Cell Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.Vernonia: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain germacrane and sesquiterpene LACTONES.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Myosin Type II: The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Actomyosin: A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.rho GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Polyhydroxyethyl Methacrylate: A biocompatible, hydrophilic, inert gel that is permeable to tissue fluids. It is used as an embedding medium for microscopy, as a coating for implants and prostheses, for contact lenses, as microspheres in adsorption research, etc.Colchicine: A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Stress Fibers: Bundles of actin filaments (ACTIN CYTOSKELETON) and myosin-II that span across the cell attaching to the cell membrane at FOCAL ADHESIONS and to the network of INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS that surrounds the nucleus.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Cell Surface Extensions: Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Phalloidine: Very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly from AMANITA phalloides (Agaricaceae) or death cup; causes fatal liver, kidney and CNS damage in mushroom poisoning; used in the study of liver damage.PeptidoglycanCytochalasin D: A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Pseudopodia: A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Mechanotransduction, Cellular: The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.WingEndothelium, Corneal: Single layer of large flattened cells covering the surface of the cornea.Focal Adhesions: An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Microscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.rhoA GTP-Binding Protein: A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Form Perception: The sensory discrimination of a pattern shape or outline.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.rac GTP-Binding Proteins: A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Intermediate Filaments: Cytoplasmic filaments intermediate in diameter (about 10 nanometers) between the microfilaments and the microtubules. They may be composed of any of a number of different proteins and form a ring around the cell nucleus.Gastrula: The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.Cytochalasin B: A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cell Nucleus Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of the CELL NUCLEUS.cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Acanthocytes: Erythrocytes with protoplasmic projections giving the cell a thorny appearance.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Time-Lapse Imaging: Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Heterocyclic Compounds with 4 or More Rings: A class of organic compounds containing four or more ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.Contractile Proteins: Proteins which participate in contractile processes. They include MUSCLE PROTEINS as well as those found in other cells and tissues. In the latter, these proteins participate in localized contractile events in the cytoplasm, in motile activity, and in cell aggregation phenomena.Adherens Junctions: Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Filamins: A family of crosslinking filament proteins encoded by distinct FLN genes. Filamins are involved in cell adhesion, spreading, and migration, acting as scaffolds for over 90 binding partners including channels, receptors, intracellular signaling molecules and transcription factors. Due to the range of molecular interactions, mutations in FLN genes result in anomalies with moderate to lethal consequences.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Bacterial Processes: The functions, behavior, and activities of bacteria.Microscopy, Interference: The science and application of a double-beam transmission interference microscope in which the illuminating light beam is split into two paths. One beam passes through the specimen while the other beam reflects off a reference mirror before joining and interfering with the other. The observed optical path difference between the two beams can be measured and used to discriminate minute differences in thickness and refraction of non-stained transparent specimens, such as living cells in culture.Amdinocillin: An amidinopenicillanic acid derivative with broad spectrum antibacterial action.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Cell Enlargement: Growth processes that result in an increase in CELL SIZE.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Penicillin-Binding Proteins: Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.Nocodazole: Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Gastrulation: A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.Euglena gracilis: A species of fresh-water, flagellated EUKARYOTES in the phylum EUGLENIDA.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Microscopy, Phase-Contrast: A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Vinculin: A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.Erythrocyte Deformability: Ability of ERYTHROCYTES to change shape as they pass through narrow spaces, such as the microvasculature.Actin-Related Protein 2-3 Complex: A complex of seven proteins including ARP2 PROTEIN and ARP3 PROTEIN that plays an essential role in maintenance and assembly of the CYTOSKELETON. Arp2-3 complex binds WASP PROTEIN and existing ACTIN FILAMENTS, and it nucleates the formation of new branch point filaments.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Armadillo Domain Proteins: A family of proteins that contain several 42-amino acid repeat domains and are homologous to the Drosophila armadillo protein. They bind to other proteins through their armadillo domains and play a variety of roles in the CELL including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, regulation of DESMOSOME assembly, and CELL ADHESION.Caulobacter crescentus: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that consist of slender vibroid cells.Cytokinesis: The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Dictyostelium: A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Thiazolidines: Reduced (protonated) form of THIAZOLES. They can be oxidized to THIAZOLIDINEDIONES.Osteonectin: Non-collagenous, calcium-binding glycoprotein of developing bone. It links collagen to mineral in the bone matrix. In the synonym SPARC glycoprotein, the acronym stands for Secreted Protein, Acidic and Rich in Cysteine.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.rac1 GTP-Binding Protein: A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Vimentin: An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.Actin-Related Protein 3: A component of the Arp2-3 complex that is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and that binds ATP. It is expressed at higher levels than ARP2 PROTEIN and does not contain a PROFILIN binding domain.Micromanipulation: The performance of dissections, injections, surgery, etc., by the use of micromanipulators (attachments to a microscope) that manipulate tiny instruments.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Polymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Actin-Related Protein 2: A PROFILIN binding domain protein that is part of the Arp2-3 complex. It is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and binds ATP.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Neurulation: An early embryonic developmental process of CHORDATES that is characterized by morphogenic movements of ECTODERM resulting in the formation of the NEURAL PLATE; the NEURAL CREST; and the NEURAL TUBE. Improper closure of the NEURAL GROOVE results in congenital NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Chlorpropham: A carbamate that is used as an herbicide and as a plant growth regulator.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Osmotic Fragility: RED BLOOD CELL sensitivity to change in OSMOTIC PRESSURE. When exposed to a hypotonic concentration of sodium in a solution, red cells take in more water, swell until the capacity of the cell membrane is exceeded, and burst.Trifluoperazine: A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Twist Transcription Factor: A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that was originally identified in DROSOPHILA as essential for proper gastrulation and MESODERM formation. It plays an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MUSCLE CELLS, and is found in a wide variety of organisms.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Nonmuscle Myosin Type IIA: A nonmuscle isoform of myosin type II found predominantly in platelets, lymphocytes, neutrophils and brush border enterocytes.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic: A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)Cells: The fundamental, structural, and functional units or subunits of living organisms. They are composed of CYTOPLASM containing various ORGANELLES and a CELL MEMBRANE boundary.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Erythrocytes, Abnormal: Oxygen-carrying RED BLOOD CELLS in mammalian blood that are abnormal in structure or function.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Actinin: A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Blastoderm: A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.Trabecular Meshwork: A porelike structure surrounding the entire circumference of the anterior chamber through which aqueous humor circulates to the canal of Schlemm.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.GTPase-Activating Proteins: Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.GTP Phosphohydrolases: Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
The cancerous T cells in the body initially migrate to the skin, causing various lesions to appear. These lesions change shape ... T-cell lymphoma Pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma Lennert lymphoma Subcutaneous T-cell lymphoma Angiocentric lymphoma Blastic NK-cell ... Unlike most non-Hodgkin lymphomas (which are generally B cell related), CTCL is caused by a mutation of T cells. ... Of all cancers involving the same class of blood cell, 2% of cases are cutaneous T cell lymphomas. CTCL is more common in men ...
