Ideal Body Weight: Expected weight of a healthy normal individual based on age, sex, and height. Thus, a malnourished person would weigh less than their ideal body weight.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Obesity, Morbid: The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.Adipose Tissue, Brown: A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.Anorexia Nervosa: An eating disorder that is characterized by the lack or loss of APPETITE, known as ANOREXIA. Other features include excess fear of becoming OVERWEIGHT; BODY IMAGE disturbance; significant WEIGHT LOSS; refusal to maintain minimal normal weight; and AMENORRHEA. This disorder occurs most frequently in adolescent females. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Body Surface Area: The two dimensional measure of the outer layer of the body.Adipose Tissue, White: Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.Atracurium: A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with short duration of action. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and its lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination provide clinical advantage over alternate non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Subcutaneous Fat: Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Weight Perception: Recognition and discrimination of the heaviness of a lifted object.Body Image: Individuals' concept of their own bodies.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Intra-Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.Thermogenesis: The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.Subcutaneous Fat, Abdominal: Fatty tissue under the SKIN in the region of the ABDOMEN.Diet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Adipokines: Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.TriglyceridesAdipocytes, White: Fat cells with light coloration and few MITOCHONDRIA. They contain a scant ring of CYTOPLASM surrounding a single large lipid droplet or vacuole.Omentum: A double-layered fold of peritoneum that attaches the STOMACH to other organs in the ABDOMINAL CAVITY.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Lipoprotein Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Mice, Inbred C57BLRNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Adipocytes, Brown: Fat cells with dark coloration due to the densely packed MITOCHONDRIA. They contain numerous small lipid droplets or vacuoles. Their stored lipids can be converted directly to energy as heat by the mitochondria.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Epididymis: The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.Panniculitis: General term for inflammation of adipose tissue, usually of the skin, characterized by reddened subcutaneous nodules.PPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.Abdomen: That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.Viscera: Any of the large interior organs in any one of the three great cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Body Fat Distribution: Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue in the region of the ABDOMEN. It includes the ABDOMINAL SUBCUTANEOUS FAT and the INTRA-ABDOMINAL FAT.Lipogenesis: De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.Lipid Mobilization: LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Sterol Esterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.Thinness: A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.Anti-Obesity Agents: Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Buttocks: Either of two fleshy protuberances at the lower posterior section of the trunk or HIP in humans and primate on which a person or animal sits, consisting of gluteal MUSCLES and fat.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Lipodystrophy: A collection of heterogenous conditions resulting from defective LIPID METABOLISM and characterized by ADIPOSE TISSUE atrophy. Often there is redistribution of body fat resulting in peripheral fat wasting and central adiposity. They include generalized, localized, congenital, and acquired lipodystrophy.Subcutaneous Tissue: Loose connective tissue lying under the DERMIS, which binds SKIN loosely to subjacent tissues. It may contain a pad of ADIPOCYTES, which vary in number according to the area of the body and vary in size according to the nutritional state.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Thiazolidinediones: THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1: A low-affinity 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase found in a variety of tissues, most notably in LIVER; LUNG; ADIPOSE TISSUE; vascular tissue; OVARY; and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The enzyme acts reversibly and can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors.Resistin: A 12-kDa cysteine-rich polypeptide hormone secreted by FAT CELLS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is the founding member of the resistin-like molecule (RELM) hormone family. Resistin suppresses the ability of INSULIN to stimulate cellular GLUCOSE uptake.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.Fatty Acid Synthases: Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Lipectomy: Removal of localized SUBCUTANEOUS FAT deposits by SUCTION CURETTAGE or blunt CANNULATION in the cosmetic correction of OBESITY and other esthetic contour defects.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Glucose Transporter Type 4: A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-3: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Receptors, Leptin: Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Hormones, Ectopic: Hormones released from neoplasms or from other cells that are not the usual sources of hormones.Pericardium: A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue: Neoplasms composed of fatty tissue or connective tissue made up of fat cells in a meshwork of areolar tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in adipose tissue.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of oleoyl-CoA, A, and water from stearoyl-CoA, AH2, and oxygen where AH2 is an unspecified hydrogen donor.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Glucose Clamp Technique: Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase: A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.4.1.2.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Caloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Metabolic Diseases: Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Fetal Weight: The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Costa RicaGrowth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Glycerolphosphate DehydrogenaseAnimals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Body Constitution: The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Hyperinsulinism: A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Receptors, Adiponectin: Cell surface receptors for ADIPONECTIN, an antidiabetic hormone secreted by ADIPOCYTES. Adiponectin receptors are membrane proteins with multiple cytoplasmic and extracellular regions. They are about 43 kDa and encoded by at least two genes with different affinities for globular and full-length adiponectin.Lipomatosis: A disorder characterized by the accumulation of encapsulated or unencapsulated tumor-like fatty tissue resembling LIPOMA.1-Acylglycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acyl group transfer of ACYL COA to 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate to generate 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. This enzyme has alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subunits.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Cachexia: General ill health, malnutrition, and weight loss, usually associated with chronic disease.Weaning: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Hyperphagia: Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Angiopoietins: A family of structurally-related angiogenic proteins of approximately 70 kDa in size. They have high specificity for members of the TIE RECEPTOR FAMILY.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Triolein: (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Linoleic Acids, Conjugated: A collective term for a group of around nine geometric and positional isomers of LINOLEIC ACID in which the trans/cis double bonds are conjugated, where double bonds alternate with single bonds.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome: Defective metabolism leading to fat maldistribution in patients infected with HIV. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and probably involves some combination of infection-induced alterations in metabolism, direct effects of antiretroviral therapy, and patient-related factors.Fats: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Glycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.Lipoma: A benign tumor composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It can be surrounded by a thin layer of connective tissue (encapsulated), or diffuse without the capsule.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Calorimetry, Indirect: Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.

*Body water

In humans, total body water can be estimated based on the premorbid (or ideal) body weight and correction factor. T B W = w e i ... Adipose tissue contains about 10% of water, while muscle tissue contains about 75%. In Netter's Atlas of Human Physiology, body ... Extracellular fluid (1/3 of body water) is fluid contained in areas outside of cells. For a 40-litre body, about 15 litres is ... The body water constitutes as much as 73% of the body weight of a newborn infant, whereas some obese people are as little as 45 ...

*Obesity hypoventilation syndrome

Formal criteria for diagnosis of OHS are: Body mass index over 30 kg/m2 (a measure of obesity, obtained by taking one's weight ... Firstly, work of breathing is increased as adipose tissue restricts the normal movement of the chest muscles and makes the ... the production of red blood cells. This results in polycythemia, abnormally increased numbers of circulating red blood cells ... PAP exists in various forms, and the ideal strategy is uncertain. Some medications have been tried to stimulate breathing or ...

*Body fat percentage

Adipose tissue Andreas Münzer Body fat meter Body volume index Body water Lizzie Velásquez, a woman with "zero percent body fat ... of the body weight, primarily because of normal variability in body constituents. Whole-body air displacement plethysmography ( ... Different authorities have consequently developed different recommendations for ideal body fat percentages. This graph from the ... Irrespective of the location from which they are obtained, the fat cells in humans are composed almost entirely of pure ...

*Mastopexy

Adipose tissue. The fat tissue of the breast is composed of lipidic fluid (60-85% weight) that is 90-99 per cent triglycerides ... The thickness of the hypodermis (adipocyte cells) varies from woman to woman, and body part. Indications The surgeon-physician ... The surgeon confirms that her ideal body image (aesthetic goal) corresponds to what can realistically be achieved with the ... the body integument of the woman. The dimensions and the weight of the breasts vary with the woman's age and her habitus (body ...

*Leptin

Considine RV, Caro JF (November 1997). "Leptin and the regulation of body weight". Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 29 (11): 1255-72 ... Leptin is produced primarily in the adipocytes of white adipose tissue. It also is produced by brown adipose tissue, placenta ( ... Leptin levels outside an ideal range may have a negative effect on egg quality and outcome during in vitro fertilization. ... Location of action Leptin acts directly on leptin receptors in the cell membrane of different types of cells in the human body ...

*Weight loss

... body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue. Weight loss ... it is not uncommon to seek additional weight loss even if they are already at their ideal body weight. Others may be driven to ... Malnutrition can affect every function of the human body, from the cells to the most complex body functions, including: immune ... Sumithran, Priya; Proietto, Joseph (2013). "The defence of body weight: A physiological basis for weight regain after weight ...

*Waist-hip ratio

"Effect of climacteric transition and hormone replacement therapy on body weight and body fat distribution". Gynecological ... of regional and gender differences in glucocorticoid receptors and lipoprotein lipase activity in human adipose tissue. Journal ... modulates reward mechanisms in the brain and that this may have important implications for judgements of ideal body size in ... This heightened sensitivity to cortisol stimulates fat cells to further increase in size. Women who have a combination of ...

*Breast reduction

... weight) and protein (2-3% weight). Fatty Tissue. In Biology, adipose tissue (/ˈædəˌpoʊs/) or body fat or fat depot or just fat ... The ideal lipectomy candidate is the woman whose low-density breasts are principally composed of adipose tissue, have a ... While fat cells suctioned via liposuction are permanently gone, after a few months overall body fat generally returned to the ... Two types of adipose tissue exist: white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). The formation of adipose tissue ...

