Aplysia: An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Neurosecretion: The production and release of substances such as NEUROTRANSMITTERS or HORMONES from nerve cells.Invertebrate Hormones: Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.Carisoprodol: A centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant whose mechanism of action is not completely understood but may be related to its sedative actions. It is used as an adjunct in the symptomatic treatment of musculoskeletal conditions associated with painful muscle spasm. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1202)Ganglia, Invertebrate: Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Refractory Period, Electrophysiological: The period of time following the triggering of an ACTION POTENTIAL when the CELL MEMBRANE has changed to an unexcitable state and is gradually restored to the resting (excitable) state. During the absolute refractory period no other stimulus can trigger a response. This is followed by the relative refractory period during which the cell gradually becomes more excitable and the stronger impulse that is required to illicit a response gradually lessens to that required during the resting state.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Nerve Tissue ProteinsIon Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Tetraethylammonium: A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Fura-2: A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Dopaminergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.GABAergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Olfactory Receptor Neurons: Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.Cholinergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Neurons, Efferent: Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.Motor Neuron Disease: Diseases characterized by a selective degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord, brainstem, or motor cortex. Clinical subtypes are distinguished by the major site of degeneration. In AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS there is involvement of upper, lower, and brainstem motor neurons. In progressive muscular atrophy and related syndromes (see MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL) the motor neurons in the spinal cord are primarily affected. With progressive bulbar palsy (BULBAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE), the initial degeneration occurs in the brainstem. In primary lateral sclerosis, the cortical neurons are affected in isolation. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Pyramidal Cells: Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Mesencephalon: The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Serotonergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is SEROTONIN.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Mice, Inbred C57BLMice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Neurites: In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.Nitrergic Neurons: Nerve cells where transmission is mediated by NITRIC OXIDE.Adrenergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is EPINEPHRINE.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Ganglia: Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Substantia Nigra: The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Ganglia, Sympathetic: Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Choline O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.Superior Cervical Ganglion: The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.GABA Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Nodose Ganglion: The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.N-Methylaspartate: An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Vestibular Nuclei: The four cellular masses in the floor of the fourth ventricle giving rise to a widely dispersed special sensory system. Included is the superior, medial, inferior, and LATERAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEUS. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Stilbamidines: STILBENES with AMIDINES attached.Microelectrodes: Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Raphe Nuclei: Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Posterior Horn Cells: Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.Retinal Neurons: Nerve cells of the RETINA in the pathway of transmitting light signals to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include the outer layer of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS, the intermediate layer of RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS and AMACRINE CELLS, and the internal layer of RETINAL GANGLION CELLS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Locus Coeruleus: Bluish-colored region in the superior angle of the FOURTH VENTRICLE floor, corresponding to melanin-like pigmented nerve cells which lie lateral to the PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY.Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Bicuculline: An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Survival of Motor Neuron 1 Protein: A SMN complex protein that is essential for the function of the SMN protein complex. In humans the protein is encoded by a single gene found near the inversion telomere of a large inverted region of CHROMOSOME 5. Mutations in the gene coding for survival of motor neuron 1 protein may result in SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD.Myenteric Plexus: One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)Trigeminal Ganglion: The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Glutamate Decarboxylase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC, Parasympathetic: Ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system, including the ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia in the cranial region and intrinsic (terminal) ganglia associated with target organs in the thorax and abdomen.Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials: Hyperpolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during NEUROTRANSMISSION. They are local changes which diminish responsiveness to excitatory signals.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Axonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)Periodicity: The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).Reticular Formation: A region extending from the PONS & MEDULLA OBLONGATA through the MESENCEPHALON, characterized by a diversity of neurons of various sizes and shapes, arranged in different aggregations and enmeshed in a complicated fiber network.Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Ventral Tegmental Area: A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Electrophysiological Phenomena: The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Olfactory Bulb: Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione: A potent excitatory amino acid antagonist with a preference for non-NMDA iontropic receptors. It is used primarily as a research tool.Receptors, AMPA: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).Arcuate Nucleus: A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.Iontophoresis: Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.Mechanoreceptors: Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.S100 Calcium Binding Protein G: A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.Thalamic Nuclei: Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.Auditory Pathways: NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.Leeches: Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.Supraoptic Nucleus: Hypothalamic nucleus overlying the beginning of the OPTIC TRACT.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Neurotoxins: Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Parvalbumins: Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus: Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Sodium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.Vesicular Glutamate Transport Protein 2: A vesicular glutamate transporter protein that is predominately expressed in the DIENCEPHALON and lower brainstem regions of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Axotomy: Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Hypothalamic Area, Lateral: Area in the hypothalamus bounded medially by the mammillothalamic tract and the anterior column of the FORNIX (BRAIN). The medial edge of the INTERNAL CAPSULE and the subthalamic region form its lateral boundary. It contains the lateral hypothalamic nucleus, tuberomammillary nucleus, lateral tuberal nuclei, and fibers of the MEDIAL FOREBRAIN BUNDLE.Calbindins: Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Calbindin 2: A calbindin protein that is differentially expressed in distinct populations of NEURONS throughout the vertebrate and invertebrate NERVOUS SYSTEM, and modulates intrinsic neuronal excitability and influences LONG-TERM POTENTIATION. It is also found in LUNG, TESTIS, OVARY, KIDNEY, and BREAST, and is expressed in many tumor types found in these tissues. It is often used as an immunohistochemical marker for MESOTHELIOMA.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Somatosensory Cortex: Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.Dendritic Spines: Spiny processes on DENDRITES, each of which receives excitatory input from one nerve ending (NERVE ENDINGS). They are commonly found on PURKINJE CELLS and PYRAMIDAL CELLS.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Respiratory Center: Part of the brain located in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA and PONS. It receives neural, chemical and hormonal signals, and controls the rate and depth of respiratory movements of the DIAPHRAGM and other respiratory muscles.Macaca fascicularis: A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Ganglia, Sensory: Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.Enteric Nervous System: Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)Cholinergic Fibers: Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.Macaca: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.Kainic Acid: (2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.Inferior Colliculi: The posterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which contain centers for auditory function.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Purkinje Cells: The output neurons of the cerebellar cortex.Biological Clocks: The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.Receptors, Glutamate: Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Neurofilament Proteins: Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Neuropeptide Y: A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.Superior Colliculi: The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.Synaptic Potentials: The voltages across pre- or post-SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES.Olivary Nucleus: A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.Mirror Neurons: Neurons that fire when an animal acts or observes the same action of another thus coding the motor response. They were originally discovered in the premotor and parietal cortex of the monkey and studies have shown that neurons that have a similar mechanism are present in humans. Mirror neurons are theorized to be related to social cognition.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Preoptic Area: Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.Nerve Growth Factor: NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.Neostriatum: The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Satellite glial cell: Line the surface of neuron cell bodies in ganglia (groups of nerve body cells bundled or connected ... cell body). They are the major neuron type in the CNS and include interneurons and motor neurons. Bipolar neurons: Sensory ... It is composed of neurons, or nerve cells, which receive and transmit impulses, and neuroglia, also known as glial cells or ... Nervous tissue is composed of neurons, also called nerve cells, and neuroglial cells. Typically, nervous tissue is categorized ...