These cells still serve a role in the immune system. Histiocytes Dendritic cells (Although these will often migrate to local ... expression of MHC class I and up-regulation of MIC-A can happen when cells are infected by a virus or become cancerous. ... They have the kidney shaped nucleus and are typically agranulated. They also possess abundant cytoplasm. Some leucocytes ... T cells: CD4+ helper T cells: T cells displaying co-receptor CD4 are known as CD4+ T cells. These cells have T-cell receptors ...
In addition to the irregularly shaped leukocytes, both red blood cells and many small disc-shaped platelets are visible. ... Years for memory cells, weeks for all else. Monocyte. 5.3%. 15-30[8]. Monocytes migrate from the bloodstream to other tissues ... expression of MHC class I and up-regulation of MIC-A can happen when cells are infected by a virus or become cancerous. ... T cells: *CD4+ helper T cells: T cells displaying co-receptor CD4 are known as CD4+ T cells. These cells have T-cell receptors ...
... the cell cycle and transcriptomal dynamics. Animal cells form many different shapes based on their function and location in the ... outlined a number of different effects of Rho activation in cancerous cells. First, in the initiation of the tumor modification ... "Positive feedback between Cdc42 activity and H+ efflux by the Na-H exchanger NHE1 for polarity of migrating cells". The Journal ... Rho proteins help cells regulate changes in shape throughout their life-cycle. Before cells can undergo key processes such as ...
Second, the T cell undergoes "Negative Selection" by interacting with thymic dendritic cells, whereby T cells with high ... All thymomas are potentially cancerous, but they can vary a great deal. Some grow very slowly. Others grow rapidly and can ... The epithelium of the thymus develops first, appearing as two flask-shape endodermal diverticula, which arise one on either ... During this stage, hematopoietic bone-marrow precursors migrate into the thymus. Normal development is dependent on the ...
In 2007, it was discovered that cancerous cells stop producing the anti-VEGF enzyme PKG. In normal cells (but not in cancerous ... with many open questions regarding best cell types and dosages to use. Cancer cells are cells that have lost their ability to ... These sprouts then form loops to become a full-fledged vessel lumen as cells migrate to the site of angiogenesis. Sprouting ... Unlike normal blood vessels, tumor blood vessels are dilated with an irregular shape. ...
Cells are produced at the crypt base and migrate upward along the crypt axis before being shed into the colonic lumen days ... "Quantification of crypt and stem cell evolution in the normal and neoplastic human colon". Cell Rep. 8 (4): 940-7. doi:10.1016/ ... The colon crypts are shaped like microscopic thick walled test tubes with a central hole down the length of the tube (the crypt ... It takes 15 years or less for a polyp to turn cancerous. Colonoscopy is similar to sigmoidoscopy-the difference being related ...
When a cancer cell divides, both daughter cells inherit the genetic and epigenetic abnormalities of the parent cell, and may ... Oncolytic viruses are engineered to infect cancerous cells. Limitations of that method include immune response to the virus and ... primary tumor cells acquire the ability to undergo "invasion and metastasis" whereby they migrate into the surrounding tissue ... It readily changes shape with changes in population densities and survival/reproductive strategies used within and among the ...
Follicular cells vary in shape from flat to cuboid to columnar, depending on how active they are. Parafollicular cells ... also known as C cells, responsible for the production of calcitonin, are derived from neural crest cells, which migrate to the ... in which the appearance of cells is viewed to determine whether they resemble normal or cancerous cells. There can be many ... This is an ion channel on the cell membrane which in the same action transports two sodium ions and an iodide ion into the cell ...
Sickle-cell versions of hemoglobin stick to themselves, stacking to form fibers that distort the shape of red blood cells ... creating a cancerous tumor that grows and invades various tissues of the body. Normally, a cell divides only in response to ... It usually then divides a limited number of times and dies, staying within the epithelium where it is unable to migrate to ... All the cells in a multicellular organism derive from a single cell, differentiating into variant cell types in response to ...
