Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Synaptic Membranes: Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Cell Membrane Structures: Structures which are part of the CELL MEMBRANE or have cell membrane as a major part of their structure.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Extraembryonic Membranes: The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Octoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Phosphatidylethanolamines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial: The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte: A major integral transmembrane protein of the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE. It is the anion exchanger responsible for electroneutral transporting in CHLORIDE IONS in exchange of BICARBONATE IONS allowing CO2 uptake and transport from tissues to lungs by the red blood cells. Genetic mutations that result in a loss of the protein function have been associated with type 4 HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS.Spectrin: A high molecular weight (220-250 kDa) water-soluble protein which can be extracted from erythrocyte ghosts in low ionic strength buffers. The protein contains no lipids or carbohydrates, is the predominant species of peripheral erythrocyte membrane proteins, and exists as a fibrous coating on the inner, cytoplasmic surface of the membrane.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Purple Membrane: Functionally and structurally differentiated, purple-pigmented regions of the cytoplasmic membrane of some strains of Halobacterium halobium. The membrane develops under anaerobic conditions and is made almost entirely of the purple pigment BACTERIORHODOPSINS. (From Singleton & Sainsbury Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Unilamellar Liposomes: Single membrane vesicles, generally made of PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Freeze Etching: A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.beta-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Nictitating Membrane: A fold of the mucous membrane of the CONJUNCTIVA in many animals. At rest, it is hidden in the medial canthus. It can extend to cover part or all of the cornea to help clean the CORNEA.Bruch Membrane: The inner layer of CHOROID, also called the lamina basalis choroideae, located adjacent to the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM; (RPE) of the EYE. It is a membrane composed of the basement membranes of the choriocapillaris ENDOTHELIUM and that of the RPE. The membrane stops at the OPTIC NERVE, as does the RPE.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Sphingomyelins: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Osmosis: Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Complement Membrane Attack Complex: A product of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION cascade, regardless of the pathways, that forms transmembrane channels causing disruption of the target CELL MEMBRANE and cell lysis. It is formed by the sequential assembly of terminal complement components (COMPLEMENT C5B; COMPLEMENT C6; COMPLEMENT C7; COMPLEMENT C8; and COMPLEMENT C9) into the target membrane. The resultant C5b-8-poly-C9 is the "membrane attack complex" or MAC.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Osmotic Fragility: RED BLOOD CELL sensitivity to change in OSMOTIC PRESSURE. When exposed to a hypotonic concentration of sodium in a solution, red cells take in more water, swell until the capacity of the cell membrane is exceeded, and burst.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Porins: Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Aquaporins: A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Phosphatidylglycerols: A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Glycosylphosphatidylinositols: Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Transport Vesicles: Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Phosphatidylinositols: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Fluorescence Polarization: Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture: Spontaneous tearing of the membranes surrounding the FETUS any time before the onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR. Preterm PROM is membrane rupture before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Valinomycin: A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.Tympanic Membrane: An oval semitransparent membrane separating the external EAR CANAL from the tympanic cavity (EAR, MIDDLE). It contains three layers: the skin of the external ear canal; the core of radially and circularly arranged collagen fibers; and the MUCOSA of the middle ear.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 18.104.22.168.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Descemet Membrane: A layer of the cornea. It is the basal lamina of the CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM (from which it is secreted) separating it from the CORNEAL STROMA. It is a homogeneous structure composed of fine collagenous filaments, and slowly increases in thickness with age.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Caveolin 1: A tyrosine phosphoprotein that plays an essential role in CAVEOLAE formation. It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.TritiumGlycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: Application of a life support system that circulates the blood through an oxygenating system, which may consist of a pump, a membrane oxygenator, and a heat exchanger. Examples of its use are to assist victims of smoke inhalation injury, respiratory failure, and cardiac failure.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Filipin: A complex of polyene antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces filipinensis. Filipin III alters membrane function by interfering with membrane sterols, inhibits mitochondrial respiration, and is proposed as an antifungal agent. Filipins I, II, and IV are less important.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Diphenylhexatriene: A fluorescent compound that emits light only in specific configurations in certain lipid media. It is used as a tool in the study of membrane lipids.Ouabain: A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
... "cell-membrane effect" also occurs with aminoglycosides; "functional integrity of the bacterial cell membrane" can be lost, ... The aminoglycoside gentamicin has been used to treat cystic fibrosis (CF) cells in the laboratory to induce them to grow full- ... Aminoglycosides first cross bacterial cell walls-lipopolysaccharide in gram-negative bacteria-and cell membranes, where they ... The subset of aberrant proteins that are incorporated into the bacterial cell membrane may then lead to changes in its ...
... may occur in vivo or in vitro (inside or outside the body). Hemolysins damage the host cytoplasmic membrane, causing ... Sickle-cell disease or G6PD deficiency), or blood with too low a solute concentration (hypotonic to cells). Hemolysis can lead ... essentially this is hemolysis occurring outside of the body. Unfortunately, increased hemolysis occurs with massive amounts of ... cell lysis and death. The activity of these toxins is most easily observed with assays involving the lysis of red blood cells ( ...
... of enveloped viruses through the cell membrane. The new viruses may invade or attack other cells, or remain dormant in the cell ... Viruses must first get into the cell before viral replication can occur. From the perspective of the virus, the purpose of ... The cell membrane of the host cell invaginates the virus particle, enclosing it in a pinocytotic vacoule. This protects the ... The virus may induce the cell to forcefully undergo cell division, which may lead to transformation of the cell and, ultimately ...
... s are microtubule-based membrane protrusions that occur in detached cells. They were discovered by scientists ... "Detyrosinated microtubule protrusions in suspended mammary epithelial cells promote reattachment". Experimental Cell Research. ... These novel structures are distinct from classical actin based extensions of adherent cells, persist for days in breast tumor ... The formation of microtentacles (McTNs) in detached or circulating tumor cells may promote seeding of bloodborne metastatic ...
Cells expressing the protein showed cell aggregation activity. Alternative splicing occurs in this gene. GRCh38: Ensembl ... The encoded protein is a membrane protein found at cell-cell boundaries. It is involved in neural cell adhesion, suggesting a ... Cell. Proteomics. 3 (11): 1093-101. doi:10.1074/mcp.M400085-MCP200. PMID 15345747. Rush J, Moritz A, Lee KA, et al. (2005). " ... 2007). "Signal sequence and keyword trap in silico for selection of full-length human cDNAs encoding secretion or membrane ...
The microbial oxidation process occurs at the cell membrane of the bacteria. The electrons pass into the cells and are used in ... Less landscape damage occurs, since the bacteria involved grow naturally, and the mine and surrounding area can be left ...
... acts by blocking thiol residues in the cell membrane. Gliotoxin also activates a member of the Bcl-2 family called ... Interactions occur between sulfur molecules that make up the disulfide bridge and thiol groups contained in cysteine residues. ... Gliotoxin possesses immunosuppressive properties that may suppress and cause apoptosis in certain cells of the immune system, ... Major Facilitator Superfamily transporter that secretes gliotoxin across cell membrane Enzymes GliJ, GliI, GliF, and GliH are ...