*Equine metabolic syndrome

Obese horses are usually fed hay at a level of 1.5% ideal body weight, which may be dropped to 1% of body weight if no weight ... The cells of adipose (fat) tissue synthesizes hormones known as adipokines. In humans, dysfunction of adipose tissue, even in ... Levothyroxine, a T4 analogue, improves insulin sensitivity and weight loss in horses. After desired body weight has been ... liver and adipose tissue. Tissue insulin resistance causes increased insulin secretion, which perpetuates the cycle. There does ...

*Anorexia nervosa

Constant exposure to media that presents body ideals may constitute a risk factor for body dissatisfaction and anorexia nervosa ... Some explanatory hypotheses for the rising prevalence of eating disorders in adolescence are "increase of adipose tissue in ... weight loss, or growth failure; and also routinely ask celiac patients about weight or body shape concerns, dieting or vomiting ... a test of the white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets used to assess the presence of various disorders such as ...

*Induced stem cells

... which are ideal vehicles for drug delivery. Adipose tissue, because of its abundance and relatively less invasive harvest ... This process allows the body to replace cells not suitable to new conditions with more suitable new cells. In Drosophila ... self-replicating polycistronic RNA and low-molecular weight biologically active substances. In 1895 Thomas Morgan removed one ... "Comparing mesenchymal stromal cells from different human tissues: Bone marrow, adipose tissue and umbilical cord blood". Bio- ...

*Obesity

... perceptions in Western society regarding healthy body weight differ from those regarding the weight that is considered ideal - ... Theodore Mazzone; Giamila Fantuzzi (2006). Adipose Tissue And Adipokines in Health And Disease (Nutrition and Health). Totowa, ... Flier JS (2004). "Obesity wars: Molecular progress confronts an expanding epidemic". Cell (Review). 116 (2): 337-50. doi: ... BMI is closely related to both percentage body fat and total body fat. In children, a healthy weight varies with age and sex. ...