There are two targets: a surface protein used by the virus to infect human cells, and "transformer" proteins which change shape ... In 2007, the World Community Grid migrated from Grid MP to BOINC for all of its supported platforms. As of October 2014, World ... Molecular Cell. 46 (5): 674-690. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2012.05.021. ISSN 1097-2765. PMID 22681889. "Launch of the Drug Search ... and is analyzing millions of data points collected from thousands of healthy and cancerous patient tissue samples. These ...
Because of their key role in the controlling cell division, mutations in CDKs are often found in cancerous cells. These ... Upon activation, sphingosine kinase migrates from the cytosol to the plasma membrane where it transfers a γ phosphate (which is ... "Shaping Development of Autophagy Inhibitors with the Structure of the Lipid Kinase Vps34". Science. 327 (5973): 1638-1642. doi: ... SK1 is expressed in lung, spleen, and leukocyte cells, whereas SK2 is expressed in kidney and liver cells. The involvement of ...
HDR brachytherapy for nonmelanomatous skin cancer, such as basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, provides an ... In addition, a range of imaging modalities can be used to visualise the shape and size of the tumour and its relation to ... In the case of permanent (seed) brachytherapy for prostate cancer, there is a small chance that some seeds may migrate out of ... This can help reduce the chance for surviving cancer-cells to divide and grow in the intervals between each radiotherapy dose. ...
... in which the appearance of cells is viewed to determine whether they resemble normal or cancerous cells.[58] ... Scattered among follicular cells and in spaces between the spherical follicles are another type of thyroid cell, parafollicular ... They do this by transporting and metabolising the thyroglobulin contained in the colloid.[4] Follicular cells vary in shape ... Over the next few weeks, it migrates to the base of the neck, passing in front of the hyoid bone. During migration, the thyroid ...
... infected or cancerous) cells in the body.[44] Healthy cells typically express a large number of self derived pMHC on their cell ... B or NK cells.[2] These CLP cells then migrate via the blood to the thymus, where they engraft. The earliest cells which ... Groups of specific, differentiated T cells have an important role in controlling and shaping the immune response by providing a ... Cytotoxic T cells (TC cells, CTLs, T-killer cells, killer T cells) destroy virus-infected cells and tumor cells, and are also ...
Cell-assisted Lipotransfer for Cosmetic Breast Augmentation: Supportive Use of Adipose-Derived Stem/Stromal Cells (2007) ... When a silicone breast implant ruptures it usually does not deflate, yet the filler gel does leak from it, which can migrate to ... For breast reconstruction, and for the augmentation and enhancement of the aesthetics - size, shape, and texture - of a woman's ... Although the mammogram is the superior diagnostic technique for distinguishing among cancerous and benign lesions to the breast ...
There are two targets: a surface protein used by the virus to infect human cells, and "transformer" proteins which change shape ... "Decade of discovery: doubling carbon-based solar cell efficiency". worldcommunitygrid.org.. *^ Harvard publishes World ... the World Community Grid migrated from Grid MP to BOINC for all of its supported platforms.[17] ... and is analyzing millions of data points collected from thousands of healthy and cancerous patient tissue samples. These ...
... is a genus of about 1000 species of forbs and shrubs in the family Asteraceae. Some species are known as ironweed. Some species are edible and of economic value. They are known for having intense purple flowers. The genus is named for the English botanist William Vernon. There are numerous distinct subgenera and subsections in this genus. This has led some botanists to divide this large genus into several distinct genera. For instance, the Flora of North America only recognizes about 20 species in Vernonia sensu stricto, 17 of which are in North America north of Mexico, with the others being found in South America. Several species of Vernonia, including V. calvoana, V. amygdalina, and V. colorata, are eaten as leaf vegetables. Common names for these species include bitterleaf, onugbu in the Igbo language, ewuro and ndole. They are common in most West African and Central African countries. They are one of the most widely consumed leaf vegetables of Nigeria, where the onugbu soup is a ...
... was first reported in the scientific literature in 1994, by a team of researchers from Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Company (now Astellas Pharma) in Tsukuba, Japan, who isolated it in a culture of Chromobacterium violaceum from a soil sample obtained in Yamagata Prefecture.[3] It was found to have little to no antibacterial activity, but was potently cytotoxic against several human cancer cell lines, with no effect on normal cells; studies on mice later found it to have antitumor activity in vivo as well.[3]. The first total synthesis of romidepsin was accomplished by Harvard researchers and published in 1996.[4] Its mechanism of action was elucidated in 1998, when researchers from Fujisawa and the University of Tokyo found it to be a histone deacetylase inhibitor with effects similar to those of trichostatin A.[5]. ...
Breast cancer is cancer in the breast. In the world, breast cancer is the fifth-most common cause of cancer death. The first four are lung cancer, stomach cancer, liver cancer, and colon cancer. In 2005, breast cancer caused 502,000 deaths (7% of cancer deaths; almost 1% of all deaths) in the world.[1] Among all women in the world, breast cancer is the most common cancer.[1] In the United States, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and the second most common cause of cancer death in women (after lung cancer). In 2007, breast cancer caused about 40,910 deaths (7% of cancer deaths; almost 2% of all deaths) in the U.S.[2][3] Women in the United States have a 1 in 8 chance of getting breast cancer in their lives. They have a 1 in 33 chance of death from breast cancer.[3] There are many more people getting breast cancer since the 1970s. This is because of how people in the Western world live.[4][5] Because the breast is composed of identical tissues in males and females, breast cancer ...