In nature this can occur when exogenous DNA penetrates the cell membrane for any reason. This can be accomplished artificially ... 2017). "Interspecies Chimerism with Mammalian Pluripotent Stem Cells". Cell. 168: 473-486.e15. PMID 28129541. doi:10.1016/j. ... Such animals, which are hence composed of a mixture of cells from more than one species, are called "chimera's" One ... sickle cell anemia, Parkinson's disease, cancer, diabetes, heart disease and muscular ...
... there forms a continuous association between cell interior, cell membrane and extracellular matrix components that help drive ... It serves important functions, being a chemo-attractant for macrophages, fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Basement membrane ... It occurs in 15% of people with diabetes, and precedes 84% of all diabetes-related lower-leg amputations. Diabetic foot ulcer ... In addition to the importance of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, all phases of wound healing are controlled by a wide ...
Ablation occurs in tissue that has been frozen by at least three mechanisms: *formation of ice crystals within cells thereby ... induction of apoptosis, the so-called programmed cell death cascade.. The most common application of cryoablation is to ablate ... disrupting membranes, and interrupting cellular metabolism among other processes;. *coagulation of blood thereby interrupting ... By cooling the tip of a cryoablation catheter (cardiology) or probe (heart surgery) to sub-zero temperatures, the cells in the ...
The host cell is denigrated after the cell's membrane is ruptured upon virus' exit. Parapoxviruses have been seen in a variety ... Assembly occurs within the cytoplasm of the host cell. Release occurs via budding of a membranous vesicle and ultimately ... Parapoxvirus enters cells by utilizing glycosaminoglycans as a lubricant, which are "long unbranched polysaccharides consisting ... The virion then fuses with the plasma membrane of the host cell and releases its core into the cytoplasm of the host cell. ...
... is a fluorescence microscopy technique used to examine movement of molecules inside cells and membranes. A cell membrane is ... This initial region of interest usually contains the whole cell or several cells. In FLIP, photobleaching occurs just outside ... If the cell also participates in nuclear export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, photobleaching will also occur in the ... Before photobleaching can occur, cells must be injected with a fluorescent protein, often a green fluorescent protein (GFP), ...
The newly formed nucleocapsids and envelope proteins associate at the host cell's plasma membrane; budding occurs, destroying ... the cells survived and appeared impervious to the virus, further indicating that Ebola relies on NPC1 to enter cells; mutations ... To penetrate the cell, the viral membrane fuses with vesicle membrane, and the nucleocapsid is released into the cytoplasm. ... The outer viral envelope of the virion is derived by budding from domains of host cell membrane into which the GP spikes have ...
The cell shrinks and cellular death occurs, this is called 'dehydration at cellular level'. This is how a deficiency in ... Since the cell membrane is more permeable to potassium than sodium, potassium leaks out. Intracellular fluid becomes hypotonic ... Pyruvate kinase deficiency in the red blood cells results in an inadequate amount of or complete lack of the enzyme, blocking ... This is done if the red blood cell count has fallen to a critical level. The transplantation of bone marrow has also been ...
Bacterial thiaminases are cell surface enzymes that must dissociate from the membrane before being activated; the dissociation ... Uptake of thiamine by cells of the blood and other tissues occurs via active transport and passive diffusion. About 80% of ... Unlike the highly phosphorylated forms of thiamine, ThMP and free thiamine are capable of crossing cell membranes. Thiamine ... If there is sufficient thiamine present in the cell then the thiamine binds to the mRNAs for the enzymes that are required in ...
Dedifferentiation also occurs in plants. Cells in cell culture can lose properties they originally had, such as protein ... Interbilayer Forces in Membrane Fusion Fusion mechanism Lipid bilayer fusion Cell-cell fusogens CAF-1 Kryven, I.; Röblitz, S.; ... fat cells, and types of bone cells Epithelial stem cells (progenitor cells) that give rise to the various types of skin cells ... Since each cell, regardless of cell type, possesses the same genome, determination of cell type must occur at the level of gene ...
Prokaryotic cells transitioning into eukaryotic cells likely occurred between 2.0-1.4 billion years ago. This was an important ... "Self-assembly and function of primitive cell membranes". Research in Microbiology. 160: 449-456. doi:10.1016/j.resmic.2009.06. ... Eukaryotes are cells that contain membrane bound organelles, such as mitochondria, a nucleus, and chloroplasts. ... These organisms live together, and each cell in the colony is the same. However, each individual cell must carry out all life ...
MHC class I occurs on all nucleated cells and also in platelets-in essence all cells but red blood cells. It presents epitopes ... Nonclassic molecules, accessories, with intracellular functions, are not exposed on cell membranes, but in internal membranes ... and include B cells, T cells, and natural killer cells (NK cells). B cells, which act specifically, secrete antibody molecules ... NK cells lose the inhibitory KIR signal and trigger programmed cell death of the abnormal cell. NK cells thus help prevent ...
Once the tetramer is inserted into the cell membrane, two mechanism of actions can occur. First, insertion may lead to pore ... may penetrate through the membrane of target cells to interact directly with intracellular neurotransmitter release machinery.[ ... So because of the channel and the insertion in the cell membrane the protein makes the cell more permeable to substances that ... The pores formed by α-LTX in the membrane are permeable to Ca2+ and therefore allows an influx of Ca2+ into the cell. This ...
In nature this can occur when exogenous DNA penetrates the cell membrane for any reason. This can be accomplished artificially ... 2017). "Interspecies Chimerism with Mammalian Pluripotent Stem Cells". Cell. 168 (3): 473-86. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.12.036. ... In most cases the aim is to introduce a new trait to the plant which does not occur naturally in the species. Examples in food ... Such animals, which are hence composed of a mixture of cells from more than one species, are called "chimera's" One project, ...
When temperatures change, a phase transition occurs. In the case of a temperature decrease, the membrane gels and becomes solid ... Maintain structure and function of membranes within cells of the organisms above. This is important when temperatures changes ... Alberts, Bruce (2015). Molecular Biology of the Cell. New York: Garland Science. p. 571. ISBN 978-0-8153-4453-7. Hastings, ... Four desaturases occur in humans: Δ9 desaturase, Δ6 desaturase, Δ5 desaturase, and Δ4 desaturase. Δ9 desaturase, also known as ...
Embedded in the cell membrane is also the G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channel. When a Gβγ or Gα(GTP) ... When an agonistic ligand binds to the opioid receptor, a conformational change occurs, and the GDP molecule is released from ... "Mechanisms of cyclic AMP/protein kinase A- and glucocorticoid-mediated apoptosis using S49 lymphoma cells as a model system" ... as it moves from the plasma membrane into the cell and relays the signal. ...