*Physical exercise

... body weight loss (at least 5%) and muscle and adipose tissue wasting". Exercise triggers the activation of the transcriptional ... These changes further result in myocardial cell damage in the lining of the heart, leading to scar tissue and thickened walls. ... The postulate that exercise serves as an ideal intervention for drug addiction has been widely recognized and used in human and ... It can help attain and maintain proper weight and improve body image and self-esteem" "Diet, Exercise, and Sleep". National ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Combined introduction of Bmi-1 and hTERT immortalizes human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells with low risk of transformation. AU - Tátrai, Péter. AU - Szepesi, Áron. AU - Matula, Zsolt. AU - Szigeti, Anna. AU - Buchan, Gyöngyi. AU - Mádi, András. AU - Uher, Ferenc. AU - Német, Katalin. PY - 2012/5/25. Y1 - 2012/5/25. N2 - Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) are increasingly being studied for their usefulness in regenerative medicine. However, limited life span and donor-dependent variation of primary cells such as ASCs present major hurdles to controlled and reproducible experiments. We therefore aimed to establish immortalized ASC cell lines that provide steady supply of homogeneous cells for in vitro work while retain essential features of primary cells. To this end, combinations of human ...
Visceral adipose tissue is harmful to metabolic health. Exercise training reduces visceral adipose tissue mass, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) stimulates lipolysis and is released from skeletal muscle during exercise. We hypothesized that exercise-induced reductions in visceral adipose tissue mass are mediated by IL-6. In this randomized placebo-controlled trial, we assigned abdominally obese adults to tocilizumab (IL-6 receptor antibody) or placebo during a 12-week intervention with either bicycle exercise or no exercise. While exercise reduced visceral adipose tissue mass, this effect of exercise was abolished in the presence of IL-6 blockade. Changes in body weight and total adipose ...
Abstract. It is well established that the metabolic risk factors of obesity and its comorbidities are more attributed to adipose tissue distribution rather than total adipose mass. Since emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic regulation plays an important role in the aetiology of obesity, we conducted a genome-wide methylation analysis on eight different adipose depots of three pig breeds living within comparable environments but displaying distinct fat level using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing. We aimed to investigate the systematic association between anatomical location-specific DNA methylation status of different adipose depots and obesity-related phenotypes. We show here that compared to subcutaneous adipose tissues which primarily modulate metabolic indicators, visceral ...
We investigated sphingolipid metabolism in human adipose tissue to identify pathways underlying increased ceramide concentrations in inflamed adipose tissue [3]. Our data suggest that hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to ceramide by sphingomyelinases could explain, at least partly, this increase. Gene expression levels of SMPD3 correlate significantly with concentrations of various ceramides and sphingomyelins in subcutaneous adipose tissue, and are higher in the relatively more inflamed intra-abdominal compared to the subcutaneous depot in both obese and non-obese subjects. Sphingomyelinases are expressed by both adipocytes and macrophages in adipose tissue, but their expression is strongest in and around blood vessels. Our findings implicate a role for sphingomyelinase-mediated generation of ceramide in ...
Introduction:It was reported that some variables were revealed remain renal function after live donor nephrectomy. This study was conducted to determine the influence of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue on renal function in living kidney donors.. Method:Between July 2013 and February 2015, a total of 75 kidney donors who underwent living donor nephrectomy at our institution were analyzed. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were measured at the level of the umbilicus using CT scan(figure 1). Renal function was estimated with the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula till six months after kidney donation. The relationship between preoperative visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and recovery of renal function was analyzed.. Result:Thirty-three donors (44%) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Macrophage elastase suppresses white adipose tissue expansion with cigarette smoking. AU - Tsuji, Takao. AU - Kelly, Neil J.. AU - Takahashi, Saeko. AU - Leme, Adriana S.. AU - Houghton, A. Mc Garry. AU - Shapiro, Steven D.. PY - 2014/12/1. Y1 - 2014/12/1. N2 - Macrophage elastase (MMP12) is a key mediator of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced emphysema, yet its role in other smoking related pathologies remains unclear. The weight suppressing effects of smoking are a major hindrance to cessation efforts, and MMP12 is known to suppress the vascularization on which adipose tissue growth depends by catalyzing the formation of antiangiogenic peptides endostatin and angiostatin. The goal of this study was to determine the role of MMP12 in adipose tissue growth and smoking-related suppression of weight gain. Whole ...
Non-healing bone fractures and periodontal bone loss constitute significant clinical problems with few approved medical options. Bone repair is enhanced by the presence of osteoblasts or osteoblastic precursor cells. Subcutaneous adipose tissue is a plentiful, accessible, and replenishable source of human stromal cells for transplantation. In Phase I of this SBIR, we tested the hypothesis that human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells are capable of osteoblast function. Substantial in vitro data indicates that these stromal cells differentiate into cells biochemically and morphologically similar to osteoblasts. The ability of these cells to form bone in vivo was examined as well. Phase II of this SBIR will extend these in vivo experiments. Specific Aim 1 examines the ability of human ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A computational model of postprandial adipose tissue lipid metabolism derived using human arteriovenous stable isotope tracer data. AU - ODonovan, Shauna D.. AU - Lenz, Michael. AU - Vink, Roel G.. AU - Roumans, Nadia J.T.. AU - de Kok, Theo M.C.M.. AU - Mariman, Edwin C.M.. AU - Peeters, Ralf L.M.. AU - van Riel, Natal A.W.. AU - van Baak, Marleen A.. AU - Arts, Ilja C.W.. PY - 2019/10. Y1 - 2019/10. N2 - Given the association of disturbances in non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) metabolism with the development of Type 2 Diabetes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, computational models of glucose-insulin dynamics have been extended to account for the interplay with NEFA. In this study, we use arteriovenous measurement across the subcutaneous adipose tissue during a mixed meal challenge test to evaluate the performance and underlying assumptions of three existing models of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lean and Obese Coronary Perivascular Adipose Tissue Impairs Vasodilation via Differential Inhibition of Vascular Smooth Muscle K+ Channels. AU - Noblet, Jillian N.. AU - Owen, Meredith K.. AU - Goodwill, Adam G.. AU - Sassoon, Daniel J.. AU - Tune, Johnathan. PY - 2015/6/27. Y1 - 2015/6/27. N2 - Objective - The effects of coronary perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) on vasomotor tone are influenced by an obese phenotype and are distinct from other adipose tissue depots. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of lean and obese coronary PVAT on end-effector mechanisms of coronary vasodilation and to identify potential factors involved. Approach and Results - Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed similarities in coronary perivascular adipocyte size between lean and obese Ossabaw swine. Isometric tension studies of isolated ...
The presence of the so-called low-grade inflammatory state is recognized as a critical event in adipose tissue dysfunction, leading to altered secretion of adipokines and free fatty acids (FFAs), insulin resistance, and development of hepatic complications associated with obesity. This study was designed to investigate the potential contribution of the proinflammatory 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway to adipose tissue inflammation and lipid dysfunction in experimental obesity. Constitutive expression of key components of the 5-LO pathway, as well as leukotriene (LT) receptors, was detected in adipose tissue as well as in adipocyte and stromal vascular fractions. Adipose tissue from obese mice, compared with that from lean mice, exhibited increased 5-LO activating protein (FLAP) expression and LTB4 levels. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adipose stromal cells differentiation toward smooth muscle cell phenotype diminishes their vasculogenic activity due to induction of activin A secretion. AU - Merfeld-Clauss, Stephanie. AU - Lease, Benjamin R.. AU - Lu, Hongyan. AU - March, Keith L.. AU - Traktuev, Dmitry O.. PY - 2017/11. Y1 - 2017/11. N2 - Adipose stromal cells (ASCs) support endothelial cell (EC) vasculogenesis through paracrine and cell-contact communications. In addition, ASCs differentiate towards the smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype under different stimuli, which prompted their use as a source of mural cells in fabricating small calibre vessels. How ASCs SMC-lineage commitment affects their subsequent communication with ECs is unknown. The vasculogenic characteristics of human ASCs in progenitor stage and after differentiation towards SMC phenotype were analysed in the present study. Exposure to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adipose tissue metabolism - An aspect we should not neglect?. AU - Jensen, Michael Dennis. PY - 2007/10. Y1 - 2007/10. N2 - Free fatty acids (FFAs) are the most metabolically important products of adipose tissue lipolysis. Experimentally creating high FFA concentrations can reproduce the metabolic abnormalities of obesity in lean, healthy persons and lowering FFA concentrations can improve the metabolic health of upper body obese individuals. FFA concentrations are determined by both the release of FFAs into the bloodstream and the clearance of FFAs from the bloodstream. Normal FFA release rates are different in men and women and total FFA release is closely linked to resting energy expenditure. Upper body subcutaneous fat, visceral fat, and leg fat depots contribute differently to the exposure of various tissues to FFAs. The implications of ...
Adipose tissue-derived stem cells are a powerful tool for in vitro study of adult stem cell biology. So far, they have not been extensively used for gain or loss of function studies since they are resistant to most common transfection methods. Herein, we tested several classic transfection methods on human multipotent adipose tissue-derived stem (hMADS) cells. Our results showed that lipofectants and calcium phosphate were poorly efficient for transgene delivery in hMADS cells. In contrast, nucleofection, an electroporation-based method that is assumed to target plasmid DNA directly to the cell nucleus, led to a significant transient transgene expression in hMADS cells (up to 76% enhanced green fluorescent protein [EGFP]-positive cells were detected). Furthermore, after selection of hMADS cells that were ...
ONLINE SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL Allele-Specific Expression of Angiotensinogen in Human Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Sungmi Park 1, Ko-Ting Lu 1, Xuebo Liu 1, Tapan K. Chatterjee 2, Steven M. Rudich 3, Neal
Abstract Background In pigs, adipose tissue is one of the principal organs involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism. It is particularly involved in the overall fatty acid synthesis with consequences in other lipid-target organs such as muscles and the liver. With this in mind, we have used massive, parallel high-throughput sequencing technologies to characterize the porcine adipose tissue transcriptome architecture in six Iberian x Landrace crossbred pigs showing extreme phenotypes for intramuscular fatty acid composition (three per group). Results High-throughput RNA sequencing was used to generate a whole characterization of adipose tissue (backfat) transcriptome. A total of 4,130 putative unannotated protein-coding sequences were identified in the 20% of reads which mapped in intergenic regions. Furthermore, 36% of the unmapped reads were ...
It is not easy to live a Celebritys life what with the public image they have to maintain. And maintaining a public image means having an ideal body weight and looking the same or almost the same they looked ten years before.. Celebrities lead a very busy life, whether in their social circuit or at work which leads to a lot of stress. To maintain their ideal body weight, they have to resort to measures a plane jane cannot think of doing. This includes diets, workouts, fitness regimes, and everything else that they do (smoking, alcohol or drugs) to keep fit.. Here are 15 Celebrities and how they maintain their ideal body weight:. ...
The Ideal body weight of a person is the amount of pounds that he should weigh depending upon his height, age, and gender. It is a function of nourishment and thus a malnourished person will weigh less than his ideal body weight.