... is a breast cancer cell line isolated in 1970 from a 69-year-old Caucasian woman. MCF-7 is the acronym of Michigan Cancer Foundation-7, referring to the institute in Detroit where the cell line was established in 1973 by Herbert Soule and co-workers. The Michigan Cancer Foundation is now known as the Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute. Prior to MCF-7, it was not possible for cancer researchers to obtain a mammary cell line that was capable of living longer than a few months. The patient, Frances Mallon died in 1970. Her cells were the source of much of current knowledge about breast cancer. At the time of sampling, she was a nun in the convent of Immaculate Heart of Mary in Monroe, Michigan under the name of Sister Catherine Frances. MCF-7 and two other breast cancer cell lines, named T-47D and MDA-MB-231, account for more than two-thirds of all abstracts reporting studies on ...
Breast cancer metastatic mouse models are experimental approaches in which mice are genetically manipulated to develop a mammary tumor leading to distant focal lesions of mammary epithelium . Recent ameliorations in maneuvering the mouse genome have provided the technology to induce mammary cancers in mice arising from genetic mutations that have been identified in human cancer. This means models can be generated based upon molecular lesions consistent with the human disease. Metastasis is a process of migration of tumour cells from the primary cancer site to a distant location where the cancer cells form secondary tumors. Metastatic breast cancer represents the most devastating attribute of cancer and it is considered an advanced-stage event. Human breast cancer metastasizes to multiple distant organs such as the brain, lungs, bones and liver. The classical theory developed in the early 70's anticipated ...
Cancer cell lines are originally derived from patient tumors, but acquire the ability to proliferate within in vitro cell cultures. As a result of in vitro manipulation, cell lines that have been traditionally used in cancer research undergo genetic transformations that are not restored when cells are allowed to grow in vivo.[9] Because of the cell culturing process, which includes enzymatic environments and centrifugation, cells that are better adapted to survive in culture are selected, tumor resident cells and proteins that interact with cancer cells are eliminated, and the culture becomes phenotypically homogeneous.[4] When implanted into immunodeficient mice, cell lines do not easily develop tumors and the result of any ...
Several proteins such as SNAI1/SNAIL,[58][59] ZFHX1B/SIP1,[60] SNAI2/SLUG,[61][62] TWIST1[63] and DeltaEF1[64] have been found to downregulate E-cadherin expression. When expression of those transcription factors is altered, transcriptional repressors of E-cadherin were overexpressed in tumor cells.[58][59][60][61][63][64] Another group of genes, such as AML1, p300 and HNF3,[65] can upregulate the expression of E-cadherin.[66] In order to study the epigenetic regulation of E-cadherin, M Lombaerts et al. performed a genome wide expression study on 27 human mammary cell lines. Their results revealed two main clusters that have the fibroblastic or epithelial phenotype, respectively. In close examination, the clusters showing fibroblast phenotypes only have either partial or complete CDH1 promoter methylation, while the clusters with epithelial phenotypes have both wild-type cell lines and cell lines with mutant ...
One of the most important factors in classifying a tumor as benign or malignant is its invasive potential. If a tumor lacks the ability to invade adjacent tissues or spread to distant sites by metastasizing then it is benign, whereas invasive or metastatic tumors are malignant.[2] For this reason, benign tumors are not classed as cancer.[3] Benign tumors will grow in a contained area usually encapsulated in a fibrous connective tissue capsule. The growth rates of benign and malignant tumors also differ; benign tumors generally grow more slowly than malignant tumors. Although benign tumors pose a lower health risk than malignant tumors, they both can be life-threatening in certain situations. There are many general characteristics which apply to either benign or malignant tumors, but sometimes one type may show characteristics of the other. For example, benign tumors are mostly well differentiated and malignant tumors are often undifferentiated. However, undifferentiated benign tumors and ...
Rosso, M; Robles-Frías, MJ; Coveñas, R; Salinas-Martín, MV; Muñoz, M (2008). „The NK-1 receptor is expressed in human primary gastric and colon adenocarcinomas and is involved in the antitumor action of L-733,060 and the mitogenic action of substance P on human gastrointestinal cancer cell lines". Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine. 29 (4): 245-54. PMID 18781096. doi:10.1159/000152942 ...
Initiation of metastasis requires invasion, which is enabled by EMT.[36][37] Carcinoma cells in a primary tumor lose cell-cell adhesion mediated by E-cadherin repression and break through the basement membrane with increased invasive properties, and enter the bloodstream through intravasation. Later, when these circulating tumor cells (CTCs) exit the bloodstream to form micro-metastases, they undergo MET for clonal outgrowth at these metastatic sites. Thus, EMT and MET form the initiation and completion of the invasion-metastasis cascade.[38] At this new metastatic site, the tumor may undergo other processes to optimize growth. For example, EMT has been associated with PD-L1 expression, particularly in lung cancer. Increased levels of PD-L1 suppresses the immune system which allows the cancer to spread more easily. [39] EMT confers resistance to oncogene-induced premature ...
... (IL-24) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL24 gene. IL-24 is a cytokine belonging to the IL-10 family of cytokines that signals through two heterodimeric receptors: IL-20R1/IL-20R2 and IL-22R1/IL-20R2. This interleukin is also known as melanoma differentiation-associated 7 (mda-7) due to its discovery as a tumour suppressing protein. IL-24 appears to control in cell survival and proliferation by inducing rapid activation of particular transcription factors called STAT1 and STAT3. This cytokine is predominantly released by activated monocytes, macrophages and T helper 2 (Th2) cells[5] and acts on non-haematopoietic tissues such as skin, lung and reproductive tissues. IL-24 performs important roles in wound healing, arthritis, psoriasis and cancer.[6][7][8] Several studies have shown that cell death occurs in cancer cells/cell lines following ...