Neurons and Support Cells. ... A motor unit is made up of a motor neuron and the skeletal ... and each muscle fiber is innervated by multiple neurons, including excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Thus, while in ... Ramp-force threshold refers to an index of motor neuron size in order to test the size principle. This is tested by determining ... Consecutive stimulation on the motor unit fibres from the alpha motor neuron causes the muscle to twitch more frequently until ...
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The cell bodies of these neurons are located in either the dorsal root ganglia or the trigeminal ganglia. The trigeminal ... This nociceptive fiber (located in the periphery) is a first order neuron. The cells in the dorsal horn are divided into ... doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2007.07.016. PMID 17678850. Fein, A Nociceptors: the cells that sense pain http://cell.uchc.edu/pdf/fein/ ... dead link] Hucho T, Levine JD (August 2007). "Signaling pathways in sensitization: toward a nociceptor cell biology". Neuron. ...
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Eichenbaum described these neurons as "time cells". The loss of time cells in the hippocampus may contribute to the loss of ... Neuron. 27(3):623-33. Eichenbaum H. (2014) Time cells in the hippocampus: a new dimension for mapping memories. Nat Rev ... Neuron 71, 737-749. Kraus BJ, Robinson RJ 2nd, White JA, Eichenbaum H, Hasselmo ME. (2013) Hippocampal "time cells": time ... Time cells may contribute to the role of the hippocampus in allowing what Tulving termed mental time travel in the recall of ...
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"Excitation-neurogenesis coupling in adult neural stem/progenitor cells". Neuron. 42 (4): 535-52. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(04) ... "Excitation-neurogenesis coupling in adult neural stem/progenitor cells". Neuron. 42 (4): 535-52. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(04) ...
The brain detects insulin in the blood, which indicates that nutrients are being absorbed by cells and a person is getting full ... Rats that have had the motor neurons in the brain stem disconnected from the neural circuits of the cerebral hemispheres ( ... When the glucose levels of cells drop (glucoprivation), the body starts to produce the feeling of hunger. The body also ...
... interneuronal cells and diminishing the facilitatory background activity on spinal motor neurons and by also inhibiting ... Whole-cell patch clamp studies were conducted to examine mechanistic similarities between carisoprodol and barbiturates ( ...
A lysosome is a membrane-bound organelle found in nearly all animal cells. They are spherical vesicles which contain hydrolytic ... Patch-clamp recordings from the soma and dendrites of neurons in brain slices using infrared video microscopy Understanding ...
The Brains Gardeners: Immune Cells Prune Connections Between Neurons. Monday, March 07, 2016 ... these cells also have a nurturing side, particularly as it relates to the connections between neurons. ... A new study out today in the journal Nature Communications shows that cells normally associated with protecting the brain from ... "We have long considered the reorganization of the brains network of connections as solely the domain of neurons," said Ania ...
... quickly damages brain cells. This microscope video shows w... ... Watch Brain cell death caused by Mercury Killing neurons Autism ... University laboratory research demonstrates in cell culture that mercury, a poisonous heavy metal, ... This microscope video shows what happens when dissolved mercury is added to a cell culture of brain cells. ... University laboratory research demonstrates in cell culture that mercury, a poisonous heavy metal, quickly damages brain cells ...
For this reason, much of our knowledge about neurons has to do with their signaling... ... Nevertheless, neurons are cells, and some of their most important functional properties arise from their cellular ... Steward O. (1989) Cell Biology of Neurons. In: Principles of Cellular, Molecular, and Developmental Neuroscience. Springer, New ... Peters A, Palay SL, Webster DeF (1976) The Fine Structure of the Nervous System: The Neurons and Supporting Cells. Philadelphia ...
Cells isolated from the human umbilical cord have been shown to produce molecules that help retinal neurons from the eyes of ... These cells also survived longer than rat neurons placed in a bath lacking the umbilical cord tissue-derived cells. ... Umbilical cells help eyes neurons connect Factor released by cells helps connections, not longevity ... Umbilical cells help eyes neurons connect. Duke University. Journal. Journal of Neuroscience. Funder. Janssen Research & ...
... phet.colorado.edu/sims/html/neuron/latest/neuron-600.png alt=Neuron style=border: none; width=300 height=200/,,div ... phet.colorado.edu/sims/html/neuron/latest/neuron_et.html width=800 height=600 scrolling=no allowfullscreen,,/iframe,. ... Neuron - an inquiry lesson idea Trish Loeblein. KK. ÜÕ-Sissejuhatus. Pr. KT. Bioloogia. ... Cells Description Stimuleeri neuronit ning vaata, mis juhtub. Peata aeg, keri seda tagasi ning liigu selles edasi, et jälgida ...
Flyseq: a collaborative project at UW to understand the systems biology of Drosophila neurons. Loading... ... An atlas of cell-types for the fly brain. We are using massively parallel single-cell sequencing methods to map the diversity ... Origins of cell-type specific neurodegeneration. We are combining genetic manipulations with molecular physiology, ... A project using quantitative genetics and systems biology to understand cell-type diversity and neurodegenerative disease in ...
Cell death occurs by a necrotic pathway characterized by either ischemic/homogenizing cell change or edematous cell change. ... Ischemic cell death in brain neurons.. Lipton P1.. Author information. 1. Department of Physiology, University of Wisconsin ... on critical cell functions and structures that lead to the defined end stages of cell damage. These targeted functions and ... The cell death process has four major stages. The first, the induction stage, includes several changes initiated by ischemia ...
Researchers have for the first time successfully converted adult human skin cells into neurons of the type that regulate ... cells. Like natural stem cells, iPS cells are capable of developing into any kind of adult cell when given a specific set of ... Neurons controlling appetite made from skin cells Cells provide individualized model for studying obesity and testing ... The CUMC/NYSCF team determined which signals are needed to transform iPS cells into arcuate hypothalamic neurons, a neuron ...
Generating neurons from adult stem cells "would be a huge leap forward and put to rest a lot of the ethical issues weve been ... Cells that make GABA deteriorate in Huntingtons disease, Iacovitti notes. She hopes to find dopamine-producing neurons to ... She doesnt know yet whether they will act like neurons, but the changed cells seem to produce the neurotransmitter known as ... New findings suggest that a biochemical cocktail can coax adult bone marrow stem cells to become neurons, according to a report ...