How Do I Calculate My Ideal Body Weight? By setting goals and calculating your ideal body weight, you can measure if you are on the right track.
What is the ideal body weight for a person? If this question has been troubling you, then your wait has ended. The ideal body weight of a person can be
Research for health risks uses a body mass index of 25. Why is the accepted Ideal Body Weight definition questionable? Medics like simplicity ... Read on ....
7 Steps to understand your ideal body weight is a total lifestyle approach - take time to know yourself and seek support from your healthcare practitioner.
Five Ways to Maintain Ideal Body Weight. Youve dropped some poundage and are finally happy with the new body that shines back at you in the mirror -- but doubt creeps in when you think about what it will take to maintain your new ideal. Maybe you have a history of riding the yo-yo diet roller coaster or are just ...
Finding your ideal body weight that allows you to run with ease, suffer fewer injuries and be more efficient and effective is a highly individual process....
Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of eating disorders. Prevention trials indicate that interventions that reduce pressure to be thin, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, and negative affect significantly reduce eating disorder symptoms. Further, there is evidence that selective prevention programs that target young women at elevated risk for eating pathology by virtue of thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, and negative affect produce significant larger intervention effects than do universal programs offered to unselected populations. Thus, research on risk ...
In a volume-targeted mode (e.g., volume control; Figure 29B-1), the ventilator provides an inspiratory flow over time to target a set volume. To avoid ventilator-induced injury, multiple trials have shown that limiting the tidal volume improves patient outcomes compared to using the larger volumes more common in the past (often ≥10 mL/kg to start).3-6 One approach is to start volume-targeted ventilation at 6 mL/kg ideal body weight for patients with or at risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome and 6 to 8 mL/kg ideal body weight for other patients. The definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome is provided in Table 29B-1. Those at risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome have pneumonia, sepsis, trauma, pancreatitis, or any shock state.7 To choose ventilation settings, calculate ideal body weight using the patients height, an important caveat ...
Although the terms overweight and obese are often used interchangeably and considered as gradations of the same thing, they denote different things. The major physical factors contributing to body weight are water weight, muscle tissue mass, bone tissue mass, and fat tissue mass. Overweight refers to having more weight than normal for a particular height and may be the result of water weight, muscle weight, or fat mass. Obese refers specifically to having excess body fat. In most cases people who are overweight also have excessive body fat and therefore body weight is an indicator of obesity in much of the population.. The "ideal" healthy body weight for a particular person is dependent on ...
Clinically severe or morbid obesity is a chronic progressive condition that is very difficult to treat. Weight loss surgery for restricting food intake and interrupting digestive processes is an option for clinically severe obese patients that have been unsuccessful with other weight loss treatments. Eligible patients for "Weight Loss Surgery" often have a body mass index, or BMI, of 37.5 or greater. A BMI of 40 translates to about 45 kilos over ideal body weight for men or 36 kilos over ideal body weight for women. Weight loss surgery may also be an option for people with a BMI of 32.5 (govt of India, ministry of health guidelines) or greater who suffer from life-threatening obesity related health problems such as diabetes, obesity-related heart disease or severe sleep apnea. However, as is true for other treatments for ...
Ideal body weight calculator for drug dosing, renal function estimation, nutritional assessment, and mechanical ventilation. Calculator includes percent ideal body weight, adjusted and nutritional body weight, lean body weight, BMI, and BSA.
With the Body Mass Index, also called Quetelet Index, you can calculate your ideal weight. Calculate quickly and easily what your minimum and maximum healthy weight should be with the BMI calculation.
To get great abs you need to get leaner, or shed body fat while preserving your lean muscle mass. In terms of diet, the best way to get leaner is to consume just enough calories to nourish your muscles, but not enough to continue feeding your excess body fat. This is easier than you think.. Imagine youve already achieved a lean body, complete with great abs, and your goal now is to keep it. The eating patterns required to do so are those that you should put into practice now. In other words, if your ideal body weight is 150 pounds, you should eat enough calories each day to sustain 150 pounds of bodyweight, regardless of how much you currently weigh.. Theres no surefire way to predict your ideal body weight, but most people are pretty good at estimating how many pounds of fat they could stand to lose. It takes just 2 ...
You may be very healthy & weigh far more than your supposed ideal weight. Healthy weight is determined holistically by taking an inventory of your level of exercise, overall health record & more.
Third, build a pattern of behaviors that is likely to achieve ideal body weight and maintain activity levels. This is extraordinarily difficult for many and often a lifelong struggle. I am not a big advocate of a particular diet; in fact it seems that the best results occur with increased activity level associated with a reduction in calories and a change in diet. Over the years, many of my patients have reported feeling better and losing more weight after switching to gluten free or gluten light diets. While there is no evidence that this diet specifically alters the course of MS, it certainly seems to have indirect benefits. In those patients morbidly obese (usually defined as 100 lbs over ideal body weight) despite efforts to reduce their weight, I am a strong advocate of bariatric surgery, although the safest and most appropriate bariatric procedure will require ...
a loading dose of dexmedetomidine was given at 0.5 to 1 micrograms/kg ideal body weight over 15 minutes, followed by an infusion at 0.2 to 0.7 micrograms/kg/hour.. Dexmedetomidine: a loading dose of dexmedetomidine was given at 0.5 to 1 micrograms/kg ideal body weight over 15 minutes, followed by an infusion at 0.2 to 0.7 micrograms/kg/hour.. ...
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Everyday you make choices for your cat regarding nutrition, environmental enrichment and well-being. These choices can affect your cats body weight and play an important role in your cats life expectancy and overall health. All too often, your cats weight gain can sneak up on you. For this reason, it is a good idea to frequently weigh your cat and have your cats body weight scored at every annual visit. Overweight cats are susceptible to many weight-related conditions such as diabetes, arthritis and skin disease. Counting calories matters! Understanding your cats true caloric intake requirements is key and our nutritional consultant can work with you to help you understand what is ideal for your cat and help formulate a plan to maintain ideal body weight.. ...
Ideal weight is how much your body needs to weigh for optimal function. Sometimes, theres a big gap between desired and ideal weight, since desired weight can often be unhealthy weight. Scroll down and you can check your body mass index below.. Excessive weight loss is not always the best option for a healthy body. While on one side obesity brings higher risk of hypertension, diabetes, heart problems etc., on the other hand excessive weight loss is no less dangerous. The "golden middle" rule is always the best option.. This chart has been specially designed by doctors and specialists. Plus, its really thorough as it includes several parameters, such as your body shape, age and height, to give you the ideal body weight. The best thing about this chart is that ...
During a nutritional consultation, a registered veterinary technician (RVT) will meet with you and discuss what your cat typically eats throughout the day, as well as their activity level. She will then take a series of body measurements to determine what your cats ideal body weight it. She will typically recommend a diet food and go over instructions for gradually introducing the food and maintaining your pet on their new diet. It is important that you regularly weigh your cat to see their progress or discuss any problems you may encounter, during your cats weight loss program. ...
Intentional weight loss is the loss of total body mass as a result of efforts to improve fitness and health, or to change appearance through slimming. Weight loss in individuals who are overweight or obese can reduce health risks,[1] increase fitness,[2] and may delay the onset of diabetes.[1] It could reduce pain and increase movement in people with osteoarthritis of the knee.[2] Weight loss can lead to a reduction in hypertension (high blood pressure), however whether this reduces hypertension-related harm is unclear.[1][not in citation given]. Weight loss occurs when the body is expending more energy in work and metabolism than it is absorbing from food or other nutrients. It will then use stored reserves from fat or muscle, gradually leading to weight loss. For athletes seeking to improve performance or to meet required weight classification for ...
TBW constitutes approximately 50% of lean body weight in healthy females and 60% of lean body weight in males. For clinical purposes, most clinicians generalize that TBW accounts for 60% of lean body weight in adults, regardless of gender. The percentage of TBW decreases as body fat increases and/or with age (75%-85% of body weight is water for newborns). Unless the patient is obese (body weight > 120% of ideal body weight [IBW]), clinicians typically use a patients actual body weight when calculating TBW.2 In obese patients, it is customary to estimate TBW using lean body weight or IBW as calculated by the Devine-Devine method: males lean body weight = 50 kg + (2.3 kg/in ...
Mark has helped thousands of clients and readers make lifestyle changes that lead to better long-term health, which includes acceptable body fat and ideal body weight.He does not recommend fad diets, quick weight loss gimmicks, starvation diets, weight loss pills, fat burner supplements and the like. ...
Nowadays there are so many before-after advertisements stating 100 % weight loss. These adds shows some thing magical transformation from the fat to fit. Obesity is emerging as biggest issue for India too as many people are facing the health problems related to obesity. Over-nutrition can be one of the cause for it. You can not always trick yourself, you need to take precautions when you know you are obsessed. It can be defined as body weight which is 30-40% more than ideal body weight. Obesity is serious world wide problem specially in America where it affects 1 in four Americans. The expenditure on treatment of obesity related diseases is 5-7 % of total health budget. In India 30 million people are suffering from obesity.. Hazards of obesity : following health problems are associated with obesity and to prevent them proper preventive health check up is necessary.. ...
Water is your best friend when it comes to a clear skin and achieving ideal body weight. A lot has been said about detox water and herb and fruit infused waters these days. Detox water flushes out toxins and is the best way to increase your water intake if you are bored of drinking plain water. Weight loss detox water is very easy to make at home: you only need to take your favorite fruit and herbs, chop them up and place it in a jar of water for 30-60 minutes. You can also allow the fruit herb and water infusion to rest overnight for enhanced flavor. Weight loss detox water is a healthy, refreshing pick me up that give you a creative way to hydrate your body and flush out toxic elements. These fruit infused waters are also gentle on your body yet they impart tons of flavors to the water and stimulate the liver to break down fat. Here are 8 easy DIY homemade herbal and fruit detox water ...
The American Heart Association (AHA) recognizes nuts [including almonds, walnuts, pecans, peanuts, macadamia, and pistachios] may help to lower your blood cholesterol and may be a very healthy "snack". However, they also warn that they are a source of calories and should not be used to great excess in those with calorie restricted diets and that you should avoid nuts with added oils or added salt. The AHA recommends eating an overall balanced diet that is high in fruits, vegetables and whole grains, and includes low-fat [or non-fat] diary products, fish and lean meats. If you add nuts to your diet, just be sure that you dont inadvertently add considerable total calories - despite the benefits of nuts, maintaining an ideal body weight is more important. Weight is often a simple lesson in physics - what comes in either stays [as increased pounds] or is used up for energy and metabolism [which is increased by a regular exercise program ...