The resulting calcium influx induces fusion of insulin-containing vesicles with the cell membrane, and insulin secretion occurs ... It achieves this by closing ATP-dependent potassium channels in the membrane of the β cells. This depolarizes the β cells and ...
This region is usually very thermodynamically stable and occurs only in the phospholipid membrane between cells. The ... "High affinity binding of a fungal oligopeptide elicitor to parsley plasma membranes triggers multiple defense responses". Cell ... Essentially, the majority of flagellin perception occurring in tomato plants expressing Arabidopsis FLS2 gene is occurring ... "Membrane responses induced by oligogalacturonides in suspension-cultured tobacco cells". The Plant Journal. 1 (3): 333-343. doi ...
... "cell-membrane effect" also occurs with aminoglycosides; "functional integrity of the bacterial cell membrane" can be lost, ... cells in the laboratory to induce them to grow full-length proteins. CF is caused by a mutation in the gene coding for the ... Aminoglycosides first cross bacterial cell walls-lipopolysaccharide in gram-negative bacteria-and cell membranes, where they ... The subset of aberrant proteins that are incorporated into the bacterial cell membrane may then lead to changes in its ...
Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete ... Upon stimulation by a T cell, which usually occurs in germinal centers of secondary lymphoid organs like the spleen and lymph ... Other organelles in a plasma cell include ribosomes, lysosomes, mitochondria, and the plasma membrane. ... In humans, CD27 is a good marker for plasma cells, naive B cells are CD27-, memory B-cells are CD27+ and plasma cells are ...
The End2 mutation in CHO cells slows the exit of transferrin receptors from the recycling compartment but bulk membrane ... Sorting of membrane components from endosomes and subsequent recycling to the cell surface occurs by a bulk flow process. S ... Sorting of membrane components from endosomes and subsequent recycling to the cell surface occurs by a bulk flow process.. J ... However, it is not known whether recycling membrane receptors follow bulk membrane flow or if these proteins are actively ...
... fermentation occurs in the cytoplasm of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Fermentation occurs after gycolysis, which is ... What is an eukaryotic cell?. A: Eukaryotic cells are advanced cells that have, at minimum, a cellular membrane surrounding ... Where is the cell membrane located?. A: The cell membrane is a semipermeable lipid bilayer that surrounds the cytoplasm of all ... Prokaryotic cells do not have membrane-bound organelles, so all metabolic processes must occur in the cytoplasm. In eukaryotic ...
The function of the nuclear membrane in an animal cell is to hold the DNA inside the nucleus in order to protect it from ... The nuclear membrane, also known as the nuclear envelope, surrounds every nucleus found in animal cells. It separates the fluid ... The nuclear membrane features a double layer comprising a continuous outer membrane and an inner membrane separated by ... The function of the nuclear membrane in an animal cell is to hold the DNA inside the nucleus in order to protect it from ...
In mock-infected cells, pcav-1 was located at regions of the cell that interact with the extracellular matrix, termed focal ... findings show that the RSV assembly process occurs within specialized lipid-raft structures on the host-cell plasma membrane, ... Our results show that RSV matures at regions of the cell surface that, in addition to cav-1, are enriched in the lipid-raft ... Furthermore, a comparison of mock-infected and RSV-infected cells by confocal microscopy revealed a significant change in the ...
Animal Cells 2 Related Answers How does an animal cell destroy toxins? what is the list of organelles that take part in protein ... An error occurred. Please try again, our system had a problem processing your request. ... Cell Membrane Cell Structure and Functions Cell Respiration What are Endocytosis and Exocytosis? Related Tutors. Discrete Math ... Function of the molecule would have the most impact on its permeability and transport through cell membrane. Cell membranes are ...
Identify metaphase plate, chromosomes, cell membrane, cytoplasm, sister chromatids.. *Describe the events that occur during ... Cell Cycle Lab. Mitosis is the process of how eukaryotic cells divide and replicate. The process results in two cells with ... In most cells this is a short proportion of the overall cells existence, approximately 10%. The cell cycle is divided into ... Draw and label (identify) a cell in prophase. Identify nucleus, nuclear envelope, chromosomes, cell membrane, cytoplasm. ...
Kf is the equilibrium constant for partition coefficient for the fuel into the solid polymer electrolyte membrane, ℑ is ... and jf c is an empirically determined crossover rate of fuel above which the fuel cell does not operate. ... A membrane electrode assembly for use with a direct organic fuel cell containing a formic acid fuel includes a solid polymer ... The NAFION membrane used in each of the exemplary fuel cells had a thickness of about 0.007 in. The active cell area was 5 cm2 ...
Evidence is presented that mammalian and plant cells respond equally to any event which changes their cell membrane structure. ... Such reactions occur in all inflammatory diseases. Lipidhydoperoxides and their degradation products are incorporated in fat. ... Do changes in the cell membrane structure induce the generation of lipid peroxidation products which serve as first signalling ... Such LDL is still recognized by the cell LDL receptor. Toxic lipid peroxidation products are therefore introduced into cells ...
Cell or Plasma Membranes Does a prokaryotic cell have a plasma membrane. ?. The prokaryotic cells have a plasma membrane. They ... The area of the cell between the plasma membrane and nucleus where chemical reactions occur is the. ?. The cytoplasm is the ... Cell or Plasma Membranes What is the region between the cell membrane and the nucleus. ?. The region between the cell membrane ... Cell or Plasma Membranes Why does a nucleus in a plant cell is seen towards the plasma membrane. ?. In a plant cell, there is a ...
... ... However, it is not known whether recycling membrane receptors follow bulk membrane flow or if these proteins are actively ... The constitutive nature of sorting of bulk membrane towards the recycling pathway and the lysosomal direction of fluid phase ... membrane lipids, to address this issue directly. We show that N-[N-(7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl)-epsilon-aminohexanoyl]- ...
By forming networks on the membrane surface, annexins can function as organizers of membrane domains and membrane-recruitment ... A unique class of these proteins - annexins - can bind to certain membrane phospholipids in a Ca2+-dependent manner, providing ... properties enable annexins to participate in several otherwise unrelated events that range from membrane dynamics to cell ... Eukaryotic cells contain various Ca2+-effector proteins that mediate cellular responses to changes in intracellular Ca2+ levels ...
White arrows highlight two cells where transfer occurred. Column micrographs (100× objective) were of identical fields. Rod ... suggesting a new role in cell-cell communication. A working model proposes TraA is a cell surface receptor that mediates cell- ... Cell contact-dependent outer membrane exchange in myxobacteria: genetic determinants and mechanism.. Pathak DT1, Wei X, ... Cell Contact-Dependent Outer Membrane Exchange in Myxobacteria: Genetic Determinants and Mechanism ...