Odes, Edward J.; Randolph-Quinney, Patrick S.; Steyn, Maryna; Throckmorton, Zach; Smilg, Jacqueline S.; Zipfel, Bernhard; Augustine, Tanya N.; Beer, Frikkie de; Hoffman, Jakobus W.; Franklin, Ryan D.; Berger, Lee R.; Sciences, School of Anatomical; Witwatersrand, University of the; Africa, South; Institute, Evolutionary Studies; Geosciences, School of; Witwatersrand, University of the; Africa, South; Sciences, School of Anatomical; Witwatersrand, University of the; Africa, South; Institute, Evolutionary Studies; Geosciences, School of; Witwatersrand, University of the; Africa, South; Sciences, School of Forensic and Applied; Lancashire, University of Central; Kingdom, United; Sciences, School of Anatomical; Witwatersrand, University of the; Africa, South; Institute, Evolutionary Studies; Geosciences, School of; Witwatersrand, University of the; Africa, South; Medicine, De Busk College of Osteopathic; University, Lincoln Memorial; Institute, Evolutionary Studies; Geosciences, School of; ...
癌症(英語:Cancer)又名為惡性(英語:malignant)腫瘤(英語:Malignant tumor),指的是細胞不正常增生,且這些增生的細胞可能侵犯身體的其他部分[2][8];中醫學中稱岩,為由控制細胞分裂增殖機制失常而引起的疾病。癌細胞除了分裂失控外,還會局部侵入(英語:Infiltration ...
... cancer cells propel themselves through normal tissues and organs to spread cancer throughout the body. Researchers at Mayo ... Key molecule suppresses growth of cancerous liver tumors, study finds. February 13, 2013 (Medical Xpress)-A molecule already ... according to new research published in Nature Cell Biology. ... Shape-shifting stops migrating cancer cells. December 4, 2013 ... Shape-shifting cells help skin cancer spread. June 10, 2013 (Medical Xpress)-Scientists have discovered genes that control ...
... cells_can_cause_stem_cells_descendants_to_trigger_melanomalike_growth_in_pigment_cells_the_tufts_team_also_found_that_this_ ... Neural crest stem cells migrate throughout the body in vertebrates, including humans. They give rise to many cell types, ... The ability of these GlyCl-expressing cells to radically change the shape, position, and quantity of a different cell type ( ... "instructor cells" can cause stem cells descendants to trigger melanoma-like growth in pigment cells. The Tufts team also found ...
The cancerous T cells in the body initially migrate to the skin, causing various lesions to appear. These lesions change shape ... T-cell lymphoma Pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma Lennert lymphoma Subcutaneous T-cell lymphoma Angiocentric lymphoma Blastic NK-cell ... Unlike most non-Hodgkin lymphomas (which are generally B cell related), CTCL is caused by a mutation of T cells. ... Of all cancers involving the same class of blood cell, 2% of cases are cutaneous T cell lymphomas. CTCL is more common in men ...
... yet most detailed knowledge of cell migration comes from single-cell studies. As single cells migrate, the shape of the cell ... Collective cell migration in tissues occurs throughout embryonic development, during wound healing, and in cancerous tumor ... ω peak in the DOS arises from coupled cell body shape fluctuations within the migrating cell layer, where τ∗ and λ∗ provide a ... of the cell layer; this characterizes dynamic fluctuations in cell shape at short wavelengths, and also in cell density at long ...
... yet most detailed knowledge of cell migration comes from single-cell studies. As single cells migrate, the shape of the cell ... Collective cell migration in tissues occurs throughout embryonic development, during wound healing, and in cancerous tumor ... Regulation of cell cycle progression by cell-cell and cell-matrix forces Nature Cell Biology 20, (6), 646-654 ... Keywords: Contraction, Human umbilical vein endothelial cells, Permeability, Traction force, Cell-cell contact, Cell-substrate ...
Concurrently, high electric field densities caused by the shape of dividing cells cause organelles to migrate to the mitotic ... Quantum Cell Expansion System. Terumo BCT partnered with XVIVO to develop a program for one of their devices, the Quantum Cell ... Tumor Treating Fields, or TTFields, are alternating electric fields that disrupt and trigger death of cancerous cells. ... Powering the Cell: Mitochondria. XVIVO teamed up with Harvard to develop a 3D animation for their Molecular and Cellular ...
... shape, and function. Cells are the building blocks of all the different tissues wit... ... The human body is composed of millions of cells that vary in size, ... These cells are contained at the original site of growth. However, malignant (cancerous) cells can migrate, or metastasize, to ... Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant. Stem cells are unique cells located in bone marrow or peripheral blood that can develop into ...
The cancerous T cells in the body initially migrate to the skin, causing various lesions to appear. The swelling is usually ... These bean-shaped glands produce immune cells and filter impurities from the lymphatic system and bloodstream. cure" relative ... Unlike most non-Hodgkin lymphomas (which are generally B cell related), CTCL is caused by a mutation of T cells. The second ... The cancerous T cells in the body initially migrate to the skin, causing various lesions to appear. What would a lymphoma ...
This scanning test helps to find cancerous cells in the body and where they have migrated. MRI scan gives a clear image of ... Circulating tumor cell test:. Recently introduced blood tests are used to identify cells that are broken off from an original ... CT scans can display the size and shape of your tumor. It can also show where the tumor is located. Blood vessels that feed the ... A PET scan is usually combined with CT scan to notify your doctor about cancer cells. Cancer cells consume large amount of ...