Another special property of the Wu long diet tea is its slimming property. The Weight loss tea or Wu Long Diet tea are the same, as Wu Long green tea makes the body absorb less fat while it can also burn the accumulated body fat into energy which undoubtedly makes you feel immensely energetic all day long. This weight loss tea especially works wonders around at the mid riff section of the body where most of the body fat has a tendency to get accumulated. With progressing age or due to body constrains, certain people find it difficult to engage in heavy physical exercises in order to obtain the ideal body weight, for them having Wu Long diet tea is probably the best solution to lose weight and get back in shape ...
No, hes not. The primary clinical definition of obesity, as Sidhedevil pointed out above, is 50-100% or 100 pounds above ideal body weight. In most people a BMI above 39 can also indicate obesity, but again, BMI is not a useful diagnostic for those who are very muscular with little body fat. Health professionals are well aware of this and would thus never categorize Tom Cruise as obese, regardless of his BMI. Just because some in the general public dont understand BMI and use it improperly doesnt mean its fundamentally flawed and should be thrown out. BMI remains a valid way of estimating healthy body weight ranges for the vast majority of people; its simply not intended to be used for this purpose by exceptionally trim and muscular movie stars ...
The high prevalence of obesity and its medical consequences make it one of the most important public health issues in the United States today. Few interventions have been consistently successful at reducing obesity. This trial will test an intervention program that lasts 22 weeks, with 16 evening sessions and one weekend day. Participants will be randomized to one of two arms. Both arms will receive diet and exercise intervention elements. The study aims for gradual weight loss, with a calorie target that will maintain ideal body weight, rather than a more calorie restricted diet. The exercise component is based around increasing walking. The arms will compare methods for producing long-lasting behavior change ...
It is best to avoid fad diets as these cause most dieters to become confused frustrated and quit. You are owsing through zazzles gifts section where you can find many styles sizes and colors of customizable shirts mugs posters bumper stickers arte paleocristiano caracteristicas ntologist what become study and other Karlstad MEd 2015 Obesity Action Coalition 4511 North Himes Avenue Suite 250 Tampa After just 1 Detox Inch Loss Wrap Application-She slept with the applicator on. Rochester General Mens Health experts help men reset their metabolism Rochester NY 14621 Diet Plans and Weight Loss Programs Ideal Body Weight; Nutrient Ratios; Body Fat % Calories Burned ; Accurately calculate daily calories required for weight With some practical knowledge about type 2 diabetes you can become your 2 diabetes insulin resistance or obesity may problems.. The Leangains Guide Intermittent fasting diet for fat loss muscle ...
Here is an ideal body weight chart to calculate your approximate BMI. Select your gender, and then move the red slider handles or select your height and weight.
Review question We reviewed the evidence regarding the use of insulin and oral agents for managing cystic fibrosis-related diabetes.. Background Cystic fibrosis is the most common life-limiting genetic disease in white populations; it damages the lungs and pancreas. The pancreas makes insulin, which is a hormone needed by the body to take sugar into the cells (like those in the liver, muscle and fat) and convert it into energy. People with cystic fibrosis need high-calorie diets to maintain enough muscles to make up for breathing difficulties resulting from lung damage. It is therefore important for people, who have diabetes as an additional complication to their cystic fibrosis, to turn sugar into energy efficiently, so that they can manage their breathing difficulties and maintain an ideal body weight. The inflammatory processes in cystic fibrosis can firstly reduce insulin production and then lessen its effect by causing ...
The program also offers a 20-30 minute energy expenditure test to measure caloric output during exercise. By measuring oxygen consumption at different exercise intensities, the test provides caloric expenditures at given heart rates. Those undergoing the test choose from a variety of common exercise options, including running, walking, cycling, rowing or working out on an elliptical machine.. The RMR and energy expenditure tests can be combined with nutritional counseling and diet and exercise guidelines for achieving an ideal body weight.. Van Sickle frequently uses the tests to help elite athletes attain maximum efficiency at competitive sports. He realized, however, that they were useful as well for non-athletes who might be confused about the caloric consumption or exercise necessary to lose or not gain weight.. "Making the commitment to lifestyle change for better health is the hardest part of the process," said Van Sickle. "The tests ...
A person with a body mass index between 25 and 29.9 is considered overweight. A BMI of 25 corresponds to about 10 percent over ideal body weight.. ...
In todays time poor world, keeping your weight is not an easy feat. Diet pills that work without exercise are popular as they help you lose or maintain your body weight without needing to spend time working out. Whether you need to lose weight fast, or aiming to maintain your ideal body weight, diet pills are useful as support.. Before taking any diet pills, you should make sure that you do not suffer from health conditions, or taking medications that might interact with the active ingredients in the supplement. Even though they will aid weight loss, these pills will work better with dietary interventions such as calorie restrictions and increased physical activity.. ...
If you have low HDL cholesterol (the kind most consider to be the "good cholesterol"), you may be able to increase your level by eating foods that are high in healthy fats, such as: real dark cocoa, grass-fed beef, eggs and fish.. 2. Get Enough Appropriate Exercise. To help with reducing inflammation, regulating hormones and possibly reaching a healthier weight, regular physical activity is almost always recommended. Regular exercise can lower high LDL cholesterol in some people and also helps maintain ideal body weight. And certain studies have found triglyceride concentrations can decrease by about 30 percent after someone follows a regular exercise program. (7). People with dyslipidemia who are mostly sedentary will usually need to start slowly and increase their exercise load gradually as their body adjusts. Aiming to start with about 30-60 minutes of moderate exercise per day, such as walking, swimming or biking, is a ...
What is a "tummy tuck"?. Otherwise known as abdominoplasty, a tummy tuck removes excess fat and skin, and in some cases, tighten weakened abdominal muscles. A flatter abdomen and smoother profile can be achieved with this procedure. A tummy tuck is not a substitute for weight loss and exercise.. Who is an ideal candidate for a tummy tuck?. Tummy tucks are performed on adults who are in good general health, have loose abdominal skin or stretched out abdominal muscles (i.e. from multiple pregnancies), and are close to their ideal body weight for their body type and size. We advise those who plan future pregnancies to postpone tummy tuck because the abdominal skin and muscles would be stretched out again with a pregnancy. Good candidates should have their weight be relatively stable. If they are planning to lose more weight, then we recommend waiting.. Things you need to ...
Is achieving ideal body weight required before body contouring? It is important for weight loss patients to achieve weight stability prior to proceeding with any body contouring procedures. Ideally, patients should be weight stable for a minimum of 12 months. This is important because weight fluctuations, both gain or loss, can affect the aesthetics of body contouring procedures. This can lead to poorer outcomes, and increase the incidence of need for secondary procedures.
Breed, gender, neutered versus sexually intact, and lifestyle are all important considerations when choosing an optimal nutrient profile. Body weight is not nearly as important as body condition score, and your veterinarian can help you understand where your dog stands. Obesity is the single most common preventable disease of dogs across all ages. At least two-thirds of dogs are overweight, and one-third of them are obese. Obesity is defined as more than 20% above ideal body weight. That means that a Labrador retriever who should weigh 55 pounds (25 Kg) is obese if she weighs 66 pounds (30 Kg) or more. This is a more common than you might think.. Unless your dog is engaged in activities that consume large numbers of calories-service dog, agility competition, endurance activities-it is very important to match caloric density and intake to lifestyle and even to breed. Most dogs are actually ...
that is, ideal body weight not excess weight, as adipose (i.e., fat) does not require daily protein for maintenance). I read it in magazines and online as Total Daily Protein = 0.8 grams of protein per POUND of body weight. That results in a recommendation 2.2 times higher than what all leading health agencies recommend. It is also interesting that journalists will cite the aforementioned agencies and still not get the calculation right. I guess in America, a POUND equals a KILOGRAM. This mathematical error have many of us believing that we need over twice the amount of protein that we truly need. A lot of protein bars brag about having 20 grams or more of protein. It is not healthy to eat denatured (that is, isolated) proteins often paired with excess sugar. We also need to be more concerned with meeting the necessary requirements of the individual essential amino acids and ...
Daily Calorie Calculator. HotScripts Calculators from Hot Scripts. What is your ideal body weight for your gender and height? Do you have excessive body fat? What is your recommended daily caloric intake according to
New research from the University of Liverpool and Mars Petcares WALTHAM Centre for Pet Nutrition reveals overweight dogs are more likely to have shorter lives than those at ideal body weights.
Many college freshman worry about gaining the dreaded "freshman 15". What they fear, in fact is that they will somehow gain 15 pounds during their freshman year at college, unintentionally.. When I counsel college students, I often encourage them to overcome the fear of weight gain and replace it with a sense of self assurance. When you understand your body does not intend to trick you or get out of your ideal body weight range, it can become easier to trust your body.. Unfortunately, an individuals relationship with food can be a very complicated one. How many people do you see day to day who seem unhappy with their body? Or, perhaps it is the seemingly harmless comments like "I cant eat that," "I am so fat," "That food is so bad for me," or "I wish I could eat that." None of these comments give respect to ones body and in a sense, put a sort of distrust in ones own ability ...
Your caloric intake need is based on your estimated energy expenditure, which varies based on your ideal body weight, activity level, age, height and...
FLT was developed to provide a measure of tumor proliferation because it is taken up by cells and retained after phosphorylation by thymidine kinase 1. Thymidine kinase 1 increases as cells enter the DNA synthetic phase, and previous work has shown that FLT retention generally correlates with other measures of tumor proliferation. The most likely use of FLT will be in monitoring treatment response, but such studies need to consider the different methods for measuring FLT retention in tumors and their reproducibility.. The most common method of measuring tracer retention has been through the use of the semiquantitative approach of the SUV. The SUV uses the measurement of activity within a ROI along with the injected dose and the weight of the patient to calculate the desired variable. To take into account differences in the proportion of fat in patients, some investigators have adjusted the SUV by using lean body mass, ideal ...
FRIDAY, Jan. 10, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Women are four times more likely than men to seek weight-loss surgery, a new study finds.. And men typically are older, more obese and sicker than women when they do see a doctor about having the procedure, the researchers found.. "It is important for men to realize that obesity poses a serious threat to their health and life spans," senior study author Dr. Mohamed Ali, chief of bariatric surgery at the University of California, Davis, said in a university news release. "A patient who is 100 pounds or more above his ideal body weight poses a therapeutic dilemma and should be referred to a surgeon." Ali said that although weight-loss surgery can help obese men, surgeons must weigh the potential benefits against a patients risk for post-surgical complications.. "This risk would be significantly lessened if obese males were referred to [weight-loss] surgeons before they ...
Most authorities recommend a prudent diet, moderate exercise, and the maintenance of ideal body weight Although lowering total cholesterol and LDL levels has been demonstrated to lower CHD risk, the results of major clinical trials do not indicate a reduction in overall mortality. CHD is a complicated, multifaceted disease. In addition to recognized risk factors, there may be many more that have yet to be identified. With this in mind, it is important that the nurse does not place unmitigated stress on patients to make radical changes in diet and lifestyle. Moderation is the key in striking a balance between a prudent dietary regimen and the stress that such a regimen might induce. It would be wrong to lead patients to believe that dietary intervention will provide a panacea for all their ills. The adoption of a prudent diet can reduce the incidence of CHD morbidity. The benefits of lowering serum cholesterol may lie more in overall physical and psychologic ...