... but not on the cell membrane, of the cultured cells. Consistently, no Kir currents were recorded in the cells cultured in this ... it is highly possible that clustering of Kir4.1 with SAP97 occurs in Müller cells in vivo, which thus increases the channel ... M, Müller cell;Ph, photoreceptor cell; Pe, pericyte;E, endothelial cell; CL, capillary lumen;BM, basement membrane; N, nucleus; ... Single-channel recordings from cell-attached membrane patches of isolated rabbit Müller cells. a, Membrane current traces were ...
The membrane is then aspirated away. The injection is done using a standard glue injector with a one-shot and a continuous mode ... is injected to separate a membrane from the retina so that intraocular scissors may be manipulated between the membrane and the ... This can occur for the following reason. The membranes initially form as a single cell layer. Later, the cells often rearrange ... Second, the pre-retinal membrane tends to rearrange itself from a one-cell layer membrane to a two-cell layer membrane. A ...
Increase the surface area of the plasma membrane. Cell-surface Membrane. *Found on the surface of animal cells, its ... In it membranes the light dependent reactions occur. In its stroma the light independent reactions occurs. ... Cell Structure. Cell Organelles. Organelles are parts of cells. Each organelle has a specific function. ... Table 1: Comparison of structures between animal and plant cells Typical animal cell Typical plant cell ...
... so apoptotic cells serve as potential entry points for bacteria into the epithelial cell layer. Thereafter, the bacteria ... Oligomannose glycans exposed on early apoptotic cells are the preferred binding targets of AIEC, so apoptotic cells serve as ... AIEC uses the FimH fimbrial adhesin to bind to oligomannose glycans on the surface of host cells. Oligomannose glycans exposed ... AIEC uses the FimH fimbrial adhesin to bind to oligomannose glycans on the surface of host cells. ...
In plant cells, post-Golgi vesicles from both daughter cells are directed toward the cell plate region between daughter cells ... Exocytosis from both daughter cells occurs at the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis. Arguably, vesicles that accumulate in the ... Fusion of constitutive membrane traffic with the cell surface observed by evanescent wave microscopy. J. Cell Biol. 149:33-40. ... Post-Golgi membrane accumulates in the cleavage furrow of cells undergoing cytokinesis. (A) BSC1 cells expressing VSVG-YFP were ...
A fully supported membrane assembly for an electrochemical fuel cell is provided. A first and second layer of porous ... Electrochemical fuel cells employing membrane electrode assemblies are known and have been produced and sold for many years. ... Many modifications will readily occur to those skilled in the art. For example, rather than a graphite material being used for ... The membrane assembly of claim 36 wherein said membrane is a solid polymer ion exchange membrane. 38. The membrane assembly of ...
Exocytosis occurs in various cells to remove undigested residues of substances brought in by endocytosis, to secrete substances ... plasmatic membrane (Pfeffer, 1900), plasma membrane, cytoplasmic membrane, cell envelope and cell membrane. Some ... It was also inferred that cell membranes werent vital components to all cells. Many refuted the existence of a cell membrane ... Intracellular membranes. The content of the cell, inside the cell membrane, is composed of numerous membrane-bound organelles, ...
5A). This supports that the CAR PYR/PYL interaction occurs at the cell membrane and suggests the notion that CAR binding to the ... The cells were resuspended in 180 mL lysis buffer (30 mM Tris pH 7.5, 500 mM NaCl, 15 mM imidazole, 1 mM β-mercaptoethanol, and ... Many of the plant-adaptive responses to environmental stresses occur at the cell membrane. In particular, those related to the ... A fundamental portion of the plant response to these environmental stresses occurs at the cell membrane, where the molecular ...
... to control the intensity and duration of the voltage to assure that electroporation has occurred without destroying the cell(s ... a cell membrane are accomplished by securing a cell across an opening in a barrier between two chambers such that the cell ... The impedance detects the onset of electroporation in the biological cell(s), and this information is used ... transport is achieved either by a difference in solute concentration between the liquids surrounding the cell and the cell ...
... imaged molecular structures vital to how a major class of viruses replicates within infected cells. The research uses ... This process happens to occur on membranes in an infected cell. The viruses make replication compartments--essentially new ... Cells lacking nuclei struggle to move in 3-D environments UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center ... The mitochondrial outer membrane is in dark blue, the spherule membrane in white, the interior... view more ...
At least 17 gonococcal DNA-binding proteins were identified; unique subsets occurred in BI and BII. Certain DNA-binding ... Western immunoblots of whole-cell and bleb proteins from transformation-competent and DNA-uptake-deficient (dud) mutants were ... DNA-binding proteins in cells and membrane blebs of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... DNA-binding proteins in cells and membrane blebs of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.. D W Dorward, C F Garon ...
An example of this occurs in the kidney, where both forms of channels are found in different parts of the renal tubules. Cells ... In this condition, the cell does not shrink because the cell wall is not flexible. However, the cell membrane detaches from the ... have cell walls that surround the plasma membrane and prevent cell lysis in a hypotonic solution. The plasma membrane can only ... A red blood cell will burst, or lyse, when it swells beyond the plasma membranes capability to expand. Remember, the membrane ...
Ruffles are actin-rich, sheet-like extensions of cell membrane, distributed over the dorsal surfaces of cells that adhere to ... Rac1 activation and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 generation occurred transiently within the circular domain of plasma membrane formed by ... When macrophages or epithelial cells are stimulated with growth factors or phorbol esters, cell-surface membrane ruffles ... Phosphoinositide metabolism during membrane ruffling and macropinosome formation in EGF-stimulated A431 cells. Exp. Cell Res. ...