A team of researchers investigates details of the cellular mechanisms involved in transforming a stem cell into a motor neuron ... Stem cells can develop into many different types of cells, such as muscle cells, red blood cells, or neurons. Given their ... Direct reprogramming of somatic cells into neural stem cells or neurons for neurological disorders, Shaoping Hou and Paul Lu, ... Somatic stem cells - also called adult stem cells - are undifferentiated cells that can be found throughout the human body in a ...
Download this Brain Cell Neuron video now. And search more of the webs best library of royalty-free stock video footage from ... Brain cell neuron - Stock video. .... Abstract, Animation - Moving Image, Biology, Biomedical Animation, Black Color. ...
The dramatic transformation does not require the cells to first enter a state called pluripotency but through a more direct ... Although it is possible to directly convert skin cells to neurons, the biopsied skin cells first have to be grown in the ... neurons are long and skinny cells capable of conducting electrical impulses along their length and passing them from cell to ... Human immune cells in blood can be converted directly into functional neurons in the laboratory in about three weeks with the ...
Neuron 3D Model available on Turbo Squid, the worlds leading provider of digital 3D models for visualization, films, ... neuron dendrites nucleus cell body axon synapes brain neurons cells micro organism anatomy science nerve nerves capillary ... High detail Neuron cell anatomy.. This scene contains:. - neuron. - synapes. - oligodendrocytes. - astrocytes. - capillary. - ...
Neuron Cell 3D Model available on Turbo Squid, the worlds leading provider of digital 3D models for visualization, films, ... science medical micro anatomy human body biology neuron neural nervous network multipolar cell brain synapse axon dendrit ... High-poly model of Neuron Cell:. Polygons: 883.000. Vertices: 478.000. Available file formats:. MAX - version 2010, materials ...
... and software for automated in vivo intracellular electrophysiology are reported that can automatically perform whole-cell patch ... Automated whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology of neurons in vivo. *Suhasa B Kodandaramaiah1, 2. *, Giovanni Talei Franzesi ... Whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology of neurons is a gold-standard technique for high-fidelity analysis of the biophysical ... Boyden, E.S. & Raymond, J.L. Neuron 39, 1031-1042 (2003).. **CAS*PubMed*Article*Google Scholar*13.. Chow, B.Y. et al. Nature ...
Muscles are normally controlled by motor neurons, specialized nerve cells within the brain and spinal cord. These neurons relay ... The light-responsive motor neurons that made the technique possible were created from stem cells by Dr Ivo Lieberam of the MRC ... We then built a survival gene into them, which helps the stem-cell motor neurons to stay alive when they are transplanted ... "We custom-tailored embryonic stem cells so that motor neurons derived from them can function as part of the muscle pacemaker ...
... causing differentiation of the pluripotent cells into dopaminergic neurons. Also disclosed are methods for treating a ... component of a TGF-β signaling pathway and overexpressing one or more cell fate-inducing polypeptides in pluripotent cells, ... such that the dopaminergic neurons are sufficient to reduce or eliminate the symptoms of the neurodegenerative disease. ... neurodegenerative disease in a patient by generating dopaminergic neurons in vitro, and transplanting them into the brain of ...
Surprising finding that one type of mature neuron can be converted directly into another could one day lead to new treatments ... Reporting in Stem Cell Reports ("Phenotypic reprogramming of striatal neurons into dopaminergic neuron-like cells in the adult ... existing mature neurons without passing through a stem cell state," Dr. Zhang states. "This is a mature-cell-to-mature-cell ... neuron-like cells (iDALs). These neurons displayed markers and electrophysiological properties that mirror those of native ...
Researchers have identified the immune cells that are responsible for clearing dead and dying nerve cells following a brain ... Scientists identify immune cells that remove degenerating neurons after brain injury. *Download PDF Copy ... Scientists already knew that specialized cells called phagocytic cells carry this out by engulfing and breaking down cellular ... Tags: Brain, Central Nervous System, Ganglion, Inflammation, Nerve, Nervous System, Neurodegeneration, Neurons, Spinal Cord ...
Neuro-2a murine neuroblastoma and PC12 human pheochromocytoma cells were stably transfected with human OX(1) or OX(2) receptors ... To assess the role of orexin receptor signaling in neuron-like cells, ... Orexin signaling in recombinant neuron-like cells FEBS Lett. 2002 Aug 28;526(1-3):11-4. doi: 10.1016/s0014-5793(02)03101-0. ... To assess the role of orexin receptor signaling in neuron-like cells, Neuro-2a murine neuroblastoma and PC12 human ...
The idea that the neuron cell type was in some way derived from secretory cells has been around for... ... The idea that the neuron cell type was in some way derived from secretory cells has been around for a while (1970s at least). ... Neurons took these functions of secretory cells and added: *cytologically distinct cell sub-regions (axons, dendrites, maybe ... Related Threads on Did Neurons Evolve from Secretory Cells? The secretory pole in secretory cells ...
New research finds that neurons migrate from the brain to infiltrate cancer cells, and that targeting this process is a ... Neurons and cancer cells are a dangerous duo Posted by Genevieve OHagan in categories: biotech/medical, neuroscience. ... New research finds that neurons migrate from the brain to infiltrate cancer cells, and that targeting this process is a ...
Scientists at Duke Medicine have pinpointed specific neurons that appear to regulate perception, while studying the sense of ... Connections Between Neurons Revealed By Calcium. A way to monitor how brain cells coordinate with each other to control ... The class III neurons are characterized by narrow spikes on the cells, called filopodia. These dynamic structures protrude from ... The sensory neurons are characterized by thin spikes, and based on their volume, these protrusions determine the cells ...