The tests of the Health & Wellness line are dedicated to people who want to hit their health and well-being. Thanks to the information contained in our DNA, a personalized nutritional plan can be studied to: prevent cardiovascular diseases, hit the ideal body weight and to control the risk factors predisposing to several pathologies. ...
Large breed dogs weighing 55 - 110 lbs (6+ years of age) and giant breed dogs weighing 110+ lbs (5+ years of age).. Hills® Science Diet® Mature Adult Large Breed dog food provides precisely balanced nutrition to sustain mobility and ideal body weight. It is made with high quality ingredients making it easy to digest and ensuring optimal absorption of essential nutrients. It is enriched with L-Carnitine to help turn fat into energy and with a natural source of Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulphate to maintain healthy joints.. ...
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You also have to use an under eye cream every day and you can use either cucumbers or potatoes on your eyelids and the under eye area as a mask a few times a week. Provides protection from microorganisms that causes infection in the sensitive organ. Also, maintaining an ideal body weight at all times is important to keep from having recurrent hemorrhoid flare ups. Internal hemorrhoids are usually pain hemorrhoids products at rite aid as the internal anal cavity lacks the nerve endings that feel pain.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To survey the causes of ventilator-induced lung injury focusing on its mechanical determinants, lung stress and strain. RECENT FINDINGS: Tidal volume per ideal body weight (tidal volume/IBW) and airway pressure (PAW) are poor surro
Fig. 1. Mortality versus quartile of day-1 plateau pressure (Pplat) at tidal volume (VT) of 6 mL/kg ideal body weight (IBW) or 12 mL/kg IBW. The bars show the VT, the Pplat range, and the number of patients in each category. ARR = absolute risk reduction. (Data from Reference 77. Adapted from Reference 16, with permission.) ...
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There are definitely specific requirements for proteins, though the exact amount is somewhat questionable. The Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) of protein according to U.S. government standards is 0.8 gram per kilogram (1 kilogram equals 2.2 pounds) of ideal body weight for the adult.
Purina® Rabbit Chow™ Fibre3® Formula Natural AdvantEdge® is a natural*, corn-free rabbit feed that provides superior nutrition for rabbits of all ages. It helps younger rabbits get a great start and helps older rabbits maintain ideal body weight. Free of all fillers, preservatives and artificial colors, Fibre3® Formula Natural AdvantEdge® Rabbit Feed provides complete nutrition, […]. ...
Talk to your body and ask it what exercise it needs and wants. Link with your future self that is fit, supple, toned, and healthy. Dialog with various systems such as your nervous, circulatory, skeletal, and muscular systems, to find the perfect movements and exercises that will allow your body to reflect your souls light, and that will be fun and joyful to do. Create a new self-image. Experience more vitality and aliveness ...
13 Types of Extreme Diets You Must Be Aware Before Try that you need to know so you will have a better option to lose weight and have an ideal body, Ideal body is not built in a day, A wiser and much better way is to watch what you eat and exercise regularly.
At least in my experience, that has been the case. I think I was practically there maybe three years ago, and then after some time I looked back and still I was practically there, but not quite there. So I decided to get serious about my nutrition, and about my workout week. Its been almost 6 months of extra-seriousness and Im a lot closer (to within half an inch) but still not REALLY there (mainly because I gained some mass, which made me move down a row...) However, its been very encouraging to move a bit closer, and very motivating to have this chart as a goal, it just keeps your feet on the ground and makes you work harder ...
Issues" and insecurities with body image in teens is not uncommon. I can honestly say, I am slightly insecure of my body image, but that just comes with the territory. Somehow, somewhere in our late elementary, and early teen ages, there is this "idea" of "perfect" bodies. The influence is everywhere, magazines, the internet, and TV. Young women are being objectified and capitalised, and adolescent girls are one of the market audiences. They may not be advertising "perfect" body image, but when that is all you see, it becomes the "ideal" body image, and adolescent girls start questioning their body image. There is a huge pressure in school that says if your not: Skinny, have long shiny hair, wear cool clothes, and date a football player, then you must not be a "cool" person. And somewhere along the lines, "skinny" became the "standard" that most girls thought they needed to be. With this, self esteem, and ...
Many people feel unhappy with their bodies because they dont fit cultural expectations regarding height, weight and general appearance. Cultural stereotypes of what constitutes an ideal body type can be so ingrained that many people feel an enormous pressure to be thinner, taller or more muscular. Media images of thin women and muscular men contribute to the societal pressure to attain an "ideal" body type.. However, its possible to attain a positive, healthy body image no matter what your body type. Eating right, exercising regularly and managing stress can all contribute to a positive body image. Learning to accept and enjoy your body is key to forming a good body image.. ...
Normal weight obesity is when you look like youre a normal weight, but you actually have more fat than lean mass. In this video, nutrition specialist Heidi Skolnik explains the risks associated with normal weight obesity and why exercise is key.
My baby girl is just over a month old. |b|What is the normal body temperature of a month old baby? She is healthy, but gets hiccups around 4-5 times a day|/b|. Is it normal?
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A normal body temperature can range from 97°F to 99°F, while a fever is generally considered 100.4°F or above. Heres what you need to know.
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Ways In Which You Will Be Able To Lose Excess Weight.. When you want to lose the excess weight it all starts with getting active and eating right. This way it will help in losing the extra weight and get the body in the right shape. You will find that in many cases the fats will tend to be harder to lose in some areas. In order to get back the ideal body you will find that there are some efforts which will need to be considered in this case. When looking into the ways to lose weight then consider a number of the given tips here to help in the process of losing weight.. You will need to consider the first steps into this by targeting the weak spots. In many cases the body is able to store fats in some areas more than others. You will find that the body will have one party of their body which they do not really like or proud ...
Body image seems to be the latest buzzword. What is body image and why is it important? Body image is the mental picture people have of their bodies, and how that picture makes them feel. People who generally feel good about their bodies have a positive body image.
In todays society, many people put premium on being thin. Many factors, especially the media, contribute to the notion that what is beautiful is a well-sculpted body that doesnt show the slightest hint of fat. This has led many people to interpret fitness as looking like those sexy models as an epitome of ideal body. Some has been into different weight loss plans, such as the Medifast, and other crash dieting just to get rid of their extra pounds. The results of crash diets are dire. Those people trying to lose weight by sacrificing their nutrition are actually punishing themselves. They are constantly living in a condition of hunger which eventually leads them to feel exhausted all the time. Worse, it can lead to collapse and many other health risks. Crash dieting can literally make someone crash.. Those who intend to shed those extra fats in their body must realize that there are weight ...
Originally, our body are designed so we can live actively. But, the current lifestyle and also junk foods make most people lose their ideal body, therefore obesity is common thing to find especially in Europe and US. The creator of the program knows about how difficult and hard to live with overweight, hence he created the Workout Finishers for those who shared the same problem he was once suffered from ...
Beneath the mountains of words and ink and bile spilled over the past couple weeks over the conflict and controversy surrounding Julie Burchill and Susanne Moores statements in the British press, a single phrase is identifiable as the sort of keystone on which the entire mess hinges. That keystone is Moores petty remark about lacking a certain "ideal body shape"… that of "a Brazilian transexual".. Lots of people have made the issue simply one of "offense" vs. "free speech".. Lots of others have made it about the offensive nature of the term "transexual" as a noun.. Still more have discussed that this is just a bigoted, naive and lazy stereotype.. And one could also discuss the horrifying context in which the remark was made; that of Brazil having an epidemic of trans-misogynistic violence, with more trans women having been murdered there in 2012 than in the rest of the Western hemisphere combined.. That last point seems especially important and valid to me, at least far more ...
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The latest research says, eating a well-balanced diet and getting plenty of exercise are what count above all else. You do not have to buy into the advertising and entertainment industries unrealistic norms for an ideal body to be healthy, fit and attractive.. No one else is just like you. Your physical self is an amazing and unique result of your heritage, your genes, your environment, your past, your activities, your taste and the choices you make every single day. You have a unique spirit. Your personality is all your own. Why does your body have to be like everyone else? Think about it. You get to set the standard for yourself. When you are true to yourself, you have only yourself to please.. Also, its O.K. to speak your mind if someone gives you their unsolicited opinion about your size and shape. Its O.K. to tell that person that your body is your business, and your business alone! This takes courage! But, hopefully, your friends and ...
According to a study from the University of Texas the ideal body is the one of a woman who is 1.68m tall ad has 99-63-91 bust/weight/hip measurements. Science tried make. ...
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We are AADP Board Certified Holistic Health and Lifestyle Coaches. We collaborate with you to create customized, customized wellness and nutrition programs targeted to accomplish your unique goals in a lasting and sustainable way. As your wellness and lifestyle concierge, we provide a full-service, holistic approach that helps you EMBODY your best self, inside and out! We help you increase your energy, decrease your stress and naturally reach and sustain your ideal body in a nurtured way. We create a path for your personal journey to EMBODY Wellness.. ...
In contrast, having a healthy view of your physical self will mean your body image perception will more or less match your expectations. In that case, it may not mean you are completely satisfied with your body either, but chances are that you are accepting and comfortable with the way your body looks. As a consequence, one of the greatest challenges about unhealthy body image is that, in some cases, it may have nothing to do with actual physical appearance or body weight, meaning that the image you get in the mirror may be somewhat distorted by the way you feel or think about yourself ...
I know its only so much consolation to you right now, but the older I get, the more I notice how much easier having a positive body image becomes. I know thats clearly not the case for all older women: after all, plenty of women my age and older are getting sliced, diced and Botoxed to within an inch of their lives. However, its also not just me. I often notice that women Im friends with also seem to have a good handle and perspective on their body image, despite the diversity of our bodies. Usually a much better one then they had when they were your age.
I know its only so much consolation to you right now, but the older I get, the more I notice how much easier having a positive body image becomes. I know thats clearly not the case for all older women: after all, plenty of women my age and older are getting sliced, diced and Botoxed to within an inch of their lives. However, its also not just me. I often notice that women Im friends with also seem to have a good handle and perspective on their body image, despite the diversity of our bodies. Usually a much better one then they had when they were your age.
I have a problem that seems to be getting worse rather than better! Everytime my boyfriend and i are watching tv or a movie and the hot perfect women come on the....

