Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Libraries, MedicalSequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Libraries: Collections of systematically acquired and organized information resources, and usually providing assistance to users. (ERIC Thesaurus, accessed 2/1/2008)DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Genomic Library: A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).Library Services: Services offered to the library user. They include reference and circulation.Libraries, Hospital: Information centers primarily serving the needs of hospital medical staff and sometimes also providing patient education and other services.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.National Library of Medicine (U.S.): An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast: Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.Library Surveys: Collection and analysis of data pertaining to operations of a particular library, library system, or group of independent libraries, with recommendations for improvement and/or ordered plans for further development.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Library Administration: Planning, organizing, staffing, direction, and control of libraries.Small Molecule Libraries: Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Library Science: Study of the principles and practices of library administration and services.Libraries, Digital: Libraries in which a major proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format, rather than on paper or MICROFORM.Libraries, NursingPlasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques: A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Library AssociationsDNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Catalogs, LibraryDNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Library Collection Development: Development of a library collection, including the determination and coordination of selection policy, assessment of needs of users and potential users, collection use studies, collection evaluation, identification of collection needs, selection of materials, planning for resource sharing, collection maintenance and weeding, and budgeting.Chromosome Walking: A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Library Technical Services: Acquisition, organization, and preparation of library materials for use, including selection, weeding, cataloging, classification, and preservation.WAGR Syndrome: A contiguous gene syndrome associated with hemizygous deletions of chromosome region 11p13. The condition is marked by the combination of WILMS TUMOR; ANIRIDIA; GENITOURINARY ABNORMALITIES; and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Library Automation: The use of automatic machines or processing devices in libraries. The automation may be applied to library administrative activities, office procedures, and delivery of library services to users.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Library Materials: Print and non-print materials collected, processed, and stored by libraries. They comprise books, periodicals, pamphlets, reports, microforms, maps, manuscripts, motion pictures, and all other forms of audiovisual records. (Harrod, The Librarians' Glossary, 4th ed, p497)Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Deoxyribonuclease EcoRI: One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/AATTC at the slash. EcoRI is from E coliRY13. Several isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.Herpesvirus 3, Human: The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Banding: Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.Deoxyribonuclease HindIII: One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC It recognizes and cleaves the sequence A/AGCTT at the slash. HindIII is from Haemophilus influenzae R(d). Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Bacteriophage lambda: A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Interlibrary LoansDNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
1982). "Isolation of human oncogene sequences (v-fes homolog) from a cosmid library". Science. 216 (4550): 1136-8. doi:10.1126/ ... Cell. Biol. 6 (2): 607-16. PMC 367552 . PMID 3023859. Bernards A, Rubin CM, Westbrook CA, et al. (1987). "The first intron in ... 1987). "The chronic myelocytic cell line K562 contains a breakpoint in bcr and produces a chimeric bcr/c-abl transcript". Mol. ... 1986). "Alternative splicing of RNAs transcribed from the human abl gene and from the bcr-abl fused gene". Cell. 47 (2): 277-84 ...
It is ideal to use a fosmid library because of its stability and limitation of one plasmid per cell. By limiting the number of ... Fosmids are similar to cosmids but are based on the bacterial F-plasmid. The cloning vector is limited, as a host (usually E. ... Conjugation aids in the formation of bacterial clone libraries by ensuring all cells contain the desired fosmid. Fosmids are ... Conjugation involves using the sex pilus to form a bridge between two bacteria cells; the bridge allows the F+ cell to transfer ...
These particles- containing a linearized cosmid- are introduced into the host cell by transduction. Once inside the host, the ... Each transformed host cell of a library will contain only one vector with one insert of DNA. The whole library can be plated ... Using a host cell to carry the vector allows for easy amplification and retrieval of specific clones from the library for ... However, due to the smaller insert size, libraries made with λ phage may require many clones for full genome coverage. Cosmid ...
... genome sequence was published soon afterward and was the first genome sequence determined by primer walking of a cosmid library ... Consequently, this species was chosen as a model for the minimal cell project, catalog the entire protein content of a cell. ... gentle lysis of cells trapped in agar-molten agar mixed with cells and left to form a gel-followed by pulse field gel ... If it were possible to create a synthetic cell without the use of preexisting recipient cells, however, many applications would ...
... cDNA library - cell - centimorgan - centromere - chain terminator - chaperone protein - chromosome - Chromosomal translocation ... cosmid - craniosynostosis - cystic fibrosis - cytogenetic map - cytosine - CpG database search - degeneracy (biology) - ... sickle-cell disease - side chain - sigma factor - signal peptidase - signal sequence - silent mutation - single nucleotide ... library - ligase - linear epitope - linkage - linker protein - lipofectin - locus - LOD score - lymphocyte - M13 phage - ...
Phage libraries are also stored and screened more easily than cosmid libraries. Target DNA: the genomic DNA to be cloned has to ... Those cells which did not take up the cosmid would be unable to grow. Unlike plasmids, they can also be packaged in phage ... Cosmids can be used to build genomic libraries. They were first described by Collins and Hohn in 1978. Cosmids can contain 37 ... A cosmid is a type of hybrid plasmid that contains a Lambda phage cos sequence. Cosmids (cos sites + plasmid = cosmids) DNA ...
Cancer Candidate gene Capillary array Carcinogen Carcinoma Carrier Carrier testing Cat coat genetics cDNA cDNA library Cell ... genes Continuous variation Controlling element Copper fist Copy-choice model Corepressor Cosegregation Cosmid Cosmids Cot value ... Skew Smooth endoplasmic reticulum SNP SnRNP Sociobiology Solenoid structure Somatic cell Somatic cell hybrid Somatic cells ... Sickle-cell disease (Sickle cell anemia) Sigma factor Signal hypothesis Signal peptide Signal peptide Silent gene Silent ...