  • She hopes to find dopamine-producing neurons to replace those lost in Parkinson's disease. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Dopamine-producing neurons are generally located elsewhere in the brain, but do put out connections that control the striatal medium spiny neurons. (genengnews.com)
  • That's encouraging, says neurotransplant researcher Ole Isacson of Harvard Medical School: Whatever killed the brain's own dopamine-producing neurons doesn't seem to have killed the transplanted cells. (bio.net)
  • Eroglu's earlier work has shown that thrombospondins are released by brain cells called astrocytes and boost new synapse formation between neurons in the brain. (eurekalert.org)
  • Review conceptual and technical aspects of direct reprogramming of somatic cells, such as fibroblasts and astrocytes, into induced neurons. (abcam.com)
  • Now, with publication of a study by investigators at the Cedars-Sinai Board of Governors Regenerative Medicine Institute , ALS researchers know the effects of the attack are worsened, at least in part, by the aging and failure of support cells called astrocytes, which normally provide nutrients, housekeeping, structure and other forms of assistance for neurons. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • Earlier studies suggested the possible involvement of these support cells in ALS development and progression, but the new research is believed to be the first to directly measure the effects of aging on the ability of astrocytes to sustain motor neurons. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • The Cedars-Sinai researchers first tried to repeat previous studies showing that astrocytes from laboratory animals with an ALS mutation failed to support normal motor neurons. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • The scientists discovered - and reported for the first time - that even normal aging of astrocytes reduces their ability to support motor neurons. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • Aging astrocytes lose their ability to support motor neurons in general, and they clearly fail to help those attacked by ALS,' said Clive Svendsen, PhD , professor and director of the Board of Governors Regenerative Medicine Institute, the article's senior author. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • We found that by culturing aging astrocytes and those harboring the ALS mutation with a neuron-protective protein called GDNF, we could increase motor neuron survival. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • We already knew that GDNF was protective directly on motor neurons, but we believe this is the first time that the delivery of GDNF has been shown to have a direct beneficial effect on astrocytes, perhaps resetting their aging clock, which ultimately benefits neurons,' Svendsen said. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • Our major CIRM-funded programs, aimed at engineering young stem cell-derived astrocytes to secrete GDNF, then transplanting those cells back into patients, take on even greater importance, given this aging phenomenon,' said Svendsen, the Kerry and Simone Vickar Family Foundation Distinguished Chair in Regenerative Medicine. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • Some glial cells , known as astrocytes, are found in the brain and spinal cord and form the blood-brain barrier. (thoughtco.com)
  • To test this idea, we introduced the mutated form of the SOD1 gene into astrocytes - cells that provide metabolic and structural support to neurons - and cultured our stem cell-derived motor neurons along with these SOD1-mutant astrocytes. (ca.gov)
  • Indeed, while motor neurons grown on 'normal' astrocytes were fully viable, we saw widespread death of motor neurons in cocultures with 'mutant' astrocytes, along with elevated levels of free radicals. (ca.gov)
  • We think that this is due to our mutant astrocytes being causing inflammation, and so our future efforts are focused on understanding the role of the immune system, specifically the function of microglia - the resident immune cells of the brain and spinal cord - in our co-cultures with human motor neurons. (ca.gov)
  • These include astrocytes - cells known to support neurons and their environment, oligodendrocytes - cells that myelinate neurons and speed up the transmission of signals between them, a process that goes awry in Multiple Sclerosis , and microglia , which act as the immune cell of the brain, cleaning up debris and providing local surveillance in the nervous system. (plos.org)
  • Though for most of their history they were thought to be strictly supportive of neurons, providing a scaffold-like structure and aiding in the metabolism of extracellular substances, the role of astrocytes turns out to be much broader and more complex. (plos.org)
  • For one, astrocytes are intricately associated with the connections between neurons, termed synapses. (plos.org)
  • We now know that astrocytes are also able to participate in this communication directly via their own release of neurotransmitters, which can act on neurons at a given synapse. (plos.org)
  • The specific location of astrocytes near synaptic contacts combined with their ability to release neurotransmitters means that these cells are ideally positioned to "overhear" conversations between neurons and provide their own input, changing the conversation if need be. (plos.org)
  • Specifically, it was shown that astrocytes are able to sense specific signals from neurons at the synapse, and then, via an increase in calcium within the astrocyte itself, release neurotransmitter back onto one of the neurons and control how much transmitter that neuron releases in the future. (plos.org)
  • studied mRNA levels of molecules associated with metabolic coupling between astrocytes and neurons as well as molecules associated with astrocyte biochemical processes. (plos.org)
  • The ability to make this type of neuron brings us one step closer to the development of new treatments for obesity," said Susan L. Solomon, CEO of NYSCF. (eurekalert.org)
  • From there, she reprograms them to become a specific type of neuron that's involved in attention and information processing. (ucsf.edu)
  • Although the current Parkinson's treatment uses fetal cells that have already developed into a particular type of neuron, the promising results represent a 'proof of principle that cell replacement actually works,' says Björklund. (bio.net)
  • Another past study from Yoo's team showed that exposure to the same two microRNAs, miR-9 and miR-124, plus a different mix of transcription factors could turn skin cells into a different type of neuron. (medicalxpress.com)
  • For example, we tend to think of synapses as specializations for modulating activity of the receiving cell, that is, for the transmission of excitation or inhibition. (springer.com)
  • In an experimental setup that allowed the two types of cells to bathe in the same fluid without coming into physical contact, retinal neurons in a bath with hUTCs formed new connections between neurons called synapses, and they sprouted new 'neurites' -- tiny branches that lead to additional connections. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the adult brain, microglia seem to recognize damaged neurons using some of the same molecules they use to recognize pathogens or inactive synapses. (news-medical.net)
  • Brennand and colleagues from the Gage lab at the Salk Institute reported 1 last month that iPS cell-derived neurons from schizophrenia patients developed fewer connections, or synapses, with each other than those from healthy controls. (nih.gov)
  • Among several antipsychotic medications introduced into the cultured neurons, one stand-out, loxapine, normalized all patients' synapses - and each of the other meds benefited synapses from at least one of the four patients studied. (nih.gov)
  • Like the schizophrenia-related neurons, those from Rett patients had fewer synapses. (nih.gov)
  • All a single neuron can do is flash a small signal on to its neighbors - and only when enough incoming synapses are active. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • In this imag, cell nuclei are shown in blue and synapses in red and green. (innovations-report.com)
  • We found the most convincing evidence yet that the answer lies in the synapses that connect brain cells to one another. (innovations-report.com)
  • After growing the neurons in a dish for six weeks, collaborators at Pennsylvania State University measured their electrical activity and found that neurons with the DISC1 variation had about half the number of synapses as those without the variation. (innovations-report.com)
  • Neurons transmit their signals to each other via synapses, fine cell projections with terminals that contact another neuron. (healthcanal.com)