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Human ADRB3/Galpha15 Stable Cell Line-Chem-10 CSC-RG0611 - Creative BioMartHuman ADRB3/Galpha15 Stable Cell Line-Chem-10 CSC-RG0611 - Creative BioMart

Thus, the cell line is an ideal tool for screening for antagonists of interactions between beta3 and its ligands. ... which supports high levels of recombinant beta3 expression on the cell surface and contains high levels of promiscuous G ... This human beta3-expressing cell line is made in the Chem-10 host, ... the beta3 receptor is found primarily in adipose tissue. Activation of adipose beta3 results in lipolysis and thermogenesis. A ...
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Frontiers | Novel GLP-1 Analog Supaglutide Reduces HFD-Induced Obesity Associated with Increased Ucp-1 in White Adipose Tissue...Frontiers | Novel GLP-1 Analog Supaglutide Reduces HFD-Induced Obesity Associated with Increased Ucp-1 in White Adipose Tissue...

... in adipose tissues was evaluated by Western blotting. We found that supaglutide treatment reduced body weight, which was ... Liver and adipose tissues were collected for histology analysis. Expression of uncoupling protein 1(Ucp1) in adipose tissues ... Liver and adipose tissues were collected for histology analysis. Expression of uncoupling protein 1(Ucp1) ... We found that supaglutide treatment reduced body weight, which was associated with reduced food intake. Compared to the placebo ...
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Molecular evolution and expression profile of the chemerine encoding gene RARRES2 in baboon and chimpanzeeMolecular evolution and expression profile of the chemerine encoding gene RARRES2 in baboon and chimpanzee

... in white adipose tissue, liver and lungs, while the mRNA for chemerine receptor is predominantly expressed in immune cells and ... Previous studies have found a substantial variation in weight and body composition in adult baboons sharing the same diet and ... Currently, the baboon (Papio spp) has been proven to be an ideal model to study metabolism disturbances. ... Tissue harvesting and processing. The liver, lung, adipose tissue, ovary, pancreas, heart, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, ...
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... the name of a group of antioxidative compounds that blast adipose tissue by revving the metabolism, increasing the release of ... i barely lost any weight :(((.. i am 39 yrs old, 4 11", currently at 57 kg- i am trying to go for my ideal weight of 48 to ... you would put on weight - not "water weight", but fat. If this were to happen, you would end up with a higher body fat ... Proponents of the diet believe that the stress of intermittent fasting causes an immune response that repairs cells and ...
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What Is Your Body Type? | Hoar Cross Hall Spa HotelWhat Is Your Body Type? | Hoar Cross Hall Spa Hotel

... and start consuming adipose body tissue for energy. At this stage, get started with interval training (2 minutes slow, 1 minute ... Switching up your weight training routine by using higher reps with lighter weights, and adding in body-weight exercises and ... The German Volume Training system is ideal for this, since it prescribes 10 sets of 10 reps and involves key moves, such as the ... MESOMORPH - Mesomorphs are typically muscular and well-built, with a high metabolism and responsive muscle cells. ...
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Catabolic hormones effects weight control potential - Weight Loss For AllCatabolic hormones effects weight control potential - Weight Loss For All

And of course, this has a direct effect on maintaining an ideal body weight. To battle the affects of cachexia, doctors and ... Breaking down adipose tissue fat stores into fatty acids;. Some fast facts about catabolic wasting (cachexia): ... ATP enables your cells to direct the energies that are released in catabolism to fuel anabolic reactions. This in turn delivers ... In an anabolic state, your body is building up. And in a catabolic state, your body is breaking down. If your body is stuck in ...
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... belly-fat crusaders that blast adipose tissue by revving the metabolism, increasing the release of fat from fat cells ( ... There are several ways of measuring your ideal body weight. One of the most popular methods to gauge whether or not you are ... "No need for heavy weights; you can build muscle by using your own body weight and exercise bands." Halfway between regular ... flat belly crusaders that blast adipose tissue by triggering the release of fat from fat cells (particularly in the belly), and ...
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... recent ophthalmology guidelines have revised recommendations from ideal body weight (IBW)-based dosing to actual body weight ... Oxidative stress impairs energy metabolism in primary cells and synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In this ... A pivotal role for adipose tissue homeostasis in systemic sclerosis (SSc) skin fibrosis is increasingly recognized. The nuclear ... Could low birth weight and preterm birth be associated with significant burden of hip osteoarthritis? A systematic review. ...
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Obesity hypoventilation syndrome - WikipediaObesity hypoventilation syndrome - Wikipedia

Formal criteria for diagnosis of OHS are: Body mass index over 30 kg/m2 (a measure of obesity, obtained by taking ones weight ... Firstly, work of breathing is increased as adipose tissue restricts the normal movement of the chest muscles and makes the ... the production of red blood cells. This results in polycythemia, abnormally increased numbers of circulating red blood cells ... PAP exists in various forms, and the ideal strategy is uncertain. Some medications have been tried to stimulate breathing or ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obesity_hypoventilation_syndrome

Immunological effects of the intraparenchymal administration of allogeneic and autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem...Immunological effects of the intraparenchymal administration of allogeneic and autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem...

Background Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADMSC) therapy can promote recovery from cerebral ischemia; however, more ... Autologous Allogeneic Adipose tissue-derived stem cells Transplantation Focal cerebral infarct Abbreviations. ADMSCs. adipose- ... with a body weight range of 260-280 g were housed at 23 ± 2 °C, under a relative humidity of 45 ± 15%, and a light/dark cycle ... Cerebral infarct or ischemic stroke is widely regarded as a major cause of disability and mortality [1]. No ideal treatment of ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1186%2Fs12967-018-1709-y

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... over ideal body weight and to exhibit hyperinsulinemia, he suggested other characteristics to include increased fat cell size ( ... Metabolic and inflammatory cell types appear in close proximity both in adipose tissue and in liver. Under normal circumstances ... α expression by white adipose tissue derived both from mature adipocytes and from stromal vascular cells occurs in a variety of ... which suggests that weight is closely regulated and that insulin might be a mediator of body weight stability. The hyperbolic ...
more infohttp://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/30/12/3145

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... flat belly crusaders that blast adipose tissue by triggering the release of fat from fat cells (particularly in the belly), and ... There are several ways of measuring your ideal body weight. One of the most popular methods to gauge whether or not you are ... belly-fat crusaders that blast adipose tissue by revving the metabolism, increasing the release of fat from fat cells. The ... 29) The aim is to "reset" your body and to adopt dietary habits resulting in weight loss. Cutting out added sugar and alcohol ...
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How i-Lipo can help you lose weight - Ideal Self Today - Ideal Self TodayHow i-Lipo can help you lose weight - Ideal Self Today - Ideal Self Today

The Lower level lasers penetrate into the adipose tissue targeting the fat cells. This in turn liquifies the fat into the ... Through the cell membrane the released "fat" becomes an available source of energy to be used up by the body during activity ... The fatty acids and glycerol are then transported around the body to the tissues that will use them during metabolism to create ... This process of fatty acid release is a natural response of the body when the body needs to used stored energy reserves, thus i ...
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The recommended daily protein requirements for humans are derived from "ideal body weight". The ideal body weight is calculated ... it stimulates the pancreas to produce the hormone glucagon which releases glycogen and fat stored in adipose tissue as a result ... removes glucose from the blood into the cells and thus lowers blood sugar. The cells then use the glucose calories to produce ... Muscle tissue is made up primarily of protein. When you work out, especially if you lift weights, you can be at risk for ...
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Subcutaneous Tissue Is the Innermost Layer of SkinSubcutaneous Tissue Is the Innermost Layer of Skin

... and how it protects the body from injury and regulates temperature. ... Learn about the composition of subcutaneous tissue, the bottom-most layer of skin, ... fat tissue), which is made up of adipocytes, or fat cells. The amount of adipose tissue varies throughout the body. It is ... it turns to adipose tissue as a fuel source, which can lead to weight loss. Adipocytes can swell or shrink depending on whether ...
more infohttps://www.verywellhealth.com/subcutaneous-tissue-1068882

Molecular evolution and expression profile of the chemerine encoding gene RARRES2 in baboon and chimpanzeeMolecular evolution and expression profile of the chemerine encoding gene RARRES2 in baboon and chimpanzee

... in white adipose tissue, liver and lungs, while the mRNA for chemerine receptor is predominantly expressed in immune cells and ... Previous studies have found a substantial variation in weight and body composition in adult baboons sharing the same diet and ... Currently, the baboon (Papio spp) has been proven to be an ideal model to study metabolism disturbances. ... Tissue harvesting and processing. The liver, lung, adipose tissue, ovary, pancreas, heart, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, ...
more infohttps://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602015000100031&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

10 Reasons Why You Should Be Drinking Lemon Water | HuffPost Canada10 Reasons Why You Should Be Drinking Lemon Water | HuffPost Canada

Believe it or not consuming lemon water can help break down adipose tissue, aka body fat. The pectin fiber in lemons can also ... 3. Promotes Weight Loss: Many of us want to lose weight but making it happen can be as difficult as getting our daily ... Lemon water is an ideal way to start your morning with energy, hydration, and endurance, helping you set up and maintain your ... Anti-oxidants are compounds that prevent free radical damage to the cells of our bodies. The anti-oxidant properties from lemon ...
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In the early 1990s, radiologists began using positron emission tomography, a type of body-scanning technology, to hunt for ... Cannon also points out that if brown fat could be activated, even in small quantities, it could be an ideal agent for weight ... "I dont think were going to solve the problem of obesity only by activating brown adipose tissue," he says. "There are so many ... there will be a way to help the body shed weight in an utterly natural way-no gimmicky diet required. ...
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Our Melksham-based clinic offers wide range of popular skin, hair, and body treatments for both men and women. ... The Snowberry Lane cosmetic clinic is excited to offer TiteFx Body Contouring Therapy near Bristol & Bath, carried out by ... This causes the fat cells to die and the adipose (fat) tissue deflates and loses volume thereby improving body contouring and ... It targets fatty tissue and helps to reshape and contour your body. Ideal for smaller pockets of fat that exercise alone wont ...
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Artemisia iwayomogi Extract Attenuates High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity by Decreasing the Expression of Genes Associated with...Artemisia iwayomogi Extract Attenuates High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity by Decreasing the Expression of Genes Associated with...