Ligase I has also been found to be upregulated in proliferating tumor cells, as opposed to benign tumor cell lines and normal ... 1997). "Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library". Gene. 200 (1-2): 149- ... 1993). "Fluorescence in situ hybridization mapping of human chromosome 19: cytogenetic band location of 540 cosmids and 70 ... "Early steps in the DNA base excision/single-strand interruption repair pathway in mammalian cells". Cell Res. 18 (1): 27-47. ...
With Sean Brady, he developed a method to insert DNA directly from environmental DNA (eDNA) like soil, into cosmid libraries, ... a groundbreaking study that revealed the ability of a cell-permeable small molecule to facilitate protein dimerization. Vertex ...
The scope of services was constantly expanded and included the provision of genomic cell clones and cDNA databases, cell ... The RZPD was one of only two distributors in Europe for IMAGE cDNA clones and also constructed its own plasmid, cosmid, YAC and ... The Reference Library System - sharing biological material and experimental data. Günther Zehetner and Hans Lehrach (3 February ... The macroarrays consisted of clones of genomic and cDNA libraries transferred to 22 × 22 cm nylon filters with the help of ...
Cell. Neurosci. 11 (3): 161-172. doi:10.1006/mcne.1998.0679. PMID 9647694. Hock B, Böhme B, Karn T, et al. (1998). "PDZ-domain- ... 1999). "A 500-kb sequence-ready cosmid contig and transcript map of the MEN1 region on 11q13". Genomics. 55 (1): 49-56. doi: ... two-hybrid screening using a functionally classified library composed of long cDNAs". Genome Res. 12 (11): 1773-1784. doi: ... Neurexins are a family of proteins that function in the vertebrate nervous system as cell adhesion molecules and receptors. ...
... protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... a novel gene altered by chromosomal translocation in T cell leukemia, codes for a protein with a helix-loop-helix DNA binding ... cytogenetic band location of 540 cosmids and 70 genes or DNA markers". Genomics. 15 (1): 133-45. doi:10.1006/geno.1993.1021. ... translocation in human T-cell leukemia". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 88 ( ...
Cell. Biol. 17 (6): 3094-102. doi:10.1128/mcb.17.6.3094. PMC 232162 . PMID 9154808. Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K ... JUND protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) FactorBook JunD This article ... cytogenetic band location of 540 cosmids and 70 genes or DNA markers". Genomics. 15 (1): 133-45. doi:10.1006/geno.1993.1021. ... Cell. Biol. 19 (11): 7589-99. PMC 84780 . PMID 10523647. Hu YF, Li R (June 2002). "JunB potentiates function of BRCA1 ...
... tissue and cell) from microarrays, SAGE analysis and GFP promoter fusions; The complete cell lineage of the worm; The wiring ... indicating it is on the cosmid 'F38H4', and there are at least 6 other genes on that cosmid. If a gene produces a protein that ... of gene structure changes have been based on transcript data from large scale projects such as Yuji Kohara's EST libraries, ... For example, in 2005 a 39 kb cosmid had to be inverted. Other improvements have come from comparing genomic DNA to cDNA ...
This gene compensates for a mutation in the yeast host cell that causes the accumulation of red pigment. The host cells are ... Generating the clone libraries is time consuming. Also, due to the nature of the reliance on sequence tagged sites (STS) as a ... Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) Cosmid Fosmid Genetic engineering Human artificial chromosome Autonomously replicating ... Cell. Biol. 1: 535-543. Burke, D., Carle, G. & Olson, M. Cloning of large segments of exogenous DNA into yeast by means of ...
It has also been described as a GPI-anchored cell surface protein which does not display hyaluronidase activity but does serve ... 1996). "Construction of a 600-kilobase cosmid clone contig and generation of a transcriptional map surrounding the lung cancer ... 1997). "Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library". Gene. 200 (1-2): 149- ... 1999). "Expression profile of hyaluronidase mRNA transcripts in the kidney and in renal cells". Kidney Blood Press. Res. 21 (6 ...
Cosmid/BAC/YAC end sequences use Cosmid/Bacterial artificial chromosome/Yeast artificial chromosome to sequence the genome from ... These sequences act like very low copy plasmids that there is only one copy per cell sometimes. To get enough chromosome, they ... library quality and the construction process. For example, in the estimation of dog genome, it can estimate the global ... Cosmid/BAC/YAC can also be used to get bigger clone of DNA fragment than vectors like plasmid and phagemid. A larger insert is ...
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, et al. (2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein- ... 1997). "Systematic sequencing of the human HLA-A/HLA-F region: establishment of a cosmid contig and identification of a new ... 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library construction". Anal. Biochem. 236 (1): 107-13. doi:10.1006/abio. ... 2005). "Immunoaffinity profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation in cancer cells". Nat. Biotechnol. 23 (1): 94-101. doi:10.1038/ ...
Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (2007). "A Mouse for All Reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID ... 1995). "The detailed characterisation of a 400 kb cosmid walk in the BRCA1 region: identification and localisation of 10 genes ... Dolgin E (2011). "Mouse library set to be knockout". Nature. 474 (7351): 262-3. doi:10.1038/474262a. PMID 21677718. ... 2006). "Loss of the VHR dual-specific phosphatase causes cell-cycle arrest and senescence". Nat. Cell Biol. 8 (5): 524-31. doi: ...
Cell. Biol. 17 (6): 3094-102. doi:10.1128/mcb.17.6.3094. PMC 232162 . PMID 9154808. Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K ... JUNB protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ... cytogenetic band location of 540 cosmids and 70 genes or DNA markers". Genomics. 15 (1): 133-145. doi:10.1006/geno.1993.1021. ... Cell. Biol. 12 (10): 4654-65. PMC 360392 . PMID 1406655. Zafarullah M, Martel-Pelletier J, Cloutier JM, Gedamu L, Pelletier JP ...