  • We were able to show that signal transmission from neurons to tumor cells does in fact work like stimulating synapses between the neurons themselves," added Thomas Kuner, Director of the Department of Functional Neuroanatomy at the Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology, where the synaptic connections were first discovered by Varun Venkataramani. (healthcanal.com)
  • We have provided results showing that iDA neurons are functional and competent to produce and release dopamine and to establish synapses. (michaeljfox.org)
  • Human adult fibroblast-derived DA neurons will be tested for their ability to have an excitable membrane, establish synapses and produce and release dopamine. (michaeljfox.org)
  • At synapses, neurons are able to communicate with one another via the release of packets of chemicals, known as neurotransmitters , essentially integrating and processing information and allowing the brain to carry out its second to second functions. (plos.org)
  • We're very excited, because our data shows microglia are critical to get the connectivity right in the brain," says Cornelius Gross , who led the work: "They 'eat up' synapses to make space for the most effective contacts between neurons to grow strong. (embl.de)
  • Looking at the developing mouse brain under the microscope, Gross and colleagues found proteins from synapses - the connections between neurons - inside microglia, indicating that microglia are able to engulf synapses too. (embl.de)
  • Previous work showed that DA neurons can be produced in vitro from ventral mesencephalic (VM) precursor cells ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • A problem using expanded fetal VM precursors ( 7 ) is the low in vivo survival rate of 3-5% of the grafted DA neurons, which eliminates the actual gain by in vitro cell number expansion compared with fresh (unexpanded) fetal day-12 VM ( 7 , 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • To map the intracolumnar and transcolumnar synaptic inputs to barrel-related neurons, we performed whole-cell recordings from visually identified and biocytin-labeled spiny neurons in layer IV of rat barrel cortex in vitro . (jneurosci.org)
  • Indeed, mouse ES cells have been found to differentiate in vitro to many clinically relevant cell types, including hematopoietic cells (Wiles, M. V. and Keller, G., Development 111:259-267, 1991), cardiomyocytes (Klug, M. G., et al. (google.es)
  • These findings demonstrate the feasibility of using iPS-derived motor neuron progenitors and motor neurons in regenerative medicine applications and in vitro modeling of motor neuron diseases. (ca.gov)
  • With the in vitro Alzheimer's neurons, scientists can more deeply investigate how AD begins and chart the biochemical processes that eventually destroy brain cells associated with elemental cognitive functions like memory. (healthcanal.com)
  • Nevertheless, neurons are cells, and some of their most important functional properties arise from their cellular characteristics and from cell-cell interactions that are not directly related to signaling activities. (springer.com)
  • Synaptic contacts play other important roles, however, in determining the structure, functional properties and very existence of the cells that they contact. (springer.com)
  • A very important outstanding issue is identifying the critical functional and structural changes caused by the perpetrators of cell death. (nih.gov)
  • The neurons were found to display key functional properties of mouse arcuate hypothalamic neurons, including the ability to accurately process and secrete specific neuropeptides and to respond to metabolic signals such as insulin and leptin. (eurekalert.org)
  • Human immune cells in blood can be converted directly into functional neurons in the laboratory in about three weeks with the addition of just four proteins, Stanford scientists have found. (deccanchronicle.com)
  • It's kind of shocking how simple it is to convert T cells into functional neurons in just a few days,' Wernig said. (deccanchronicle.com)
  • Stanford scientists reached a milestone today with their publication in Nature of research showing that human skin cells can be converted directly into functional neurons. (stanford.edu)
  • Modeling Neurological Disease by Rapid Conversion of Human Urine Cells into Functional Neurons," Stem Cells International , vol. 2016, Article ID 2452985, 8 pages, 2016. (hindawi.com)
  • Instead, those neurons were identified based on cellular markers, which is "not sufficient to say those are functional serotonin neurons," Lu says. (wisc.edu)
  • There are three basic structural and functional classifications of neurons. (jrank.org)
  • These results indicate that spiny stellate cells act predominantly as local signal processors within a single barrel, whereas pyramidal cells globally integrate horizontal and top-down information within a functional column and between neighboring barrels. (jneurosci.org)
  • and the resulting monosynaptic postsynaptic potentials were used to construct detailed maps of the functional synaptic inputs onto layer IV spiny stellate and pyramidal neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Following transplantation into the rodent central nervous system (CNS), ES cell-derived neural precursors have been shown to integrate into the host tissue and, in some cases, yield functional improvement (McDonald, J. W., et al. (google.es)
  • Combining gene editing and stem-cell induction improves efficiency of functional genetic analyses. (the-scientist.com)
  • The functional co-operation of neurons that discharge synchronously might thus be the 'glue' that takes all the distinct elements analyzed separately by the brain and binds them into a coherent whole. (mcgill.ca)
  • We plan to establish a superior protocol of genetic reprogramming suitable for converting human adult fibroblasts into functional iDA neurons with high efficiency. (michaeljfox.org)
  • Creating highly purified and functional human Alzheimer's neurons in a dish - this has never been done before," said senior study author Lawrence Goldstein, PhD, professor in the Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator and director of the UC San Diego Stem Cell Program. (healthcanal.com)
  • The iPSC-derived neurons from the Alzheimer's patients exhibited normal electrophysiological activity, formed functional synaptic contacts and, critically, displayed tell-tale indicators of AD. (healthcanal.com)
  • We hope in the future that the chemical approaches would be more robust in inducing functional mature neurons," Deng says. (phys.org)
  • She adds: "It also needs to be explored whether functional neurons could be induced by chemical cocktails in living organisms with neurological diseases or injury. (phys.org)
  • 1983) Molecular Biology of the Cell . (springer.com)
  • By learning more about how these cells work, we are one step closer to understanding the disease states in which these cells should be studied," said Cagla Eroglu, an assistant professor of cell biology and neurobiology at the Duke University Medical Center, who led the research. (eurekalert.org)
  • A project using quantitative genetics and systems biology to understand cell-type diversity and neurodegenerative disease in the Drosophila brain. (washington.edu)
  • But until now, no one has been able to figure out how to convert human iPS cells into hypothalamic neurons," said co-author Dieter Egli, PhD, assistant professor of pediatrics (in developmental cell biology), a member of the Naomi Berrie Diabetes Center, and a senior research fellow at NYSCF. (eurekalert.org)
  • This shows," said Dr. Eggan, "how improved understanding of stem cell biology is making an impact on our ability to study, understand, and eventually treat disorders of the nervous system. (eurekalert.org)
  • Initially, I was a little disappointed that we altered the properties of medium spiny neurons and not the supporting glial cells we were targeting," admits Chun-Li Zhang, Ph.D., professor of molecular biology at UT Southwestern Medical Center, and a W.W. Caruth, Jr. scholar in biomedical research. (genengnews.com)
  • The findings in fruit fly larvae, which appear in online Oct. 25, 2012, in the journal Current Biology , demonstrate the first known function for the sensory neurons and provide insights that could broaden the understanding of chronic pain syndromes in humans. (medindia.net)
  • Blood is one of the easiest biological samples to obtain," said Marius Wernig , MD, associate professor of pathology and a member of Stanford's Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine . (stanford.edu)
  • Before this study, we didn't know what physiological role the proNGF molecule played in the eye," said coauthor Dr. Adriana Di Polo, a professor at the Universite de Montreal Department of Pathology and Cell Biology. (medindia.net)