EukaryoticPermeabilityPhospholipidsDendritic cellsIonsLipid bilayerOuterNucleusNaturallyVesiclesConcentrationVacuoleBasolateralBindApicalBiological membranesElectrode assemblyOrganellesElectrolyteProkaryotesStructuresProcessesFluorescenceNeuronsSurfaceRegulationDisruptionFattyMitochondrial matrixLocalizationMitochondriaActinResearchersSubstancesSecretoryMulticellular organismsMicrovilliMicroscopySignalsSurroundsGlial cellsRobert HookePolymerExchange membraneCitric acid
- In eukaryotic cells, pyruvate from the glycolysis pathway is typically transported into the mitochondria and the citric acid cycle. (reference.com)
- Therefore, eukaryotic cells utilize lactic acid or ethanol fermentation in anaerobic conditions. (reference.com)
- What is an eukaryotic cell? (reference.com)
- Mitosis is the process of how eukaryotic cells divide and replicate. (google.com)
- By observing stained cells, these stages can be observed in a eukaryotic plant cell. (google.com)
- Eukaryotic cells are complex, and include all animal and plant cells. (wikibooks.org)
- Animal cells are eukaryotic. (prezi.com)
- Virtually all eukaryotic cells (including cells from animals, plants, and fungi) maintain a non-zero transmembrane potential, [ citation needed ] usually with a negative voltage in the cell interior as compared to the cell exterior ranging from -40 mV to -80 mV. (wikipedia.org)
- Function of the molecule would have the most impact on its permeability and transport through cell membrane. (wyzant.com)
- Therefore, function of the molecule would have the greatest effect on its permeability through cell membrane. (wyzant.com)
- It wasn't until later studies with osmosis and permeability that cell membranes gained more recognition. (wikipedia.org)
- where it is required to establish proper membrane permeability and fluidity.The questionnaire mainly includes the questions related to prescribing behavior of Cardiologist and factors affecting their prescription pattern. (scribd.com)
- where it is required to establish proper membrane permeability and fluidity. (scribd.com)
- This voltage is established when the membrane has permeability to one or more ions. (wikipedia.org)
- Proliferation, wounding or aging induces generation of lipidhydroperoxides from cell wall phospholipids. (nih.gov)
- This core domain enables Ca 2+ -bound annexins to peripherally dock onto membranes that contain negatively charged phospholipids. (nature.com)
- Polyunsaturated fatty acids are important as constituents of the phospholipids, where they appear to confer several important properties to the membranes. (news-medical.net)
- Cholesterol maintains the fluidity of membranes by interacting with their complex lipid components, specifically the phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin. (news-medical.net)
- The covering membrane of a lipoprotein contains chemicals more easily soluble in blood than those in the interior, such as free cholesterol, phospholipids (e.g., lecithin), and apoproteins. (encyclopedia.com)
- Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent antigen presenting cells and robustly induce adaptive immunity mediated by T cells and B cells [ 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Dendritic cells express DC-SIGN and CD206, C-type lectins (CTLs) that bind a variety of pathogens and may facilitate pathogen uptake for subsequent antigen presentation. (frontiersin.org)
- The ability of immature dendritic cells to recognize, bind, and effectively respond to pathogens is critical for our innate and adaptive immune responses [ 1 , 2 ]. (frontiersin.org)
- Although early work on DPP4 focused on its role in T-cell function ( 4 , 5 ), the role of DPP4 in dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages has not received much attention ( 6 - 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Inwardly rectifying potassium (K + ) channels (Kir) in Müller cells, the dominant glial cells in the retina, are supposed to be responsible for the spatial buffering action of K + ions. (jneurosci.org)
- Neural excitation causes an increase of extracellular potassium ions (K + ) especially at synaptic sites in the CNS, including the retina, which if uncorrected would result in the loss of synaptic transmission by depolarizing the membrane. (jneurosci.org)
- All cells spend the majority of their energy to maintain an imbalance of sodium and potassium ions between the interior and exterior of the cell. (oercommons.org)
- Apical Basolateral formed by this active transport creates an electroche- mical gradient facilitative to the passive flow for Na + other ions across the cell membrane-a process known as secondary active transport (Figure 2). (yudu.com)
- Extracellular membrane-bound CAs facilitate transport of a number of organic ions by making protons and bicarbonate available for the transport process. (pnas.org)
- Furthermore, although, these types of studies are useful when investigating the inter and intra-cell signalling pathways from the direct release of Si ions, they do not account for the interaction of the cells with the delivery system. (nature.com)
- If the researchers' vision for a biobased membrane pans out, this prototype membrane could one day used to conduct ions in a hydrogen fuel cell. (usda.gov)
- Borrowing from this idea, Barone and his colleagues have focused their research on bio-based, nonpetroleum membranes made from naturally occurring products to conduct the hydrogen ions moving in and out of fuel cells. (usda.gov)
- The circulation of ions across biological membranes is a fundamental process of cellular energetics ( Harold, 1986 ). (plantcell.org)
- A key function of the PM H + -ATPase is to generate a proton electrochemical gradient, thereby providing the driving force for the uptake and efflux of ions and metabolites across the plasma membrane. (plantcell.org)
- Important in lipid synthesis, detoxification of drugs, and the storage of calcium ions in muscle cells. (prezi.com)
- Differences in the concentrations of ions on opposite sides of a cellular membrane lead to a voltage called the membrane potential . (wikipedia.org)
- Many ions have a concentration gradient across the membrane, including potassium (K + ), which is at a high concentration inside and a low concentration outside the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
- In the simplest case, illustrated here, if the membrane is selectively permeable to potassium, these positively charged ions can diffuse down the concentration gradient to the outside of the cell, leaving behind uncompensated negative charges. (wikipedia.org)
- The membrane serves as both an insulator and a diffusion barrier to the movement of ions . (wikipedia.org)
- The lipid bilayer hypothesis, proposed in 1925 by Gorter and Grendel, created speculation to the description of the cell membrane bilayer structure based on crystallographic studies and soap bubble observations. (wikipedia.org)
- A membrane lipid is a compound which belongs to a group of (structurally similar to fats and oils) which form the double-layered surface of all cells (lipid bilayer). (wikipedia.org)
- The uncompensated positive charges outside the cell, and the uncompensated negative charges inside the cell, physically line up on the membrane surface and attract each other across the lipid bilayer . (wikipedia.org)
- The nuclear membrane features a double layer comprising a continuous outer membrane and an inner membrane separated by perinuclear space. (reference.com)
- The outer boundary is the plasma membrane. (answers.com)
- Cell contact-dependent outer membrane exchange in myxobacteria: genetic determinants and mechanism. (nih.gov)
- Recently, we described a novel process whereby myxobacterial biofilm cells exchange their outer membrane (OM) lipoproteins. (nih.gov)
- The mitochondrial outer membrane is in dark blue, the spherule membrane in white, the interior. (eurekalert.org)
- AUGUSTA, Ga. -A class of drugs widely used to treat osteoporosis appears to impede a cell's ability to repair a protective outer membrane that helps determine what enters and exits, researchers report. (eurekalert.org)
- Working in the lab of Dr. Paul McNeil, an MCG cell biologist specializing in cell membrane repair, Lewis found that kidney epithelial cells from monkeys and muscle cells from mice both lost their ability to quickly repair their outer membrane after exposure to zoledronate, a commonly used bisphosphonate, Lewis said. (eurekalert.org)
- These viruses have an outer membrane covering their genetic material, and to invade host cells enveloped viruses must first attach to a cell and then open their membrane to release genetic material. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- The function of the nuclear membrane in an animal cell is to hold the DNA inside the nucleus in order to protect it from surrounding substances. (reference.com)