Cell. 125 (4): 801-14. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.03.032. PMID 16713569. Hong L, Zhao Y, Han Y, Guo W, Jin H, Qiao T, Che Z, Fan D ... establishment of a cosmid contig and identification of a new gene cluster within 37 kb of sequence". Genomics. 37 (3): 316-26. ... end-enriched cDNA library". Gene. 200 (1-2): 149-56. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00411-3. PMID 9373149. Coriton O, Lepourcelet M ... "ZNRD1 gene suppresses cell proliferation through cell cycle arrest in G1 phase". Cancer Biology & Therapy. 4 (1): 60-4. doi: ...
Cell. 122 (1): 33-43. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.05.008. PMID 16009131. Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, et al. (2006). "Global, in ... 1997). "Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library". Gene. 200 (1-2): 149- ... anonymous gene from a megabase-range YAC and cosmid contig in the neurofibromatosis type 2/meningioma region on human ... a novel link between mRNA export machinery and signal transduction pathways in cell proliferation and differentiation. Cell ...
CNTF has also been shown to be expressed by cells on the bone surface, and to reduce the activity of bone-forming cells ( ... 1990). "High-resolution mapping of human chromosome 11 by in situ hybridization with cosmid clones". Science. 247 (4938): 64-9 ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... Like CNTF it is a neurotrophic factor, and may stimulate nerve cells to survive. It was tested in the 1990s as a treatment for ...
Tyk2 deficiency has more dramatic effects in human cells than in mouse cells. However, in addition to IFN-α and -β and IL-12 ... This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain. Molecular ... 1993). "Fluorescence in situ hybridization mapping of human chromosome 19: cytogenetic band location of 540 cosmids and 70 ... and function of immune cells, as well as cells from other organ systems. Hence, targeting cytokines and their receptors is an ...
... coli cells. Promoter and RBS for the cloned DNA sequence are also unnecessary when first making a genomic or cDNA library of ... Cosmids are plasmids that incorporate a segment of bacteriophage λ DNA that has the cohesive end site (cos) which contains ... A cloning vector is a small piece of DNA, taken from a virus, a plasmid, or the cell of a higher organism, that can be stably ... This may involve the use of a gene lethal to the host cells, such as barnase, Ccda, and the parD/parE toxins. This typically ...
With the exception of ribozymes, nucleic acid molecules within cells primarily serve as storage of genetic information due to ... Deoxyribozyme at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Asthma is characterized by eosinophil-induced inflammation motivated by a type 2 helper T cell (Th2). By targeting the ... Several studies have shown the usage of DNAzymes to inhibit influenza A and B virus replication in host cells.[27][28][29][30][ ...
Previous message: clearing cell culture inserts *Next message: phage display * Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ thread ] [ ... agrobacterium cosmid library. Denise Melanson dmmelans at Sat Dec 21 21:25:12 EST 1996 * ... I am looking for a cosmid library of A. tumefaciens genome. I dont need the Ti plasmids, I actually want the genomic DNA from ...
... cells and we can make good cosmid DNA from them. However, after 3-4 weeks , the yield of cosmid DNA from cells derived from the ... We have been working with the Sachs/Orbach cosmid library for Neurospora. , In the last year we have had problems with ... Store the cell stock at -80 C. The cells are viable for years. Whenever you need to propagate cells for cosmid preparation, ... Has anyone else had this problem? Are we leaving something out of the , media? Are the cosmid-containing cells less viable? , , ...
... from BC-1 cells was commercially cloned into either Lambda FIXII or S-Cos1 vectors (Stratagene). Phage and cosmid libraries ... was mapped with cosmid and phage genomic libraries from the BC-1 cell line. Its nucleotide sequence was determined except for a ... Library Generation and Screening.. BC-1, HBL-6, and BCP-1 cells were maintained in RPMI 1640 medium with 20% fetal calf serum ( ... Cell Cycle Regulation and Cell Signaling Protein Homolog Genes.. A number of ORFs that are either unique to KSHV or shared only ...
... was used to prepare the cosmid library. Plasmids were introduced into Azoarcus sp. strain T by electroporation. Briefly, cells ... A) RNA was isolated from toluene-grown cells (lane 1), m-xylene-grown cells (lane 2), and benzoate-grown cells (lane 3). A ... Cells were mixed with DNA in a cold cuvette and exposed to 2 μF, 1.5 kV, and 200 Ω. Time constants were about 4.5 ms. Cells ... Using the bss1 fragment to probe a colony blot containing approximately 1,050 clones of a cosmid library of chromosomal DNA ...
The advantage of a fosmid library is that the vector exists in only one or a few copies per bacterial cell; hence, tandemly ... is also being constructed using a restriction enzyme-fingerprinting technique and a cosmid library (Taitet al. 1997). A contig ... Fosmid library: The library we are using in our physical mapping efforts was constructed by M. Strathmann and consists of 3840 ... We thank Michael Strathmann for the fosmid library and Marin Bell and Jeff Staudinger for preparing several of the probes used ...
These particles- containing a linearized cosmid- are introduced into the host cell by transduction. Once inside the host, the ... Each transformed host cell of a library will contain only one vector with one insert of DNA. The whole library can be plated ... Using a host cell to carry the vector allows for easy amplification and retrieval of specific clones from the library for ... However, due to the smaller insert size, libraries made with λ phage may require many clones for full genome coverage. Cosmid ...
Mammalian Hamster fibro...,Examples,of,Electro-Transfected,Eukaryotic,and,Prokaryotic,Cells,biological,advanced biology ... Library construction. M13 DNA. Plasmid incompatibility. RNA. Release of cell components. Use of more than one electroporation ... Cosmids. Carbohydrates. Direct transfer (donor to recipient). Fluorescent molecules. Influence of DNA size on efficiency. ... Mouse, D10.G4.1, T-cell, helper Mammalian (continued). Mouse, embryonic stem cells (ES-D3, E14). Mouse, erythroleukemia cells. ...
