of culture in the presence or absence of concanavalin (Con) A. Differential expression of cytokine mRNA was most notable following 24 h incubation with Con A. Modulation of IL-4, -10, and IFN-gamma following chemical exposure was consistent with previous studies. (
  • This production of cytokines and phosphorylation of ERK was enhanced by the addition of macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and partially inhibited by an anti-TLR-2 antibody. (
  • Disruption of this signaling axis resulted in decreased production of cytokines, including IL-6 and IL-8 - known regulators of CSCs - as well as downstream STAT3 signaling. (
  • The Murine Dendritic Cell Cytokine Package contains the key components required for the culturing of your mouse dendritic cells. (
  • Plasma cells are generated as a result of cognate interactions between Ag-specific B cells, CD4 + T helper cells, and dendritic cells in response to foreign Ags (Figure 1 ). (
  • Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to ascertain if the immunomodulatory effects of L. paracasei strains on dendritic cells (DCs) were caused by bacterial metabolites released in the culture medium. (
  • Sisto A, Luongo D, Treppiccione L, De Bellis P, Di Venere D, Lavermicocca P, Rossi M. Effect of Lactobacillus paracasei Culture Filtrates and Artichoke Polyphenols on Cytokine Production by Dendritic Cells. (
  • CD4+ T-cells, macrophages, mature dendritic cells, PCNA+ cells and MCP-1 and VCAM-1 were reduced. (
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) are known to play an important role in initiating and orchestrating antimicrobial immunity. (
  • We are especially excited about these latest data for APVO436, which continue to show robust T-cell engagement and cytotoxic activity with reduced levels of cytokine release. (
  • We identified an antibody directed against the αVβ3 integrin that induced high levels of cytokine production. (
  • Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are well-characterized tissue-specific stem cells that exhibit remarkable self-renewal capacity and are responsible for the life-long maintenance of the hematopoietic system. (
  • Chronic allograft rejection is in part mediated by host T cells that recognize allogeneic antigens on transplanted tissue. (
  • Our findings will facilitate the generation of robust γδ T cells from small blood or tissue samples for cancer immunotherapy and immune-monitoring purposes. (
  • Tissue-infiltrating T cells in giant cell arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica samples each had distinctive lymphokine profiles. (
  • In this chapter, the authors will employ the term BM stromal cell to describe the adventitial reticular/fibroblast-like cell that predominates cultures established from mouse or human BM plated in tissue culture medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum. (
  • Stem cell factor (SCF) or cytokine-rich lymph node-conditioned medium (LNCM) was administered to normal rats by intraperitoneal injection and the effects on the connective tissue mast cells (CTMC) of the peritoneal cavity were monitored. (
  • Indeed, defects in innate immunity, including natural killer (NK) cells, often lead to uncontrolled, fatal infections ( 1 ⇓ - 3 ). (
  • These processes are governed by extrinsic signals, most notably cytokines. (
  • Notably, the internalized P. gingivalis in various human cells (e.g., gingival epithelium progenitors, HGEPs) was oppressed by bismuth, but not the commonly used antibiotics metronidazole. (
  • Approval of tisagenlecleucel was based on a single-arm trial of 63 patients with relapsed or refractory pediatric precursor B-cell ALL, including 35 patients who had a prior hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. (
  • CONCLUSIONS To our knowledge, this is the first report on the significant advantages of a 6-month hypocaloric HP diet versus hypocaloric HC diet on markers of β-cell function, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipokines in normal, obese females without diabetes. (
  • They were given the name "cytokine-induced killer" because cultivation with certain cytokines is mandatory for the maturation into terminally differentiated CIK cells. (
  • Chaylakyan R.K., Gerasimov Yu.V., Kuralesova A.I. et al (2001) Izvestiya АS, Proliferative and differential potentions of individual clones of stromal cell precursors in bone marrow, 6, 682- 687. (
  • In addition, sVEGFR1 and sVEGFR2 levels may be differential diagnostic markers between PVRL/PCNSL and SMRL, and sIL-2Rα levels can anticipate infiltration of VRL cells into the subretina and/or retina. (
  • We recently demonstrated that HG treatment of THP-1 monocytes or human peripheral blood monocytes leads to increased expression of the inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), in an oxidant stress, nuclear factor (NF)-κB, and AP-1 transcription factor-dependent manner ( 16 ). (
  • 1994). The presence of cytotoxic CD8 + T cells has been reported in peripheral blood of MCL but not in LCL patients (Brodskyn et al. (
  • 1997). Expansion of CD8 + T cells occurs in the peripheral blood of individuals vaccinated against leishmaniasis (Mendonça et al. (
  • An IA delivery into a cerebral artery such as the carotid or middle cerebral artery has the advantage of selective deposition of cells to the infarcted region without first having to pass through the venous system and peripheral organs. (
  • Innate immune cells are a first-line defense against pathogens and are thought to respond consistently to infection, regardless of previous exposure, i.e., they do not exhibit memory of prior activation. (
  • Thus, these experiments identify an ability of innate immune cells to retain an intrinsic memory of prior activation, a function until now attributed only to antigen-specific adaptive immune cells. (
  • B cell-derived cytokines, including lymphotoxin, are essential for the ontogenesis, homeostasis and activation of secondary lymphoid organs, as well as for the development of tertiary lymphoid tissues at ectopic sites. (
  • Poultry PM (1.0 mg/ml) caused a significant activation of PLA2 in a time-dependent manner (15-60 min), which was significantly attenuated by the calcium-chelating agents, cPLA2-specific inhibitor (AACOCF3) and antioxidant (vitamin C) in A549 cells. (