While some of the rules that characterize CD8+ T cell behavior in the infected and cancerous liver have been characterized at ... The protective capacity of these cells relies on their ability to migrate to and traffic within the liver, recognize pathogen- ... hemodynamic and environmental cues that characterize hepatocellular carcinomas shape CD8+ T cell behavior and function; 2) To ... While some of the rules that characterize CD8+ T cell behavior in the infected and cancerous liver have been characterized at ...
Although cell therapy might be beneficial for CKD, human stem cells that might be used to improve kidney function were so far ... While some of the rules that characterize CD8+ T cell behavior in the infected and cancerous liver have been characterized at ... The protective capacity of these cells relies on their ability to migrate to and traffic within the liver, recognize pathogen- ... hemodynamic and environmental cues that characterize hepatocellular carcinomas shape CD8+ T cell behavior and function; 2) To ...
These cells still serve a role in the immune system. Histiocytes Dendritic cells (Although these will often migrate to local ... expression of MHC class I and up-regulation of MIC-A can happen when cells are infected by a virus or become cancerous. ... They have the kidney shaped nucleus and are typically agranulated. They also possess abundant cytoplasm. Some leucocytes ... T cells: CD4+ helper T cells: T cells displaying co-receptor CD4 are known as CD4+ T cells. These cells have T-cell receptors ...
The device, which takes advantage of a physical principle called ratcheting, is a very tiny system of channels for cell ... Based on this method, they have proposed that cancer cells possibly could be sequestered permanently in a sort of ... Northwestern University researchers have demonstrated a novel and simple method that can direct and separate cancer cells from ... To sort the cells, they took advantage of the cells different shapes and mobility characteristics. Migrating cancer cells tend ...
The scientists say their cell culture and mouse studies of the process, which involves a cancer-related protein called AIM1, ... they have discovered a biochemical process that gives prostate cancer cells the almost unnatural ability to change their shape ... "Our experiments show that loss of AIM1 proteins gives prostate cancer cells the ability to change shape, migrate and invade. ... to track the location of AIM1 proteins in human cells grown in the lab and followed where they appear in normal and cancerous ...
Although both processes are studied, a clear correlation between cell division and motility of cancer cells has not been ... force exerted by an invading cell and reveals a strong correlation between force and invasiveness of breast cancer cells, thus ... The intrinsic tissue velocities, as well as the divergence and vorticity around a dividing cell correlate strongly with the ... This model provides a valid reproduction of the cancerous tissue dynamics, thus, biological signaling is not needed to explain ...
Observing breast cancer cells in culture, Ceriones lab found a missing link in our understanding of cell migration: Cancerous ... A migrating cervical cancer cell stained for tissue transglutaminase (green). Cells must gather this protein at their leading ... When cells become stressed, Hsp70 influences the behavior of their "client" proteins, ensuring they keep the right shape. Cells ... How exactly cancer cells migrate and invade tissues continues to be a mystery. However, Ceriones lab uncovered a potentially ...
Cells Possible Progress Against Parkinsons and Good News for Stem Cell Therapies Migrating Immune Cells Promote Nerve Cell ... How Do Our Cells Move? Liquid Droplets Could Explain The findings point to a new relationship between a cell s shape and its ... but also autoimmune diseases and metastasis of cancerous cells. Cell migration is achieved through the movement of the cell s ... System Cells to Produce Natural Killer Cells for Cancer Obstacles to Stem Cell Therapy Cleared Dental Pulp Cells for Stem Cell ...
The rods adapted to the stress by the formation of smaller ovoid cells, a budding type of cell division, the production of ... Sooner or later the organisms break out from the confines of the cell and migrate to surrounding tissues. Multiplication may ... The microbe can be rod-shaped or coccus shaped, and stains acid-fast (red) or non-acid-fast (blue) or variably acid-fast ( ... Russell bodies, eosinophilic bodies, and so-called hyaline globules have all been found in various cancerous and non-cancerous ...
... the scientists took advantage of the cells different shapes and mobility characteristics. Migrating cancer cells tend to be ... Asymmetric obstacles inside these channels direct cell movement along a preferred direction. To sort metastatic cancer cells ... worked just as well at separating cancer and non-cancerous cells. A stack of these radially arranged ratchet channels could be ... "When implanted next to a tumor, the particles [stack of rachet channels] would guide cancer cells, but not normal cells, inward ...
CD19 is an antigen which is found on B-cell neoplasms, cancerous B-cells, and the lentivirus was the vehicle to transfer the ... the dendritic cells migrate to the lymphoid tissues where they interact with T-cells and B-cells -- white blood cells and ... important components of the immune system -- to initiate and shape the adaptive immune response. To develop Provenge, each ... usually proteins that are mainly expressed on diseased cells such as cancer cells. After binding, cancer cells can be destroyed ...
... affecting the ways that the cell interactions with other cells.. Cell adhesion and motility: Cancerous cells do not adhere well ... and enable them to migrate to other tissues. (4). Immortality: Normal cells divide about 50 times and then die. Cancerous cells ... Nuclear and genetic changes: The shape and organization of the nucleus in cancerous cells is different, allowing for diagnosis ... B. Killing cancerous cells. C. Controlling the cell cycle and cell division. D. Producing growth factors and cyclin-dependent ...
Adult cells transformed into early-stage nerve cells, bypassing the pluripotent stem cell stage → Leave a Reply Cancel reply. ... The team also found that the cells with suppressed HMGA1 grow very slowly and fail to migrate or invade new territory like ... The aggressive breast cancer cells grow rapidly and normally appear spindle-shaped or thin and elongated. Remarkably, within a ... Many investigators consider cancer cells to be the evil twin of stem cells, because like stem cells, cancer cells must acquire ...