  • To give you confidence in the health of your cells every step of the way, we've highlighted the technologies and products within cell biology that are critical to maintaining optimal cell health. (thermofisher.com)
  • As structure and function are very much intertwined within biology, the structure of a neuron is uniquely suited to its function within nervous tissue. (thoughtco.com)
  • Using a cell biology approach to AD, Toresson hopes to compare the cell phenotypes on induced neurons derived from sporadic AD patients with induced neurons from familial AD cases that have the characteristic APP, PSEN1, or PSEN2 mutations. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • The Gordon Research Seminar on Cell Biology of the Neuron is a unique forum for graduate students, post-docs, and other scientists with comparable levels of experience and education to share their knowledge and experience. (grc.org)
  • This GRS will be held in conjunction with the "Cell Biology of the Neuron" Gordon Research Conference (GRC). (grc.org)
  • In this study, we only used skin cells from healthy adults ranging in age from early 20s to late 60s," said senior author Andrew S. Yoo, PhD, an assistant professor of developmental biology. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The same is true of the developing brain: cells called microglia prune the connections between neurons, shaping how the brain is wired, scientists at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) in Monterotondo, Italy, discovered. (embl.de)
  • The study is another example of a dramatic shift in scientists' understanding of the role that the immune system, specifically cells called microglia, plays in maintaining brain function. (rochester.edu)
  • However, scientists are now beginning to appreciate that, in addition to serving as the brain's first line of defense, these cells also have a nurturing side, particularly as it relates to the connections between neurons. (rochester.edu)
  • While this constant reorganization of neural networks - called neuroplasticity - has been well understood for some time, the basic mechanisms by which connections between brain cells are made and broken has eluded scientists. (rochester.edu)
  • A new way to artificially control muscles using light, with the potential to restore function to muscles paralyzed by conditions such as motor neuron disease and spinal cord injury, has been developed by scientists at UCL and King's College London. (redorbit.com)
  • These motor neurons are designed to react to pulses of blue light, allowing scientists to fine-tune muscle control by adjusting the intensity, duration and frequency of the light pulses. (redorbit.com)
  • Scientists already knew that specialized cells called phagocytic cells carry this out by engulfing and breaking down cellular debris. (news-medical.net)
  • Scientists at Duke Medicine have pinpointed specific neurons that appear to regulate perception, while studying the sense of touch. (medindia.net)
  • Glial cells, which normally protect neurons in the retina can also kill them, resulting in vision loss and blindness has been discovered by scientists from University of Montreal and McGill University's Montreal Neurological Institute. (medindia.net)
  • The scientists transplanted 300,000 to 600,000 cells per side into the bilateral putamen of these monkeys, then continuously monitored the behavior of the treated animals compared to a control group of MPTP-treated monkeys. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Scientists have long known of dissimilarities in anatomy and activity between the brains of women and men-now a rodent study shows that even individual neurons behave differently depending on sex. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Scientists are making slow but steady progress in stem cell technology. (alzforum.org)
  • In the May 26 Nature online, scientists at Stanford University in Palo Alto, California, describe how to go directly from human fibroblasts to neurons, skipping the iPS stage altogether. (alzforum.org)
  • Rockefeller scientists have discovered that they originate from an unlikely source, revealing that the cells directing the very first steps of brain assembly are not other neurons, as scientists have long assumed, but so-called glial cells. (rockefeller.edu)
  • Scientists find that microbes inside the intestines can control the activities of neurons connecting the gut and brain. (rockefeller.edu)
  • The TiPSC-derived stem cells led to as many subtypes of neuron as fibroblast iPSCs did, and those neurons had virtually identical electrophysiological properties, the scientists claim. (alzforum.org)
  • This non-invasive technique could make it easier to generate brain cells from a patient, which scientists could study to better understand neurodegenerative diseases and potentially test new treatments on. (bionews.org.uk)
  • It is the first time scientists have reported producing properly functioning eggs using this type of stem cell. (bionews.org.uk)
  • For the first time, scientists have managed to turn heart attack patients' skin cells into healthy beating heart cells in the lab. (bionews.org.uk)
  • Although other scientists have matured stem cells into something resembling serotonin neurons, the case is much more conclusive this time, says first author Jianfeng Lu, a scientist at UW-Madison's Waisman Center . (wisc.edu)
  • On the basis of the numerous horizontal connections in layer III of the cortex that link neurons from various modules with one another, some scientists believe that the interactions among modules that are activated by the same object might be what makes our perception of this object possible. (mcgill.ca)
  • Dutch scientists used stem cells from CF patients to demonstrate a technique that corrects a mutation in the gene CFTR without having to cut DNA. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Scientists revealed an innovative method which can be used to transplant blood-forming stem cells directly into the brain. (bionews.org.uk)
  • The scientists also found that neurons derived from one of the two patients with sporadic AD exhibited biochemical changes possibly linked to the disease. (healthcanal.com)
  • Scientists have discovered a new way to convert human skin cells directly into motor neurons (above). (medicalxpress.com)
  • Scientists working to develop new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases have been stymied by the inability to grow human motor neurons in the lab. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In new research, scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have converted skin cells from healthy adults directly into motor neurons without going through a stem cell state. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The ability of scientists to convert human skin cells into other cell types, such as neurons, has the potential to enhance understanding of disease and lead to finding new ways to heal damaged tissues and organs, a field called regenerative medicine. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Scientists are currently able to make neurons and other brain cells from stem cells, but getting these neurons to properly function when transplanted to the host has proven to be more difficult. (placidway.com)
  • Microglia are related to the white blood cells that engulf pathogens and cellular debris, and scientists knew already that microglia perform that same clean-up task when the brain is injured, 'swallowing up' dead and dying neurons. (embl.de)
  • Brief electrical stimulation (5-15 sec) of an afferent input from the head ganglia causes the cells to depolarize by 15-20 mV and to generate an afterdischarge that lasts for about thirty minutes ( Figure 2 ). (scholarpedia.org)
  • In what is thought to be a first, stem cells have been used to generate human kidney tissue. (bionews.org.uk)
  • This is the first demonstration that human iPS-derived cells are able to generate electrically active motor neurons. (ca.gov)
  • Jian Zhao, of the human study, says: "It should be possible to generate different subtypes of neurons with a similar chemical approach but using slightly modified chemical cocktails. (phys.org)
  • But although the ability to effect such a metamorphosis may someday hold promise for treating neurodegenerative ailments such as Parkinson's disease, the transformed cells currently revert back to their primordial state within two to three days. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Inform patients who ask about stem cell transplantation for Parkinson's disease that while promising, further long-term studies will be needed to establish the safety and efficacy of this approach in animals before it can be tried experimentally in humans. (medpagetoday.com)