1982). "Isolation of human oncogene sequences (v-fes homolog) from a cosmid library". Science. 216 (4550): 1136-8. doi:10.1126/ ... Cell. Biol. 6 (2): 607-16. PMC 367552 . PMID 3023859. Bernards A, Rubin CM, Westbrook CA, et al. (1987). "The first intron in ... 1987). "The chronic myelocytic cell line K562 contains a breakpoint in bcr and produces a chimeric bcr/c-abl transcript". Mol. ... 1986). "Alternative splicing of RNAs transcribed from the human abl gene and from the bcr-abl fused gene". Cell. 47 (2): 277-84 ...
Zhang, H., Woo, S., and Wing, R. (1996). BAC, YAC and cosmid library construction. In Plant Gene Isolation: Principles and ... Your Name) has sent you a message from Plant Cell Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Plant Cell web ... positive clones were not identified from this BAC library. Screening of an L. cheesmanii BAC library with TG510 resulted in ... The cell paste was resuspended in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.6, 150 mM NaCl, and 10% (v/v) glycerol and then lysed by ...
The partial cosmid library was packed (Gigapack III Gold; Stratagene) and amplified in E. coli XL1 Blue MR in liquid culture ... The cells were plated for individual colonies to be examined further, and subsequently one cosmid clone (pMU4) which ... The cells which are surrounded by a thick layer of curli fibers show a different cell morphology. Bar, 1 μm. ... RNA techniques.Total RNA was prepared from 10 mg ofS. typhimurium cells by the hot-phenol method. Cells were resuspended in 300 ...
... disabled cosmid vector system for the construction of libraries of eukaryotic DNA. Nucleic Acids Research, 10 . [Details] ... SCOTT, M.R.D., Westphal, K.-H., Rigby, P.W.J. ; (1983) Activation of mouse genes in transformed cells. Cell, 34 . [Details] ... Scrapie and cellular prion proteins differ in their kinetics of synthesis and topology in cultured cells. Journal of Cell ... Prusiner, S. B., SCOTT, M. R., DeArmond, S. J., Cohen, F. E.; (1998) Prion protein biology. Cell, 93 :1-20. [Details] ...
Ligation, competent-cell preparation, library packaging, transfection, storage, and screening of the library were conducted ... and two lambda phage cos sites was used as the vector for the genomic cosmid library (27). 27F11, a genomic cosmid clone ... E. coli XL1-Blue MR (Stratagene) was used as the host for construction of the genomic cosmid library. E. coli BW25113/pIJ790 ... S. toxytricini NRRL15443 genomic cosmid library.pJTU2554 vector DNA was digested by BamHI and HpaI, and the resulting cos- ...
Isolation of Cosmid Clones for the INI1 Gene.. Filters from the chromosome 22-only cosmid library LLNCO3 were screened by ... demonstrated 4 signals per cell, as compared to the normal copy number of two signals per cell for the control EWS probe. One ... The latter is less likely, based on the small number of positive clones identified by the cosmid library screen and the ability ... we screened a chromosome 22-only cosmid library with labeled PCR products from the INI1 coding sequence. Seven clones were ...
... treated cells. Southern blot analysis reveals that at least three of the clones have acquired an additional copy of the gene ( ... Complementation of a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant using a genomic cosmid library.. Purton S1, Rochaix JD. ... of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by complementation using total DNA from a genomic cosmid library. Using the glass-bead ... National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda MD, 20894 USA ...
Cosmid libraries sorted by chromosome. Genetics 157:979-990. Klanner, C., H. Prokisch, and T. Langer. 2001. MAP-1 and IAP-1, ... Cell. Biol. 21:2619-2628. Collett, M. A., J. J. Loros, and J. C. Dunlap. 2001. The Clock affecting 1 mutation of Neurospora is ... Cell 12:2195-2206. Margolis Clark, E., I. Hunt, S. Espinosa, and B. J. Bowman. 2001. Identification of the gene at the pmg ... Cell 104:453-464. Hiley, S. L., and R. A. Collins. 2001. Rapid formation of a solvent-inaccessible core in the Neurospora ...
The cosmid library was introduced into the cells of S. paucimobilis DC-49 by the triparental mating method (10). Exconjugants ... Escherichia coli MV1190 and HB101 were used as host cells. A gene library constructed in the cosmid vector pVK100 (kanamycin ... A complementing DNA fragment of strain DC-49 was isolated from the cosmid library of strain SYK-6. The minimum DNA fragment ... The cell suspensions were subjected to sonication at 0°C to disrupt the cells, which were then centrifuged at 10,000 × g for 20 ...
Isolation of clonable DNA (genomic libraries, cDNA synthesis) cloning vectors (plasmids, bacteriophages, cosmids) plasmid ... Cell organisation and movement. Cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. Practical training includes tutorials on cytometry and ... Visualising cell structure and localising proteins within cells. Cell ultrastructure. Purification of subcellular organelles. ... General principles of cell metabolism, molecular genetics, cell growth, cell division and differentiation. ...
Isolation of clonable DNA (genomic libraries, cDNA synthesis) cloning vectors (plasmids, bacteriophages, cosmids) plasmid ... Introduction to the molecular structure and function of the cell. Basic chemistry of the cell. Structure and composition of ... Chromosomes and cell division. Principles of Mendelian inheritance: locus and alleles, dominance interactions, extensions and ... Gene expression in Gram negative (E.coli) Gram positive (B.subtilis) and yeast cells (S.cerevisea). Use of Agrobacterium and ...