Cells Possible Progress Against Parkinsons and Good News for Stem Cell Therapies Migrating Immune Cells Promote Nerve Cell ... Collective cell migration is an essential part of our bodys growth and defense system, but it is also used by cancerous cells ... Childhood Cancers Stem Cells Shape Up to Their Surroundings Scientists Reveal Gut Stem Cell Secrets Visionary Stem Cell ... System Cells to Produce Natural Killer Cells for Cancer Obstacles to Stem Cell Therapy Cleared Dental Pulp Cells for Stem Cell ...
During cell division, a cell makes a duplicate copy of its chromosomes and then divides into two cells.) Some genes restrict ... Sometimes these cells can further break away and migrate to distant parts of the body in a process called metastasis. The ... Genes also govern the sizes and the shapes of the organs by controlling the rate of division of the cells within these organs ... Even though only one healthy BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene is needed to help prevent cancerous growth of cells, the one remaining healthy ...
... transition is used to describe the process where normal epithelial cells are converted to cancerous migrating cells (Kopfstein ... For a migrating cell, it is able to modify its shape and rigidity to interact with the extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM can ... a) cell distribution into the cell cycle phase subG1, G1, S, and G2/M. (b) percentage of the cell number in each cell cycle ... Relative rates of cell growth were calculated as a ratio of the cell density at each time point over the cell density at 0 day ...
  • The ability of these GlyCl-expressing cells to radically change the shape, position, and quantity of a different cell type (melanocytes) revealed a new and potentially highly important cell type -- an instructor capability that can change the behavior of other cells a considerable distance away. (biologynews.net)
  • Learning to identify and manipulate such cell types may reveal additional roles for ion flows and establish a new model for control of cell behavior in regenerative medicine and oncology. (biologynews.net)
  • Our work shows for the first time that switching this gene off in aggressive cancer cells dramatically changes their appearance and behavior. (cancerlive.net)
  • Genes are blueprints that provide genetic instructions for the growth, development, and behavior of every cell. (medicinenet.com)
  • The mechanotransduction process also involves communicating the message from the cells that detected the signal onto other cells, which can then respond with the desired behavior. (educationviews.org)
  • Cancer is caused by mutations that alter genes that normally regulate the cell growth and division, or the cell cycle (1). (wikispaces.com)
  • Genes also govern the sizes and the shapes of the organs by controlling the rate of division of the cells within these organs. (medicinenet.com)
  • When genes that normally restrict cell growth and divisions are absent or defective, the affected cells can divide and multiply without restraint. (medicinenet.com)
  • We're accustomed to thinking of our cells sharing an identical set of genes, faithfully copied ever since we were mere fertilized eggs. (nytimes.com)
  • In a second set of experiments, the team turned on a gene called Twist1, which is thought to affect the activity of many genes needed to transform groups of stationary epithelial cells into independent, mobile cells. (nanowerk.com)
  • Nine out of 10 people with TSC have epileptic seizures, and answers about how defective genes create signaling abnormalities in brain cells might hint at what causes epilepsy in those who don't have TSC. (protomag.com)
  • Now that it's happened, their motivation to find safer alternatives for delivering genes to human cells has been redoubled. (technologyreview.com)
  • These growths are called basal cell carcinomas (BCC) and are generally not as serious as the more superficial cancers. (hubpages.com)
  • Eventually some tumor cells may break off and establish new growths (metastases) at distant sites. (scientificamerican.com)
  • In San Francisco , biochemist Ernst Krebs's article The Nitrilosides (Vitamin B 17 )-Their Nature, Occurrence and Metabolic Significance (Antineoplastic Vitamin B 17 ) theorized that amygdalin, with diet and vitamins, could inhibit cancerous growths. (encyclopedia.com)
  • THE DISTINCT TUBER-SHAPED GROWTHS THAT APPEAR throughout the cerebral cortex (the brain's outer layer) in people with TSC were first described by the French physician Désiré-Magloire Bourne-ville in 1880. (protomag.com)
  • According to the University of California, San Diego, scientists are not sure what causes Paget disease: whether cells within the nipple may become cancerous and lead to the disease, or cancerous cells migrate from another tumor to the nipple and cause the disease. (livestrong.com)
  • The device ( 38 ) comprises a primary cone-shaped endocervical sampling brush ( 40 ) adjacent to a secondary donut-shaped cervical sampling brush ( 42 ). (google.com)
  • The collection and analysis of cellular samples for the detection of precancerous and cancerous lesions are vital steps in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer. (google.com)
  • Adequate sampling of cervical and endocervical cells are critical to accurate diagnosis. (google.com)
  • A squamous cell carcinoma looks like a red spot covered in fine white scales. (hubpages.com)
  • https://civic.genome.wustl.edu/links/variants/221 ", "variant_origin": "Somatic", "pub_med_references": [ 22090360 ], "clinical_significance": "Poor Outcome", "evidence_level": "B", "evidence_statement": "In a study of 74 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, those with disruptive mutations in TP53 had shorter overall survival and a higher rate of locoregional recurrence than those without mutations or with nondisruptive mutations. (varsome.com)
  • https://civic.genome.wustl.edu/links/variants/222 ", "variant_origin": "Somatic", "pub_med_references": [ 8901856 ], "clinical_significance": "Poor Outcome", "evidence_level": "B", "evidence_statement": "Unlike other studies, in this study of 110 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, there was no significant difference in the overall survival of patients with and without any TP53 mutations. (varsome.com)
  • Micrograph of Barrett's esophagus (left of image) and normal stratified squamous epithelium (right of image), Alcian blue stain identifies the characteristic goblet cells. (asu.edu)
  • The disease, which affects over three million Americans, causes cells lining the throat to change shape from their normal form (known as squamous epithelia) to a pathological cell type (known as columnar epithelia). (asu.edu)