  • With news of this promising study published in the consumer press, patients may ask their physicians about the possibility of receiving a stem cell transplant to alleviate the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Such DA neurons can restore cerebral function and behavior in an animal model of Parkinson's disease. (pnas.org)
  • Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degenerative disorder characterized by a loss of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons with a subsequent reduction in striatal DA ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Fetal Neuron Grafts Pave the Way for Stem Cell Therapies Marcia Barinaga A decade of experimental treatments using fetal neurons to replace brain cells that die in Parkinson's disease can provide lessons for planning stem cell therapies Swedish neuroscientist Anders Björklund and his colleagues may have caught a glimpse of what the future holds for the treatment of failing organs. (bio.net)
  • For more than 10 years, Björklund has been part of a team at Lund University in Sweden that has been grafting neurons from aborted fetuses into the brains of patients with Parkinson's disease. (bio.net)
  • If so, Parkinson's treatment could be among the first applications of stem cell therapy. (bio.net)
  • The successes have also increased the urgency of developing stem cell treatments, because despite their promise, there are many reasons that fetal cells will never be widely used to treat Parkinson's disease. (bio.net)
  • There are still many hurdles to overcome, but this first round of cell replacement in the brain sets a 'gold standard' that stem cells must meet if they are to become the basis for new Parkinson's treatments, says neuroscientist and stem cell researcher Evan Snyder of Harvard Medical School in Boston. (bio.net)
  • Parkinson's disease is a logical candidate for cell replacement therapy, in part because conventional treatments have had limited success. (bio.net)
  • The treatment reversed Parkinson's symptoms in rats, but produced little lasting improvement in human patients, probably because the cells died or stopped making dopamine, says John Sladek, chair of neuroscience at the Chicago Medical School. (bio.net)
  • In the future, we hope that we will be able to use neural stem cells for brain repair - for example for diseases such as cognitive ageing, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease or major depression,' Professor Jessberger concluded. (bionews.org.uk)
  • Neurons derived from human stem cells have successfully been used to treat and relieve symptoms of Parkinson's disease in a primate animal model. (bionews.org.uk)
  • Cell replacement therapy using hESCs have the potential for treating Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. (thermofisher.com)
  • Once retinal neurons die, they are gone forever and the permanent loss of these cells causes blindness," said Di Polo. (medindia.net)
  • More than half expressed markers for glutamatergic neurons, but others had expression patterns closer to inhibitory neurons or catecholaminergic neurons. (alzforum.org)
  • In contrast to glial cells that can become reactive and proliferate under certain conditions, postmitotic neurons do not normally change their identity for the lifespan of the organism," the authors write. (genengnews.com)
  • While CDK5 shares high sequence homology with its family members, it is thought mainly to function in postmitotic neurons, regulating the cytoarchitecture of these cells. (cellsignal.com)
  • Sensory signal processing in cortical layer IV involves two major morphological classes of excitatory neurons: spiny stellate and pyramidal cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • Pyramidal cells, by contrast, displayed additional excitatory inputs from nongranular layers and from neighboring barrels. (jneurosci.org)
  • Another unresolved question is in which way the morphologically heterogeneous excitatory neurons in layer IV, i.e., spiny stellate cells and pyramidal cells, contribute to intracortical circuits. (jneurosci.org)
  • A recent in vivo study indicates that, in fact, spiny stellate and pyramidal cells within barrels show different response dynamics after whisker deflection ( Brecht and Sakmann, 2002 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Single image from a serial section electron microscopic reconstruction of the cell body of a cortical pyramidal neuron from a biopsy sample obtained from the cortex of a patient with Alzheimer's dise. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • While this discovery sheds new light on the mechanics of neuroplasticity, it could also help explain diseases like autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, and dementia, which may arise when this process breaks down and connections between brain cells are not formed or removed correctly. (rochester.edu)
  • The formation and removal of the physical connections between neurons is a critical part of maintaining a healthy brain and the process of creating new pathways and networks among brain cells enables us to absorb, learn, and memorize new information. (rochester.edu)
  • It is possible that when the microglia's synapse pruning function is interrupted or when the cells mistakenly remove the wrong connections - perhaps due to genetic factors or because the cells are too occupied elsewhere fighting an infection or injury - the result is impaired signaling between brain cells. (rochester.edu)
  • University laboratory research demonstrates in cell culture that mercury, a poisonous heavy metal, quickly damages brain cells. (youtube.com)
  • This microscope video shows what happens when dissolved mercury is added to a cell culture of brain cells. (youtube.com)
  • Prior research with cultured tissue had shown that a mix of chemicals could change bone marrow stem cells from mice to those resembling brain cells, but when a team led by neurologist Lorraine Iacovitti of Thomas Jefferson University in Philadelphia tried the same brew on human cells, the number altered was modest. (scientificamerican.com)
  • A way to monitor how brain cells coordinate with each other to control specific behaviors, such as initiating movement or detecting an odor was developed by a team led by MIT neuroscientists. (medindia.net)
  • Brain cells, or neurons, are the building blocks of the nervous system. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • Such sex differences had been evident for decades in other body tissues, but so far no one had looked at brain cells, Clark says. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Men's neurons might fare better on a high-protein diet, for instance, whereas high fat content would probably nourish women's brain cells best, he adds. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The study, led by Guo-li Ming, M.D., Ph.D., and Hongjun Song, Ph.D., of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and described online Aug. 17 in the journal Nature , used stem cells generated from people with and without mental illness to observe the effects of a rare and pernicious genetic variation on young brain cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • Infecting the kidney cells with the bacterial DNA, transformed them into an immature form of brain cells called neural progenitors. (bionews.org.uk)
  • It allows them to work with cells otherwise unobtainable - living brain cells that have the same genetics as the patients. (ucsf.edu)
  • As well as deepening our understanding of how brain cells develop throughout life, it is hoped the study will help advance research into therapies for human diseases. (bionews.org.uk)
  • We tried to determine whether cells that reside in your bone marrow and circulate throughout the blood could turn into any of the major brain cells types,' said Dr. David Hess, neurologist, stroke specialist, chairman of the MCG Department of Neurology and lead author on the study. (rutgers.edu)
  • Blood cells are tricky to differentiate into neurons, but this protocol reportedly coaxes them to form neural tissue every bit as well as skin fibroblasts do, the investigators claim. (alzforum.org)
  • For example, iPSCs made from fibroblasts readily form neurons, as both types of cell originate from the ectoderm layer in developing embryos. (alzforum.org)
  • However, in the direct, serum-free technique, TiPSCs differentiated into neural stem cells as readily as did iPSCs from fibroblasts. (alzforum.org)
  • The neurons were susceptible to mitochondrial stress, slow in turning over damaged mitochondria, and flush with reactive oxygen species, similar to neurons created from patient fibroblasts. (alzforum.org)
  • In work presented at the ASCB/IFCB meeting in Philadelphia, Håkan Toresson and colleagues at Lund University in Sweden report success in creating induced neurons that model Alzheimer's by starting with fibroblasts taken from skin biopsies. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • These ideas about these relationships of among different cell types might be further studied by comparing their transciptomes (sets of genes each cell is expressing). (physicsforums.com)