- The nuclear membrane also regulates which substances can enter or exit the nucleus. (reference.com)
- The nuclear membrane, also known as the nuclear envelope, surrounds every nucleus found in animal cells. (reference.com)
- It separates the fluid inside the nucleus of a cell from the material outside. (reference.com)
- The nuclear membrane has the function of protecting the DNA inside the nucleus from surrounding exterior substances. (reference.com)
- What Occurs in the Nucleus? (reference.com)
- This pushes the nucleus towards the plasma membrane. (answers.com)
- A messenger RNA (mRNA) is made in the nucleus of the cell. (answers.com)
- The nucleus is surrounded by a nuclear membrane. (answers.com)
- Within the nuclear membrane you will find the nucleus surrounded by a plasma substance called the nucleoplasma. (answers.com)
- Smaller cells give the substance less space to travel in order to get to the nucleus, while the larger cells make it difficult for the substance to reach the nucleus because of its large distance from the. (brightkite.com)
- Bacteria are microorganisms containing no nucleus with a cell wall composed of peptidoglycan, a protein-sugar molecule. (brightkite.com)
- For a stimulatory signal to reach the nucleus and "turn on" cell division, four main steps must occur. (britannica.com)
- Third, this activation must stimulate a signal to be transmitted, or transduced, from the receptor at the cell surface to the nucleus within the cell. (britannica.com)
- Naturally elaborated membrane bleb fractions BI and BII of Neisseria gonorrhoeae contain both linear and circular DNAs. (asm.org)
- Passive transport is a naturally occurring phenomenon and does not require the cell to exert any of its energy to accomplish the movement. (oercommons.org)
- In research aimed at reducing American dependence on petroleum-based fuels, a group of Agricultural Research Service ( ARS ) scientists has found a way to replace the petroleum used in today's hydrogen fuel cell membranes with naturally occurring products. (usda.gov)
- Ligands that cause physiologic changes with receptor binding, typically the naturally occurring ligands. (redorbit.com)
- PS, or phosphatidyl serine, is a naturally occurring fat that is found in cell membranes. (healthy.net)
- In contrast, RSV-infected cells showed both a decrease in the levels of pcav-1 associated with FA and the appearance of pcav-1-containing cytoplasmic vesicles, the latter being absent in mock-infected cells. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- In addition, we noted a strong colocalization between pcav-1 and growth hormone receptor binding protein-7 (Grb7), within these cytoplasmic vesicles, which was not observed in mock-infected cells. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Collectively, these findings show that the RSV assembly process occurs within specialized lipid-raft structures on the host-cell plasma membrane, induces the cellular redistribution of pcav-1 and results in the formation of cytoplasmic vesicles that contain both pcav-1 and Grb7. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- We used advanced live cell imaging techniques to track exocytosis of single vesicles to determine whether constitutively exocytosed membrane is focally delivered to the cleavage furrow. (rupress.org)
- Ultrasensitive three-dimensional confocal time-lapse imaging of the temperature-sensitive membrane cargo protein vesicular stomatitis virus protein-yellow fluorescent protein revealed that vesicles from both daughter cells traffic out of the Golgi and into the furrow, following curvilinear paths. (rupress.org)
- Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy imaging provided direct evidence that Golgi-derived vesicles from both daughter cells not only traffic to the furrow region but dock and fuse there, supporting a symmetrically polarized exocytic delivery model. (rupress.org)
- A critical timely issue is to determine whether exocytosis of post-Golgi vesicles, which encompasses both vesicle trafficking and fusion, occurs selectively at the furrow. (rupress.org)
- Is the furrow-associated vesicular membrane derived from endosomes, lysosomes, Golgi/trans-Golgi network (TGN), or Golgi-derived vesicles? (rupress.org)
- In a mitochondrion infected with the virus, the space between those membranes is expanded and filled up with spherules, round vesicles about 50 nanometers in size. (eurekalert.org)
- Macropinosomes are large endocytic vesicles that form in ruffling regions of plasma membrane. (biologists.org)
- At the end of each meiotic division, COPI-containing vesicles are equally partitioned between two daughter cells. (biologists.org)
- Our present data strongly suggest that spermatocytes possess a regulatory mechanism for equal inheritance of several types of membrane vesicles. (biologists.org)
- Giansanti and colleagues reported the accumulation of Golgi-derived vesicles at the midzone in rab11 mutant spermatocytes, and the perturbation of membrane vesicle insertion into the plasma membrane. (biologists.org)
- 8. A direct organic formic acid fuel cell as defined by claim 1 and wherein said formic acid fuel solution concentration is at least about (5.7 10 −3 )moles/cm 3 formic acid. (google.com)
- Electroporation is achieved by applying a voltage between the two chambers, and diffusive transport is achieved either by a difference in solute concentration between the liquids surrounding the cell and the cell interior or by a differential in concentration between the two chambers themselves. (google.es)
- lated to be linked to Na-H transporters and pH, Active transport utilizes a transcellular, energy- specific bicarbonate-linked transporters, and the driven protein pump or channel to facilitate passage concentration gradient across cell membranes. (yudu.com)
- Chloride transport occurs via both active and pas- to one of high concentration (electrochemical gradi- sive processes, and it is the major intestinal anion ent). (yudu.com)
- MT1-MTP occurs in high concentration in many solid malignant tumours. (cam.ac.uk)
- Knockdown of caveolin-1 by shRNA decreased the amount of AR localized to membrane fraction and prevented AR membrane trafficking after being exposed to testosterone at physiological concentration. (hindawi.com)
- The diagrams below show the concentration of water and salt inside the cell and the concentration of water and salt surrounding the cell. (scribd.com)
- Complete the sentences below by comparing the concentration of the water inside the cell and the concentration outside the cell. (scribd.com)
- 4. At which solution of concentration gradient is each cell diagram? (scribd.com)
- These concentration gradients provide the potential energy to drive the formation of the membrane potential. (wikipedia.org)
- Quantitative results showed that a sharp drop in Hg 2+ concentration occurred at the very beginning in the medium containing rotifers and Hg 2+ , showing a quick initial uptake of Hg 2+ by the rotifers, and then the concentration in the medium plateaued after 5 min. (rsc.org)
- AIEC uses the FimH fimbrial adhesin to bind to oligomannose glycans on the surface of host cells. (frontiersin.org)
- Bicycle Therapeutics' most advanced potential product, known as BT1718, is the first example of its Bicycle Drug Conjugate® (BDC) technology, in which the Bicycle is targeted to bind specifically to malignant tumours and is harnessed to a chemical payload designed to destroy cancer cells once it reaches its target. (cam.ac.uk)
- First, a growth factor must bind to its receptor on the cell membrane . (britannica.com)
- Several members of the CTL family, including DC-SIGN (dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin, also called CD209), CD206 (also called Macrophage Mannose Receptor), and Dectin-1, have been shown to form plasma membrane domains which are required for the receptor to stably bind to pathogens and initiate proper downstream signaling events [ 4 ]. (frontiersin.org)
- A membrane electrode assembly for use with a direct organic fuel cell containing a formic acid fuel includes a solid polymer electrolyte having first and second surfaces, an anode on the first surface and a cathode on the second surface and electrically linked to the anode. (google.com)