  • Squamous-cell carcinoma is another type of skin cancer. (checkbiotech.org)
  • Squamous cell carcinoma is also known as epidermoid carcinoma. (checkbiotech.org)
  • It develops from the abnormal growth of the squamous cells of the skin . (checkbiotech.org)
  • It usually develops in the squamous cells of the outer and middle layer of the skin. (checkbiotech.org)
  • Avoiding an exposure to a high dosage of Ultra-violet rays helps to reduce the risk of having squamous cell carcinoma. (checkbiotech.org)
  • What Are The Causes Of Squamous Cell Carcinoma? (checkbiotech.org)
  • Squamous cell carcinoma affects areas of the skin that is exposed to the sun for a long period of time. (checkbiotech.org)
  • A large fraction of the squamous cell carcinoma affects the skin, such as the neck, hands, arm, and face. (checkbiotech.org)
  • This increases their risk of having squamous cell carcinoma. (checkbiotech.org)
  • What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Squamous Cell Carcinoma? (checkbiotech.org)
  • Squamous cell carcinoma usually starts as a dome-shaped elevation on the skin. (checkbiotech.org)
  • not just bacteria, but also cells in our own bodies. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • Its smallest virus-like, mycoplasma-like, cell wall deficient forms (L-forms) can pass through a 0.22 micron lab filter designed to hold back bacteria. (rense.com)
  • It is best described in the category of bacteria that have lost part or all of their cell wall, the so-called cell wall deficient (CWD) bacteria. (rense.com)
  • B cells and T cells recognize pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria. (coursehero.com)
  • They have phagocytosed melanin (melanin cells which have engulfed bacteria and other microorganisms) that enter the dermis due to leakage from or destruction of epidermal or follicular melanocytes. (wearethecure.org)
  • 8. The method of claim 1, wherein the target particles are selected from the group consisting of bacteria, viruses, micelles, polypeptides, nucleic acids, biological cells, and particles coated with a ligand, polypeptide or nucleic acid. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Bacteria and viruses that are inside host cells and are inaccessible to antibodies. (scribd.com)
  • After testing three potential mechanisms, they found that transport of serotonin (a neurotransmitter that can be modulated to regulate mood, appetite and other functions) across the cell surface was the likely messenger. (biologynews.net)
  • The classic JAMs are JAM-A, JAM-B, and JAM-C, which all can regulate leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction through their ability to undergo heterophilic binding with integrins α L β 2 or α v β 3 , α 4 β 1 and α M β 2 , respectively. (aacrjournals.org)
  • An invasive cancer cell moves with its leading edge. (scitechdaily.com)
  • However, these results remain controversial because some breast cancer cell lines that do not express N-cadherin still posses highly invasive characteristics ( 12 , 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Such invasive, expensive and often unnecessary screening and interventions result in over-diagnosis and over treatment, while surveillance of esophageal cells on a population-wide basis is impractical. (asu.edu)
  • They give rise to many cell types, including pigmentation cells called melancocytes, and contribute to structures such as the heart, face and skin. (biologynews.net)
  • Types of white blood cells can be classified in standard ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Psoriasis been found to be potentially associated with heightened risk of two types of lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). (comefaretradingonlinebft.it)
  • Grzybowski and his colleagues took this knowledge one critical step farther: they designed channels that successfully moved the cells of two types -- notably, cancerous and non-cancerous -- in opposite directions and thus partly sorted them out. (eurekalert.org)
  • it also includes a support system, a tumor microenvironment, which encompasses a multitude of varying immune cell types and crisscrossing chemical signals, along with a network of blood vessels. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Cancer can result from deregulation of the growth cycle in any of the cell types of the breast, leading to a range of forms of breast cancer. (livestrong.com)
  • Antibody -mediated and cell-mediated responses are two types of specific response. (lymphedemapeople.com)
  • In this study, we demonstrate that various types of macrophages internalize microvesicles, called exosomes, secreted by breast cancer and non-cancerous cell lines. (jove.com)
  • IRIC's scientists and their colleagues from the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in Baltimore, USA, studied the movement of the border-cells in the ovaries of fruit flies, a biological process that is well understood by scientists and that they can reproduce easily. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • Novel approaches in the passive immunization strategy include antibody drug conjugates, a combination of targeting antibody with a very potent drug such as the recently approved brentuximab vedotin (ADCETRIS™) for Hodgkin lymphoma and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). (scientificamerican.com)
  • ADCETRIS comprises an anti-CD30 monoclonal antibodyanti-CD30 monoclonal antibody and a cytotoxic (cell-killing) agent that is released upon internalization into CD30-expressing tumor cells. (scientificamerican.com)
  • as they become confluent, the motion of the cells becomes increasingly collective, depending on the presence of their neighbors ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • The Monterotondo group showed that n-cofilin has to be present for neural crest cells to be untied from their neighbors and to crawl away. (news-medical.net)
  • A point-based algorithm for the diagnosis for early forms of cutaneous T cell lymphoma was proposed by The International Society for Cutaneous Lymphomas in 2005. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma may be divided into the several subtypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elorac, Inc. Announces Orphan Drug Designation for Novel Topical Treatment for Pruritus in Cutaneous T-cell Lymphoma (CTCL) website Turgeon, Mary Louise (2005). (wikipedia.org)
  • Concurrently, high electric field densities caused by the shape of dividing cells cause organelles to migrate to the mitotic furrow, causing structural disruption. (xvivo.net)