... visceral fat pad weights, (g) representative pictures of H&E-stained fat cells from mice epididymal adipose tissue (×100), and ... Body and Visceral Fat Pad Weights. AED-fed mice exhibited significantly decreased body weight gain (−52%) and final body weight ... Since visceral adiposity is positively correlated to plasma leptin concentration, the circulating leptin level is an ideal ... Changes in (a) body weight gain, (b) final body weight, (c) food intake, (d) FER, (e), (f) ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2013/915953/

Frontiers | Dietary Walnuts Protect Against Obesity-Driven Intestinal Stem Cell Decline and Tumorigenesis | NutritionFrontiers | Dietary Walnuts Protect Against Obesity-Driven Intestinal Stem Cell Decline and Tumorigenesis | Nutrition

... and in MC38 colon cancer cells in vivo, respectively. Walnuts did not alter the metabolic phenotype or intestinal morphology in ... walnuts did lead to a significant reduction in circulating CCL5 and preserved intestinal stem cell (ISC) function under HFD-fed ... walnuts did lead to a significant reduction in circulating CCL5 and preserved intestinal stem cell (ISC) function under HFD-fed ... and in MC38 colon cancer cells in vivo, respectively. Walnuts did not alter the metabolic phenotype or intestinal morphology in ...
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Weight loss, Fat Freezing, Non-Surgical Facelifts, Skin tightening ... Cryolipolysis freezes the fat cells or adipose tissue. The fat cells contain water and cryolipolysis turns the water into ice ... Ideal for precision body sculpting. The sensation during the procedure is similar to pins and needles, but there wont be any ... The targeted cells die and are slowly flushed out from the body through metabolic waste, which takes about 4 to 6 weeks. Heres ...
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Fetal programming of body composition, obesity, and metabolic function: the role of intrauterine stress and stress biology.Fetal programming of body composition, obesity, and metabolic function: the role of intrauterine stress and stress biology.

Identification of brown adipose tissue in mice with fat-water IDEAL-MRIJournal of Magnetic Resonance ImagingYear: ... Obesity is impacted by increases in fat cell number, size, or both. Fetal adipose tissue development is regulated by the ... Neurohumoral regulation of body weight gainPediatric DiabetesYear: 20012313114415016196. 113. Bouret SG. Early life origins of ... stem cells, and adipose tissue culture systems [168], and coupled with state-of-the-art statistical modeling techniques for ...
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  • In addition, the researchers found that SIRT1 must be present in POMC neurons for leptin to stimulate the remodeling of white adipose tissue into brown fat tissue, which "burns" fat to generate heat. (medindia.net)
  • Furthermore, not all obese individuals have insulin resistance, and those obese individuals showing metabolic benefits of weight loss belong to the insulin-resistant subset in the lowest tertile of insulin sensitivity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Criteria for the MONW state are similar to those for metabolic syndrome ( 4 ), including hyperinsulinemic individuals with normal weight and multiple cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors ( 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Walnuts did not alter the metabolic phenotype or intestinal morphology in normal mice fed either a low-fat diet (LFD), LFD with 6% walnuts (LFD+W), high-fat diet (HFD), or HFD with 7.6% walnuts (HFD+W). However, walnuts did lead to a significant reduction in circulating CCL5 and preserved intestinal stem cell (ISC) function under HFD-fed conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • The targeted cells die and are slowly flushed out from the body through metabolic waste, which takes about 4 to 6 weeks. (spireaesthetics.co.uk)
  • We suggest that intrauterine stress exposure may interact with the nutritional milieu, and that stress biology may represent an underlying mechanism mediating the effects of diverse intrauterine perturbations, including but not limited to maternal nutritional insults (undernutrition and overnutrition), on brain and peripheral targets of programming of body composition, energy balance homeostasis, and metabolic function. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In addition, mice lacking the beta3-adrenoceptor display increased total body fat, particularly on a high fat diet. (creativebiomart.net)
  • To this end, we studied effects of walnuts on these parameters under different dietary conditions in wildtype mice, two independent Apc models ( Apc 1638N/+ and Apc Δ14 ), and in MC38 colon cancer cells in vivo , respectively. (frontiersin.org)
  • The i-Lipo emits low levels of laser energy, which creates a chemical signal in the fat cells, breaking down the stored triglycerides into free fatty acids and glycerol and releasing them though channels in the cell membranes. (idealselftoday.com)
  • Acetyl L-Carnitine: Acetyl L-Carnitine promotes the transportation of free fatty acids into the mitochondria (core of the cells), where they are burned off as energy. (aaa.com.au)
  • Higenamine encourages your body to release triglycerides from your fat cells, and when combined with acetyl l-carnitine, the free form fatty acids will be transported to the mitochondria to be converted to pure naturally produced energy. (aaa.com.au)
  • This human beta3-expressing cell line is made in the Chem-10 host, which supports high levels of recombinant beta3 expression on the cell surface and contains high levels of promiscuous G proteins to couple the receptor to the calcium signaling pathway. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Furthermore, the extract significantly decreased gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF α , MCP1, IL-6, IFN α , and INF β ) in epididymal adipose tissue and reduced plasma levels of TNF α and MCP1 as compared to HFD alone. (hindawi.com)
  • Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone secreted by gastrointestinal L cells in response to nutrient ingestion Meier and Nauck (2005) . (frontiersin.org)
  • Some foods, like fennel, increase levels of melatonin in your body, a hormone that helps you drift off at night-and per University of Granada research-may help buffer weight gain and lessen heart disease risk in healthy people. (detox-cleansing-diet.com)
  • According to numerous studies, flavonoids and other compounds found in the hibiscus plant help to counteract bloating by influencing how aldosterone, the hormone that regulates water and electrolytes balance, affects the body. (detox-cleansing-diet.com)
  • The risks are: market products, some contain the, speed and thyroid hormone and other harmful components, consumer not only reducing weight, it will not damage the body, by using drugs, the doctor is recommended. (polskie-slowniki.eu)
  • Firstly, work of breathing is increased as adipose tissue restricts the normal movement of the chest muscles and makes the chest wall less compliant, the diaphragm moves less effectively, respiratory muscles are fatigued more easily, and airflow in and out of the lung is impaired by excessive tissue in the head and neck area. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process of fatty acid release is a natural response of the body when the body needs to used stored energy reserves, thus i-Lipo is not creating any unnatural reaction in the body nor does it affect or damage any surrounding structures such as skin, blood vessels and peripheral nerves. (idealselftoday.com)
  • Recognizing your goals for maintaining optimal weight levels can be thwarted by an overabundance of catabolic hormones in your body. (weightlossforall.com)
  • Green Coffee Bean Extract also works along multiple pathways to reduce body fat and blood glucose levels. (aaa.com.au)
  • It has also been found to lower lipid levels in the blood and protect the body against certain forms of cancer. (aaa.com.au)
  • Scientific studies have found that forskolin stimulates the increased production of an enzyme called adenylatecyclase, which increases levels of another enzyme called cAMP (cyclic AMP), which is found in fat cells. (aaa.com.au)
  • Like any fire, this process requires fuel, and brown fat maintains its heat partly by burning regular body fat, commonly known as white fat. (robbreport.com)
  • This kind of injection contains all the compounds necessary to help with weight reduction by burning extra fat. (spireaesthetics.co.uk)
  • They were stunned to realize that they were looking at brown adipose tissue, more commonly known as brown fat. (robbreport.com)
  • For decades, although researchers knew it existed in babies and animals, no one believed adult humans harbored brown fat, and its discovery in some adults-it's still unclear how much of the human population possesses it-has opened the way for the medical research and pharmaceutical communities to pursue a compelling new kind of weight-loss treatment. (robbreport.com)
  • Modern researchers began to grasp its potential significance in the 1960s, when a UCLA physiologist, measuring the vital signs of a marmot awakening from hibernation, noted that the animal's temperature was higher than expected, and the scientist linked that fact to the marmot's stores of brown adipose tissue. (robbreport.com)
  • The process of creating pores in cell membranes under an internal electrical field, leading to the death of fat cells). (snowberrylane.co.uk)
  • In a large study of adults of all ages and both sexes, the adult human body averaged ~65% water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cannon and others theorized that the tissue that was keeping infants warm was the same substance that stoked the marmot's furnace during its long sleep. (robbreport.com)
  • I've maintained my weight well and haven't gained fat or lost much muscle. (detox-cleansing-diet.com)
  • ECTOMORPH - This body type typically has a lean and long stature, and usually has difficulty building muscle. (hoarcross.co.uk)
  • Switching up your weight training routine by using higher reps with lighter weights, and adding in body-weight exercises and techniques such as super sets and circuit training can encourage strength and stamina without building muscle mass. (hoarcross.co.uk)
  • Other symptoms include general weakness and both low body fat and low body muscle ratios. (weightlossforall.com)
  • The iLipo treatments shifts the body into a fat burning mode rather than catabolic mode, helping the body hold onto muscle integrity. (idealselftoday.com)
  • Using the same low level lasers as the Ilipo combined with a suction and rolling procedure the device minimizes cellulite, stretch marks and helps with scar tissue. (idealselftoday.com)
  • Tumors consume glucose, so the PET scan would track the uptake of glucose in different parts of the body and might point the way to a previously unnoticed cancer. (robbreport.com)
  • With aging, the volume of facial fat decreases and there is less supportive tissue to support the normal elasticity of the skin. (verywellhealth.com)
  • This AC waveform allows the creation of a current inside the body via the very capacitive skin without causing a DC flow or burns, and limited in the ~20mA range current for safety. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms of this disorder occur because the heart has difficulty pumping blood from the body through the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • South Beach Diet plan originally developed to prevent heart disease, soon gained popularity as weight loss diet plan. (medindia.net)
  • Evidence for other actions is preliminary and inconclusive: there is speculation that it may have effects in other cells of the body such as platelet and thyroid cells, it may prevent platelet aggregation and adhesions, and it might even prevent tumor cell growth and cancer metastasis. (bellylean.pro)
  • Hence, we examined whether circulating T cell subset proportions and their asso. (medworm.com)
  • Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) suppress cytokine production in immune and stromal cells of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (medworm.com)