- 1. A membrane electrode assembly for an electrochemical fuel cell comprising first and second layers of porous electrically conductive sheet material and a membrane interposed therebetween, said layers of sheet material covering and supporting substantially the entire surface of said membrane. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 2. The membrane electrode assembly of claim 1 wherein said membrane is a solid polymer ion exchange membrane. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 3. The membrane electrode assembly of claim 2 wherein said sheet material comprises carbon fiber paper. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 4. The membrane electrode assembly of claim 3 wherein said membrane has a thickness between about 0.001 inches and about 0.005 inches. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 6. The membrane electrode assembly of claim 5 wherein said catalyst comprises platinum. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 7. The membrane electrode assembly of claim 5 wherein said catalyst is included on at least a portion of the surface of each of said layers of sheet material facing said membrane. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 8. The membrane electrode assembly of claim 7 wherein said catalyst is included on the central portion of each of said layers of sheet material, said central portion substantially coinciding with the flow field carrying reactant gas to said sheet material layer. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 9. The membrane electrode assembly of claim 5 wherein said layers of sheet material and said membrane are bonded together to form a consolidated membrane electrode assembly. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 10. The membrane electrode assembly of claim 5, said layers of sheet material and said membrane having openings formed therein to accommodate the passage of fluids through said assembly. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 11. The membrane electrode assembly of claim 10 wherein said fluids include fuel gas, oxidant gas and coolant. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 12. The membrane electrode assembly of claim 11 wherein said coolant is water. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 14. The membrane electrode assembly of claim 10 wherein each of said layers of sheet material has grooves formed in the surface thereof facing away from said membrane, said grooves having an extrudable sealant material deposited therein, said grooves generally circumscribing said fluid passage openings. (freepatentsonline.com)
- There are, however, organelles which are surrounded by a plasma membrane. (answers.com)
- Organelles are parts of cells. (wikibooks.org)
- The cell membrane controls the movement of substances in and out of cells and organelles. (wikipedia.org)
- All multicellular organisms use chemical messengers to send information between organelles and to other cells. (news-medical.net)
- Can you name the cell structures that are needed for photosynthesis? (reference.com)
- were reported to localize near the furrow in some cells, raising the possibility that these and/or other structures may be involved in cytokinesis. (rupress.org)
- In 1890, an update to the Cell Theory stated that cell membranes existed, but were merely secondary structures. (wikipedia.org)
- Scientists at the Morgridge Institute for Research have, for the first time, imaged molecular structures vital to how a major class of viruses replicates within infected cells. (eurekalert.org)
- These novel structures are distinct from classical actin based extensions of adherent cells, persist for days in breast tumor lines that are resistant to apoptosis, and aid in the reattachment to matrix or cell monolayers. (wikipedia.org)
- Such activities probably regulate membrane-related processes like membrane-domain organization and membrane transport in endocytosis and exocytosis. (nature.com)
- They have signalling functions within the cells and play a role in controlling metabolic processes in the entire body. (innovations-report.com)
- In addition to preservation of glucose homeostasis by its enzymatic activity, DPP4 may have broad functional roles in other processes as evidenced by its widespread expression in other cell types ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- That is healthy, normal repair," she said, citing a video showing the normal cell experiencing only a brief flicker of fluorescence where hit by a laser. (eurekalert.org)
- Each cell group was analyzed for perturbation of cholesterol status and CAV-1 expression by performing Amplex Red cholesterol assay, filipin fluorescence staining, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (springer.com)
- The membrane fluidity in the five experimental cell groups were measured using pyrene fluorescence probe staining followed by FACS analysis. (springer.com)
- Glial cells, which surround neurons, are supposed to transport the accumulated K + from proximal to distal portions of the cells. (jneurosci.org)
- Here, we analyze the subcellular distribution of CA XIV in retina by high-resolution immunogold cytochemistry and show that the distribution in retina (on glial cells but not neurons) is different from that reported for brain (on neurons but not glia). (pnas.org)
- Neither neurons nor capillary endothelial cells showed detectable labeling for CA XIV. (pnas.org)
- Of the membrane-bound isoforms in brain, CA IV has been demonstrated on the luminal surface of cortical capillary endothelial cells ( 16 , 17 ) and on neurons and glia in selected regions of brain ( 18 ), and CA XIV has been found on neurons and axons in brain tissue ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
- Epilepsy is a brain disorder in which clusters of nerve cells, or neurons, in the brain sometimes signal abnormally causing strange sensations, emotions, and behavior, or sometimes convulsions, muscle spasms , and loss of consciousness . (medicinenet.com)
- Epilepsy is a brain disorder in which clusters of nerve cells, or neurons, in the brain sometimes signal abnormally. (medicinenet.com)
- Second, in electrically excitable cells such as neurons and muscle cells , it is used for transmitting signals between different parts of a cell. (wikipedia.org)
- During brain development, billions of brain cells called neurons produce electrical signals and chemical reactions that allow cells to communicate with each other. (americanpregnancy.org)
- Neurons, or brain cells, are made of fat, and are also surrounded by an additional two layers of fat that make up the cell membrane. (americanpregnancy.org)
- Many neurons possess electrical activity, manifested as oscillating variations in the minute voltages across the cell membrane. (mit.edu)
- Our results show that RSV matures at regions of the cell surface that, in addition to cav-1, are enriched in the lipid-raft ganglioside GM1. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Caveolin-1 is incorporated into mature respiratory syncytial virus particles during virus assembly on the surface of virus-infected cells. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- The layers of sheet material cover and support the membrane over substantially its entire surface area. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Since the surface tension values appeared to be much lower than would be expected for an oil-water interface, it was assumed that some substance was responsible for lowering the interfacial tensions in the surface of cells. (wikipedia.org)
- The exterior surface of the plasma membrane is not identical to the interior surface of the same membrane. (oercommons.org)
- 17 ) had reported that CA IV, although highly expressed on the surface of endothelial cells of the choriocapillaris, was absent in retina. (pnas.org)
- All substances go in and out of the cell must cross through the surface of the cell. (brightkite.com)
- In large cells, the surface area/ to volume ratio is too high, making the substances that need to get into the cell slower. (brightkite.com)
- In the small cells, the surface area/ to volume ratio is high, making it easier for substances to go in and out of the cell fast and efficiently. (brightkite.com)
- This paper explores the potential of diatom-biosilica as a model tool to assist in the task of mapping and quantifying the role of surface topography and chemical cues on cell fate. (nature.com)
- For efficient oxygen- carbon dioxide exchange to occur, the surface area of the alveoli must be as large as possible. (encyclopedia.com)
- In addition to this effect, steroid hormone induces signaling events that originate at the surface of plasma membranes [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Furthermore, electrical imbalances can be rapidly transmitted over long distances along the surface of membranes and are thus effective in both energy transduction and communicating information. (plantcell.org)
- DC-SIGN and CD206 form clusters on the cell surface even in the absence of exogenous ligands [ 5 - 7 , 9 - 12 ]. (frontiersin.org)
- By use of the membrane immunofluorescence assay, only gp52 proved to be localized on the cell surface. (tudelft.nl)
- Cell adhesion to collagen and fibronectin as well as cell surface integrin expression were examined. (springer.com)