The genome was cloned and mapped by using cosmid, λ, and bacterial artificial chromosome libraries and sequenced (5-8). Some ... DNA Replication and the Cell Cycle. Sulfolobus, like Halobacterium (41) but unlike Pyrococcus (42), encodes multiple CDC6 ... A further Sulfolobus CDC protein (Sso0083) has been implicated in cell division (45). The tRNA pseudouridine 55 synthase, which ... There is also cytological evidence for a distinctive cell cycle mechanism in crenarchaea (54). A ParA homolog (Sso0034) is ...
2. Cosmids. Cosmid libraries are used for cloning genes with large introns and for sequencing larger chunks of the genome. ... and some higher eukaryotic cells, and exist in a parasitic or symbiotic relationship with their host cell (Lodish et al., 2000) ... Apart from this, they also enhance the likelihood that a cloned gene will be present as an intact copy in a cosmid library ( ... Features of cosmids:. Cosmids are artificially constructed plasmids of about 40-50kb which combine the high efficiency of ...
Grosveld, F.G. et al. (1981) Isolation of ß-globin-related genes from a human cosmid library. Gene 13, 227-37. ... These cells are transformed with plasmid DNA via the heat-shock method. JM109 cells (Yanisch-Perron et al. 1985) are an ideal ... Competent Cells Transforming a newly constructed plasmid into competent E. coli cells is the primary method to propagate and ... JM109 Competent Cells. JM109 Competent Cells (Cat.# L2001) are prepared according to a modified procedure of Hanahan, 1985. ...
A cDNA library...,Normalizing,cDNA,libraries,using,the,EppendorfThermomixer,biological,advanced biology technology,biology ... Cloning a cDNA library leads to over-representation of clones of highl...The following method allows access to these rare mRNAs ... a cDNA library allows the entire expression pattern of a cell or a cell type to be recorded. ... Isolation of Cosmids using Eppendorfs Perfectprep Plasmid Mini Kit. 4. Optimizing DNA Amplification Protocols using the ...
A genomic library is created by isolating DNA from cells and then amplifying it using DNA cloning technology.. Encyclopædia ... Vectors are chosen depending on the total amount of DNA that must be included in a library. Cosmids are engineered vectors that ... Another type of library is a cDNA library. Creation of a cDNA library begins with messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) instead of ... These individual cells are invisible to the naked eye, but as each cell undergoes successive rounds of cell division, visible ...
Complementation of a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant using a genomic cosmid library. Plant Mol. Biol. 24:533-537. ... Knowing the distribution of ESTs among the cDNA libraries and the conditions used for library generation, we can infer a ... cosmid (92, 139), and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) (66) libraries are used to rescue nuclear mutations. Expression of ... size-selected libraries were generated from cells grown under low- or high-CO2 conditions. A National Science Foundation- ...
Cosmid hybridization and mapping: The S. pombe cosmid library filter 60-0-0, provided by Reference Library Database (RLDB) Max ... Micrographs of (A) wild-type vector-transformed cells at different stages of the cell cycle, as well as cells arrested by (B) ... pim1-d1ts cells are hypersensitive to sublethal med overexpression. Wild-type cells or pim1-d1ts cells, transformed with ... The med1-1 cDNA insert was used as a probe to screen an ordered fission yeast cosmid library (Lehrachet al. 1990) to determine ...
  • To determine the genomic sequence of KSHV and identify novel virus genes, we mapped contiguous, overlapping virus DNA inserts from BC-1 genomic libraries. (
  • This pattern of resistance led to an effort to discover viral genes responsible for blocking apoptosis despite the absence of any overt sequence similarity of the more than two hundred CMV proteins ( 5 - 7 ) to other known viral or cellular cell-death suppressors. (
  • To identify candidate antiapoptotic genes encoded by CMV, we have used an expression library-screening strategy that is based on biological activity. (
  • Cosmid libraries are used for cloning genes with large introns and for sequencing larger chunks of the genome. (
  • A cDNA library represents a sampling of the transcribed genes, whereas a genomic library includes untranscribed regions. (
  • A cDNA library represents a collection of only the genes that are encoded into proteins by an organism. (
  • Unlike plasmids, they can also be packaged in phage capsids, which allows the foreign genes to be transferred into or between cells by transduction. (
  • These vectors should be valuable for isolation and analysis of plant genes, using transformation, library screening, and chromosome-walking approaches. (
  • Complementation analyses of RHC22 with a series of subcloned fragments and spontaneously deleted derivatives of the recombinant cosmid pRHC21 showed the 2,4,5-T(tft) genes to occur within an 8.9-kb region. (
  • Tax also acts as a transactivator of an increasing number of host cellular genes, most of which are associated with cell growth. (
  • Another category of c -one genes has been detected in the DNA of malignant cells by virtue of these genes' ability to induce neoplastic transformation when "transfected" into a mouse fibroblastic cell line in vitro (for review see C ooper 1982). (
  • USA 83:4869-4873) N. crassa cosmid libraries (obtained from the Fungal Genetics Stock Center) in subtractive hybridization experiments designed to identify genes induced under conditions of oxidative stress. (
  • Because cosmids containing the 17S and 26S ribosomal RNA genes produce false positives in these experiments, it was necessary for us to identify cosmids in the Orbach-Sachs containing these genes. (
  • More definitively, we probed the Orbach-Sachs library for rDNAs using sequences from pRW528, a pBR322-derived plasmid that contains the N. crassa 17S and 26S rRNA genes (Russell et al. (
  • One possibility is that promoters in the pMOcosX vector cause significant transcription of N. crassa rRNA genes in host cells, resulting in inhibition of bacterial growth. (
  • If this is the case, it should perhaps provide a cautionary note to users of the library who are interested in other genes. (