  • During T cell maturation, receptor genes recombine in a process known as T cell receptor (TCR) rearrangement. (alzforum.org)
  • Secondly, the production of iPS cells usually involves infecting the skin or blood cells with a virus containing the genes required for reprogramming the cells to an immature state. (bionews.org.uk)
  • This DNA carried the genes required to reprogramme the cell, but did not become incorporated into the cells own genome. (bionews.org.uk)
  • This cell culture system can help identify new genes contributing to the resilience in oculomotor neurons that could be used in gene therapy to strengthen sensitive motor neurons,' explains Eva Hedlund, docent at the Department of Neuroscience at Karolinska Institutet, who led the study. (news-medical.net)
  • Neurons regulate Schwann cell genes by diffusible molecules. (rupress.org)
  • Survival of motor neuron or survival motor neuron (SMN) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SMN1 and SMN2 genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Motor neurons drive muscle contractions, and their damage underlies devastating diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal muscular atrophy, both of which ultimately lead to paralysis and early death. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) spinal motor neurons (SpMN) progressively degenerate while a subset of cranial motor neurons (CrMN) are spared until late stages of the disease. (ssrn.com)
  • Mice are a good model for studying obesity in humans, but it would better to have human cells for testing. (eurekalert.org)
  • Marchetto and colleagues from the Muotri lab at the University of California San Diego last November announced 3 that they had not only identified several abnormalities in iPS cell derived neurons from Rett Syndrome patients, but also reversed them by treating with insulin growth factor 1, which had corrected symptoms in mice with the same mutation. (nih.gov)
  • Robert Clark of the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and his colleagues found that cultured neurons from female rats and mice survived longer than did neurons from their male counterparts when facing starvation. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Interestingly, this direct conversion technique may offer a way around the recently reported rejection of genetically identical iPS cells by laboratory mice. (stanford.edu)
  • We have shown previously that mouse ES cells transplanted to normal mice or 6-hydroxydopamine (OHDA)-lesioned rats can differentiate spontaneously into tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive and serotonin (5HT)-positive neurons. (pnas.org)
  • Our study suggests otherwise, though, as we found that a certain type of B cell is quite abundant in the ventricles, meninges, and choroid plexus in the brains of young mice (Fig. 2). (brightsurf.com)
  • We experimentally depleted B cells from the brains of young mice and saw oligodendrocyte numbers drop significantly, (Fig. 3)" Tanabe adds. (brightsurf.com)
  • Turning the theory of how the human brain perceives time on its head, a novel analysis in mice reveals that dopamine neuron activity plays a key role in judgment of time, slowing down the internal clock. (brightsurf.com)
  • They first removed the outer layers of brain tissue in living mice to uncover the hippocampus and genetically labelled 63 individual stem cells. (bionews.org.uk)
  • This important progress follows on last year's success in inducing this change with mice skin cells. (slashdot.org)
  • Research continues as the study highlights the significant differences in mice and human neural cells as well as the success rate of transformation (2-4% for human cells, 20% for mice. (slashdot.org)
  • Two labs in China have independently succeeded in transforming skin cells into neurons using only a cocktail of chemicals, with one group using human cells from healthy individuals and Alzheimer's patients, and the other group using cells from mice. (phys.org)
  • found that mice that lacked a protein called SOCS3 in the neurons and glial cells of the eye had greater retinal neovascularization than did control mice. (sciencemag.org)
  • Self-renewing and multipotent stem cells provide a source of transplantable material to replace post-mitotic neurons that do not spontaneously regenerate after injury. (google.com)
  • We have already begun testing several known antioxidants, and found some of them to be very effective in improving motor neuron survival in the culture dish. (ca.gov)
  • They showed that the transplanted stem cell-derived motor neurons grew along the injured nerves to connect successfully with the paralyzed muscles, which could then be controlled by pulses of blue light. (redorbit.com)
  • Lipton and his team-including Juan Piña-Crespo, Ph.D., D.V.M., Maria Talantova, M.D., Ph.D., and other colleagues at Sanford-Burnham and Stanford University-transplanted human stem cell-derived neurons into a rodent hippocampus, the brain's information-processing center. (placidway.com)
  • We have used a retroviral vector encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein to label precursor cells in vivo and have examined clones 1-3 days later using morphological, immunohistochemical and electrophysiological techniques. (nih.gov)
  • The electrophysiological state of these neurons determines whether egg-laying behaviors will occur in response to environmental stimuli. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Human iPS-derived cells appeared to follow a normal developmental progression associated with motor neuron formation and possessed prototypical electrophysiological properties. (ca.gov)
  • CITATION: "Human Umbilical Tissue-Derived Cells (hUTC) Promote Synapse Formation and Neurite Outgrowth via Thrombospondin Family Proteins," Sehwon Koh, Namsoo Kim, Henry H. Yin, Ian R. Harris, Nadine S. Dejneka, and Cagla Eroglu. (eurekalert.org)
  • In neurons and glial cells the LPS from P. fluorescens induced major morphological changes including a condensation of the cytoplasmic proteins, a leakage of the cytoplasmic content, the formation of blebs on the nuclear membrane and a marked reorganization of the cytoskeleton. (nih.gov)
  • The microglia "pulled up" the appropriate connections, physically disconnecting one neuron from another, while leaving other important connections intact. (rochester.edu)
  • These findings demonstrate that microglia are a dynamic and integral component of the complex machinery that allows neurons to reorganize their connections in the healthy mature brain," said Grayson Sipe, a graduate student in Majewska's lab and co-author of the study. (rochester.edu)
  • As reported in the Journal of Experimental Medicine , Jonathan Kipnis and colleagues found that specialized immune cells called microglia play a key role in clearing the dead material by gobbling up the remnants of injured neurons. (news-medical.net)
  • 3-dimensional reconstruction of a single microglia cell. (embl.de)
  • These results suggest that transplantation using ES cells as clinical therapy for PD is approaching the point of technical feasibility. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Pharmacological treatment with L-DOPA works initially, but reduced efficacy and development of motor complications requires treatment alternatives such as deep brain stimulation and fetal DA neuron transplantation ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, after transplantation in a model of Parkinson s disease, iDA neurons survive and integrate in the host tissue and support a significant behavioral rescue of the motor symptoms. (michaeljfox.org)
  • This permanent change to the DNA means the genome of mature T cells-and any iPSCs or neurons derived from them-differs from that of other somatic cells. (alzforum.org)
  • Hello, and thank you for joining us for today's webinar: Direct Reprogramming of Somatic Cells into Induced Neurons. (abcam.com)
  • BB: Thank you, Sarah, for this kind introduction and thanks to Abcam for organizing this webinar, and thank you, the audience, for attending this webinar about Direct Reprogramming of Somatic Cells into Induced Neurons. (abcam.com)
  • Similar to mouse ES cells, they can be expanded to large numbers while maintaining their potential to differentiate into various somatic cell types of all three germ layers (Thomson, J. A., et al. (google.es)
  • This old idea of an evolutionary relationship between neurons and secretory cells is based upon the many details of the complex secretory system of secretory cells that are shared with neurons and that reside in the molecular secretory system. (physicsforums.com)