- Cells with depleted CAV-1 expression showed decreased cell surface integrin expression and slower adhesion to different substrates. (springer.com)
- Complement activation leads to disruption of the microbial membrane, which attracts phagocytes and leads to an inflammatory response. (frontiersin.org)
- All this dye coming into the cell means there is still a disruption and no repair occurred to sort of mend the fence," Lewis said. (eurekalert.org)
- The destruction of a living cell by disruption of its membrane. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Fatty acids in non esterified form, i.e. as free (unesterified) fatty acids are released from triacylglycerols during fasting to provide a source of energy and to form the structural components for cells. (news-medical.net)
- Fatty acids are important components of cell membranes. (innovations-report.com)
- Fatty acid composition in human cell membranes changes throughout the day. (innovations-report.com)
- The analysis of the cell membranes revealed significant daily rhythms in eleven fatty acids. (innovations-report.com)
- From animal physiology, we know that the fatty acid composition in cell membranes can be remodelled in response to environmental conditions. (innovations-report.com)
- The composition of the fatty acids in cell membranes may therefore have a variety of different health consequences. (innovations-report.com)
- The membrane metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have an essential role in intercellular biochemical communications. (wikipedia.org)
- The fatty acid composition of cell membranes has a large impact on how flexible and fluid they are, which determines how they function, and how a child's brain makes connections throughout his or her life. (americanpregnancy.org)
- The molecular properties and subcellular localization of Müller cell Kir channels in rat and rabbit retinas were examined by using electrophysiological, molecular biological, and immunostaining techniques. (jneurosci.org)
- The palmitoylation inhibitor 2-bromopalmitate decreased AR membrane localization in basal condition and completely blocked testosterone-induced AR translocation to membrane fraction. (hindawi.com)
- This study provided a new evidence for AR membrane localization and its application for clarifying the nonclassical signaling pathway of androgens. (hindawi.com)
- Cholesterol supplementation to MSCs increased membrane cholesterol, and resulted in decreased membrane fluidity and localization of elevated numbers of caveolae and CAV-1 to the cell membrane. (springer.com)
- Involvement of actin filaments in budding of measles virus: studies on cytoskeletons of infected cells. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- These include effects on actin assemblies at cellular membranes, the organization of endosomal subcompartments, Ca 2+ -regulated exocytosis and midbody formation during cytokinesis. (nature.com)
- Ruffles are actin-rich, sheet-like extensions of cell membrane, distributed over the dorsal surfaces of cells that adhere to flat surfaces. (biologists.org)
- Here, we describe vacuolar membrane behavior in these cells in the wild-type, actin filament-disrupted, and zig / sgr4 mutants and discuss its putatively important features for the perception of gravity. (plantcell.org)
- Cytokinesis is the final step of cell division, and results from the constriction of a contractile ring comprising F-actin and myosin fibers ( Satterwhite and Pollard, 1992 ). (biologists.org)
- In an attempt to accept or reject the hypothesis, researchers measured membrane thickness. (wikipedia.org)
- On the other hand, zoledronate-exposed cells quickly filled with a fluorescent dye the researchers placed in the petry dish. (eurekalert.org)
- But because it remains porous, the researchers hope it will be able to deliver drugs or regenerative cells into a wound. (popularmechanics.com)
- The researchers found in animal models that brain cell membranes wer. (bio-medicine.org)
- New therapies for stroke patients may soon be possible, thanks to a discovery made by a team of University of British Columbia neuroscience researchers who have found a new stroke death channel ?the conduit through which key chemicals are lost from brain cells during stroke, causing the cell death that disables stroke victims. (bio-medicine.org)
- The researchers found, in animal models, that brain cell membranes were disrupted at the site of gap junction hemichannels. (bio-medicine.org)
- A recent study by researchers at the Vetmeduni Vienna, shows that the composition of human cell membranes varies depending on the time of day. (innovations-report.com)
- The researchers investigated buccal mucosa cells in 20 subjects over a period of one year. (innovations-report.com)
- The researchers found that an antiviral compound was effective in stopping the influenza virus from entering host cells during lower pH exposure, the optimal condition for the virus to cause infection. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- In this study, which focused on influenza virus, the researchers examined the structural changes that occur for the virus to open and release its genetic material. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- To simulate the cell environment for this study, the researchers made the environment more acidic. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- It controls the movement of substances in and out of the cell. (wikibooks.org)
- Plasma membranes must allow certain substances to enter and leave a cell, and prevent some harmful materials from entering and some essential materials from leaving. (oercommons.org)
- Substances such as the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K readily pass through the plasma membranes in the digestive tract and other tissues. (oercommons.org)
- These biochemical signals among cells, since contact and modification of membranes in multicellular organisms formed the bases of adaptation to terrestrial environments, and their alterations are important in the mechanism of apoptosis, carcinogenesis and degenerative diseases, as well as for understand some problems discussed regarding human evolution (as Aquatic ape hypothesis). (wikipedia.org)
- Furthermore, a comparison of mock-infected and RSV-infected cells by confocal microscopy revealed a significant change in the cellular distribution of phosphocaveolin-1 (pcav-1). (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Microscopists focused on the cell wall for well over 150 years until advances in microscopy were made. (wikipedia.org)
- By the second half of the 19th century, microscopy was still not advanced enough to make a distinction between cell membranes and cell walls. (wikipedia.org)
- Because of their small size, the structural organization of bacterial cells has been so far inaccessible to light microscopy methods. (uni-frankfurt.de)
- Time-lapse video microscopy during patch-clamp recordings revealed visible changes in cell shape and/or movement that accompanied spontaneous activation of I Cl,Vol , suggesting that I Cl,Vol is activated during cell movement, consistent with the effects of NPPB in migration assays. (jneurosci.org)
- The nonclassical androgen signaling pathway translates signals into alterations in cellular function within minutes, and this action is proposed to be mediated by an androgen receptor (AR) localized to the plasma membrane. (hindawi.com)
- Testosterone is associated with the membrane AR, and AR signaling translates signals into alterations in cellular function, thus maintaining spermatogenesis within minutes. (hindawi.com)
- Activated CD4 T cells connect to airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) in vitro via lymphocyte-derived membrane conduits (LMCs) structurally similar to membrane nanotubes with unknown intercellular signals triggering their formation. (jimmunol.org)
- How are the biomechanical properties of the cellular network that makes up the skin - e.g. cell density, packing, shape and contractility - converted into biochemical signals? (mpg.de)
- Signals are generated by opening or closing of ion channels at one point in the membrane, producing a local change in the membrane potential. (wikipedia.org)
- Although the various efforts have managed to reduce the total content of platinum-group metals (PGMs) in the state-of-the-art proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stacks, more than 0.137 g Pt kW −1 is still needed, the University of Delaware team said. (greencarcongress.com)
- One promising approach to reduce the cost of fuel cells is to switch the operating environment from an acidic to a basic one (that is, a hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cell, HEMFC), thus opening up the possibility of using PGM-free catalysts and other cheaper components. (greencarcongress.com)