  • The genes for this SLT were cloned from a cosmid library of total cellular DNA by screening recombinants for Vero cell toxicity and with a DNA probe derived from SLTIIv structural genes. (
  • This library was made from animal 10769 which has BoLA type w10/w11 and the genes were identified with a class I cDNA probe, pBoLA-1. (
  • Leicester Research Archive: LCR-activated expression of cloned K+ channel genes in mammalian cells. (
  • LCR-activated expression of cloned K+ channel genes in mammalian cells. (
  • Finally, the establishment of a gene-activation library for the functional expression of novel and existing K+ channel genes has been attempted. (
  • For example, L. pneumophila cells grown within amoebas are more infectious than broth-grown L. pneumophila for macrophage-like cell lines ( 20 ), suggesting that L. pneumophila genes important for human infection are activated within amoebas. (
  • Mouse Pum1 and Pum2 genes, members of the Pumilio family of RNA-binding proteins, show differential expression in fetal and adult hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors. (
  • The frequency with which a genomic region was observed on an external chromatin loop was cell type dependent and appeared to be related to the number of active genes in that region. (
  • Dynamics of genomic-library enrichment and identification of solvent tolerance genes for Clostfidium acetobutylicum. (
  • A fragment of DNA, containing a single gene or a number of genes, can be inserted into a vector that can be propagated within another cell. (
  • Plasmid vectors are modified forms of the circular extra-chromosomal DNA molecules found in bacteria, which have been engineered to contain restriction sites and marker genes (to allow the detection of bacterial cells that contain the plasmid). (
  • The resultant cosmid can be packed into the phage body for transmission, and use the plasmid genes to direct its replication within the host cell. (
  • To investigate the structure of a given chromosome, or to clone specific genes, libraries may be prepared from a subset of the entire genome (for example, a single chromosome). (
  • In vivo expression of SA genes was achieved in P. putida and Escherichia coli cells. (
  • For example, it is yet unclear whether and how insertion sites influence the expression efficiency of exotic genes and whether and how allotropic expressions influence on host cells. (
  • We provide evidence that they are induced by introducing the cosmid St4A10∆lsp, as part of ReDirect PCR mutagenesis protocol, which transiently duplicates a number of important cell division genes. (
  • They can replicate as plasmids if they have a suitable origin of replication: for example SV40 ori in mammalian cells, ColE1 ori for double-stranded DNA replication or f1 ori for single-stranded DNA replication in prokaryotes. (
  • Depending on the particular aim of the experiment broad host range cosmids, shuttle cosmids or 'mammalian' cosmids (linked to SV40 oriV and mammalian selection markers) are available. (
  • Furthermore, the MEL-cell line has been utilized as an erythroid-specific host for the stable expression of mammalian delayed rectifier (RCKl), transient (A-type) {lcub}RatShal and hPCN2) and inward rectifier type (IRK1) voltage-activated K+ channel cDNAs under control of the beta-globin promoter. (
  • In accord with the strong evolutional conservation of Fcp1: (1) the Xenopus fcp1 can substitute the fly fcp1 function, (2) similarly to its S. pombe homologue, Drosophila melanogaster (Dm)Fcp1 interacts with the RPB4 subunit of Pol II, and (3) transient expression of DmFcp1 has a negative effect on transcription in mammalian cells. (
  • A variety of cell types are used a hosts, including bacteria, yeast cells and mammalian cells. (
  • Ran-GTPases lack consensus membrane attachment sequences, are predominantly nuclear localized ( B ischoff and P onstingl 1991b ), and are very abundant, with an estimated 10 7 molecules per HeLa cell ( B ischoff and P onstingl 1991b ). (
  • Ferretti, L. 2009-03-24 00:00:00 Exon trapping was employed to identify coding sequences from a collection of 46 bovine cosmids, previously characterized for the presence of microsatellite markers and physically mapped to chromosomes by FISH. (
  • The DNA, in the absence of other sequences from the 8.9-kb tft gene region allowed RHC22 cells to metabolize 2,4,5-T, but at low rates which were insufficient to support growth. (
  • DNA that is unstable at high-copy number often codes for a protein that inhibits cell growth or contains AT- and GC-rich sequences or sequences with strong secondary structure. (
  • After 4-6 weeks the clone has lost the amp-containing cosmid and becomes ampicillin sensitive. (
  • A putative pheromone precursor gene of Neurospora crassa , mfa-1 (which encodes mating factor a -1), was identified as the most abundant clone in starved mycelial and perithecial cDNA libraries. (
  • From a human-Chinese hamster somatic cell hybrid a clone was derived containing chromosome 13 in duplicate as its only human material. (
  • This clone was used to construct a human chromosome 13-specific recombinant DNA-library. (
  • From one cosmid clone, a 7.5 kb EcoRI restriction fragment, which reacted strongly with the probe, was shown to include the entire 3885 bp gene. (
  • The techniques include the use of hybridomas (hybrids of rapidly multiplying cancer cells and of cells that make a desired antibody) to make monoclonal antibodies monoclonal antibody, an antibody that is mass produced in the laboratory from a single clone and that recognizes only one antigen. (
  • Tight contact, called adherence, precedes, e.g., colonization of surfaces and invasion of eukaryotic cells by the bacteria. (
  • The reversible phosphorylation-dephosphorylation of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) large subunit carboxyl terminal domain (CTD) during transcription cycles in eukaryotic cells generates signals for the steps of RNA synthesis and maturation. (
  • In both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, DNA exists as a double helix in which two DNA strands are wrapped around the same axis. (
  • As alternative, please consider the CopyControl Fosmid Library Production Kits . (
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells transformed with the DNA acquired the ability to convert 2,4,5-T to 2,4,5-TCP. (