  • Poultry PM also significantly induced the release of COX- and LOX-catalyzed eicosanoids (prostaglandins, thromboxane A2 and leukotrienes B4 and C4) and upstream activation of AA LOX in the cells. (
  • We investigated the effects of resveratrol on human mast cell activation in comparison to the anti-allergy drug tranilast. (
  • The effects of resveratrol on mast cell activation were more marked in human primary CD34+-derived mast cells (HuMC), and the polyphenol was significantly more efficacious than tranilast in these cells. (
  • In conclusion, resveratrol inhibited key aspects of human mast cell activation to physiological stimuli, and was comparable, if not more efficacious than the anti-allergy drug tranilast. (
  • Cytokine production following ligation of the integrin with this antibody was dependent on activation of the ERK/MAPK pathway in cells. (
  • IL-18 was shown to enhance zoledronate-induced γδ T cell activation. (
  • Our study reveals essential components of γδ T cell activation and indicates that exogenous IL-18, which can directly costimulate γδ T cells, eliminates the need for any accessory cells. (
  • This concerns PAM interactions with cytokines, primarily the interferons (IFNa and IFNg), and the initiation of events associated with the early and late stages of PAM activation in response to a well-characterized CMI-specific human lung pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes. (
  • 10 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 18 The CARs used in these experiments have contained T-cell activation domains from molecules such as CD3ζ and a variety of costimulatory domains such as those from CD28 and 4-1BB. (
  • A new study in the Journal of Clinical Investigation reveals that cytokine therapy enhances the activity of NK cells against tumors lacking MHC class I. Using murine models, David Raulet and colleagues at the University of California Berkeley determined that tumors lacking MHC class I inactivate NK cells. (
  • Mixed tumors composed of MHC class I positive and MHC class I negative cells also caused NK cell to become nonresponsive. (
  • The results of this study support further investigation into the use of cytokine therapy for patients with tumors lacking MHC class I. (
  • The preclinical data demonstrate potent T-cell cytotoxicity of tumors expressing CD123 with limited cytokine release and suggest that APVO436 has the potential for increased clinical benefit and a favorable safety profile. (
  • Zoledronate activates human Vγ9Vδ2 T cells, which are immune sentinels of cell stress and tumors, through upstream accumulation of the cognate Ag isopentenyl pyrophosphate. (
  • In fact, decades of research have led to the view that tumors are in effect organ-like structures composed of numerous cell types whose interaction is required to drive and promote growth and metastasis. (
  • By contrast, adaptive immune cells display immunologic memory that has 2 basic characteristics, antigen specificity and an amplified response upon subsequent exposure. (
  • LC, a member of the dendritic cell (DC) family, represent the professional antigen-presenting cells in the epidermis. (
  • Indeed, efficient production of antigen (Ag)-specific Ab by activated B cells underlies the success of most currently available vaccines. (
  • The Ab pool is maintained by long-lived plasma cells (PCs), which continuously secrete Abs following their formation in response to exposure to specific antigen (Ag). (
  • The aim of this study was to investigate modulation of T cell immunity for the treatment of experimental arthritis, via enhanced expression of SOCS-3 in splenic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) obtained after intravenous injection of adenovirus encoding SOCS-3. (
  • Up to now the exact mechanisms of tumor recognition and targeted cytotoxicity of CIK cells is not fully understood. (
  • Several attempts have been made to identify the mechanisms by which mesenchymalstem cells (MSCs)-derived secretome exert anti-tumor or tumorigenic effects, but still furtherinvestigations are needed to explore this subject. (
  • The present study examined the effects of this enzyme on normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells, in an attempt to identify additional mechanisms of M. pneumoniae pathogenesis. (
  • The mature B-cell pool is composed of several subsets, distinguished from one according to size, surface marker expression, location, and Ag exposure, and they all have the capacity to differentiate into PCs. (
  • 12 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 17 Murine studies have shown that syngeneic T cells genetically modified to express anti-CD19 CARs can cure lymphoma and cause long-term eradication of normal B cells. (
  • 21 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 27 Similar to the murine studies, these early clinical reports have suggested an anti-malignancy effect of T cells expressing anti-CD19 CARs, and Ag-specific eradication of normal B cells has been demonstrated. (
  • Here, we deliver small interfering RNA (siRNA) against SOCS1 into murine bone marrow DCs, and as a consequence, we investigate the maturation/action of DCs and the subsequent T cell response after exposure to C. albicans. (
  • The hypothesis is that ozone-induced alterations in the ability of PAM to participate in the CMI response are mechanistically linked to changes in the capacity of these cells to form and later interact with immunoregulatory cytokines, primarily the interferons. (
  • Islets and MIN6 cells were treated with different concentrations of glucose over a time course ranging from 4 to 72 h. (
  • Controversy still exists regarding the behavior of dNK cells in PE: whereas some studies have demonstrated higher concentrations of this cell type ( 9 , 10 ), others have observed lower expression of dNK cells in singleton gestations with PE ( 11 - 13 ). (
  • In summary, iPSC-derived astrocyte cultures exposed to cytokine concentrations reflecting those in TBI generate an increased downstream cytokine production, particularly IL-1β. (