  • The cosQ site of next cosmid (as rolling circle replication often results in linear concatemers) is held by the terminase after the previous cosmid has been packaged, to prevent degradation by cellular DNases. (
  • However, unlike the other known TNF receptor family members, OX40 has a restricted cellular expression only on activated lymphocytes, predominantly CD4 + T cells ( 3 , 5 , 6 ). (
  • Alitalo K, Schwab M, Lin CL, Varmus HE, Bishop JM (1983) Homogenously staining chromosomal regions contain amplified copies of an abundantly expressed cellular oncogene (c -myc ) in malignant neuroendocrine cells from a human colon carcinoma. (
  • Gene regulation gives the cell control over structure and function, and is the basis for cellular differentiation, morphogenesis and the versatility and adaptability of any organism. (
  • mRNAs have poly(A) tails.Total cellular RNA is isolated from cells and passed through the column. (
  • Aruffo and Seed, "Molecular cloning of a two CD7 (T-cell leukemia antigen) cDNAs by a COS cell expression system," The EMBO Journal 6:3313-3316 (1987). (
  • The same goes for the lower yield of cosmid DNA after 3-4 weeks, since the colony contains a population of resistant and sensitive cells. (
  • It is NO NEED to pick up a single colony for your cosmid preparation each time. (
  • The different distinctive shapes of colonies seem to be related to the propensity to form hyphae or pseudohyphae, but in this case neither the relationship between cell form and colony phenotype nor the regulatory mechanisms are known. (
  • Concomitantly with curli expression, cells develop a rough and dry colony morphology and bind the dye Congo red (called the rdar morphotype). (
  • In our initial experiments, colony filters from the Orbach-Sachs and Vollmer-Yanofsky libraries were probed with labeled, subtracted cDNAs. (
  • The virus encodes homologs to complement-binding proteins, three cytokines (two macrophage inflammatory proteins and interleukin 6), dihydrofolate reductase, bcl-2 , interferon regulatory factors, interleukin 8 receptor, neural cell adhesion molecule-like adhesin, and a D-type cyclin, as well as viral structural and metabolic proteins. (
  • To overcome this response, many viruses encode proteins that prevent or attenuate apoptosis in infected cells ( 1 ). (
  • This was confirmed by heterologous expression of the respective QQ proteins in Klebsiella oxytoca M5a1 and monitoring biofilm formation in a continuous flow cell system. (
  • Western blot analysis using antisera raised against the 1818 PE_PGRS protein shows that PE_PGRS proteins are found in cell lysates of BCG and M . tuberculosis H37Ra and in the cell wall fraction of M . tuberculosis H37Rv. (
  • Moreover, immunofluorescent labeling of mycobacteria indicates that certain PE_PGRS proteins are localized at the cell surface of BCG and M . tuberculosis . (
  • Together these results suggest that certain PE_PGRS proteins may be found at the surface of mycobacteria and influence both cell surface interactions among mycobacteria as well as the interactions of mycobacteria with macrophages. (
  • Bacterial lipoproteins are extracellular proteins tethered to cell membranes by covalently attached lipids. (
  • The chromosomal localization of the cloned exons was inferred from the localization of the parent cosmids. (
  • ECR1 also forms a stable complex with the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-related kinase, T . gondii Crk5 (TgCrk5), which displays a similar cell cycle expression and localization during tachyzoite replication. (
  • Importantly, the localization of ECR1/TgCrk5 in the centrocone indicates that this Apicomplexa -specific spindle compartment houses important regulatory factors that control the parasite cell cycle. (
  • Methodologies for specific intron and exon localization in cultured cells by haptenized and fluorochromized probes. (
  • Centromeres are regions of chromosomes that direct formation of the kinetochore and its subsequent attachment to the spindle, enabling the faithful segregation of the genetic material during cell division. (
  • the use of various methods to manipulate the DNA (genetic material) of cells to change hereditary traits or produce biological products. (
  • Although vICA is dispensable for viral replication in vitro , the common targeting of caspase-8 activation by diverse herpesviruses argues for an important role for this antiapoptotic mechanism in the pathogenesis of viral infection in the host, most likely in avoiding immune clearance by cytotoxic lymphocytes and natural killer cells. (
  • After the construction of recombinant lambda or cosmid libraries the total DNA is transferred into an appropriate E. coli host via a technique called in vitro packaging. (
  • In vitro construction of Cosmid, 11. (
  • Two mutants had intracellular replication defects, and two different strains entered cells less efficiently. (
  • L. pneumophila has a similar lifestyle in human macrophages ( 45 , 46 , 80 ), a host cell type that is thought to be a niche for Legionella replication in human infection ( 42 , 85 ). (
  • The output pool-containing strains capable of entry into cells, intracellular replication, and cell-to-cell spread-is compared to the input pool by hybridizing the unique tags present in the output pool to a filter containing input DNA. (
  • The host cell then copies the cloned DNA using its own replication mechanisms. (
  • Biology of the fungal cell. (
  • During many experiments in molecular biology, the individual mRNA expression pattern of a cell is examined in order to investigate the reaction of a cell to exogenous influences such as viral infections or medical treatment. (
  • ATCC offers a variety of nucleic acid preparations from our Bacteriology, Mycology, Protistology, Virology, and Cell Biology collections. (
  • VariantFind uses multiplexing technology to incorporate a large number of mutagenic oligonucleotides into a single series of PCR reactions to create high-quality and cost-effective variant libraries for use in protein engineering, synthetic biology, and agriculture, the company said. (
  • Unlike secretion-defective (Out-) mutants, these four showed no accumulation of enzymes within the cells. (
  • The six mutants also were tested in macrophages derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (
  • In brief, this technique involves creating a library of bacterial transposon mutants, with each transposon tagged with a unique DNA sequence. (
  • Pools of mutants, rather than individual strains with transposon insertions, are then screened in host cells or animals. (
  • Although it is very difficult to maintain higher plant photosynthetic mutants, C. reinhardtii cells that are unable to perform photosynthesis can be grown heterotrophically on acetate. (
  • We have utilized forward genetics to discover essential factors that regulate cell division in these parasites using the Toxoplasma gondii model. (
  • Cosmids carrying ribosomal DNA (rDNA) in the Vollmer-Yanofsky library were identified previously (1990 Catalogue of Strains, Fungal Genetics Stock Center, Supplement to Vol. 37:3). (
  • vICA does not share significant sequence homology with FLIPs or other known suppressors of apoptosis, suggesting that this protein represents a new class of cell-death suppressors. (
  • Here we report that another CMV-encoded protein, pUL36, a product of the immediate-early gene UL36 , functions as a potent cell-death suppressor via a mechanism that is distinct from that of vMIA. (
  • Other important topics being studied using C. reinhardtii , many of which have direct application to elucidation of protein function in animal cells ( 26 ), include flagellum structure and assembly, cell wall biogenesis, gametogenesis, mating, phototaxis, and adaptive responses to light and nutrient environments ( 32 , 44 ). (
  • ECR1 is a 52-kDa protein containing divergent RING and TRAF-Sina-like zinc binding domains that are dynamically expressed in the tachyzoite cell cycle. (
  • These cells have copy-up TrfA mutant protein controlled by the P ara BAD promoter. (
  • CEH-2 protein is restricted to the nuclei of one type of small muscle cell, one type of epithelial cell, and three types of neurons in the anterior pharynx in the head. (
  • The avrGf1 gene was demonstrated to encode a protein that is translocated into plant cells via the T3SS. (
  • The aim is to make as many copies of the protein coded by the gene as possible within the host cell. (
  • In 1998, Dr Mark Head joined the CJD Surveillance Unit from a post in New York [Columbia: see Cell Biochem 1998 Dec 15;71(4):577-83 etc.] to establish a laboratory which is dedicated for the study of prion protein by Western blotting and related biochemical techniques. (
  • Human MRC-5 fibroblasts, HeLa cells, and CMV AD169 var ATCC were purchased from ATCC. (
  • HeLa and BJAB cells were cultured in DMEM or RPMI medium 1640, respectively, and each was supplemented with 10% (vol/vol) FBS. (
  • HeLa and BJAB cells, constitutively expressing either vMIAmyc ( 2 ) or pUL36myc, were generated by transfection with UL37exon1myc/pcDNA3 or UL36myc/pcDNA3, respectively, with subsequent selection with G418. (
  • Since SLTIIva shares with SLTIIv the property of having low cytotoxicity to HeLa cells compared with Vero cells, it is appropriate to consider both toxins as variants of SLTII. (
  • We found that a region 446 base pairs (bp) upstream of the start site had promoter activity in COS7, HeLa, and ATDC5 cells. (
  • Subsequent sequencing of a 21-kb AIDS-KS genomic library fragment (KS5) hybridizing to KS330Bam demonstrated that KSHV is a gamma-herpesvirus related to herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) belonging to the genus Rhadinovirus ( 10 ). (
  • This allows researchers to also determine the percentage of infectious viral particles actually carrying a fragment of the library. (
  • A complementing DNA fragment of strain DC-49 was isolated from the cosmid library of strain SYK-6. (
  • Nitrogen gas pressure is the primary determinant of DNA fragment size, and although pressure studies should be performed with each BAC, cosmid or plasmid, a pressure of 8-10 psi almost always resulted in the desired (1kb-4kbp) fragment size range. (
  • A genomic duplication that apparently arose in the parental tumor is present in this cell culture-derived strain. (
  • The SA and pseudomonine biosynthesis region was identified by transfer of cosmid pMB374-07 to a pseudobactin-deficient strain of P. putida. (
  • In resting-cell assays, PCB degradation by E. coli strain FM4560 (containing a pGEM410 derivative) approached that of LB400 and was significantly greater than degradation by the original recombinant strain. (
  • Notably, resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis is delayed in fibroblasts infected with viruses that encode mutant vICA, suggesting that vICA suppresses death-receptor-induced cell death in the context of viral infection. (
  • All cells that express ceh-2 in wild type are present in the ceh-2 mutant and have normal morphologies. (
  • Its histology and relatively benign course in persons without severe immunosuppression has led to suggestions that KS tumor cell proliferation is cytokine-induced ( 2 ). (
  • Orlistat was also found to exhibit antitumor activity, by virtue of its ability to inhibit the thioesterase domain of fatty acid synthase of tumor cells ( 7 ). (
  • Total RNA was isolated from tumor tissue or tumor cell lines using TRIzol (Life Technologies, Inc.), and DNA from normal and tumor tissue was extracted with DNAzol (Life Technologies, Inc. (
  • In this study, metagenomic large-insert libraries were constructed and screened for QS interfering activities (quorum quenching, QQ) using recently established reporter strains. (
  • We also included in these experiments cosmid DNA preparations from 21 strains from the Vollmer-Yanofsky library that had hybridized weakly or strongly to labeled cDNAs, and which did not overlap with the previously identified rDNA cosmids from this library. (
  • Following entry into the host, Mycobacterium tuberculosis shows a tropism for macrophages but can also infect epithelial cells ( 30 , 33 , 43 ). (
  • To better understand the association of macroH2A1 with the centrosome and the formation of an MCB, we investigated the distribution of macroH2A1 throughout the somatic cell cycle. (
  • Chondromodulin-1 (ChM-1) is a cartilage-specific glycoprotein that stimulates the growth of chondrocytes and inhibits the tube formation of endothelial cells. (
  • Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Mediates Lymphocyte Adherence to Cytokine-Activated Cultured human Endothelial Cells," Blood 76:965-970 (1990). (